WorldWideScience

Sample records for ves polymer waste

  1. Waste catalysts for waste polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmiaton, A; Garforth, A

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic cracking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Two fresh and two steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as two used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Also, inert microspheres (MS3) were used as a fluidizing agent to compare with thermal cracking process at BP pilot plant at Grangemouth, Scotland, which used sand as its fluidizing agent. The results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product are fresh FCC catalysts>steamed FCC catalysts approximately used FCC catalysts. The thermal cracking process using MS3 showed that at 450 degrees C, the product distribution gave 46 wt% wax, 14% hydrocarbon gases, 8% gasoline, 0.1% coke and 32% nonvolatile product. In general, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.

  2. Marshall properties of waste polymer and nanoclay modified bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeque Mohammed; Patil K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one of the important construction materials for flexible pavements. The addition of polymers in bitumen improves the deformational stability and durability of bitumen. Also Montmorillonite nanoclay has been successfully used as additive in polymer to significantly improve the thermal stability and mechanical properties. The present study, the effect of waste low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) obtained...

  3. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  4. Multiple encapsulation of LANL waste using polymers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.L.

    1994-08-12

    Polymer encapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was optimized at bench scale using melamine formaldehyde, polyurethane, and butadiene thermosetting polymers. Three pellet-based intermediate waste forms, and a final waste form, were prepared, each providing an additional level of integrity. Encapsulated waste integrity was measured by chemical and physical techniques. Compliance was established using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Equipment appropriate to pilot-scale demonstration of program techniques was investigated. A preliminary equipment list and layout, and process block flow diagram were prepared.

  5. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  6. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  7. A Review on Electroactive Polymers for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kolasińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews materials for thermoelectric waste heat recovery, and discusses selected industrial and distributed waste heat sources as well as recovery methods that are currently applied. Thermoelectric properties, especially electrical conductivity, thermopower, thermal conductivity and the thermoelectric figures of merit, are considered when evaluating thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. Alloys and oxides are briefly discussed as materials suitable for medium- and high-grade sources. Electroactive polymers are presented as a new group of materials for low-grade sources. Polyaniline is a particularly fitting polymer for these purposes. We also discuss types of modifiers and modification methods, and their influence on the thermoelectric performance of this class of polymers.

  8. Polymer-Cement Composites Containing Waste Perlite Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Łukowski

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-cement composites (PCCs) are materials in which the polymer and mineral binder create an interpenetrating network and co-operate, significantly improving the performance of the material. On the other hand, the need for the utilization of waste materials is a demand of sustainable construction. Various mineral powders, such as fly ash or blast-furnace slag, are successfully used for the production of cement and concrete. This paper deals with the use of perlite powder, which is a burde...

  9. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polymer-Cement Composites Containing Waste Perlite Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Łukowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-cement composites (PCCs are materials in which the polymer and mineral binder create an interpenetrating network and co-operate, significantly improving the performance of the material. On the other hand, the need for the utilization of waste materials is a demand of sustainable construction. Various mineral powders, such as fly ash or blast-furnace slag, are successfully used for the production of cement and concrete. This paper deals with the use of perlite powder, which is a burdensome waste from the process of thermal expansion of the raw perlite, as a component of PCCs. The results of the testing of the mechanical properties of the composite and some microscopic observations are presented, indicating that there is a possibility to rationally and efficiently utilize waste perlite powder as a component of the PCC. This would lead to creating a new type of building material that successfully meets the requirements of sustainable construction.

  11. Polymer-Cement Composites Containing Waste Perlite Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, Paweł

    2016-10-17

    Polymer-cement composites (PCCs) are materials in which the polymer and mineral binder create an interpenetrating network and co-operate, significantly improving the performance of the material. On the other hand, the need for the utilization of waste materials is a demand of sustainable construction. Various mineral powders, such as fly ash or blast-furnace slag, are successfully used for the production of cement and concrete. This paper deals with the use of perlite powder, which is a burdensome waste from the process of thermal expansion of the raw perlite, as a component of PCCs. The results of the testing of the mechanical properties of the composite and some microscopic observations are presented, indicating that there is a possibility to rationally and efficiently utilize waste perlite powder as a component of the PCC. This would lead to creating a new type of building material that successfully meets the requirements of sustainable construction.

  12. Identification of different type of polymers in plastics waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad N; Gondal, Mohammad A; Redhwi, Halim H

    2008-09-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop and test advanced techniques for the instant identification of different type of polymers in post-consumer plastics. In order to accomplish this task, infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) techniques were applied. The following six model plastics were identified in this study. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Polypropylenes (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) along with few randomly selected plastics waste such as water bottle and cap, water cups, yogurt container and coke bottle were studied. IR has shown the fingerprinting of polymer types present in plastics waste. The XRD analysis helps to provide characteristic spectral lines whose intensities vary with the type of each constituent polymer. The DSC method provided the different crystalline melting temperature, glass transition, and onset temperature for the peaks and the percent crystallinity data single out different polymers. The ratio of LIBS signals intensities of carbon and hydrogen atoms were employed for the finger printing of the different family of plastics. The combined use of IR, XRD, DSC and LIBS techniques yielded very useful and effective results for plastic waste management.

  13. 47 CFR 97.525 - Accrediting VEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO... VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in accrediting VEs on the basis of race, sex, religion or national origin; nor on the basis of membership (or...

  14. Recycling of polymer waste with fluid catalytic cracking catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salmiaton; Garforth, Arthur; Fakhru'l-Razi, A

    2006-01-01

    Feedstock recycling of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Fresh and steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Fresh FCC catalysts gave the highest results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product. Meanwhile, steamed FCC catalysts and used FCC catalysts showed similar but lower yields. Overall, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.

  15. Multiple use of waste catalysts with and without regeneration for waste polymer cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmiaton, A; Garforth, A A

    2011-06-01

    Waste plastics contain a substantial number of valuable chemicals. The wastes from post-consumer as well as from industrial production can be recycled to valuable chemical feedstock, which can be used in refineries and/or petrochemical industries. This chemical recycling process is an ideal approach in recycling the waste for a better environment. Polymer cracking using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor concentrated on the used highly contaminated catalyst, E-Cat 2. Even though E-Cat 2 had low activity due to fewer acid sites, the products yielded were similar with amorphous ASA and were far better than thermal cracking. The high levels of heavy metals, namely nickel and vanadium, deposited during their lifetime as an FCC catalyst, did not greatly affect on the catalyst activity. It was also shown that E-Cat 2 could be used with and without regeneration. Although there was more deactivation when there was no regeneration step, the yield of gases (C(2)-C(7)) remained fairly constant. For the first time, these results indicate that "waste" FCC catalyst (E-Cat) is a good candidate for future feedstock recycling of polymer waste. The major benefits of using E-Cat are a low market price, the ability to tolerate reuse and regeneration capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Mäurer, Andreas; Wolz, Gerd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2007-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This is mainly due to high recycling and recovery quotas set by the European WEEE directive, which can only be fulfilled by including the plastic fraction in recycling and recovery approaches. Previous studies identified a high material diversity and various contaminants in WEEE plastics, including heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F). These substances are regulated by European directives that limit their levels in marketable products. Consequently, both material diversity and contaminants are strong arguments against material recycling and point to hazardous waste treatment. However, recent developments in the production of flame retardants and electrical and electronic goods aimed to reduce contaminants and material diversity. Thus, the present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers. Material characterisation revealed housing fractions to be interesting sources for polymer recycling, which however has to implement potent material separation and/or bromine elimination techniques. With respect to contaminants, our data indicate an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found. Sources and implications for the material recycling and thermal recovery approaches are discussed in detail.

  17. Statistical Analysis of 3-Point Bending Properties of Polymer Concretes Made From Marble Powder Waste, Sand Grains, and Polyester Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzannache, N.; Bezazi, A.; Bouchelaghem, H.; Boumaaza, M.; Amziane, S.; Scarpa, F.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical performance of concrete polymer beams subjected to 3-point bending was investigated. The polymer concrete incorporates marble powder waste and quarry sand. The results obtained showed that the type of sand, and amount of marble powder and sand aggregate affected the resistance of the polymer concrete beams significantly. The marble waste increased their bending strength by reducing the porosity of polymer concrete.

  18. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V.; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-08-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed.

  19. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAGERRAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.

  20. Polymer Composites Based on Plasticized PVC and Vulcanized Nitrile Rubber Waste Powder for Irrigation Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Daniela Stelescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the technique of production and characterization of polymer composites based on plasticized PVC and rubber powder from vulcanized nitrile rubber waste. The new polymer composites have lower hardness, higher elongation at break, a better tensile strength, and better ozone resistance, and the blend suitable for irrigations pipes for agricultural use was selected. The selected polymer composites have a good behavior under accelerated aging, repeated flexion at room temperature...

  1. THE USE OF POLYMER WASTE FOR NANOCOMPOSITES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tomaszewska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of accumulation of waste containing plastics reaches alarming levels as products of polymeric materials are present in every area of life. These products represent a growing percentage of impurities and waste in Europe and the World. The paper is a short description of the phenomenon and proposes a method for the use of waste plastic obtained from recycling to receive nanomaterials and composites with a simple and economic technologies.

  2. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  3. Analysis of car shredder polymer waste with Raman mapping and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vajna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel evaluation method was developed for Raman microscopic quantitative characterization of polymer waste. Car shredder polymer waste was divided into different density fractions by magnetic density separation (MDS technique, and each fraction was investigated by Raman mapping, which is capable of detecting the components being present even in low concentration. The only method available for evaluation of the mapping results was earlier to assign each pixel to a component visually and to count the number of different polymers on the Raman map. An automated method is proposed here for pixel classification, which helps to detect the different polymers present and enables rapid assignment of each pixel to the appropriate polymer. Six chemometric methods were tested to provide a basis for the pixel classification, among which multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS provided the best results. The MCR-ALS based pixel identification method was then used for the quantitative characterization of each waste density fraction, where it was found that the automated method yields accurate results in a very short time, as opposed to manual pixel counting method which may take hours of human work per dataset.

  4. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  5. Effect of textile waste on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of polymer concrete reinforced with textile trimming waste was investigated. Two series of polymer concrete formulations were studied, with different resin/sand (i.e. binder/fine aggregate weight ratios. In each series, recycled textile chopped fibers at 1 and 2% of the total weight was used. Flexural and compressive tests were performed at room temperature and load vs. displacement curves were plotted up to failure. In the study, both the influence of fiber content and resin/sand weight ratio were considered relative to the behavior of polymer concrete reinforced with textile fibers. A decrease in properties was observed as function of textile fibers content. When specific properties were considered, this tendency was kept. However, higher textile fibers content lead to a smoother failure, unlike brittleness failure behavior of unreinforced polymer concrete.

  6. Laboratory simulations of the mixed solvent extraction recovery of dominate polymers in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Lv, Xu-Dong; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics' purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  8. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  9. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Martínez-López; Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera; Carlos Barrera-Díaz; Fernando Ureña-Núñez; Witold Brostow

    2015-01-01

    Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt%) and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm) of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%), low density polyethylene (20%), and aluminum (5%). The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20%) and silica sand (80%) and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown t...

  10. Development of a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Method to Produce Feedstock Gases from Waste Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Guerrero-Medina, Karen J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high cost of space launch, the repurposing of biological and plastic wastes to reduce the need for logistical support during long distance and long duration space missions has long been recognized as a high priority. Described in this paper are the preliminary efforts to develop a wet air oxidation system in order to produce fuels from waste polymers. Preliminary results of partial oxidation in near supercritical water conditions are presented. Inherent corrosion and salt precipitation are discussed as system design issues for a thorough assessment of a second generation wet air oxidation system. This work is currently being supported by the In-Situ Resource Utilization Project.

  11. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1995-11-01

    The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

  12. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt% and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%, low density polyethylene (20%, and aluminum (5%. The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20% and silica sand (80% and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown that compressive and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity decrease gradually, when either Tetra Pak particle concentration or particle size is increased, as regularly occurs in composite materials. Nevertheless, improvements of 14% on both compressive strength and flexural strength as well as 5% for modulus of elasticity were obtained when polymer concrete is irradiated.

  13. COMPOSITES BASED ON SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AND WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DUMITRESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research dedicated to synthesis and characterization of some new, ecological composite materials based on an acrylic copolymer, lignin derivative iron and chromium lignosulfonate and Salix wood sawdust. The FT-IR analysis put into evidence the complex interactions, by esterification and etherification reactions, between the organic functional hydroxyl groups of lignosulfonate and Salix sawdust (the fillers with the organic functional groups (carboxyl, ester from the structure of acrylic copolymer (the matrix and explain the improved properties of the new composites. The proposed new composites are in agreement with the research in the field of recycling lignocellulosic waste to obtain new ecological, environmental friendly materials.

  14. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WASTE BIO-POLYMER COMPOUND BY HOT COMPRESSION MOLDING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khairul Zaimy A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bio-polymer compound (BPC has attracted attention in various applications from industrial to medical. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal stability properties of recycling industrial waste BPC are very important to investigate. The waste BPC for this study is based on a mixture of hydroxylated waste cooking oil with hardeners to produce waste bio-polymer foam (WBF. The granulate of WBF was cast into the mold until all spaces were evenly filled and compacted into a homogeneous shape and thickness at 30–45 bar for 2 hours using hot compression molding. This method of BPC fabrication results in a tensile and flexural strength of 4.89 MPa and 18.08 MPa respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of laminated BPC was conducted using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA, and the first degradation of the soft segment occurred at 263°C, then subsequently the second degradation occurred at 351°C and the last at 416°C.

  15. Polymers in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contain PBDD/F in the ppb-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F.; Maeurer, A.; Gruber, L.; Wolz, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) consists of metals (60%), polymers (20%) and residual materials as wood or glass (20%). Whereas state-of the art-technologies are able to recover most of the metals present, recovery rates for polymers and residuals are negligible low. Primarily, this is due to low disposal costs, which refers to landfill or incineration depending on geographic circumstances. The European WEEE directive, which assesses material recovery rates above 70%, and changes in the German disposal regulation, which will prohibit the landfill of organic materials starting 2005, currently alter the legislative conditions. This leads to an increased interest in polymer recovery strategies. Approaches discussed include polymer recycling and pyrolysis-based material recovery, both characterised by temperatures below 240 C or 600 C, respectively. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and/or diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in these waste streams complicate waste treatment techniques, since they are known to form brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F) under thermal stress, either in polymer recyclates or in pyrolysis products. Additionally, polymer recycling is affected by European directive 2003/11/EC, restricting the distribution of products containing more than 0.1% of octa- or pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Aim of this study was to determine concentration levels of polybrominated compounds including PBDD/F and brominated flame retardants in polymers from WEEE. Both, mixed polymer waste and pre-sorted polymer fractions consisting mainly of monitors, TV-sets or telecommunication housings, were examined. Furthermore, the dependency of PBDD/F concentrations on waste source, pre-treatment and flame retardant system was investigated, implication on waste treatment alternatives are discussed.

  16. Utilization of ethyl cellulose polymer and waste materials for roofing tile production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Suubitaa Spencer; Ng, ChoonAun; Chee, Swee Yong; Habib, NoorZainab; Nadeem, Humayon; Teoh, Wei Ping

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to utilize ethyl cellulose, mixture of waste engine oil and waste vegetable oil as a binder in the environmental friendly roofing tile production. The waste engine-vegetable oil wasmix together with ethyl cellulose, fly ash, coarse aggregates, fine aggregatesand a catalyst. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the oil mixture added with ethyl cellulose has the relatively high binding effect due to the presence of strong carbonyl group especially after being heat cured at 1900C for 24 hours. The mixed proportion of materials with different amount of ethyl cellulose used was studied in the production of tile specimen. The results showed that the ethyl cellulose composed roofing tile specimens passed the transverse breaking strength, durability, permeabilityand the ultraviolet accelerated test. The shrinkage on the tile can be overcome by adding temperature resistance polymer on the exterior of the tile.

  17. Improvement of the cold flow characteristics of biodiesel containing dissolved polymer wastes using acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast fossil fuel depletion and at the same time global warming phenomenon anticipated for the next coming years, the necessity of developing alternative fuels e.g. biofuels (i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and etc. has turned into an important concern. Recently, the application of the bio-solvency properties of biodiesel for recycling waste polymers has been highlighted. However, the impact of polymer dissolution on cold flow characteristics of biodiesel was never investigated. The present study was set to explore the impact of different solvents in stabilizing biodiesel-polymer solution. Among them, acetone was proved to be the best fuel stabilizer. Subsequently, cold flow characteristic i.e. cloud point, of the biodiesel-polymer-acetone fuel was found to have improved (decreased due to the inclusion of acetone. Finally, flash point analysis of the fuel blends containing acetone was done to ensured high safety of the fuel blend by dramatically increasing the flash point values of biodiesel-polymer fuel blends.

  18. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Llanes, Manuel; Gázquez González, Manuel Jesús; García Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J.; López, Félix A.; Bolívar Raya, Juan Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm−2 at 28 days). Since ilmeni...

  19. Groundwater potential investigation using combined VLF and VES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is an assessment of groundwater in Oke-Agbe High School field located in Akoko North-West Local Government Area of Ondo State. The goal is to establish groundwater viability in this location based on a clear-cut relationship between Electrical Resistivity (VES) and Electromagnetics methods (VLF).

  20. Analysis physical properties of composites polymer from cocofiber and polypropylene plastic waste with maleic anhydrate as crosslinking agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelita, E.; Hidayani, T. R.; Akbar, A.

    2017-07-01

    This research was conducted with the aim to produce composites polymer with polypropylene plastic waste materials and cocofiber which aims to produce wood replacement material in the home furnishings industry. This research was conducted with several stages. The first stage is the process of soaking coco fiber with detergent to remove oil and 2% NaOH. The second stage is to combine the polypropylene plastic waste with cocofiber is a chemical bond, modification by adding maleic anhydride as a crosslinking agent and benzoyl peroxide as an initiator each as much as 1%. Mixing materials done by reflux method using xylene solvent. In this study, carried out a wide range of weight variation of coco fiber are added to the 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The third stage is a polymer composite molding process using hot press at a temperature of 158°C. The results of polymer composites Showed optimum condition on the addition of 40% cocofiber with supple tensile strength value of 90.800 kgf /cm2 and value of elongation break at 3.6726 x 104 (kgf/cm2), melting point at 160.02°C, burning point 463.43°C, residue of TGA is 19%, the density of 0.84 g/mL. From these data, conclude that the resulting polymer composites meet the SNI 03-2105-2006 about ordinary composite polymer and polymer composite structural type 8 regular types from 17.5 to 10.5.

  1. Recycling WEEE: Polymer characterization and pyrolysis study for waste of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo; Javimczik, Selene; Benevit, Mariana; Veit, Hugo

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules contain both valuable and hazardous materials, which makes its recycling meaningful economically and environmentally. In general, the recycling of PV modules starts with the removal of the polymeric ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resin using pyrolysis, which assists in the recovery of materials such as silicon, copper and silver. The pyrolysis implementation, however, needs improvement given its importance. In this study, the polymers in the PV modules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the removal of the EVA resin using pyrolysis has been studied and optimized. The results revealed that 30min pyrolysis at 500°C removes >99% of the polymers present in photovoltaic modules. Moreover, the behavior of different particle size milled modules during the pyrolysis process was evaluated. It is shown that polymeric materials tend to remain at a larger particle size and thus, this fraction has the greatest mass loss during pyrolysis. A thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) performed in all polymeric matter revealed the optimum pyrolysis temperature is around 500°C. Temperatures above 500°C continue to degrade matter, but mass loss rate is 6.25 times smaller. This study demonstrates the use of pyrolysis can remove >99% of the polymeric matter from PV modules, which assists the recycling of this hazardous waste and avoids its disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Le traitement des déchets polymères : la valorisation énergétique ou chimique Treatment of Polymer Wastes: Chemical Or Energy Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une protection accrue de l'environnement requiert la mise en place de nouvelles techniques fiables et économiques de traitement des déchets polymères. Parmi les diverses méthodes envisagées pour la réutilisation ou l'élimination des polymères usagés, les recyclages énergétiques et chimiques peuvent apporter des solutions satisfaisantes et complémentaires au recyclage de la matière. Cet article fait le point sur l'état d'avancement des techniques de valorisation énergétique et chimique des rejets de polymères et il propose une analyse critique des traitements actuels. Increased environmental protection requires the installation of new treatment techniques for polymer wastes. Competitive industrial facilities are not available from the economic standpoint for recycling spent plastic and rubber wastes in the form of materials, especially when mixtures are involved. It is only by using other treatment method for the chemical or energy upgrading of polymers, as a supplement to the recycling of materials, that it should be possible to make a significant reduction in the amount of spent polymers currently being scrapped. The energy upgrading of wastes by incineration with energy recovery or by pyrolysis with the formation of fuels in an interesting approach for a great many countries. When no reuse is possible, the energy content of the material is upgraded before the subsequent scrapping of an ultimate residue that is reduced to its incompressible minimum after having been inerted. There are currently several technical solutions for incineration furnaces and the treatment of the fumes produced, which meet the more and more severe requirements concerning environmental protection. Incineration systems with energy recovery can recover about 8000 thermies per ton of unsorted plastics. They already have an important position, albeit a varying one, from one European country to another (Table 6. They should develop considerably further in

  3. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boota, M. [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA; Paranthaman, M. Parans [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Naskar, Amit K. [The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Li, Yunchao [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Akato, Kokouvi [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Gogotsi, Y. [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2 g-1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98 % after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π–π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life—a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  4. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  6. An adaptive occlusion culling algorithm for use in large ves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    The Hierarchical Occlusion Map algorithm is combined with Frustum Slicing to give a simpler occlusion-culling algorithm that more adequately caters to large, open VEs. The algorithm adapts to the level of visual congestion and is well suited for use with large, complex models with long mean free...... line of sight ('the great outdoors'), models for which it is not feasible to construct, or search, a database of occluders to be rendered each frame....

  7. Metode Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES untuk Menduga Potensi Sumberdaya Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjito .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pada umumnya pemenuhan kebutuhan air dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan airtanah. Airtanah lebih banyak dimanfaatkan dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan domestik maupun industri karena kualitas airtanah pada umumnya lebih baik dibandingkan dengan air permukaan. Potensi airtanah untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan domestik dan industri pada umumnya sulit dihitung secara tepat karena airtanah tidak tampak dan keberadaannya sangat bergantung pada kondisi geologi. Salah satu metode pendugaan yang sering digunakan adalah metode geolistrik VES (Vertical Electrical Sounding. Metode tersebut umum digunakan karena hasilnya lebih akurat, biaya operasional yang murah, dan akuisi data yang cepat. Metode VES digunakan untuk menduga lapisan-lapisan material di bawah permukaan bumi berdasarkan sifat resistivitasnya. Nilai resistivitas (ρ dihitung berdasarkan data arus listrik (I dan beda potensial (V yang diperoleh di lapangan. Data arus listrik dan beda potensial diperoleh dari injeksi arus listrik ke bawah permukaan bumi melalui pasangan elektroda arus (C1,C2 dan elektroda potensial (P1,P2. Berdasarkan hasil pendugaan menggunakan metode VES, potensi airtanah di Kota Surakarta mempunyai volume airtanah yang tersedia besar karena akuifer terdistribusi secara luas dan seragam.Debit airtanah berdasarkan perhitungan dengan data yang tersedia dan asumsi-asumsi yang digunakan, maka debit airtanah di sebagian kota Surakarta adalah 1.208 m 3 /hari. Kata kunci : Vertical Electrical Sounding, sumberdaya air, akuifer

  8. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  9. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Manuel; Gázquez, Manuel Jesús; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J; López, Félix A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm(-2) at 28 days). Since ilmenite mud is enriched in natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes (2.0·10(3) Bq kg(-1)(228)Ra and 5.0·10(2) Bq kg(-1)(226)Ra), the IMC-SPCs were subjected to leaching experiments, which showed their environmental impact to be negligible. The activity concentration indices for the different radionuclides in the IMC-SPCs containing 10% and 20% ilmenite mud met the demands of international standards for materials used in the construction of non-residential buildings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  11. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: El Paso Energy Corporation Polymers Incorporated in Flemington, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The El Paso Energy Corporation Polymers, Inc. (EPEC Polymers, Inc.), formerly known as Tenneco Polymers, Inc., is located at 45 River Road, at the juncture of the South Branch of the Raritan River and Bushkill Brook in Flemington/Raritan Townships,

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER MICROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE USING KINETIC MIXER PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.W.; ADAMS,J.W.

    1997-11-01

    Thermokinetic mixing was investigated as an alternative processing method for polyethylene microencapsulation, a technology well demonstrated for treatment of hazardous, low-level radioactive and low-level mixed wastes. Polyethylene encapsulation by extrusion has been previously shown to be applicable to a wide range of waste types but often pretreatment of the wastes is necessary due to process limitations regarding the maximum waste moisture content and particle size distribution. Development testing was conducted with kinetic mixing in order to demonstrate technology viability and show improved process applicability in these areas. Testing to establish process capabilities and relevant operating parameters was performed with waste surrogates including an aqueous evaporator concentrate and soil. Using a pilot-scale kinetic mixer which was installed and modified for this program, the maximum waste moisture content and particle size was determined. Following process development with surrogate wastes, the technology was successfully demonstrated at BNL using actual mixed waste.

  13. Le burnout des élèves

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini, Fabio; Doudin, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome du burnout a été étudié pour la première fois en 1974. Il désigne un état d’épuisement professionnel lié au stress du travail. Depuis, il s’est appliqué à plein d’autres type de population, dont, dernièrement, à celui des élèves : ceux-ci sont vus comme exerçantun métier, le « métier d’élève ». Ce syndrome est étudié selon trois dimensions : 1) unépuisement attribuable aux demandes de l’école 2) une attitude cynique et détachée vis-à-visde l’école et 3) un sentiment d’inadéquation...

  14. Reuse of red algae waste for the production of cellulose nanocrystals and its application in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achaby, Mounir; Kassab, Zineb; Aboulkas, Adil; Gaillard, Cédric; Barakat, Abdellatif

    2018-01-01

    Red algae is widely available around the world and its exploitation for the production of agar products has become an important industry in recent years. The industrial processing of red algae generates a large quantity of solid fibrous wastes, which constitutes a source of serious environmental problems. In the present work, the utilization of red algae waste as raw material to produce high-quality cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) has been investigated, and the ability of the as-isolated CNC to reinforce polymer has been studied. Red algae waste was chemically treated via alkali, bleaching and acid hydrolysis treatments, in order to obtain pure cellulose microfibers and CNC. The raw waste and the as-extracted cellulosic materials were successively characterized at different stages of treatments using serval analysis techniques. It was found that needle-like shaped CNC were successfully isolated at nanometric scale with diameters and lengths ranged from 5.2±2.9 to 9.1±3.1nm, and from 285.4±36.5 to 315.7±30.3nm, respectively, and the crystallinity index ranged from 81 to 87%, depending on the hydrolysis time (30, 40 and 80min). The as-extracted CNC were used as nanofillers for the production of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based nanocomposite films with improved thermal and tensile properties, as well as optical transparency. It is shown that the addition of 8wt% CNC into the PVA matrix increased the Young's modulus by 215%, the tensile strength by 150%, and the toughness by 45%. Additionally, the nanocomposite films maintained the same transparency level of the neat PVA film (transmittance of ∼90% in the visible region), suggesting that the CNC were dispersed at the nanoscale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of isocyanate structure on ionic conductivity of waste cooking oil based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, N. A.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films was prepared via solvent-free method using waste cooking oil-based polyol, diisocyanate, LiTFSI salt and ethylene carbonate as plasticizer. Two types of diisocyanate were chosen; aromatic 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and the effect of diisocyanate structure on SPE properties were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The highest ionic conductivity achieved was 5.76 × 10-6 S cm-1 using MDI. This was supported with lower crystallinity observed by decrease in peaks intensity in XRD. The findings indicated that aromatic diisocyanate is more suitable to produce polyurethane SPE.

  16. Synthetic/Biosynthetic Phase Transfer Polymers for Pollution Minimization, Remediation, and Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    polymer and model pollutant separation and recovery 7) Contribution to the interdisciplinary research and education of young scientists in biological...N&. 8. 14 NN2 Figure 1. 8trocturs of AWIDAMAB IopolyinRs interaction o rmtydoeyamnu bromide with *olyVsTyrnslOna. and dextrmn sulfate. 7he squi - too

  17. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  18. IgE to recombinant allergens Api m 1, Ves v 1, and Ves v 5 distinguish double sensitization from crossreaction in venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, U; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Hausmann, O; Helbling, A

    2012-08-01

    Diagnostic tests in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy are frequently positive to venoms of both honey bee and wasp (Vespula). Component-resolved analysis with recombinant species-specific major allergens (rSSMA) may help to distinguish true double sensitization from crossreactivity. Included were 121 patients with systemic allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings, 76 with double positivity of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) to both venoms, 45 with single positivity to bee or wasp venom, and 32 controls without history of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings and no sIgE to whole venoms. In venom-allergic patients and controls, sIgE to rSSMA Api m 1 of bee venom and to Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 of wasp venom were tested by ImmunoCAP. Only 47% of 76 patients with double positivity to whole venoms reacted also to rSSMA of both species. Specificity of sIgE to the 3 rSSMA was very high, with no sIgE to rSSMA of the other species in single-positive venom-allergic patients and only one control with low sIgE to Ves v 1. All wasp-allergic single-positive patients had sIgE to Ves v 5 and/or Ves v 1, and 78.3% of single-positive bee venom-allergic patients had sIgE to Api m 1. Specificity of sIgE to rSSMA of both species is excellent. Sensitivity of sIgE to rSSMA was optimal for wasp venom. Sensitivity of bee venom Api m 1 could be increased by adding rSSMA of other important bee venom allergens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Analysis of flame retardant additives in polymer fractions of waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) by means of HPLC-UV/MS and GPC-HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Brandl, Fritz; Mäurer, Andreas; van Eldik, Rudi

    2005-01-28

    An HPLC-UV/MS method has been developed to identify and quantify flame retardants in post-consumer plastics from waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation spectra of 15 brominated and phosphate-based flame retardants were recorded and interpreted. The method was applied to detect flame retardant additives in polymer extracts obtained from pressurised liquid extraction of solid polymers. In addition, a screening method was developed for soluble styrene polymers to isolate a flame retardant fraction through the application of gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This fraction was transferred to an online-coupled HPLC column and detected by UV spectroscopy, which allowed a reliable qualitative and quantitative analysis of brominated flame retardants in the polymer solutions.

  20. Selective removal/recovery of RCRA metals from waste and process solutions using polymer filtration{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals are found in a number of process and waste streams at many DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and industrial facilities. RCRA metals consist principally of chromium, mercury, cadmium, lead, and silver. Arsenic and selenium, which form oxyanions, are also considered RCRA elements. Discharge limits for each of these metals are based on toxicity and dictated by state and federal regulations (e.g., drinking water, RCRA, etc.). RCRA metals are used in many current operations, are generated in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, and are also present in old process wastes that require treatment and stabilization. These metals can exist in solutions, as part of sludges, or as contaminants on soils or solid surfaces, as individual metals or as mixtures with other metals, mixtures with radioactive metals such as actinides (defined as mixed waste), or as mixtures with a variety of inert metals such as calcium and sodium. The authors have successfully completed a preliminary proof-of-principle evaluation of Polymer Filtration{trademark} (PF) technology for the dissolution of metallic mercury and have also shown that they can remove and concentrate RCRA metals from dilute solutions for a variety of aqueous solution types using PF technology. Another application successfully demonstrated is the dilute metal removal of americium and plutonium from process streams. This application was used to remove the total alpha contamination to below 30 pCi/L for the wastewater treatment plant at TA-50 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from nitric acid distillate in the acid recovery process at TA-55, the Plutonium Facility at LANL (ESP-CP TTP AL16C322). This project will develop and optimize the PF technology for specific DOE process streams containing RCRA metals and coordinate it with the needs of the commercial sector to ensure that technology transfer occurs.

  1. Novel Ceramic-Polymer Composite Membranes for the Separation of Hazardous Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoram Cohen

    2001-12-01

    The present project was conceived to address the need for robust yet selective membranes suitable for operating in harsh ph, solvent, and temperature environments. An important goal of the project was to develop a membrane chemical modification technology that would allow one to tailor-design membranes for targeted separation tasks. The method developed in the present study is based on the process of surface graft polymerization. Using essentially the same base technology of surface modification the research was aimed at demonstrating that improved membranes can be designed for both pervaporation separation and ultrafiltration. In the case of pervaporation, the present study was the first to demonstrate that pervaporation can be achieved with ceramic support membranes modified with an essentially molecular layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. The main advantage of the above approach, relative to other proposed membranes, is that the separating polymer layer is covalently attached to the ceramic support. Therefore, such membranes have a potential use in organic-organic separations where the polymer can swell significantly yet membrane robustness is maintained due to the chemical linkage of the chains to be inorganic support. The above membrane technology was also useful in developing fouling resistant ultrafiltration membranes. The prototype membrane developed in the project was evaluated for the treatment of oil-in-water microemulsions, demonstrating lack of irreversible fouling common with commercial membranes.

  2. Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Letícia Celia de Lencastre; Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho Santos; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-01-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Separation efficiency of two waste polymer fibers for oily water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the efficiency of two different waste polymeric materials as the filter media in a laboratory-scale bed coalescer in the horizontal fluid flow mode, operating in a steady-state regime. The applied materials are: waste polyethylene terephthalate from textile industry, BA1 and waste polypropylene from carpet industry, PP. Using these compressible fiber polymeric materials, high bed porosity (up to 98% could be obtained. The investigation was carried out over a wide range of working conditions. Bed permeability was varied in the range from 0.18•10-9 to 5.389•10-9 m2. Operating fluid velocity was varied from 19 to 80 m/h, until the critical velocity was reached. Different oily wastewaters were used in the experiments. Oily wastewater is defined as the oil-inwater emulsion model prepared using mineral oils of different physico-chemical characteristics: crude oil (A from Vojvodina region, two vacuum distillation fractions (A1, A4, and blended petroleum product with a high paraffinic content (P1. Both applied polymeric materials, BA1 and PP, showed high separation efficiency for treatment of all investigated oily wastewater. However, the BA1 material showed higher efficiency in a wider range of bed permeability and physico-chemical characteristics of oil. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022

  4. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Electrospun Polymers and Their Fate in Aqueous Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein, Natalia

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly present in our environment. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), defined as objects that measure less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension, are being integrated into commercial products because of their small size, increased surface area, and quantum effects. These special properties have made ENPs antimicrobial agents in clothing and plastics, among other applications in industries such as pharmaceuticals, renewable energy, and prosthetics. This thesis incorporates investigations into both application of nanoparticles into polymers as well as implications of nanoparticle release into the environment. First, the integration of ENPs into polymer fibers via electrospinning was explored. Electrospinning uses an external electric field applied to a polymer solution to produce continuous fibers with large surface area and small volume, a quality which makes the fibers ideal for water and air purification purposes. Indium oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were embedded in polyvinylpyrrolidone and polystyrene. Viscosity, critical voltage, and diameter of electrospun fibers were analyzed in order to determine the effects of nanoparticle integration into the polymers. Critical voltage and viscosity of solution increased at 5 wt% ENP concentration. Fiber morphology was not found to change significantly as a direct effect of ENP addition, but as an effect of increased viscosity and surface tension. These results indicate the possibility for seamless integration of ENPs into electrospun polymers. Implications of ENP release were investigated using phase distribution functional assays of nanoscale silver and silver sulfide, as well as photolysis experiments of nanoscale titanium dioxide to quantify hydroxyl radical production. Functional assays are a means of screening the relevant importance of multiple processes in the environmental fate and transport of ENPs. Four functional assays---water-soil, water-octanol, water

  5. Habitudes de lecture et performances scolaires des élèves des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ouagadougou est fortement corrélée par la présence d'une bibliothèque dans leurs établissements ou dans un rayon pas trop éloignée de leur lieu de résidence, Les élèves de première lisent plus que ceux des troisième. Les # lles lisent plus que les garçons. Les élèves de la ville lisent autant que ceux des provinces.

  6. Impact of the European Union vehicle waste directive on end-of-life options for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C.; Brandon, N. P.; van der Vorst, R.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) may well be powering millions of cars by 2020. At its end-of-life, each car will have a redundant PEMFC stack. The EU vehicle waste directive sets tough recycling and re-use requirements for the cars of the future. The criteria for assessing the end-of-life options are based on technical, economic and environmental feasibility. The optimum strategy will require stack dismantling and separation of the major components. Steel and aluminium parts can enter the general recycling stream, but the membrane electrode assembly and bipolar plates will require a specialised recycling process. One option is to shred the MEA, dissolve and recover the membrane, burn off the carbon, and recycle the platinum and ruthenium catalysts using solvent extraction. The heaviest part of the PEMFC stack is the bipolar plates. If carbon fibre based, the bipolar plates could enter a fluidised bed recovery process where the constituent materials are recovered for re-use. The EU vehicle waste directive sets high recycling targets based on weight, and thus it is strongly advisable for the relatively heavy bipolar plates to be recycled, even though energy recovery by incineration may be a cheaper and possible more environmentally benign option. The EU vehicle directive will put pressure on the end-of-life options for the PEMFC stack to be weighted towards recycling and re-use; it will have a significant impact on the design and end-of-life options for the PEMFC. The overall effect of this pressure on the end-of-life treatment of the PEMFC and the consequential contribution to environmental life cycle impacts is discussed. It is concluded that a range of external pressures influence the selection of a suitable end-of-life management strategy, and while opportunities for re-use of components are limited, all components of the PEMFC stack could in principle be recycled.

  7. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers - Effect of ceramic fillers on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of polymer concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Chun; Park, Min Jin; Shin, Hyun Ick; Choi, Yong Jin [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Particle size distribution of the ceramic filler is the primary factor to influence the composition of polymer concrete. The estimated optimum compositions of the polymer concretes prepared in the study are 62 {approx} 71wt% for fine aggregates, 6 {approx} 29wt% for ceramic fillers and 9 {approx}13wt% for polymer resin. Calcium Carbonate and silica are the ceramic fillers practically usable for manufacturing polymer concrete. Less polymer resin is required for the preparation of polymer concrete at lower relative packing volume of ceramic fillers. It has been found that depended on the type of fine aggregates, the effect of ceramic filler on the mechanical behavior of polymer concrete can be opposite. Strength and elastic modulus of polymer concrete are affected by gamma radiation. Crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin are promoted by gamma radiation up to 00 MRad and 50 MRad, respectively. However, higher dose of radiation degrades the mechanical properties of polymer concrete. Hydrothermal treatment of polymer concrete at 80 deg. C and 1bar for 30 days causes about 25% reduction of bending strength and elastic modulus. The strength reduction arises from the hydrolysis of ester groups in unsaturated polyester catalyzed by hydrothermal condition. 13 refs., 37 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  8. Facile characterization of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) for mechanical recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, Rosa; Pozzi, Paolo; Zanasi, Tania

    2010-12-01

    In view of the environmental problem involved in the management of WEEE, and then in the recycling of post-consumer plastic of WEEE there is a pressing need for rapid measurement technologies for simple identification of the various commercial plastic materials and of the several contaminants, to improve the recycling of such wastes. This research is focused on the characterization and recycling of two types of plastics, namely plastic from personal computer (grey plastic) and plastic from television (black plastic). Various analytical techniques were used to monitor the compositions of WEEE. Initially, the chemical structure of each plastic material was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polymeric contaminants of these plastics, in particular brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were detected in grey plastics only using different techniques. These techniques are useful for a rapid, correct and economics identification of a large volumes of WEEE plastics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abatement of humic acid from aqueous solution using a carbonaceous conjugated microporous polymer derived from waste polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaukura, Nhamo; Moyo, Welldone; Mamba, Bhekie B; Nkambule, Thabo I

    2017-11-16

    Humic acid (HA) is a major constituent of natural organic matter (NOM) found in water systems. Although NOM generally does not have any known harmful effects to humans, it imparts repulsive organoleptic properties to water, reacts with disinfectants to produce toxic products, and interferes with the efficiency of water treatment processes. The removal of NOM and related compounds from water is therefore important to render water potable and suitable for other applications. In this work, a hitherto unreported carbonaceous conjugated microporous polymer (CCMP) prepared through the organic-polymeric-precursor-controlled carbonization of hypercrosslinked post-consumer waste polystyrene (WPS) was evaluated for its capacity to remove HA from synthetic wastewater. This advanced material retained the morphology of the precursor material, while its porosity and chemical integrity were significantly improved. The approach is an environmentally friendly way of handling WPS while at the same time remediating NOM-contaminated water. Overall, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 340 mg/g in batch experiments, and a maximum initial removal rate of 95.7% in column experiments, the results showed that CCMP can be used for the remediation of HA-contaminated water at high pH.

  10. Structure of recombinant Ves v 2 at 2.0 Angstrom resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lars K; Seppälä, Ulla; Coen, Jeremy J F

    2006-01-01

    of recombinant Ves v 2 was determined at 2.0 A resolution and reveals a central (beta/alpha)(7) core that is further stabilized by two disulfide bonds (Cys19-Cys308 and Cys185-Cys197). Based on sequence alignments and structural comparison with the honeybee allergen Api m 2, it is proposed that a conserved...

  11. A graphical user interface (gui) matlab program Synthetic_Ves For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interactive and robust computer program for 1D forward modeling of Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) curves for multilayered earth models is presented. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) enabled software, written in MATLAB v.7.12.0.635 (R2011a), accepts user-defined geologic model parameters (i.e. ...

  12. Efficiency of joint use of MRS and VES to characterize coastal aquifer in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J. M.; Chatenoux, B.; Mathieu, F.; Baltassat, J. M.; Legchenko, A.

    2007-02-01

    The productivity and the water quality of coastal aquifers can be highly heterogeneous in a complex environment. The characterization of these aquifers can be improved by hydrogeological and complementary geophysical surveys. Such an integrated approach is developed in a non-consolidated coastal aquifer in Myanmar (previously named Burma). A preliminary hydrogeological survey is conducted to know better the targeted aquifers. Then, 25 sites are selected to characterize aquifers through borehole drillings and pumping tests implementation. In the same sites, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) and vertical electrical soundings (VES) are carried out. Geophysical results are compared to hydrogeological data, and geophysical parameters are used to characterize aquifers using conversion equations. Finally, combining the analysis of technical and economical impacts of geophysics, a methodology is proposed to characterize non-consolidated coastal aquifers. Depth and thickness of saturated zone is determined by means of MRS in 68% of the sites (evaluated with 34 soundings). The average accuracy of confined storativity estimated with MRS is ± 6% (evaluated over 7 pumping tests) whereas the average accuracy of transmissivity estimation with MRS is ± 45% (evaluated using 15 pumping tests). To reduce uncertainty in VES interpretation, the aquifer geometry estimated with MRS is used as a fixed parameter in VES inversion. The accuracy of groundwater electrical conductivity evaluation from 15 VES is enough to estimate the risk of water salinity. In addition, the maximum depth of penetration of the MRS depends on the rocks' electrical resistivity and is between 20 and 80 m at the study area.

  13. Instructional Design Practices in the Design and Development of Digital Humanities Virtual Environments (DH-VEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments, virtual worlds, simulations, 3D models are loaded with potential, promise, and problems. While learning in virtual settings is still being researched, instructional designers are challenged as to which instructional design practices are best suited for virtual environments (VEs). The problem is there is a lack of a conceptual…

  14. Social values for ecosystem services (SolVES): Documentation and user manual, version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the need for incorporating quantified and spatially explicit measures of social values into ecosystem services assessments, the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, developed a geographic information system (GIS) application, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). With version 2.0 (SolVES 2.0), RMGSC has improved and extended the functionality of SolVES, which was designed to assess, map, and quantify the perceived social values of ecosystem services. Social values such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and recreation can be evaluated for various stakeholder groups as distinguished by their attitudes and preferences regarding public uses, such as motorized recreation and logging. As with the previous version, SolVES 2.0 derives a quantitative, 10-point, social-values metric, the Value Index, from a combination of spatial and nonspatial responses to public attitude and preference surveys and calculates metrics characterizing the underlying environment, such as average distance to water and dominant landcover. Additionally, SolVES 2.0 integrates Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social value maps and to produce robust statistical models describing the relationship between the social values maps and explanatory environmental variables. The performance of these models can be evaluated for a primary study area, as well as for similar areas where primary survey data are not available but where social value mapping could potentially be completed using value-transfer methodology. SolVES 2.0 also introduces the flexibility for users to define their own social values and public uses, model any number and type of environmental variable, and modify the spatial resolution of analysis. With these enhancements, SolVES 2.0 provides an improved public domain tool for decisionmakers and researchers to evaluate the social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate

  15. EFFECTS OF NANOPARTICLES AND SURFACTANT CHARGE GROUPS ON THE PROPERTIES OF VES GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chauhan

    Full Text Available Abstract Application of viscoelastic surfactant (VES fluids in hydraulic fracturing is still in the development stage, though shear thinning behavior and water solubility are the two important characteristics behind increasing interest in their use in fracturing jobs. Effects of ionic characteristics and the concentration of different surfactants on the rheological properties of VES fluid have been investigated in detail in the present study for a number of surfactant systems. Phase behavior of the system was studied and the gel region was identified. Effects of alkali on the viscosity, thermal stability, and miscibility (in water of the developed gel were also investigated. Dynamic rheological study was carried out to determine the storage modulus and loss modulus. This study shows that mixed anionic-anionic system gives improved rheology compared to single anionic and mixed anionic-zwitterionic surfactant systems.

  16. Cambios Epiteliales Atípicos en las Vesículas Seminales

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Stella, Javier; Cátedra de Anatomía Patológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Takano Morón, Juan; Cátedra de Anatomía Patológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Se describen las características morfológicas de una alteración epitelial atípica que ocurre en la vesícula seminal. La lesión se caracteriza fundamentalmente por áreas focales en las que hay marcada hipertrofia nuclear y algún grado de hiperplasia epitelial. Las células hipertróficas exioliadas pueden ser confundidas con células neoplásicas. La alteración ocurre mayormente después de la cuarta década. La inflamación y la esclerosis vascular en la vesícula seminal, la hiperplasia de la glándu...

  17. Electrodriven selective transport of Cs+ using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in polymer inclusion membrane: a novel approach for cesium removal from simulated nuclear waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Goswami, Asok

    2014-11-04

    The work describes a novel and cleaner approach of electrodriven selective transport of Cs from simulated nuclear waste solutions through cellulose tri acetate (CTA)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based polymer inclusion membrane. The electrodriven cation transport together with the use of highly Cs+ selective hexachlorinated derivative of cobalt bis dicarbollide, allows to achieve selective separation of Cs+ from high concentration of Na+ and other fission products in nuclear waste solutions. The transport selectivity has been studied using radiotracer technique as well as atomic emission spectroscopic technique. Transport studies using CTA based membrane have been carried out from neutral solution as well as 0.4 M HNO3, while that with PVC based membrane has been carried out from 3 M HNO3. High decontamination factor for Cs+ over Na+ has been obtained in all the cases. Experiment with simulated high level waste solution shows selective transport of Cs+ from most of other fission products also. Significantly fast Cs+ transport rate along with high selectivity is an interesting feature observed in this membrane. The current efficiency for Cs+ transport has been found to be ∼100%. The promising results show the possibility of using this kind of electrodriven membrane transport methods for nuclear waste treatment.

  18. Colelitíase e câncer de vesícula biliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jorge Martins Torres

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem por objetivo analisar os achados histológicos da vesícula biliar de pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia eletiva no Hospital Universitário Presidente Dutra, São Luís-MA. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 2.008 pacientes, 359 do sexo masculino (17,9% e 1.649 do sexo feminino (82,1%, com média de idade de 46,3 anos, operados no período de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 1998. A vesícula biliar, imediatamente após a colecitectoma era aberta e examinada macroscopicamente pelo cirurgião e em seguida enviada para exame histopatológico. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de câncer da vesícula biliar foi de 2,3 % (46 pacientes. Trinta e três pacientes (71,7% apresentavam idade superior a 60 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores concluem que a colecistectomia profilática eletiva deve ser realizada em pacientes assintomáticos com colelitíase, com idade superior a 60 anos e em boas condições cirúrgicas.

  19. Response surface methodology approach for the optimisation of adsorption of hydrolysed polyacrylamide from polymer-flooding wastewater onto steel slag: a good option of waste mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mijia; Yao, Jun; Qin, Zhonghai; Lian, Luning; Zhang, Chi

    2017-08-01

    Wastewater produced from polymer flooding in oil production features high viscosity and chemical oxygen demand because of the residue of high-concentration polymer hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM). In this study, steel slag, a waste from steel manufacturing, was studied as a low-cost adsorbent for HPAM in wastewater. Optimisation of HPAM adsorption by steel slag was performed with a central composite design under response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 89.31% was obtained at an adsorbent dosage of 105.2 g/L, contact time of 95.4 min and pH of 5.6. These data were strongly correlated with the experimental values of the RSM model. Single and interactive effect analysis showed that HPAM removal efficiency increased with increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time. Efficiency increased when pH was increased from 2.6 to 5.6 and subsequently decreased from 5.6 to 9.3. It was observed that removal efficiency significantly increased (from 0% to 86.1%) at the initial stage (from 0 min to 60 min) and increased gradually after 60 min with an adsorbent dosage of 105.2 g/L, pH of 5.6. The adsorption kinetics was well correlated with the pseudo-second-order equation. Removal of HPAM from the studied water samples indicated that steel slag can be utilised for the pre-treatment of polymer-flooding wastewater.

  20. A comparative analysis of a balance between the rates of polymer hydrolysis and acetoclastic methanogenesis during anaerobic digestion of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A; Schelkanov, M Yu; Lokshina, L Ya; Rytov, S V; Jokela, J; Salmine, E; Rintala, J

    2002-01-01

    A distributed model of anaerobic digestion of solid waste was developed. Waste, volatile fatty acids (VFA), methanogenic biomass and methane concentrations were the model variables. A system of parabolic partial differential equations in the one space variable and time with slab, cylindrical or spherical symmetry of the problem was solved numerically. Diffusion of VFA inhibiting both polymer hydrolysis and acetoclastic methanogenesis was taken into account. The model showed that concentration waves of methanogenic biomass and VFA propagated over reaction space. Diffusion-based "acceleration" of methane production in the reactor was possible when intensity of VFA utilisation in the methanogenic area was sufficient for complete digestion of incoming VFA. Otherwise, methanogenic area propagation would be suppressed. Optimum conditions for the solid waste digestion can be reached at low mass transfer at the beginning and at high mass transfer when methanogenic population increases. If the initial methanogenic biomass was localised at the centre of the reactor, the total reaction time was shorter as compared to the case when the initial biomass was uniformly distributed over the reactor volume. In the last case, there was no concentration wave propagation.

  1. Quand les élèves définissent la phrase…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce projet de communication vise une réflexion sur des définitions de la phrase élaborées par des collégiens (classes de sixième et cinquième, afin d’appréhender les capacités et les difficultés des élèves à se rapporter à cet objet d’étude incontournable qu’est la phrase. Nous essayons ainsi de répondre à la question « Qu’est-ce qu’une phrase pour un élève de collège ? », en abordant en même temps la notion de capacité de réflexion sur la langue, objectif important de la scolarisation en français langue maternelle. La démarche d’analyse de cette étude exploratoire examine ainsi plusieurs définitions rédigées en classe qui seront comparées à des définitions repérées dans des manuels et des cahiers pratiques de français. Les résultats obtenus dans cette enquête, démontrent une forte prégnance du critère syntaxique dans la définition de la phrase. Assimilé à d’autres critères également, le critère syntaxique reste dominant pour les élèves alors que le critère sémantique n’est pas suffisamment cité, même si c’est le critère dominant dans les Cahiers de grammaire utilisés en classe. Les définitions données par les élèves permettent à l’enseignant d’avoir une image générale de leur conception de cet outil linguistique de sorte à orienter son enseignement autour de cette notion et guider les élèves dans la compréhension des phénomènes grammaticaux.

  2. Características ultrassonográficas de fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, vesícula urinária e jejuno em coelhos jovens e adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassy G. da Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente trabalho descreveu características e comparou mensurações do fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, vesícula urinária e jejuno de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco (NZB jovens e adultos. O grupo dos jovens foi composto por 39 coelhos de ambos os sexos (20 machos e 19 fêmeas, desmamados aos 30-31 dias de idade, sendo as avaliações realizadas aos 35, 56 e 77 dias de idade. O grupo dos adultos foi composto por 23 fêmeas e 15 machos, com idade superior a 6 meses, sendo realizada uma avaliação ultrassonográfica por animal. O exame consistiu na avaliação do fígado, vesícula biliar, rins direito e esquerdo, jejuno e vesícula urinária. Todos os animais foram pesados antes dos exames. O peso médio dos animais aumentou (p0,05 da espessura das camadas do jejuno entre as idades, apresentando média de 0,23 cm para todos os animais. Estes são os primeiros dados brasileiros de características ultrassonográficas de fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, jejuno e vesícula urinária para coelhos NZB de 35, 56 e 77 dias de vida e adultos.

  3. Social Values for Ecosystem Services, version 3.0 (SolVES 3.0): documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Ben C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information system (GIS) tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES), was developed to incorporate quantified and spatially explicit measures of social values into ecosystem service assessments. SolVES 3.0 continues to extend the functionality of SolVES, which was designed to assess, map, and quantify the social values of ecosystem services. Social values—the perceived, nonmarket values the public ascribes to ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, such as aesthetics and recreation—can be evaluated for various stakeholder groups. These groups are distinguishable by their attitudes and preferences regarding public uses, such as motorized recreation and logging. As with previous versions, SolVES 3.0 derives a quantitative 10-point, social-values metric—the value index—from a combination of spatial and nonspatial responses to public value and preference surveys. The tool also calculates metrics characterizing the underlying environment, such as average distance to water and dominant landcover. SolVES 3.0 is integrated with Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social-value maps and offer robust statistical models describing the relationship between the value index and explanatory environmental variables. A model’s goodness of fit to a primary study area and its potential performance in transferring social values to similar areas using value-transfer methodology can be evaluated. SolVES 3.0 provides an improved public-domain tool for decision makers and researchers to evaluate the social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate discussions among diverse stakeholders regarding the tradeoffs among ecosystem services in a variety of physical and social contexts ranging from forest and rangeland to coastal and marine.

  4. Vesículas que comprenden factor de crecimiento epidérmico y composiciones que las contienen

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Millán, Héctor; Ventosa Rull, Leonor; Martínez Díaz, Eduardo; Berlanga Acosta, Jorge; Cabrera Puig, Ingrid; Veciana Miró, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    [ES] La invención se refiere a vesículas que comprenden el Factor de Crecimiento Epidérmico (EGF), un surfactante catiónico, y colesterol o sus derivados. La invención también revela un procedimiento para su preparación, basado en la tecnología de fluidos comprimidos (FCs). Las vesículas de la invención tienen utilidad en la fabricación de medicamentos y productos cosméticos, y en la ingeniería tisular

  5. An application of Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) to three national forests in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.; Clement, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that social-value information is needed to inform stakeholders and decision makers regarding trade-offs in environmental management, it too often remains absent from ecosystem service assessments. Although quantitative indicators of social values need to be explicitly accounted for in the decision-making process, they need not be monetary. Ongoing efforts to map such values demonstrate how they can also be made spatially explicit and relatable to underlying ecological information. We originally developed Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) as a tool to assess, map, and quantify nonmarket values perceived by various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. With SolVES 2.0 we have extended the functionality by integrating SolVES with Maxent maximum entropy modeling software to generate more complete social-value maps from available value and preference survey data and to produce more robust models describing the relationship between social values and ecosystems. The current study has two objectives: (1) evaluate how effectively the value index, a quantitative, nonmonetary social-value indicator calculated by SolVES, reproduces results from more common statistical methods of social-survey data analysis and (2) examine how the spatial results produced by SolVES provide additional information that could be used by managers and stakeholders to better understand more complex relationships among stakeholder values, attitudes, and preferences. To achieve these objectives, we applied SolVES to value and preference survey data collected for three national forests, the Pike and San Isabel in Colorado and the Bridger–Teton and the Shoshone in Wyoming. Value index results were generally consistent with results found through more common statistical analyses of the survey data such as frequency, discriminant function, and correlation analyses. In addition, spatial analysis of the social-value maps produced by SolVES provided information that was

  6. Novel polymer composites from waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber by supercritical CO2 foaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Keuk Min; Hong, Yeo Joo; Saha, Prosenjit; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a composite has been prepared by mixing waste rubber, such as ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer and low-density poly ethylene foaming, with supercritical carbon dioxide. In order to optimise the foaming process of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer-low-density poly ethylene composite, the variations of pressure and temperature on the foamed Microcell formation were studied. As indicated in scanning electron microscope photographs, the most uniform microcellular pattern was found at 200 bar and 100 °C using 30% by weight of waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer. Carbon dioxide could not be dissolved uniformly during foaming owing to extensive cross-linking of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer used for the composite. As a result the presence of un-uniform microcells after foaming were observed in the composite matrix to impart inferior mechanical properties of the composite. This problem was solved with uniform foaming by increasing the cross-link density of low-density poly ethylene using 1.5 parts per hundred dicumyl peroxide that enhances composite tensile and compressive strength up to 57% and 15%, respectively. The composite has the potential to be used as a foaming mat for artificial turf. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Structural and immunological characterization of the N-glycans from the major yellow jacket allergen Ves v 2: The N-glycan structures are needed for the human antibody recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppälä, Ulla; Selby, David; Monsalve, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) hyaluronidase (Ves v 2) is a glycoprotein and a mixture of two isoallergens, Ves v 2.01 and Ves v 2.02. Wasp and bee sensitized individuals frequently show IgE antibodies that in vitro recognize common carbohydrate structures across the hymenoptera species. The ai...

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE BASED BIO-POLYMER AEROGEL ISOLATED FROM WASTE OF BLUEBERRY TREE (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KAYA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose aerogel (CA has highly porous structure, environmentally friendly, thermally stable and flame retardant properties. These properties in material worlds have attracted large interest as a potentially industrial material. In this paper, cellulose aerogel with flame retardant was produced from pruned branches and bushes of blueberries wastes (PBBW. Firstly, cellulose raw material these wastes was obtained and then, cellulose aerogel via freeze-drying, followed by cellulose hydrogel production. Our reports showed that three dimensionally network aerogel structure prepared from NaOH/Urea as scaffold solution. The present cellulose aerogel has excellent flame retardancy, which can extinguish within 140 s. By the way, it was inferred thermal stability performance of cellulose aerogel could be efficient potential thermal insulating material. Besides, this process are sustainable, easily available at low cost and suitable for industrial applications.

  9. Getting the Price Right: Costing and Charging Commercial Provision in Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs). Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Liz; Chadwick, Arthur; Hughes, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs) were established in 2001, intended to be a key driver in enhancing the contribution of the further education (FE) sector to meeting skills needs. Current government policy expects employers and individuals to pay a greater share of the costs of training, particularly at Level 3, which is the CoVE priority…

  10. Qu'en est-il des élèves qui ne travaillent pas à la maison ?

    OpenAIRE

    Brès, Jean-Claude; Capitanescu Benetti, Andreea; Vellas, Etiennette

    2017-01-01

    Ce n’est pas parce que le travail à la maison est différent que tous les élèves le font. À partir d’échanges avec des enseignants pratiquant la classe inversée, les auteurs nous proposent des éléments de réflexion sur cette question.

  11. Increased level of antibodies cross-reacting with Ves v 5 and CRISP-2 in MAR-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner-Agten, S; Pavlovic, R; Müller, L; Horn, M P; Huber, A R; Stadler, B M; Vogel, M

    2013-01-01

    Anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) have been described to be involved in immunological infertility. A possible antigen for ASA is the human cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 (CRISP-2), a sperm surface protein important in sperm-oocyte interaction. Furthermore, anti-CRISP-2 antibodies were shown to decrease fertility rates in vitro. Recently, we have reported cross-reacting antibodies recognizing CRISP-2 and antigen 5 from yellow jacket venom (Ves v 5) in human serum. Here, we investigated anti-Ves v 5 and CRISP-2 antibodies in sera from two groups of donors: MAR+ and MAR- patients. A higher incidence of allergy against hymenoptera venom was found in MAR+ patients. Interestingly, affinity-purified ASA from MAR+ patients' sera reacted against both Ves v 5 and CRISP-2, leading to sperm immobilization. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that ASA bound to the sperm surface, including the head part where CRISP-2 is localized. Taken together, these results showed a higher incidence of antibodies cross-reacting with Ves v 5 and CRISP-2 in MAR+ patients. This leads to the hypothesis that MAR+ patients may have a higher risk to develop wasp allergy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. 78 FR 58287 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in Marine Protected Areas for Management Decision-Making AGENCY... areas. The National Ocean Service (NOS) proposes to collect socio-economic data from residents of local...

  13. Isolation and characterisation of resistant-to-fermentation carbohydrate polymers from cultures of Rhizopus nigricans grown on agrofood waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellín, P; Laencina, J; Ros, J M

    2003-11-01

    Rhizopus nigricans was cultivated in a liquid medium using lemon, mandarin, orange, pear and melon peel or artichoke bracts as the carbon source. In all cultures, a carbohydrate polymer fraction remained resistant to fermentation. These fractions were isolated in gram amounts and characterised. The molecular weight distribution of the fractions and its sugar composition resembles those of the hairy-regions of the pectins. In the fractions, four main carbohydrates were found: 4-7 mol% Rha, 42-59 mol% Ara, 7-14 mol% Gal, 17-33 mol% GalA.

  14. Usages des technologies par les élèves professeurs : analyse à partir de questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Borgne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie l’appropriation et les usages des technologies chez les élèves professeurs français. La méthodologie utilisée est basée sur l’analyse de réponses à des questionnaires soumis aux professeurs stagiaires de quatre instituts universitaires de formation des maîtres. Les résultats obtenus tendent à prouver que les enseignants en formation sont aujourd’hui bien équipés et disposent de compétences réelles dans le cadre des usages personnels et professionnels en dehors de la classe. Cependant, il apparaît que ces compétences sont peu mobilisées dans le cadre des usages en classe.

  15. Les profils des élèves : typicalisations au service du geste professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnard, Anne; Detalle, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Enseigner n’est-ce pas plutôt apprendre de ce qu’est un élève pour permettre à l’élève d’apprendre ce qui est ? L’enseignant fait l’herméneutique de ses élèves en activité. Ce "geste professionnel", action d’observation imprégnée d’empathie pour une mise en sens, permet aux enseignants, de guider l’élève vers le chemin le plus adapté à son "étant". L’étude s’appuie sur la dernière leçon d’un cycle de course d’orientation de 15 heures de pratique effective en classe de Terminale Professionnell...

  16. Polímeros biodegradáveis - uma solução parcial para diminuir a quantidade dos resíduos plásticos Biodegradable polymers - a partial way for decreasing the amount of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Martins Franchetti

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The large use of plastics has generated a waste deposit problem. Today plastic wastes represent 20% in volume of the total waste in the municipal landfills. To solve the disposal problem of plastics methods have been employed such as incineration, recycling, landfill disposal, biodegradation and the use of biodegradable polymers. Incineration of plastic wastes provokes pollution due to the production of poisonous gases. Recycling is important to reduce final costs of plastic materials, but is not enough in face of the amount of discarded plastic. In landfills plastic wastes remain undegraded for a long time, causing space and pollution problems. Biodegradation is a feasible method to treat some plastics, but intensive research is necessary to find conditions for the action of microorganisms. All of these methods are important and the practical application of each one depends on the type and amount of the plastic wastes and the environmental conditions. Therefore, a great deal of research has focused on developing biodegradable plastics and its application because it is an important way for minimizing the effect of the large volume of plastic waste discarded in the world.

  17. Expressão de componentes da matriz extracelular induzida por vesículas de Trypanosoma cruz liberadas no meio de cultura

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Barbosa Paes

    2008-01-01

    O Trypanosoma cruzi libera para o meio, vesículas contendo material de sua superfície e aparentemente estas vesículas seriam uma maneira de ativar e preparar a célula hospedeira para a invasão, além de induzir um aumento na expressão de alguns componentes da matriz extracelular. Neste trabalho demonstramos que essas vesículas aumentam a expressão de fibronectina na matriz, sendo este aumento dose-dependente e linear ao longo do tempo. Porém, para laminina não conseguimos observar o mesmo comp...

  18. Pyrolysis of petroleum residues while making use of the hydrogen potential of polymer waste; Pyrolyse von Erdoelrueckstaenden unter Nutzung des Wasserstoffpotentials von Polymerabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, I.; Butz, T.; Rahimian, I.; Linde, A. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The hydrogen potential contained in waste plastics is to be utilized optimally for cracking of petroleum residues. Homogeneous distribution of the plastic particles in the petroleum residue is to ensure short distances between the hydrogen donor and acceptor, a sufficently large reaction surface, and stable mixing for further processing. Apart from homogeneity, another factor of interest is the influence of mixed-in polymer particles on the colloidal stability of the petroleum residue and the physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. With a view to further processing, the mixtures were analyzed for high-temperature stability, flow characteristics, and reaction behaviour during pyrolysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, das in den Kunststoffabfaellen vorhandene Wasserstoffpotential optimal fuer eine tiefergehende Spaltung der Erdoelrueckstaende nutzbar zu machen. Durch eine homogene Verteilung der Kunststoffpartikel im Erdoelrueckstand soll ein moeglichst kurzer Transportweg zwischen Wasserstoff-Donor und -Akkzeptor, eine ausreichend grosse Reaktionsoberflaeche und eine fuer weitere Verarbeitungsschritte notwendige stabile Mischung erreicht werden. Ebenso interessant wie die Homogenitaet solcher Gemische ist auch der Einfluss der eingemengten Polymerteilchen auf die Kolloidstabilitaet des Erdoelrueckstandes und die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften der Mischungen. Im Hinblick auf eine technische Weiterverarbeitung werden die Gemische besonders auf ihre Stabilitaet bei erhoehten Temperaturen (Heisslagerstabilitaet), ihr Fliessverhalten sowie ihr Reaktionsverhalten waehrend der Pyrolyse untersucht. (orig.)

  19. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  20. Características ultrassonográficas de fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, vesícula urinária e jejuno em coelhos jovens e adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Kassy G. da; Lígia V. Nascimento; Ubirajara I. Tasqueti; Andrade, Carla de; Tilde R. Froes; Cristina S. Sotomaior

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO: O presente trabalho descreveu características e comparou mensurações do fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, vesícula urinária e jejuno de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco (NZB) jovens e adultos. O grupo dos jovens foi composto por 39 coelhos de ambos os sexos (20 machos e 19 fêmeas), desmamados aos 30-31 dias de idade, sendo as avaliações realizadas aos 35, 56 e 77 dias de idade. O grupo dos adultos foi composto por 23 fêmeas e 15 machos, com idade superior a 6 meses, sendo realizada u...

  1. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibraheem, Ismael M; El-Qady, Gad M; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area...

  2. Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizge, Nadir; Aydiner, Coskun; Imer, Derya Y; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Tanriseven, Aziz; Keskinler, Bülent

    2009-03-01

    This study aims at carrying out lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from various vegetable oils using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) as a low-cost biocatalyst. The research is focused on three aspects of the process: (a) MPPM synthesis (monolithic, bead, and powder forms), (b) microporous polymeric biocatalyst (MPPB) preparation by immobilization of lipase onto MPPM, and (c) biodiesel production by MPPB. Experimental planning of each step of the study was separately carried out in accordance with design of experiment (DoE) based on Taguchi methodology. Microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) containing aldehyde functional group was synthesized by polyHIPE technique using styrene, divinylbenzene, and polyglutaraldehyde. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase was covalently attached onto MPPM with 80%, 85%, and 89% immobilization efficiencies using bead, powder, and monolithic forms, respectively. Immobilized enzymes were successfully used for the production of biodiesel using sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils. It was shown that immobilized enzymes retain their activities during 10 repeated batch reactions at 25 degrees C, each lasting 24h. Since the developed novel method is simple yet effective, it could have a potential to be used industrially for the production of chemicals requiring immobilized lipases.

  3. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-07-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  4. Pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment: effect of antinomy trioxide on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W J; Bhaskar, T; Merpati, N M M; Muto, A; Sakata, Y; Williams, P T

    2007-09-01

    This work has investigated the effect that antimony trioxide has on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers and the effect that different types of brominated flame retardants used in plastics have on the composition of the pyrolysis products. Brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) which contained either 5% or 0% antimony trioxide and either decabromodiphenyl oxide (DDO) or decabromodiphenyl ethane (DDE) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 430 degrees C. Some experiments on the fixed bed reactor involved mixing the Br-HIPS with polystyrene. The gaseous products were analysed by GC-FID and GC-TCD and it was found that antimony trioxide caused an increase in the proportion of ethane and ethene and suppressed the proportion of butane and butene. When DDE was the flame retardant increased proportions of ethane and ethene were found in the pyrolysis gas compared to when DDO used. When polystyrene was mixed with the Br-HIPS it suppressed the trends observed in the gas composition during the pyrolysis of Br-HIPS. The pyrolysis oils were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-ECD. It was found that the plastic which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form mainly toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, and alpha-methylstyrene. The oils produced from the pyrolysis of the plastic that contained antimony trioxide did not contain any styrene or alpha-methylstyrene, but instead contained greater concentrations of ethylbenzene and cumene. The absence of styrene and alpha-methylstyrene from the pyrolysis oil occurred even when the Br-HIPS was mixed with polystyrene. GC-ECD analysis of the oils showed that the plastics which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form (1-bromoethyl)benzene, which was totally absent from the pyrolysis oils when antimony trioxide was present in the plastic.

  5. Procedimiento de obtención y usos de vesículas de membrana de un organismo marino para su utilización industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Micaela; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A.; Martínez-Ballesta, M. Carmen

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere al uso cosmético o terapéutico de vesículas de membrana obtenidas a partir de un organismo marino. Estas vesículas pueden utilizarse como vehículo y contener en su interior sustancias naturales o sintéticas par asu uso terapéutico, cosmético o industrial. Preferiblemente se obtienen a partir de organismos filtradores como la medusa.

  6. Procedimiento de obtención y usos de vesículas de membrana de un organismo marino para su utilización industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Micaela; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A.; Martínez-Ballesta, M. Carmen

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere al uso cosmético o terapéutico de vesículas de membrana obtenidas a partir de un organismo marino. Estas vesículas pueden utilizarse como vehículo y contener en su interior sustancias naturales o sintéticas para su uso terapéutico, cosmético o industrial. Preferiblemente se obtienen a partir de organismos filtradores como la medusa.

  7. Geoelectrical Evaluation of Waste Dump Sites at Warri and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing waste dump sites in Delta State were investigated without soil disturbance by using the vertical electrical sounding (VES).The soil overlying the aquifer at Ovwian-Aladja dump site has resistively values, 11.84-85.50 Ohm-m, thicknesses,21.10-31.83m and at depths less than 1m, while at Warri it has resistively ...

  8. Comparison of iSED and Ves-Matic Cube 200 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Measurements With Westergren Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boğdaycioğlu, Nihal; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Sezer, Sevilay; Oğuz, Esra

    2015-09-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test is performed widely in laboratories. Besides the traditional Westergren method, new methods have been developed for ESR measurements. We aimed to compare the instruments using new methods, iSED (Alcor Scientific) and Ves-Matic Cube 200 (Diesse Diagnostica Senese, Italy) with the Westergren method. Blood samples from 136 patients were taken into EDTA tubes for automated analyzers and citrated tubes for Westergren method. Patients were divided into three groups- low, medium, and high-according to their sedimentation rates. Precision, stability, and interference studies of the methods were performed. The iSED sedimentation method (n = 136) yielded a slope of (0.61-0.84), with an intercept of (-2.32 to 1.89), which resulted in a mean bias of 13; and the Ves-Matic Cube 200 method (n = 136) yielded a slope of (0.85-1.00), with an intercept of (0.00-3.07), which resulted in a mean bias of 1.4 in Passing-Bablok regression analysis compared to the reference method. iSED sedimentation showed a poor correlation and a high bias (>10%) with the Westergren method, and Ves-Matic Cube 200 method showed a higher correlation and a lower bias than the iSED device when compared with Westergren reference method. These instruments should be carefully monitored. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. VLF-EM and VES: an application to groundwater exploration in a Precambrian basement terrain SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Obasanmi Adelusi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a hard rock environment with surface or near surface expression of outcrops, the use of VES only becomes difficult due to its associated problems and limitations. However, the use of VLF-EM becomes imperative in mapping basement structures relevant to groundwater development. A total of 2100 VLF-EM data plus selected VES points were covered over 7 traverses with length varying from 3000 to 4500 m. The VLF-EM result mapped basement structures relevant in groundwater development. This is further studied using VES. Results of the investigation indicate that a HKH sounding curve is obtained with a maximum of five subsurface layers comprising: the top soil, clay/sandy clay unit, the fresh basement, fractured basement and the basement bedrock. The fractured basement layer constitutes the main aquifer unit with thickness of 20-25 m. The layer resistivity and thickness ranges are 60-100 ohm-m; 40-80 ohm-m, 1600-2100 ohm-m, 250-420 ohm-m, and 2200-7500 ohm-m; and 0.3-1.2 m, 1.9-2.5 m, 16.5-22.5 m and 22-30 m for the five layers respectively. The geoelectric results compared favorably well with drilling information to above 90%. The yield of the well is 2 L/s with good recharge capability.

  10. Actualización en cáncer de vesícula biliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Mario Uribe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de vesícula biliar (CVB corresponde a una patología altamente prevalente en nuestro país, alcanzando incluso la más alta de incidencia del mundo. Lamentablemente es una enfermedad que sólo presenta síntomas cuando ya se encuentra en estados avanzados. Dentro de los factores de riesgo, la colelitiasis, la obesidad, la edad, el género, infecciones bacterianas y algunos factores genéticos ocupan una posición relevante en su etiopatogenia. El diagnóstico se realiza principalmente por imágenes como la Ultrasonografía (US y la Tomografía Computada (TC, sin embargo el uso de otros métodos como la Resonancia Nuclear Magnética (RNM son de gran utilidad. Dentro del diagnóstico se utilizan también algunos marcadores tumorales que pueden servir de ayuda en el seguimiento y el pronóstico en algunos casos. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección sobre todo en etapas iniciales, ya que muchas veces esta enfermedad se pesquisa como hallazgo de colecistectomías de rutina por colelitiasis.

  11. Saft Li-Ion VES140S Battery Flight Experience Return on TAS Space Bus Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Yannick; Gambini, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Starting 1996, the Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery has been used several years ago with the support of ESA and CNES in the frame of the Stentor program. Following the development and qualification this very promising technology in terms of technical, industrial and cost aspects has been used on-board Space Bus plate-forms dedicated to telecommunications satellite for payload power from 3 up to 20 kW.The aim of the article is to present the in-orbit data from the Saft VES140 Li-Ion batteries on board the Thales Alenia Space Spacebus satellite. The first TAS satellite using Li-Ion batteries has been successfully launched in October 2005 after a first attempt in 2002 with Stentor. Since that date, 20 satellites are in operation with Li-Ion batteries. The battery performances have mainly been reviewed mainly on the oldest satellite. No deviation, versus the initial specification, has been analysed. The performances are equal or much better than the life projection done at the start of the projects. Battery energies and voltages telemetries have been checked and compared to the prediction model SLIM. They are in line with the life trend given by the model.

  12. Sept brèves leçons de physique

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Avec les mots de l écrivain, le talent du poète, Carlo Rovelli nous fait apercevoir le mystère du monde, la beauté du monde, une beauté à couper le souffle. Ces « sept leçons » donnent un aperçu rapide des aspects les plus importants et fascinants de la grande révolution qui a bouleversé la physique au xxe siècle, et surtout des questions et des mystères que cette révolution a soulevés. Elles nous emmènent dans le monde enchanté des grandes idées de la physique actuelle : de la relativité générale d Einstein à la physique quantique, des particules élémentaires à l architecture de l Univers, de la gravité quantique à la nature du temps et de la conscience. Un éblouissement ! Traduit en vingt-quatre langues, les Sept brèves leçons de physique sont un best-seller mondial.

  13. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Majeed, Khaliq; Zakaria, Zainoha

    2015-01-01

      Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH...

  14. Magnetic Density Separation of Polyolefin Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer recycling has significantly positive impacts on the environment, economics and society. Using recycled polymer to replace virgins reduces the growing amount of post-consumer polymer wastes, decreases the demand for fossil fuel and creates local jobs. As the most used polymer types,

  15. Travailler le rapport au savoir des élèves: analyse de la perception de trois situations d'apprentissage en anglais par des élèves de première année d'école de Maturité

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, Kathleen; Clerc-Georgy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Travailler le rapport au savoir des élèves : analyse de la perception de trois situations d’apprentissage en anglais par des élèves de première année d’école de Maturité. Pourquoi certains élèves réussissent-ils mieux que d’autres à l’école ou dans leurs études ? Les parcours scolaires différenciés et différenciateurs sont-ils inhérents aux élèves eux- mêmes, que ce soit par rapport à leurs facultés intellectuelles ou leur origine sociale, ou l’école est-elle en partie responsable de c...

  16. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  17. Development and validation of a patient-reported outcome measure in vitiligo: The Self Assessment Vitiligo Extent Score (SA-VES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Lommerts, Janny E; Bekkenk, Marcel W; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Taieb, Alain; Picardo, Mauro; Ezzedine, Khaled; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-03-01

    The Vitiligo Extent Score (VES) has recently been introduced as a physicians' score for the clinical assessment of the extent of vitiligo, but a good patient self-assessment score is lacking. The objective is to develop and validate a simplified version of the VES as a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM). After extensive pilot testing, patients were asked to score their vitiligo extent twice with an interval of 2 weeks using the Self Assessment Vitiligo Extent Score (SA-VES). The scores were compared with the physicians' evaluation (VES). The SA-VES demonstrated very good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.948, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.911-0.970) that was not affected by age, skin type, or vitiligo distribution pattern. According to patients, this evaluation method was easy to use (22% very easy; 49% easy; 29% normal) and required vitiligo extent. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Le bio à la cantine. Impact sur les attitudes et comportements des parents d'élèves

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis PERNIN

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de cette recherche est d’examiner l’impact que l’introduction de produits biologiques au sein des cantines scolaires peut avoir sur les croyances et les comportements des parents d’élèves. Au niveau théorique, cette introduction correspond à la création ou au renforcement de normes sociales, normes injonctives et/ou descriptives, qui, selon la théorie du comportement planifié, sont des antécédents de l’intention comportementale. Les résultats montrent, d’une part, un impact signifi...

  19. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications : Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering

  20. Primeira etapa da adaptação transcultural do instrumento The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13 para o Português Primera etapa de la adaptación transcultural del instrumento The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13 al portugués First stage of the cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13 to Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco Santos da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi descrever as etapas iniciais de adaptação transcultural do instrumento The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13 para utilização no contexto da assistência oncológica no Brasil. Foram realizadas, de modo independente, traduções para o português e retraduções para o inglês. Procedeu-se a avaliação formal dos significados geral e referencial chegando-se a uma versão síntese. A compreensão da versão síntese foi avaliada em pré-teste aplicado a 33 pacientes em um hospital de oncologia habilitado pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Observou-se facilidade de aplicação no contexto pretendido e boa aceitação entre os idosos. Considerou-se que a versão em português do VES-13 foi bem compreendida e se mostrou adequada para ser testada em suas qualidades psicométricas. Essa etapa encontra-se atualmente em fase de conclusão.El objetivo del estudio fue describir las etapas iniciales de la adaptación transcultural del instrumento The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13 para su uso en el contexto de la atención del cáncer en Brasil. Se realizaron, de forma independiente, las traducciones al portugués con el apoyo de traducciones al inglés. Se procedió a la evaluación formal de los significados generales y referenciales, llegándose a una versión resumida. La comprensión de la versión sintética se evaluó en el pre-test administrado en 33 pacientes de un hospital oncológico, habilitado por el Sistema Único de Salud. Se facilitó la aplicación en el contexto previsto y hubo una buena aceptación entre los ancianos. Se considera que la versión portuguesa de la VES-13 es inteligible y adecuada para ser evaluada en su apartado psicométrico. Esta fase está a punto de finalizar.The aim of this study was to describe the initial stages of the cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13 for use in the context of cancer care in Brazil. Two translations into Portuguese and two

  1. AHNAK regula a formação e troca de vesículas extracelulares entre células tumorais de mama e fibroblastos.

    OpenAIRE

    Thaiomara Alves Silva

    2015-01-01

    O sucesso no desenvolvimento de tumores não dependente somente de mutações, mas também é influenciado pelo microambiente do tumor; nele ocorre a interação entre as células tumorais e o estroma. Essa interação pode ser mediada por vesículas liberadas por essas células para o meio extracelular. Essas vesículas atuam na comunicação celular que pode influenciar a progressão tumoral. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as interações mediadas por vesículas entre células tumorais e fibroblastos nor...

  2. An experiment on a sand-dune environment in Southern Venetian coast based on GPR, VES and documentary evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tosi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal structures of some surviving sand dunes and the ancient shore-lines along the coast south of Venice have been investigated integrating Ground Probing Radar (GPR profiles, Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES and water conductivity measurements in some boreholes. The GPR penetration depth has been limited (4-5 m,using a 400 MHz antenna by the high conductivity of salt water saturating pores of the shallow sediments. On the other hand, the excellent spatial resolution of the radar survey provided an estimate of internal dune bedding features, such as cross lamination and forwarding ancient covered coast-lines dated in the Thirties. The interpretation of the data, in particular along one line 360 m long intercepting a sizable sand-dune bank, seems to offer clues to the evolutional history of the coast line and the depth of transition from fresh-water to brackish-salt water. The water table was detected with electrical measurements and direct observations in boreholes, whereas the transition between fresh and salt water (brackish water was pointed out indirectly by the high energy absorption and total back-reflection of the EM waves, encountered at this boundary, and directly by the strong decrease in VES resistivity values.

  3. An experiment on a sand-dune environment in Southern Venetian coast based on GPR, VES and documentary evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galgaro, A.; Finzi, E. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica; Tosi, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Venice (Italy). Ist. per l Studio della Dinamica delle Grandi Masse

    2000-04-01

    The internal structures of some surviving sand dunes and the ancient shore-lines along the coast south of Venice (Italy) have been investigated integrating ground probing radar (GPR) profiles, vertical electrical soundings (VES) and water conductivity measurements in some boreholes. The GPR penetration depth has been limited (4-5 m, using a 400 MHz antenna) by the high conductivity of salt water saturating pores of the shallow sediments. On the other hand, the excellent spatial resolution of the radar survey provided an estimate of internal dune bedding features, such as cross lamination and forwarding ancient covered coast-lines dated in the Thirties. The interpretation of the data, in particular along one line 360 m long intercepting a sizeable sand-dune bank, seems to offer clues to the evolutional history of the coast line and the depth of transition from fresh-water to brackish-salt water. The water table was detected with electrical measurements and direct observations in boreholes, whereas the transition between fresh and salt water was pointed out indirectly by the high energy absorption and total back-reflection of the electromagnetic waves, encountered at this boundary, and directly by the strong decrease in VES resistivity values.

  4. Soutien aux enseignants dans leur pratique d'évaluation en mathématiques : effets sur les compétences des élèves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, M.; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Zhao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Dans le cadre de deux études dans deux pays – les Pays-Bas et la Chine – nous avons étudié les effets sur l’apprentissage des élèves, d’une formation des enseignants en mathématiques sur leur pratique d’évaluation. L’échantillon de l’étude Néerlandaise était composé de 616 élèves et de 30

  5. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  6. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K.

    2016-12-01

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  7. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Vroman; Lan Tighzert

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  8. Représentations du bon élève chez enseignants et élèves

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Jude; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lien; Clerc-Georgy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Le relativisme des valeurs qui a cours dans les sociétés démocratiques des pays de l’Atlantique nord, depuis quelques décennies, interdit de parler de l’élève en termes de bon ou de mauvais; l’élève est toujours éducable, voire auto-éducable. Mais cela n’empêche pas de le penser en ces termes. Enseignants et élèves sont les deux acteurs principaux du jeu d’enseignement-apprentissage qui devrait être un jeu coopératif et ouvert. Or, celui-ci s’assimile souvent à une partie de colin-maillard où...

  9. Identification and separation of polymers and plastics from urban solid wastes for their recycling; Identificacion y sepracion de polimeros y plasticos procedentes de residuos solidos urbanos para su reciclado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrauri, E.; Miguel, R.; Noll, R.; Sttamann, R.; Couris, S.; Hatziapostolou, A.

    1997-09-01

    Laser-induce breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated for the identification of the polymers PE,PP,PET and PVC. About 10 spectral features are measured, e.g. spectral lines of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine and emission bands of C{sub 2}. The intensities are evaluated with multivariate statistical analysis and neural networks. Identification accuracies of approx 99% for PVC and PET are achieved. The measuring time for an identification is less than 100 {mu}s. An autofocus system for the focusing of the laser beam onto bottles with varying geometry and for plasma imaging has been assembled and tested with coloured samples. A handling device for the singularization, transport and sorting of waste bottles has been assembled, allowing sorting rates of up to 3 bottles/s. An assessment for the feasibility of industrial-scale sorting machines is given. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis of polymer nanocomposites is an integral aspect of polymer nanotechnology. By inserting the nano- metric inorganic compounds, the properties of polymers improve and hence this has a lot of applications depending upon the inorganic material present in the polymers. Sol- vent casting is one of the easiest ...

  11. Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vroman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources or from biological resources (renewable resources. In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. The following review presents an overview of the different biodegradable polymers that are currently being used and their properties, as well as new developments in their synthesis and applications.

  12. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  13. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed as Stockholm Convention POPs, other brominated flame retardants and heavy metals in e-waste polymers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Babayemi, Joshua; Osibanjo, Oladele; Schlummer, Martin; Schluep, Mathias; Watson, Alan; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the first brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Parties to the convention are currently establishing inventories for developing action plans for the environmentally sound management of PBDE-containing materials. The major use of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (c-OctaBDE) has been in casings from cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and computer monitors. Large quantities of used e-waste and electronic equipment have been exported to developing countries with Nigeria being a major importer in Africa. The casings from 382 TVs and computers imported from major world regions to Nigeria were sampled in backyards and waste dumps. The samples were screened with X-ray flourescence (XRF) for bromine and analysed by gas chromatography/ electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). A high proportion of the CRT casings (61 %) contained more than 10,000 ppm bromine from BFRs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) was the major flame retardant used in TV sets and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) for computer CRTs.The screening suggests that average PBDE levels (of c-OctaBDE + DecaBDE) in Nigerian-stockpiled CRT casings were 1.1 % for TV and 0.13 % for PC CRTs. These are above the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) limit and should be separated for RoHS compliant recycling. The Nigerian e-waste inventory of 237,000 t of CRT plastic would therefore contain approx. 594 t c-OctaBDE and 1,880 t of DecaBDE. In Nigeria, as for most developing countries, there is currently no adequate e-waste management, plastic separation or destruction capacity. The data highlight the urgent need to develop environmentally sound management for this large material flow.

  15. Quiste gigante de vesícula seminal: presentación atípica de una patología infrecuente

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Hrescak, M.C.; A.J. Ezquer; Socolsky, G.A.; Blanque, J.P.; Acuña, S.M.; Medina, G.

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un niño de 14 años que hizo una consulta de control por un encondroma en el fémur izquierdo. La resonancia magnética (RM) de caderas reveló, accidentalmente, un quiste gigante de la vesícula seminal derecha. Si bien se indicó una urografía por RM, esta fue suspendida por un cuadro de claustrofobia del paciente y se realizó una tomografía computada abdómino-pélvica con y sin contraste endovenoso. La patología de las vesículas seminales (VS) puede clasificarse en congé...

  16. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  17. Detection of waste's layers with geoelectric methods: case of Rio Azul sanitary landfill, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Jorge; Zúñiga, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    The Río Azul Landfill received waste for 34 years from various parts of the Greater Metropolitan Area, and for three decades was operated with a poorly planned waste disposal. The purpose was to identify areas of greatest potential leachate storage, making 25 VES (Vertical Electrical Soundings), whose effective exploration depth was around 65 meters. The proposed geophysical model consists of four layers: the first corresponds to a coverage of com- pacted material (20 Ωm - 54 Ωm), the second ...

  18. Carcinoma de vesícula biliar mascarado por Síndrome de Mirizzi: relato de caso e revisão da literatura = Carcinoma of the gallbladder masked by Mirizzi Syndrome: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupske, Abrão

    2011-01-01

    Conclusões: a concomitância da Síndrome de Mirizzi com carcinoma de vesícula é extremante rara, pois são doenças pouco frequentes. Para o diagnóstico definitivo do tumor de vesícula biliar é sempre imperativo o estudo anatomopatológico de todas as peças cirúrgicas

  19. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  20. Dzīves kvalitāte pacientiem ar hemodialīzes nieru aizstājējterapiju

    OpenAIRE

    Artemjeva, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma - Dzīves kvalitāte pacientiem ar hemodialīzes nieru aizstājējterapiju. Pasaulē palielinās to pacientu skaits, kam konstatē hronisku nieru slimību (HNS) terminālā stadijā. Nieru aizstājējterapija ļauj viņiem saglabāt iespējami labāku dzīves kvalitāti. Dzīves kvalitāte ir sensitīvs koncepts, kurš dod iespēju uz pacienta dzīvi paraudzīties no dažādiem skatupunktiem. Tomēr termināla HNS, kas tiek ārstēta ar hemodialīzes palīdzību, noved pie izmaiņām fizioloģiskajā, psiholoģisk...

  1. Concevoir des robots pour développer la créativité des élèves ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Didier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose un ensemble de stratégies visant à développer la créativité des élèves dans le domaine de la conception technique en activités créatrices et manuelles (ACM. Plusieurs disciplines sont convoquées afin de provoquer une démarche interdisciplinaire intégrant le français, le design d'objets (robots et la programmation informatique. Le modèle théorique de John Didier et Denis Leuba resituant l'objet produit dans un processus de socialisation, permet d'intégrer l'objet technique dans un cadre plus large, en l'occurrence ses multiples usages sociaux possibles. Dans l'expérimentation analysée, le robot devient un élément d'un processus de communication aboutissant dans la réalisation d'une pièce de théâtre. L'objet technique n'est plus ainsi réduit à un artefact matériel, mais il devient instrument de communication de sens, en d'autres termes, il devient en quelque sorte un média.

  2. Allergen-specific immunosuppression by mucosal treatment with recombinant Ves v 5, a major allergen of Vespula vulgaris venom, in a murine model of wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Birgit; Bolwig, Caroline; Seppälä, Ulla; Spangfort, Michael D; Ebner, Christof; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2003-11-01

    Up to 5% of the population suffer from systemic, 19% from local allergic hypersensitivity reactions to stinging insects. Even though specific immunotherapy is very effective in treating allergy to insect venom, new concepts of treatment strategies with only the disease eliciting allergen in recombinant form, along with antigen application via a less invasive route might be suggested for enhanced treatment efficacy and compliance. In the present study we aimed (i) to establish a mouse model of wasp venom allergy, mimicking the natural mode of sensitization, and (ii) to develop a prophylactic treatment strategy based on mucosal tolerance induction, using one major wasp venom allergen in recombinant form, i.e. recombinant (r)Ves v 5. Immunization with wasp venom--with or without the use of the adjuvant aluminium hydroxide--led to comparable T helper 2-like immune responses in vivo and in vitro. Intranasal administration of rVes v 5 prior to sensitization with wasp venom resulted in a significant reduction of wasp venom-specific antibody levels (immunoglobulin E (IgE)/IgG2a), type I hypersensitivity reactions in vivo and cytokine production in vitro. Pretreatment with the whole venom was less effective and caused toxic side reactions in higher concentrations, suggesting a favourable use of the recombinant venom allergen for mucosal application. Increased mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10, along with adoptive cell transfer experiments indicated that the immunosuppression after intranasal rVes v 5-application has been mediated by regulatory mechanisms. This is further supported by the fact that the immunosuppression to rVes v 5 was associated with a bystander suppression to the unrelated aero-allergen Bet v 1. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the intranasal application of recombinant Ves v 5 prevented subsequent allergic sensitization to all components of the whole wasp venom. As allergy to insect venom develops in dependence of the

  3. Circuito eléctrico equivalente de una vesícula sináptica Electric Circuit Equivalent to a Synaptic Vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Xaira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo eléctrico de uno de los elementosprimordiales en la sinapsis nerviosa: la vesícula sináptica. Dicha vesícula se consideracomo un organelo esferoidal, despojada de neurotransmisores y se asume, además, quesu lumen, su membrana y el citoplasma neuronal se comportan como medios lineales,homogéneos e isotrópicos caracterizados por conductividades y permitividades especí-ficas. El método utilizado será la aplicación teórica de un campo eléctrico (que varía enel tiempo a bajas frecuencias sobre esta vesícula, lo que induce a través de su membra-na una diferencia de potencial cuya caracterización se obtiene a partir de las ecuacionesde Maxwell sometidas a condiciones de contorno adecuadas, en la denominada aproxi-mación cuasi-estacionaria. A su vez, mediante aplicación de la Transformada de Laplacea las expresiones resultantes se obtiene la FUNCIÓN DE TRANSFERENCIA, que condu-ce a sintetizar un circuito RLC equivalente de la vesícula en estudio. El modelo predicevalores de capacitancia para vesículas esféricas individuales que, al ser contrastados conlos que presenta la literatura existente derivada de procesos experimentales previos,alienta la perseverancia en este enfoque teórico germinal.In the present work an electrical model of the synaptic vesicle is developed. The vesicleis considered as a spheroidal organelle without neurotransmitters in its inner space. Inaddition, its lumen, its membrane and the neuronal cytoplasm behave like linear,homogenous and isotropic media characterized by specific conductivities and permi-tivities. The theoretical approach considers the application of an electric field (varying intime at low frequencies on this vesicle. A transmembrane potential difference is inducedand its characterization is obtained from Maxwell's equations subject to appropriateboundary conditions, in the so-called quasi-stationary approach. By applying theLaplace Transform to

  4. Supramolecular Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, S. I.; Keser, M.; Huggins, K. E.; Tew, G.; Li, L. S.; Whitaker, C.

    1997-03-01

    An interesting target in polymer science is to find pathways to highly regular supramolecular units with dimensions similar to those of high molar mass linear or hyperbranched polymers. These units lack a polymeric backbone but could serve as precursors to shape invariant covalent polymers analogous to folded proteins. We are pursuing access to these polymers with designed molecules programmed to assemble into nanostructures of regular shape and dimension. We have discovered systems of miniaturized triblock copolymers that yield supramolecular polymers. These supramolecular polymers are shaped as mushroom nanostructures, and form materials with interesting surface and optical properties. Molecular modeling indicates that a balance of aggregation and hard core repulsive forces among structural units may be responsible for the formation of these supramolecular polymers.

  5. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  6. A simple and highly selective molecular imprinting polymer-based methodology for propylparaben monitoring in personal care products and industrial waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Ana; Aragón, Leslie; Wang, Chien C; Bertolino, Franco; Gomez, María R

    2018-02-05

    In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) proposed as solid phase extraction sorbent was developed for the determination of propylparaben (PP) in diverse cosmetic samples. The use of parabens (PAs) is authorized by regulatory agencies as microbiological preservative; however, recently several studies claim that large-scale use of these preservatives can be a potential health risk and harmful to the environment. Diverse factors that influence on polymer synthesis were studied, including template, functional monomer, porogen and crosslinker used. Morphological characterization of the MIP was performed using SEM and BET analysis. Parameters affecting the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) and elution efficiency of PP were evaluated. After sample clean-up, the analyte was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The whole procedure was validated, showing satisfactory analytical parameters. After applying the MISPE methodology, the extraction recoveries were always better than 86.15%; the obtained precision expressed as RSD% was always lower than 2.19 for the corrected peak areas. Good linear relationship was obtained within the range 8-500ngmL -1 of PP, r 2 =0.99985. Lower limits of detection and quantification after MISPE procedure of 2.4 and 8ngmL -1 , respectively were reached, in comparison with previously reported methodologies. The development of MISPE-HPLC methodology provided a simple an economic way for accomplishing a clean-up/preconcentration step and the subsequent determination of PP in a complex matrix. The performance of the proposed method was compared against C-18 and silica solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The recovery factors obtained after applying extraction methods were 96.6, 64.8 and 0.79 for MISPE, C18-SPE and silica-SPE procedures, respectively. The proposed methodology improves the retention capability of SPE material plus robustness and possibility of reutilization, enabling it to be

  7. Social values for ecosystem services (SolVES): A GIS application for assessing, mapping, and quantifying the social values of ecosystem services-Documentation and user manual, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Riegle, Jodi L.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the need for incorporating quantified and spatially explicit measures of social values into ecosystem services assessments, the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center, in collaboration with Colorado State University, has developed a geographic information system application, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES can be used to assess, map, and quantify the perceived social values of ecosystem services. SolVES derives a quantitative social values metric, the Value Index, from a combination of spatial and nonspatial responses to public attitude and preference surveys. SolVES also generates landscape metrics, such as average elevation and distance to water, calculated from spatial data layers describing the underlying physical environment. Using kernel density calculations and zonal statistics, SolVES derives and maps the 10-point Value Index and reports landscape metrics associated with each index value for social value types such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and recreation. This can be repeated for various survey subgroups as distinguished by their attitudes and preferences regarding public uses of the forests such as motorized recreation and logging for fuels reduction. The Value Index provides a basis of comparison within and among survey subgroups to consider the effect of social contexts on the valuation of ecosystem services. SolVES includes regression coefficients linking the predicted value (the Value Index) to landscape metrics. These coefficients are used to generate predicted social value maps using value transfer techniques for areas where primary survey data are not available. SolVES was developed, and will continue to be enhanced through future versions, as a public domain tool to enable decision makers and researchers to map the social values of ecosystem services and to facilitate discussions among diverse stakeholders regarding tradeoffs between different ecosystem services in a variety of physical and social contexts.

  8. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  9. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  10. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  11. A tecnologia da reciclagem de polímeros The technology of polymer recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida da Silva Spinacé

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid municipal waste contains a large volume of polymers and its final disposal is a serious environmental problem. Consequently, the recycling of the principal polymers present in the solid waste is an alternative. In this review we describe the mechanical and chemical recycling of polymers and the energy recovery from plastic wastes. Polymer recycling involves not only the development of processing technologies, but also the solution of many chemical and analytical problems. The technological, economical and social aspects of polymer recycling are also considered.

  12. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  13. Evaluation of the impact of asbestos wastes on soils in Emene-Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, O; Omonona, O V; Onwuka, O S; Nnebedum, O D

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the impacts of asbestos wastes on soils in Emene-Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, generated by the activities of a major asbestos products manufacturing company in southeastern Nigeria. The methods of investigation included vertical electrical sounding (VES), 2-D horizontal resistivity profiling (HRP), induced polarization (IP) survey, chemical analysis of plant tissues and standard penetration tests of soil samples. The 2-D HRP and IP identified six closed waste pits alongside the two active pits. The VES revealed four geoelectrical layers in the area: from bottom to top; the inferred lithologies included dark shale, clay, gravel and recent sands. The geochemical data results revealed that Cd concentration of the soils of the waste pits is above the contaminated land exposure assessment soil guideline value for residential and allotment land uses. The geochemical pollution indices classified the soils as "unpolluted" to "extremely polluted". Bioconcentration factor of Pb in plant tissues was found to be above recommended limits of 0.045. The geotechnical parameters indices revealed that the soils varied from "very soft" to "stiff" and "very loose" to "medium". Soils of the active pits have very low strength and bearing capacity while closed pits have high strength and bearing capacity. It may be safe, therefore, to conclude that as the wastes are completely turned into soils, they will assume geotechnical properties similar to those of natural soils.

  14. Latviešu sadzīves dziedāšana kā populārās kultūras daļa

    OpenAIRE

    Svikle, Evija

    2011-01-01

    Maģistra darba nosaukums ir „Latviešu sadzīves dziedāšana kā populārās kultūras daļa”. Darbā aplūkotas sadzīves dziedāšanas ietekmes sfēras, sadzīves dziedāšanas repertuāra avoti – ziņģes, tautasdziesmas, populārā mūzika, salīdzināts latviešu un emigrācijā dzīvojošo latviešu sadzīves dziedāšanas repertuārs, attieksme pret dziedāšanu. Autore izmantojusi Nacionālās mutvārdu krātuves materiālus, lai pētītu sadzīves dziedāšanas kontekstu, repertuāru, tā ietekmes avotus Latvijā un emigrācijā dzīvo...

  15. Branched polymers on branched polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur

    1996-01-01

    We study an ensemble of branched polymers which are embedded on other branched polymers. This is a toy model which allows us to study explicitly the reaction of a statistical system on an underlying geometrical structure, a problem of interest in the study of the interaction of matter and quantized gravity. We find a phase transition at which the embedded polymers begin to cover the basis polymers. At the phase transition point the susceptibility exponent $\\gamma$ takes the value 3/4 and the ...

  16. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael M. Ibraheem; El-Qady, Gad M.; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area. The VESes AB/2 was varying from 1 up to 700 m in successive steps, while TEM stations were measured using coincident loop of 50 m side length. The interpretation of the geoelectrical data shows that the depth to the main aquifer ranges from 6 m at the northern part near the Nubariya city...

  17. Vesículas fosfolipídicas como sistemas de distribución en modelación qsar

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Fleming; Tello, Myryam; Gómez, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Experimentalmente se ha encontrado que el comportamiento biológico de muchas sustancias en estudios QSAR no se describe adecuadamente utilizando el coeficiente de reparto octanol/agua (log P), situación que ha llevado a la utilización de liposomas, los cuales se asemejan a estructuras celulares. En este trabajo se presentan los aspectos termodinámicos del reparto de solutos entre vesículas fosfolipídicas y medios acuosos y además se hace una revisión de los estudios adelantados con fármacos y...

  18. Tipo, número e tamanho de cálculos da vesícula biliar: estudo prospectivo de 300 casos de colelitíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

    Full Text Available O nosso objetivo é determinar prospectivamente o número, tamanho e tipo de cálculos da vesícula biliar de trezentos pacientes consecutivos submetidos à colecistectomia. O tipo de cálculo foi correlacionado com o sexo e idade dos pacientes, o tamanho e o número de cálculos e a presença de colecistite aguda e de displasia da vesícula biliar. Cálculo de colesterol foi encontrado em 262 pacientes (87,3%, pigmentar negro em 33 (11 % e pigmentar marrom em cinco (1,7%. Todos os tipos de cálculos foram mais comuns no sexo feminino e aumentaram com a idade. O cálculo de colesterol foi mais comum em todas as faixas etárias. O número de cálculos variou de um a 465, sendo que a metade dos pacientes apresentou menos do que cinco cálculos. Cálculo único foi encontrado em 65 dos 262 pacientes (24,8% com cálculo de colesterol, em um dos cinco pacientes (20% com cálculo pigmentar marrom e em nenhum paciente com cálculo pigmentar negro. A incidência de colecistite aguda foi similar para os três tipos de cálculos. Não houve diferença na incidência de displasia da vesícula biliar em relação ao número, tipo e tamanho de cálculo. Conclui-se deste estudo que os cálculos de colesterol são os mais comuns da vesícula biliar, independente da idade e do sexo dos pacientes. Apesar do número de cálculos ser extremamente variável, metade dos pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia por litíase apresenta menos do que cinco cálculos. Pacientes com cálculo pigmentar preto não apresentam cálculo único.

  19. Litiasis única en vesícula doble tratada con ondas de choque extracorpórea Single lithiasis in double gallblader treated with extracorporeal shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Pérez González

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La vesícula biliar doble es una anomalía congénita poco frecuente. Su diagnóstico puede realizarse con ultrasonido y colecistografía. Se presenta una paciente de 27 años de edad, con antecedentes de intolerancia a las grasas y cólicos biliares a repetición, con vesícula duplicada; exteriormente fundida y dos conductos císticos independientes que desembocan en el hepatocolécodo, con un cálculo único, de 12 mm de diámetro, retrotransparente y 0 unidades Houndfield, ubicado en el cuello de la vesícula más desarrollada. Se aplicaron 2 259 ondas de choque extracorpóreas de 20,4 kilovoltios, generadas por el principio electromagnético; en una sesión de litroticia. Se detuvo fragmentación completa del cálculo. El tratamiento fue ambulatorio. La paciente se reincorporó a su vida laboral a las 24 horas. Durante la expulsión de los fragmentos tuvo varias crisis de dolor que cedieron con analgésicos orales. A los 6 meses, la vesícula afectada se encontraba libre de fragmentos y funcional. No existió complicación y hasta el momento se mantiene asintomáticaDouble gall bladder is an uncommon congenital abnormality. It may be diagnosed by ultrasound and cholecystography. It is reported the case of a 27-year-old patient with history of intolerance to fats and repeated biliary cholics, with duplicated gallbladder externally fused, and two independent cystic ducts flowing to the hepatocholedoco with a single calculus of 12 mm of diameter, retrotransparent and 0 Houndfield units, located in the neck of the more developed gallbladder. 2 259 extracorporeal shock waves of 20.4 kilovolts generated by the electromagnetic principle were applied in a lithotripsy session. The complete fragmentation of the calculus was stopped. The treatment was ambulatory. The patient reincorporated to her working life at 24 hours. During the expulsion of the fragments, she had several pain crises that were resolved with oral analgesics. Six months later, the

  20. Aplicación clínica de las vesículas extracelulares en la esclerosis múltiple

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz Cuesta, Matías

    2015-01-01

    244 p. En esta tesis se ha investigado la biología de las vesículas extracelulares en relación a la esclerosis múltiple, una enfermedad del sistema nervioso central, desmielinizante y con un claro componente autoinmune como base patogénica. Hemos encontrado variaciones en la concentración y el contenido molecular de las VE según el estadio clínico de la EM, así como tras el empleo habitual de terapias inmunoloduladoras. Hemos analizado también la función reguladora del sistema ...

  1. Angiosarcoma epitelioide de vesícula: presentación de un caso y revisión bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sánchez Acedo; J. Herrera Cabezón; A. Tarifa Castilla; C. Zazpe Ripa; J.M. Lera Tricas

    2015-01-01

    El angiosarcoma de vesícula es una patología poco frecuente pero con una alta morbi-mortalidad del que sólo hay 10 referencias en la literatura internacional. Presentamos un caso tratado en nuestro centro y realizamos una revisión de los casos publicados desde 1956. Paciente varón de 81 años con dolor abdominal, astenia y disnea. Analíticamente anemia y leucocitosis. En la exploración destacaba un abdomen distendido, doloroso en hipocondrio derecho, con defensa. Se solicitó ecografía abdomina...

  2. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    potential of the monomer would be less than that of the dimer, which would in turn be less than that of the polymer. Hence, the polymer generated by this oxidative .... glucose and galactose biosensors based on a silicon chip employing polypyrrole have in fact been developed by several companies. These types of sensors ...

  3. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymer backbone), exhibit semiconducting behavior. The discovery of dopingl led to a further dramatic increase in the conductivity of such conjugated polymers to values as ..... CERF's Comments on Modem Science. • If it's incomprehensible, it's mathematics. • If it doesn't make sense, it's either economics or psychology.

  4. Polymers & People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  5. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications: Polymers that are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Nakajima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering applications. This expansion is driven by the remarkable progress in the processes for refining biomass feedstocks to produce biobased building blocks that allow biobased polymers to have more versatile and adaptable polymer chemical structures and to achieve target properties and functionalities. In this review, biobased polymers are categorized as those that are: (1 upgrades from biodegradable polylactides (PLA, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, and others; (2 analogous to petroleum-derived polymers such as bio-poly(ethylene terephthalate (bio-PET; and (3 new biobased polymers such as poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate (PEF. The recent developments and progresses concerning biobased polymers are described, and important technical aspects of those polymers are introduced. Additionally, the recent scientific achievements regarding high-spec engineering-grade biobased polymers are presented.

  6. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polymer composites to provide information for applications and further research in this area. Based on the information gathered, application of RH filled composites as alternative materials in building and construction is highly plausible with both light weight and low cost being their main driving forces. However, further investigations on physical and chemical treatment to further improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix are needed as fiber-polymer interaction is crucial in determining the final composite properties. Better understanding on how the used polymer blends as the matrix and secondary fillers may affect the properties would provide interesting areas to be explored.

  7. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  8. VES magas Riias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Valie Export Society (Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit, Marko Laimre, Meelis Salujärv) osales 9.-11. V Riias toimunud rahvusvahelisel üritusel "6th element" remake-aktsiooniga. Performance'itega esinesid Sara Lunden Rootsist, Kate Pendry Norrast, Jenia Svetlova Venemaalt, Solomia Savtshuk ja Natalia Golibroda Ukrainast

  9. New results from VES

    CERN Document Server

    Dorofeev, V A

    1999-01-01

    The results of the patial wave analysis(PWA) of the pi+pi-pi- and omegapi-pi0 systems are presented. The a3 and a4(2040) signals are observed in the rho(770)pi and f2(1270)pi channels. Indications of the a1' meson existence was found in the 1+0+ rhopi S-wave. The decay branching ratio of the a2(1320)- to omegapi-pi0 was measured. The 2+1+ wave shows a broad bump at M~1.7GeV. The decays of the pi2(1670), a4(2040) and pi(1740) into omegarho- were found. The resonance in the b1(1235)pi wave with exotic quantum numbers jpc=1-+ at M~1.6 is observed and the simultaneous analysis of the 1-+ wave in the b1(1235)pi, etha'pi and rhopi final states is presented.

  10. Thermodynamic Aspects of Supercritical Fluids Processing: Applications of Polymers and Wastes Treatment Aspects thermodynamiques des procédés mettant en oeuvre des fluides supercritiques : applications aux traitements des polymères et des déchets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslin P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid processes are of increasing interest for many fields : in supercritical fluid separation (petroleum-chemistry separation and purification, food industry and supercritical fluid chromatography (analytical and preparative separation, determination of physicochemical properties; as reaction media with continuously adjustable properties from gas to liquid (low-density polyethylene, waste destruction, polymer recycling; in geology and mineralogy (volcanoes, geothermal energy, hydrothermal synthesis; in particle, fibber and substrate formations (pharmaceuticals, explosives, coatings; in drying materials (gels. This paper presents the unusual physicochemical properties of supercritical fluids in relation to their engineering applications. After a short report of fundamental concepts of critical behavior in pure fluids, we develop in more details the tunable physicochemical properties of fluid in the supercritical domain. The second part of this paper describes the engineering applications of supercritical fluids relevant of chemical reactions and polymer processing. Each application presentation is divided in two parts : the first one recalls the basic concepts including general background, physicochemical properties and the second one develops the engineering applications relevant of the advocated domain. La mise en Suvre des fluides supercritiques est d'un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines : pour la séparation (séparation et purification en pétrochimie, industrie alimentaire et la chromatographie par fluides supercritiques (séparation analytique et préparatoire, détermination des propriétés physicochimiques, comme milieux réactifs aux propriétés continûment ajustables allant du gaz au liquide (polyéthylène de faible densité, élimination des déchets, recyclage des polymères, en géologie et en minéralogie (volcanologie, énergie géothermique, synthèse hydrothermique, dans la formation des particules

  11. Dans quelle mesure peut-on faire face au manque de motivation dans l'apprentissage de l'anglais au gymnase chez les élèves bilingues ?

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Lina; Zahnd, Joëlle; Thonhauser, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail de mémoire traite des élèves bilingues et de leur relation d'apprentissage avec l'anglais au gymnase. A travers une démarchede recherche-action, nous examinons une piste afin de développer la motivation et l'intérêt de ces élèves.L'analyse de questionnaires complétés par écrit par nos élèves bilingues indique que leur niveau d'anglais leur permet d'obtenir des notes suffisantes et qu'ils ne veulent pas fournir d'efforts dans cette branche. Ils admettent certes pouvoir améliorer leu...

  12. Feedstock recycling of plastic wastes in cokemaking

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, Maria A.; Alvarez, Ramon; Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The carbonization of coal to produce metallurgical coke is an alternative route for the feedstock recycling of plastic wastes of different structures and origins. The effects of the composition of the plastic wastes on the thermoplastic properties of coal, coking pressure generation and the quality of the cokes produced at a semi-pilot scale are discussed. The plastic wastes studied were chosen because cover a wide spectrum in terms of polymer structure and composition (single and multicom...

  13. Adaptação transcultural do Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13: contribuindo para a identificação de idosos vulneráveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Oliveira Motta Maia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para a utilização do VES-13 instrumento que identifica idosos vulneráveis foi realizada sua adaptação transcultural, processo que visa à equivalência entre o instrumento original e sua versão em outra cultura. A avaliação da equivalência semântica, idiomática cultural e conceitual obteve uma média geral de concordância de 78%, 78%, 97% e 94%, respectivamente. Para verificar a concordância no teste-reteste, utilizou-se o coeficiente Kappa de Cohen, onde a maioria das variáveis foram significantes. A análise de sua consistência interna foi verificada pelo uso do coeficiente alpha de Cronbach, onde 70% do fenômeno em estudo estão representados no instrumento. O VES-13, traduzido e adaptado, mostrou-se um instrumento confiável no que diz respeito à estabilidade e consistência interna de suas medidas. Sua estrutura simples e de fácil aplicabilidade pode, portanto, favorecer a identificação das pessoas idosas vulneráveis, contribuindo, assim, para a priorização do acompanhamento pelos serviços de saúde.

  14. Uso terapéutico de las vesículas extracelulares en insuficiencia renal aguda y crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rovira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En la década de los 90 se descubrió un nuevo sistema de comunicación célula-célula, que consiste en la liberación de vesículas cargadas con partículas bioactivas (proteínas, mRNA, miRNA, metabolitos, etc. en el espacio extracelular. Este tipo de comunicación se ha conservado durante la evolución, hecho que justificaría que la mayoría de los tipos celulares puedan generarlas. Estas vesículas extracelulares (VE pueden regular diversos procesos fisiológicos, así como el desarrollo y progresión de enfermedades. En los últimos años se ha extendido el estudio de las VE generadas principalmente por células madre adultas o embrionarias, células sanguíneas, células del sistema inmune y nervioso, así como células tumorales. El análisis de VE en fluidos corporales ha sido utilizado como herramienta de diagnóstico en cáncer y recientemente para distintas enfermedades renales. Sin embargo, en esta revisión pretendemos analizar la importancia, función y posible aplicación clínica de las VE generadas por células madre en enfermedades renales y en trasplantes.

  15. Polymer flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  16. Organometallic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  17. The new technology for manufacturing polymer Nanopowder. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRYAZNOV Igor Vasilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the problem of pollution by waste polymers. The research is dedicated to the methods of recycling of polymers, in particular PTFE. It was shown that the most environmentally friendly disposal methods with the lowest cost are the methods based on stepwise mechanical dispersion. Technologies and devices based on the principles of abrasive vortex dispersion polymers have been developed and tested. To protect the intellectual property of the author the staff of LLC TARK (Ukraine and the Science and Technology Center Polymate (Israel registered patent «Method and apparatus for manufacturing submicron polymer powder» USA No. 12 / 981.202 of 29.12.2010.

  18. The new technology for manufacturing polymer Nanopowder. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRYAZNOV Igor Vasilevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the problem of pollution by waste polymers. The research is dedicated to the methods of recycling of polymers, in particular PTFE. It was shown that the most environmentally friendly disposal methods with the lowest cost are the methods based on stepwise mechanical dispersion. Technologies and devices based on the principles of abrasive vortex dispersion polymers have been developed and tested. To protect the intellectual property of the author the staff of LLC TARK (Ukraine and the Science and Technology Center Polymate (Israel registered patent «Method and apparatus for manufacturing submicron polymer powder» USA No. 12 / 981.202 of 29.12.2010.

  19. Correlação entre hipomotilidade da vesícula biliar e desenvolvimento de colecistolitíase após operação bariátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fürstenberger Lehmann

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se existe associação entre a hipomotilidade da vesícula biliar em obesos, antes da cirurgia bariátrica e o desenvolvimento da litíase biliar após perda de peso. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2005, utilizando ultra-sonografia em tempo real, com medidas do volume em jejum e 60 minutos após ingestão de dieta, avaliamos a vesícula biliar de noventa e seis pacientes obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica. Estes pacientes foram reavaliados um ano após a cirurgia com ultra-sonografia para detecção de litíase biliar. RESULTADOS: Vinte e sete (28,12% apresentaram hipomotilidade da vesícula, destes, sete (29,62% apresentaram litíase. Dezoito (18,75% da amostra total, desenvolveram litíase biliar no período pós-operatório. CONCLUSÕES: Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante no desenvolvimento de litíase no grupo de pacientes com hipomotilidade e naqueles com motilidade normal da vesícula biliar.

  20. Mobility and attenuation of arsenic in sulfide-rich mining wastes from the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahota, Petr, E-mail: petr.drahota@natur.cuni.cz [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Knappová, Magdaléna; Kindlová, Helena; Culka, Adam [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Majzlan, Juraj [Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich-Schiller University, Burgweg 11, D-07749 Jena (Germany); Mihaljevič, Martin [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Rohovec, Jan [Institute of Geology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Veselovský, František [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Fridrichová, Michaela [Institute of Geology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Jehlička, Jan [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-01

    The mineralogical composition of mining wastes deposited in countless dumps around the world is the key factor that controls retention and release of pollutants. Here we report a multi-method data set combining mineralogical (X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe and Raman microspectrometry) and geochemical (sequential extraction and pore water analysis) methods to resolve As mobility in two 50-years-old mining waste dumps. Originally, all of the As in the mining wastes selected for the study was present as arsenopyrite and with time it has been replaced by secondary As phases. At Jedová jáma mining area, the most of As precipitated as X-ray amorphous ferric arsenate (HFA). Arsenic is also accumulated in the scorodite and Fe (hydr)oxide (with up to 3.2 wt.% As{sub 2}O{sub 5}) that is particularly represented by hematite. Mining wastes at Dlouhá Ves contain only trace amount of scorodite. Arsenic is primarily bound to Pb-jarosite and Fe (hydr)oxides (especially goethite) with up to 1.6 and 1.8 wt.% As{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively. The pore water collected after rainfall events indicated high concentrations of As (~ 4600 μg·L{sup −1}) at Jedová jáma, whereas aqueous As at Dlouhá Ves was negligible (up to 1.5 μg·L{sup −1}). Highly mobile As at Jedová jáma is attributed to the dissolution of HFA and simultaneous precipitation of Fe (hydr)oxides under mildly acidic conditions (pH ~ 4.4); immobile As at Dlouhá Ves is due to the efficient adsorption on the Fe (hydr)oxides and hydroxosulfates under acidic pH of ~ 2.8. Taken together, As mobility in the ferric arsenates-containing mining wastes may significantly vary. These wastes must be kept under acidic conditions or with high aqueous Fe(III) concentrations to prevent the release of As from incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates. - Highlights: • Two 50 years-old sulfide-rich mining waste dumps were studied. • Environmental stability of secondary arsenic mineral phases were assessed.

  1. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  2. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  3. Degradation characteristics of waste polyurethane by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Seok; Ahn, Sung Jun; Gwon Hui Jeong; Jeong, Sung In; Nho, Young Chang; Lim, Youn Mook [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Polyurethane (PU) is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, waste PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. The aim of this work was to investigate the degradation characteristics of waste PU to recycle. Degradation of waste PU was carried out using a radiation techniques. Waste PUs were exposed to a gamma {sup 60}Co sources. To verify degradation, the irradiated PUs were characterized using FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and their thermal/mechanical properties are reported. When the radiation dose was 500 kGy, the molecular weight of the waste PU drastically decreased. Also, the mechanical properties of waste PU were approximately 4 times lower than those of non-irradiated PU. This study has confirmed the possibility of making fine particle of waste PU for recycling through radiation degradation techniques.

  4. Analyse des connaissances des enseignants sur les élèves et de leur structure : constats et critique des méthodes de recueil

    OpenAIRE

    Aliprandi, Marie-Louise; Mossaz, Angela Mariela

    2014-01-01

    Certains chercheurs ont démontré que les compétences diagnostiques des enseignants contribuent de manière puissante au développement des apprentissages des élèves. D’autres ont mis en exergue le fait que les compétences actuelles des enseignants en matière de diagnostic pourraient être plus pertinentes et précises. Par conséquent, afin de pouvoir améliorer ces dernières, il est nécessaire d’en connaître la structure interne. C’est la raison pour laquelle, nous nous sommes questionnées, dans l...

  5. Liens entre genre psychologique, estime de soi corporelle et interactions enseignant d'EPS-élèves en lycée professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Moniotte, Julien; Druel , Vincent; Ségura, Clément

    2017-01-01

    Cet article a été rédigé à partir des données recueillies par les deuxième et troisième auteurs dans le cadre de la construction de leur mémoire de recherche lors de leurs deux années de Master MEEF parcours EPS.; A notre connaissance, peu d’études se sont intéressées à l’enseignement de l’EPS dans les lycées professionnels, notamment sur l’estime de soi corporelle des élèves fréquentant ces établissements. Le présent article s’intéresse aux liens entre estime de soi corporelle, genre psychol...

  6. Filmu „Kolka Cool” un „Cilvēki tur” jauniešu dzīves reprezentācija

    OpenAIRE

    Saveļjevs, Nauris

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir Filmu „Kolka Cool” un „Cilvēku tur” jauniešu dzīves reprezentācija. Darbs teorētiskajā daļā, tika apskatīt darbam atbilstoša teorētiskā literatūra par reālismu, semiotiku, kinematogrāfiju un film noir. Metodoloģiskajā daļā - tika aprakstīta semiotiskā analīze un anketēšana. Empīriskajā daļa, tiks analizētas filmas no realitātes reprezentācijas aspekta un veikta semiotiskā analīze. Pētījuma mērķis: Veikt filmu „Kolka Cool” un „Cilvēki tur” semiotisko analīzi...

  7. Study on the structure of pitch-polymer compositions by fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makomaski, Grzegorz

    In this work, the results of studies on the evaluation of colloidal structure of coal-tar pitch compositions with selected waste polymers by fluorescence microscope. For pitch-polymer compositions containing 10-50 wt% waste polymer, softening point, coking value and content of components insoluble in toluene and quinoline were carried out. The results indicate that pitch-polymer compositions can be treated as microheterogeneous systems, colloidal and biphase, generally exhibiting uniform dispersion of particles composed of polymer macromolecules and probably of α components of coal-tar pitch.

  8. VARIANT POSITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSOCIATED WITH ABNORMAL PERITONEAL FOLD AROUND IT. Variantes en la posición de la vesícula biliar asociada con un pliegue peritoneal anormal a su alrededor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Pamidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los pliegues peritoneales anómalos alrededor de la vesícula biliar son muy raros y pocos fueron reportados en el pasado. La presencia de tales pliegues peritoneales son probablemente debidos a la extensión del mesenterio ventral que forma el omento menor. En el caso presente, reportamos un pliegue peritoneal anómalo suspendiendo la vesícula biliar desde la superficie inferior del hígado, a lo largo de la margen izquierda de la fosa para la vesícula biliar. Este pliegue, cuando se trazó cuidadosamente, se continuaba con el colon transverso, mesocolon transverso y también se encontró fusionado con la segunda porción del duodeno. La vesícula biliar con inusuales pliegues peritoneales tiene tendencia  a vólvulo, una rara enfermedad que exige la intervención quirúrgica inmediata. El conocimiento de la posibilidad de tal anomalía peritoneal alrededor de la vesícula biliar facilita la interpretación de los hallazgos de la imagen para el diagnostico apropiado.  Anomalous peritoneal folds around the gallbladder are very rare and a few were reported in the past. The presence of such peritoneal folds is probably due to extension of the ventral mesentery which forms the lesser omentum. In the present case we report anomalous peritoneal fold suspending the gall bladder from the undersurface of the liver, along the left margin of the fossa for gallbladder. This fold, when traced carefully, became continuous with transverse colon, transverse mesocolon and also found to be merged with the second part of duodenum. The gallbladder with unusual peritoneal folds has a tendency to volvulus, a rare surgical disease which demands the immediate surgical intervention. Awareness of the possibility of such peritoneal anomaly around gallbladder facilitates the interpretation of image findings for proper diagnosis.

  9. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  10. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  11. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Conducting Polymers - From a Laboratory Curiosity to the Market Place. S Ramakrishnan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1254-1265. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Polymer Microneedles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeshurun, Yehoshua; Hefetz, Meir; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Altpeter, Dominique; Boom, Garrit; Boom, G.

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing microneedles. The method including disposing a first layer of a radiation sensitive polymer on to a working surface and selectively irradiating the first layer such that the first layer has at least one irradiated region and at least one non-irradiated region. The method also

  13. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  14. Automotive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  15. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  17. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  18. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  19. Phthalocyanine polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method of forming 4,4',4'',4''' -tetraamino phthalocyanines involves reducing 4,4',4'',4''' -tetranitro phthalocyanines, polymerizing the metal tetraamino phthalocyanines with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride (preferably aromatic) or copolymerizing with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a diamine (preferably also aromatic) to produce amic acids which are then dehydrocyclized to imides. Thermally and oxidatively stable polymers result which form tough, flexible films, varnishes, adhesives, and fibers.

  20. Polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Naik, Sanjeev

    2017-08-22

    The present invention provides, among other things, extruded blends of aliphatic polycarbonates and polyolefins. In one aspect, provided blends comprise aliphatic polycarbonates such as poly(propylene carbonate) and a lesser amount of a crystalline or semicrystalline polymer. In certain embodiments, provided blends are characterized in that they exhibit unexpected improvements in their elongation properties. In another aspect, the invention provides methods of making such materials and applications of the materials in applications such as the manufacture of consumer packaging materials.

  1. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  2. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  3. Épreuves informatisées des indicateurs des savoirs essentiels en lecture pour élèves francophones au début du primaire (INDISSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Saint-Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente des épreuves informatisées en lecture pour les élèves francophones de la maternelle et le début du primaire, les Indicateurs dynamiques des savoirs essentiels en lecture (INDISSE. Elles visent à identifier les élèves à risque de difficulté en lecture et à suivre le progrès des élèves. Les qualités psychométriques ont été vérifiées auprès d’un échantillon composé de 1130 élèves évalués à trois reprises (début, milieu et fin d’année. Les élèves à risque, c’est-à-dire ceux dont le résultat à une des épreuves se situait sous le 40e rang centile, l’ont été à cinq reprises. Des analyses multitraits-multiméthodes soutiennent la validité de construit des épreuves. De plus, celles-ci sont corrélées avec la réussite en lecture à la fin de l’année et avec le jugement de l’enseignante. Leur validité prédictive des scores à l’examen de fin de l’année est plus élevée en maternelle (.56 et en 1re année (.34 qu’en 2e (.26 et 3e année (.26. Il en est de même pour la validité prédictive du jugement de l’enseignante en fin d’année (maternelle, .79; 1re année, .65; 2e année, .44; 3e année, .36. Par ailleurs, à tous les degrés scolaires, elles sont de meilleurs prédicteurs de la réussite que le jugement de l’enseignante en début d’année. Ces épreuves peuvent compléter les informations des enseignantes venant de leurs propres observations en classe et leur apporter des données utiles quant aux savoirs essentiels des élèves pour leur réussite en lecture.

  4. Development of Polymer Blends in order to Toughening of Polymers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are materials of large use in the various sectors of the world economy. The use of polymeric materials in daily life, instead of the classic materials has increased in recent decades. However, for certain structural applications polymers need to get tougher. One of the principal toughening techniques based on physical mixture of two or more components, forming the so-called polymer blends. The addition of rubber or not vulcanized in polymer compositions is reported in the literature as a means of generating mixtures of easy processing, and economically advantageous to increase the toughness of the thermoplastic matrix of interest. Moreover, it can be an alternative for the recycling of waste tires and footwear coming from industries, as well reduce harmful effects on the environment. Therefore, the present study aims to present a review of the definitions, benefits, thermodynamic fundamentals and toughening polymers.

  5. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  6. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  7. Différencier dans les jeux de balle: élaboration et application d'un outil d'évaluation du niveau de coordination des élèves au cycle de transition (CYT)

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jaqueline; Gianpaolo, Patelli

    2011-01-01

    L’éducation physique et sportive (EPS) dans le canton de Vaud est la seule discipline qui n’est pas sujette à l’évaluation par les notes. Elle ne participe donc pas au classement par niveau (VSO/VSG/VSB) du système scolaire vaudois. Cela signifie pour l’enseignant que ses classes ne sont pas organisées selon le niveau d’habileté des élèves. S’adapter aux besoins variés des élèves est donc le défi permanent du maître d’éducation physique et sportive. Comment peut-il donc différencier son...

  8. Neuromythes chez des élèves du troisième cycle de la scolarité obligatoire vaudoise: adhésion et sources d'information relatives à quatre neuromythes

    OpenAIRE

    Barge, Jérôme; Tardif, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Les neuromythes sont des croyances non avérées scientifiquement concernant le fonctionnement cérébral. Des entretiens semi-directifs ont été menés auprès de cinq élèves de troisième cycle de la scolarité obligatoire vaudoise dans le but de déterminer leurs connaissances sur le cerveau, leur connaissance et leur adhésion aux neuromythes ainsi que leurs sources d'information sur les neuromythes. Un enseignant de sciences qui avait enseigné le fonctionnement du cerveau à trois élèves parmi les c...

  9. Correlação entre hipomotilidade da vesícula biliar e desenvolvimento de colecistolitíase após operação bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann,Ana Lúcia Fürstenberger; Valezi,Antônio Carlos; Brito,Edivaldo Macedo de; Marson,Antônio César; Souza,José Carlos Lacerda de

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se existe associação entre a hipomotilidade da vesícula biliar em obesos, antes da cirurgia bariátrica e o desenvolvimento da litíase biliar após perda de peso. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2005, utilizando ultra-sonografia em tempo real, com medidas do volume em jejum e 60 minutos após ingestão de dieta, avaliamos a vesícula biliar de noventa e seis pacientes obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica. Estes pacientes f...

  10. Pistes pour l'adaptation de l'enseignement des langues étrangères aux besoins d'élèves en situation de handicap visuel

    OpenAIRE

    Sygrove Vuillemin, Sybil; Wokusch, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Ce mémoire professionnel met en évidence la pratique d’adaptation didactique d’une enseignante spécialisée, dans le cadre des cours d’anglais, au Centre pédagogique pour élèves handicapés de la vue (CPHV), à Lausanne. La partie théorique reflète le contexte complexe d’une telle pratique, qui doit tenir compte des principes actuels de la didactique des langues et cultures, aussi bien que de la singularité avec laquelle les élèves en situation de handicap visuel construisent leurs représenta...

  11. Former des étudiants à l’intervention en EPS auprès d’élèves en situation de handicap moteur : apport d’un dispositif audio-visuel de formation

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Lionel; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; La loi du 11 février 2005 pour l'égalité des droits et des chances instaure le droit à la scolarisation en milieu ordinaire pour les élèves en situation de handicap moteur (SHM). En conséquence, dans le cadre de la mastérisation de la formation des enseignants (2010), les dispositifs de formation des enseignants ont dû intégrer cette nouveauté.Notre étude porte sur un dispositif audio-visuel de formation d’étudiant de master à l'intervention en EPS auprès d'élèves de p...

  12. Thermal Cracking of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Waste into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste low density polyethylene film (table water sachets) was converted into solid, liquid oil and gaseous products by thermal process in a self- designed stainless steel laboratory reactor. The waste polymer was completely pyrolized within the temperature range of 474 – 520°C and 2hours reaction time. The solid residue ...

  13. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon Resource in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Globally, millions of waste electrical sockets (WES) are generated annually. This category of waste material is difficult to recycle because they are thermosetting polymers which cannot be remoulded after setting. In this work, the reduction of medium grade Agbaja iron ore from Nigeria, by carbonaceous ...

  14. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon Resource in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, millions of waste electrical sockets (WES) are generated annually. This category of waste material is difficult to recycle because they are thermosetting polymers which cannot be remoulded after setting. In this work, the reduction of medium grade Agbaja iron ore from Nigeria, by carbonaceous materials generated ...

  15. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described.

  16. Recycling Mixed Plastics Waste as Reductant in Ironmaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major obstacles to the implementation of an appropriate plastics recycling scheme is the inhomogeneity of many plastics waste. Accordingly, most of the existing recycling schemes require a feedstock that is reasonably pure and contains only items made from a single polymer type. However, in reality, waste ...

  17. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S. A; Bard, Allen J; Chen, S. H; Hammond, P. T; Rothberg, L. J

    2004-01-01

    .... The synthesis and properties of new electrochromic polymers are described. Electrochromic devices incorporating conjugated polymers have been fabricated and found to be durable past 100,000 cycles...

  18. Ceļu būves nozares uzņēmuma konkurētspējas novērtējums Baltijas valstu tirgū

    OpenAIRE

    Zariņa, Kristīne

    2008-01-01

    Ceļu būves uzņēmumiem būtiski kāpināt konkurētspēju, lai tie varētu sekmīgāk darboties tirgū. Maģistra darba mērķis ir: pētīt ceļu būves uzņēmumu konkurētspēju Baltijas valstu tirgū. Darbs sastāv no trīs nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek noskaidrota konkurences un konkurētspējas būtība. Otrajā nodaļā tiek analizēta būvniecības nozare un konkurences situācija Baltijas valstīs. Darba trešajā daļā tiek analizēts ceļu būves uzņēmums SIA „Limbažu ceļi” un veikts ieguldījums uzņēmuma tālākajā att...

  19. Research on Waste FRP Fiber Reinforced Adhesive Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y. C.; Zhao, F. Q.

    2017-01-01

    The use of FRP in industry results in large amount of waste FRP. If not treated properly, it will pollute the environment. In our study, waste FRP powder was used in mortar to substitute part of sand in mortar. The use of short waste FRP fibre can further increase the mechanical strength. The Waste FRP fibre reinforced adhesive mortar was prepared with the material proportioning: cement-sand ratio 1:2, polymer 8% (cement based ), waste FRP fibre 3% (based on the total solids ). The performance of the mortar conforms to JCT 547-2005 with excellent adhesive characteristics.

  20. Gallbladder carcinoma: clinicopathological study of 24 cases Carcinoma da vesícula biliar: estudo clinicopatológico de 24 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Gonçalves Pinheiro Veloso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite preoperative procedures, gallbladder carcinoma is commonly detected intraoperatively or on anatomopathologic examination after cholecystectomy. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical-morphological aspects and evolution of patients with primary gallbladder carcinoma. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and pathologic material of all patients diagnosed with gallbladder carcinoma at our institution from 1997 to 2008. RESULTS: Twenty-four cases with primary carcinoma were studied, predominantly among female patients, mean age of 61.1 years. The most common clinical symptom was upper right hypochondriac pain. Five patients were diagnosed in early stages and 19 were in advanced stages. Only seven patients were diagnosed with carcinoma preoperatively, all of them in advanced stages. As to macroscopic examination, three early cases were identified as type IIa, two type IIb and 13 advanced cases were flat and infiltrating. Histologically, there were 23 adenocarcinomas and one adenosquamous carcinoma. Simple cholecystectomy was performed in seven patients, extended cholecystectomy in four patients, cholecystectomy and omentectomy in one patient, and tumor biopsy in only two patients. The median survival rate for patients in early stages was 59 months, and for pT2, pT3 and pT4 stages were 22 months, nine months and three days, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was a prevalence of advanced neoplasias diagnosed through anatomopathological examinations with poor prognosis. Furthermore, earlier detection contributed to higher survival rate. Investigation of anatomopathologic features, specially the macroscopic patterns of gallbladder carcinoma, is essential to improve diagnostic accuracy and to provide a definite treatment.INTRODUÇÃO: Não obstante estudos pré-operatórios, o câncer da vesícula biliar é frequentemente detectado durante a cirurgia ou no exame anatomopatológico após colecistectomias. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as principais

  1. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Xiang,; Ling-Ren Wang; Lang Ma; Zhi-Yuan Han; Rui Wang; Chong Cheng; Yi Xia; Hui Qin; Chang-Sheng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outs...

  2. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  3. Análisis de la unión de la toxina Cry11Bb1 de bacillus thuringiensis subesp. Medellín a vesículas del epitelio en borde de cepillo del mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ordúz

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas Cry11 son producidas por Bacillus thuringiensis, estas son potentes toxinas insecticidas contra larvas de mosquitos y su modo de acción se cree que es similar al de las toxinas del tipo Cry1, las cuales interactúan con el intestino medio de larvas de lepidópteros. En este trabajo, se estudió la interacción de la toxina de 94 kDa Cry11Bb de Bacillus thuringiensis subesp. medellin con el epitelio intestinal de larvas del mosquito Aedes aegypti utilizando vesículas de la membrana en borde de cepillo (VMBC. Un intermediario de la protoxina Cry11Bb de 68 kDa, y su forma activa 30/35 kDa se marcaron con Iodo-radioactivo e incubaron con las VMBC del mosquito. La protoxina marcada (125I-68 kDa interactuó específicamente con las vesículas y los experimentos de saturación en presencia de cantidades crecientes de vesículas mostraron que la interacción vesícula-125I-68 kDa fue saturable en el rango entre 10 a 80 ?g de VMBC. En contraste, la toxina marcada (125I-30/35 kDa no mostró ni unión específica, ni saturabilidad en la interacción. Adicionalmente, la toxina fue susceptible al ataque de las proteasas presentes en las vesículas y mediante la técnica de dynamic Light scattering, se evidenció que la toxina se presenta como un agregado proteico. Los resultados sugieren que la protoxina Cry11Bb de 68 kDa podría determinar la especificidad de la interacción y después de la unión ésta ser procesada hacia una forma funcional de 30/35 kDa capaz de interactuar con los lípidos de la membrana y generar, mediante la formación de poros, el desbalance osmótico que lleva a la muerte a las larvas de mosquitos.

  4. Les pratiques littéraciées bidisciplinaires lettres-histoire dans le secondaire : vers la construction d'une culture humaniste moins différenciatrice pour les élèves de milieu populaire ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte de massification et de multiculturalisme qui caractérise actuellement l'enseignement secondaire français, la nécessité de dispenser une culture commune à donner en partage à tous les élèves se trouve mise sur le devant de la scène scolaire. Les dernières réformes en cours présentent cet objectif comme prioritaire. Ainsi les nouveaux programmes de 2006 réinstitutionnalisent la « culture humaniste », héritière de la culture scolaire originelle, et la confient aux disciplines littéraires, français et histoire, ainsi qu'aux disciplines artistiques. Cette restauration pose la question vive de l'appropriation chez les élèves de milieu populaire d'une telle forme de culture, d'ordre scripturaire, fondée sur la lecture de textes patrimoniaux, en particulier littéraires, mobilisant des ressources cognitives et culturelles de haut niveau. Comment leur donner accès à une littératie humaniste très éloignée de leurs pratiques socioculturelles de référence habituelles sans risquer d'accroître les écarts avec les élèves socialement plus favorisés, davantage familiarisés à cette forme culturelle ? Une recherche exploratoire est menée à partir d'un dispositif bidisciplinaire français-histoire expérimental, mis en œuvre par des praticiens confirmés, dans trois classes d'établissements du secondaire de la banlieue parisienne accueillant des élèves d'origine modeste. L'analyse des productions écrites et orales des élèves montre que la pratique d'une littératie humanisteen contexte bidisciplinaire favorise chez eux l'entrée dans l'apprentissage de la culture humaniste scolaire, et, sur un mode certes très différencié, les conduit à mieux se l'approprier.

  5. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications. PMID:24710333

  6. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-03-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance.

  7. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  8. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  9. ANSTO's waste forms for the 31. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Begg, B. D.; Day, R. A.; Moricca, S.; Perera, D. S.; Stewart, M. W. A.; Carter, M. L.; McGlinn, P. J.; Smith, K. L.; Walls, P. A.; Robina, M. La

    2004-07-01

    ANSTO waste form development for high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications, particularly problematic niche wastes that do not readily lend themselves to direct vitrification. Integration of waste form chemistry and processing method is emphasised. Some longstanding misconceptions about titanate ceramics are dealt with. We have a range of titanate-bearing waste form products aimed at immobilisation of tank wastes and sludges, actinide-rich wastes, INEEL calcines and Na-bearing liquid wastes, Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels, Mo-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels, partitioned Cs-rich wastes, and {sup 99}Tc. Waste form production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting, and these are strongly integrated into waste form design. Speciation and leach resistance of Cs and alkalis in cementitious products and geo-polymers are being studied. Recently we have embarked on studies of candidate inert matrix fuels for Pu burning. We also have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the waste forms in regard to crystal chemistry, dissolution behaviour in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and optimum processing techniques. (authors)

  10. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  12. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6 of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CONCLUSION: With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  13. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6) of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Sara; Bantleon, Frank I; Spillner, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  14. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Ismael M.; El-Qady, Gad M.; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area. The VESes AB/2 was varying from 1 up to 700 m in successive steps, while TEM stations were measured using coincident loop of 50 m side length. The interpretation of the geoelectrical data shows that the depth to the main aquifer ranges from 6 m at the northern part near the Nubariya city to about 90 m at the southern parts where it increases to the south and southeast directions. Generally the aquifer system in the area can be divided into Pleistocene and Pliocene aquifers. The Pleistocene aquifer is the shallower aquifer in the area and it consists almost of gravelly to clayey sand deposits. The Pliocene aquifer is the main aquifer where it is composed of sand to gravelly sand deposits. Depending on the results of the geoelectric prospecting represented by the true resistivity map, we can infer the quality of the groundwater. A brackish groundwater can be found at the northern and northeastern parts of the study area at shallow depths whereas relatively fresh water can be detected at the southern and southeastern parts around Wadi El Natrun city at deep depths. The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  15. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  16. Vitellogenins Are New High Molecular Weight Components and Allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6) of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Sara; Bantleon, Frank I.; Spillner, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. Methods/Principal Findings Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Conclusion With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively. PMID:23626765

  17. Le nouveau modèle d’enseignement dans le paradigme formatif axé sur des élèves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión PALOMARES RUIZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans la recherche réalisée en l’UCLM, au cours 2008-09, il s’est démontré que, à l’analyse de la qualité du enseignement universitaire, il n’est pas suffisant parler d’aspects du professorat, ni non plus il peut se réduire au jeu des professionnels, puisque –en grande mesure– ce qui font ceux-ci est aménagé par l’organisme à celle qui appartiennent, ses buts et programmes, sa culture institu¬tionnelle, la législation et politique universitaire, le financement, les relations avec l’environnement, la réglementation propre, les ressources, l’organisation, etc. Il résulte évident que l’unique possibilité de transformer les traditionnelles méthodo¬logies didactiques il exige l’incorporation de nouvelles méthodologies actives, une réduction du nombre d’élèves par classe, ainsi que changements à l’organisation des espaces, du temps et des ressources, que puise faire la construction de vérita¬bles environnements. Il résulte évident que le professorat doit posséder des grandes dots humaines et être capable de transmettre cette énergie pour stimuler l’étudiant actif dans un chan¬gement de paradigmatique, de sorte qu’il permettra une intégration sociale effective, à développer leurs capacités pour la convivencia et la réalisation personnelle, pro¬fessionnelle et labor.

  18. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Thermal diffusivity measurement system applied to polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, B.; Díaz-Chao, P.; Almarza, A.; Amantia, D.; Vázquez-Campos, S.; Isoda, Y.; Shinohara, Y.; Briones, F.; Martín-González, M. S.

    2012-06-01

    In the search for cleaner energy sources, the improvement of the efficiency of the actual ones appears as a primary objective. In this way, thermoelectric materials, which are able to convert wasted heat into electricity, are reveal as an interesting way to improve efficiency of car engines, for example. Cost-effective energy harvesting from thermoelectric devices requires materials with high electrical conductivities and Seebeck coefficient, but low thermal conductivity. Conductive polymers can fulfil these conditions if they are doped appropriately. One of the most promising polymers is Polyaniline. In this work, the thermal conductivity of the polyaniline and mixtures of polyaniline with nanoclays has been studied, using a new experimental set-up developed in the lab. The novel system is based on the steady-state method and it is used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the polymers and the nanocomposites.

  20. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  1. Plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    García-Velázquez, Ángel; Amado-Moreno, María Guadalupe; Campbell-Ramírez, Héctor Enrique; Brito-Páez, Reyna Arcelia; Toscano-Palomar, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to develop plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix. In the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, Mexico, the agricultural activities and the maquiladora industry are the main source of income in the region.  However, agricultural activities generate wastes that contribute heavily to pollution of Mexicali and its valley. The burning of agricultural waste is a traditional practice in the Valley, and is done in order to prepare the soil for the next cro...

  2. Organic wastes and the industrial technologies of their coprocessing with coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Buchtele

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of solid waste in the Czech Republic was a round 40 Mt in 2000 – 2002 yearly. The organic compounds in the municipal waste (plastics, polymers, paper, wood, textile and in the agricultural and forest waste (biomass are mainly burned and partially landfilled. New industrial waste processes and their heat conversion in mixtures with coal allow an economical and energetically a more efficient utilization. They also open the way to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals.

  3. Biodegradation of paper waste using Eisenia foetida by vermicomposting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivanan, Mahalakshmi; Aravind Vishnu Saravanan, G.; Baji, Aravindh; Manoj kumar, J.

    2017-07-01

    The paper wastes are being a big concern over past decades. The process of reuse of the paper wastes is employed by ‘eisenia foetida’ in Vermiculture. The paper waste in SASTRA is collected around 50kg and organic wastes like vegetable wastes and cow dung wastes are also collected. In the adjacent area of Nirman Vihar, SASTRA, the experimental setup is done in a Geosynthetic polymer bag. The area is divided into three segments and in each segment appropriate amount of paper waste and organic waste were added along with 25 numbers of earthworms. The setup is watered daily and monitored periodically and it is kindled for proper aeration. The soil samples were collected on 20 days, 45 days and 60 days from the day the earthworms were added. After 60 days of the experiment, the paper wastes, compost and earthworms are separated. The quantity of the wastes was compared to the initial amount and the composts are collected. The elemental analysis of the soil used as Vermi-bed is analyzed for improvement of soil nutrients. The vermiwashed water of the setup is analyzed for total protein. The number of earthworm is also compared to initial quantity. Out of all, the loss percentage of the organic waste and paper waste shows the degradation of the paper wastes.

  4. Conducting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent a very interesting group of polymer materials Investigation of the synthesis, structure and properties of these materials has been the subject of considerable research efforts in the last twenty years. A short presentating of newer results obtained by investigating of the synthesis, structure and properties of two basic groups of conducting polymers: a conducting polymers the conductivity of which is the result of their molecular structure, and b conducting polymer composites (EPC, is given in this paper. The applications and future development of this group of polymer materials is also discussed.

  5. Avaliação da contratilidade da vesícula biliar com leite materno e leite de vaca em lactentes Gallbladder contractility after breast milk and cow's milk meals in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Silva Teixeira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As múltiplas características distintas do leite materno e do leite de vaca fazem com que o esvaziamento gástrico seja mais rápido após ingestão do primeiro. Esta rapidez do esvaziamento gástrico pode estar associada ao esvaziamento da vesícula biliar, também mais rápido. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar se há diferença na velocidade de esvaziamento da vesícula biliar, por método ultra-sonográfico, após ingestão de leite materno e leite de vaca. Estudamos 47 crianças menores de dois anos, 22 após uma refeição com leite materno e 25 após uma refeição com leite de vaca. A vesícula biliar foi medida após um período de quatro a seis horas de jejum e uma hora após uma refeição (leite materno ou leite de vaca, e a contração da vesícula biliar foi avaliada, em porcentagem, pela diferença de volume da vesícula biliar entre as duas medidas e expressa em porcentagem do volume inicial. As medianas das porcentagens do volume inicial para as crianças alimentadas com leite materno e leite de vaca foram, respectivamente, 92,25% e 53,8%, diferença estatisticamente significativa. Portanto, a contração da vesícula biliar após uma refeição com leite de vaca é muito mais lenta do que aquela após uma refeição com leite materno.Breast milk and cow's milk differ in multiple characteristics that account for a faster gastric emptying time after breast feeding. This faster gastric emptying may be associated with a faster gallbladder emptying. Our aim was to compare gallbladder contraction after breast milk meal and cow's milk meal using ultrasound examination. We studied 22 infants after a breast milk meal and 25 infants after a cow's milk meal. Gallbladder volume was measured after a 4-6 hours fasting and one hour after the meal (breast milk or cow's milk. Gallbladder contractility was calculated by determining the difference between gallbladder volume one hour after the meal and the fasting volume, and expressed as a

  6. Hymenoptera venom allergy: analysis of double positivity to honey bee and Vespula venom by estimation of IgE antibodies to species-specific major allergens Api m1 and Ves v5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, U R; Johansen, N; Petersen, A B; Fromberg-Nielsen, J; Haeberli, G

    2009-04-01

    In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy diagnostic tests are often positive with honey bee and Vespula venom causing problems in selection of venoms for immunotherapy. 100 patients each with allergic reactions to Vespula or honey bee stings and positive i.e. skin tests to the respective venom, were analysed for serum IgE to bee venom, Vespula venom and crossreacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) by UNICAP (CAP) and ADVIA Centaur (ADVIA). IgE-antibodies to species specific recombinant major allergens (SSMA) Api m1 for bee venom and Ves v5 for Vespula venom, were determined by ADVIA. 30 history and skin test negative patients served as controls. By CAP sensitivity was 1.0 for bee and 0.91 for Vespula venom, by ADVIA 0.99 for bee and 0.91 for Vespula venom. None of the controls were positive with either test. Double positivity was observed in 59% of allergic patients by CAP, in 32% by ADVIA. slgE to Api m1 was detected in 97% of bee and 17% of Vespula venom allergic patients, slgE to Ves v5 in 87% of Vespula and 17% of bee venom allergic patients. slgE to CCDs were present in 37% of all allergic patients and in 56% of those with double positivity and were more frequent in bee than in Vespula venom allergic patients. Double positivity of IgE to bee and Vespula venom is often caused by crossreactions, especially to CCDs. IgE to both Api m1 and Ves v5 indicates true double sensitization and immunotherapy with both venoms.

  7. Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Ho, K P

    1999-01-01

    Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage of soya wastes from a soya milk dairy, and malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by selected strain of microorganism. Bench experiments showed that Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 used the nutrients from malt and soya wastes to biosynthesise PHAs. The final dried cell mass and specific polymer production of A. latus DSM 1124 were 32g/L and 70% polymer/cells (g/g), 18.42 g/L and 32.57% polymer/cell (g/g), and 28 g/L and 36% polymer/cells (g/g), from malt waste, soya waste, and from sucrose, respectively. These results suggest that many types of food wastes might be used as the carbon source for the production of PHA.

  8. Alterações morfológicas dos testículos e vesículas seminais da abelha Plebeia lucii (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Meliponini), durante a maturação sexual.

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Mônica Volpini

    2008-01-01

    A abelha sem ferrão Plebeia lucii foi descrita pelo Prof. Dr. Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure em 2004, a partir de indivíduos de uma colônia coletada em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Para contribuir com o conhecimento da morfologia e fisiologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino desta espécie os ductos deferentes, vesículas seminais e os testículos foram investigados em abelhas entre zero e 16 dias de vida. O sistema reprodutor em machos dessa espécie é formado por um par de testículos, cada um com quatro fol...

  9. Validación de un método de determinación del polisacárido B residual en vesículas de membrana externa de Neisseria meningitidis

    OpenAIRE

    Jannete Rico; Yaima Merchán; Matilde Cuevas; Jenny Márquez

    2010-01-01

    La Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución-Fluorescencia ha resultado ser una herramienta sensible para la detección de trazas en productos farmacéuticos y es utilizada frecuentemente para la cuantificación de algunos polisacáridos de origen bacteriano que poseen ácido siálico como unidad repetitiva. En este trabajo nos planteamos como objetivo establecer y validar el método de HPLC_Fluorescencia, para determinar el contenido de polisacárido B residual en vesículas de membrana externa de Nei...

  10. Monocapas autoensambladas de alcanotioles y α, ω-alcanoditioles sobre oro: adsorción no específica de moléculas bioactivas, biomoléculas y vesículas

    OpenAIRE

    Daza Millone, María Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    La ciencia bioinspirada permite el desarrollo de sistemas modelo tanto para estudios fundamentales como para aplicaciones tecnológicas. En este trabajo de Tesis se estudian las interacciones entre monocapas autoensambladas de alcanotioles sobre sustratos ordenados y altamente desordenados de Au y moléculas bioactivas, biomoléculas y vesículas para el desarrollo de sistemas biomiméticos. Este trabajo se organiza en 7 capítulos. El Capítulo 1 brinda una breve introducción de los conceptos clave...

  11. «Dans toutes les parties de la République», l'origine géographique des élèves de l'École Normale Supérieure de 1914 à 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian BAUDELOT

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse du lieu de naissance des élèves entrés à l’École Normale Supérieure entre 1914 et 1992 fait apparaître que le recrutement concerne tous les départements français, mais aussi qu’au fil du temps les poids des grandes villes s’accroît et que le Nord et l’Ouest y envoient proportionnellement moins de leurs enfants que le Sud et l’Est.

  12. Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Lo, W; Chen, G Q

    1998-01-01

    The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically. Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In the authors' laboratories, various carbohydrates in the growth media, including sucrose, lactic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and various combinations of butyric and valeric acids, were utilized as the carbon (c) sources for the production of bioplastics by Alcaligenes eutrophus. As the first step in pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesize bioplastics, the authors investigated the usage of malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the C sources for the production of bioplastics by microorganisms. Specific polymer production yield by A. Latus DSM 1124 increased to 70% polymer/cell (g/g) and 32 g/L cell dry wt, using malt wastes as the C source. The results of these experiments indicated that, with the use of different types of food wastes as the C source, different polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers could be produced with distinct polymer properties.

  13. Fingerprinting polymer microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourniaire, Guilhem; Diaz-Mochon, Juan J; Bradley, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The incubation of "polymer microarrays" with labelled proteins and carbohydrates demonstrated polymer selective binding, giving an approach to cellular fingerprinting and offering a possible alternative to current arraying platforms for partitioning and analysis of complex cellular components.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  15. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    polymerized in a controlled manner with carrier monomers of historically proven biocompatible polymers. The carrier polymers, the loading of ribavirin as well as the size of the polymer were varied systematically with the aid of an automated synthesis platform. These polymers were tested in a cellular assay...... of reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, which not only controls the size of polymer, but also allows the introduction of a terminal amine on the polymer which can be used for further conjugation. This has allowed for not only fluorescent labeling of the polymer, but also protein......The field of drug delivery is in essence an exercise in engineered pharmacokinetics. Methods of doing so have been developed through the introduction of a vehicle carrying the drug, either by encapsulation or covalent attachment. The emergence of polymer therapeutics in anticancer therapy has...

  16. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  17. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the reptation model and discuss in some more detail processes limiting the confinement.

  18. POLYMER CONCRETE CREEP

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. М. Borisov; I. S. Surovtsev; Yu. B. Potapov

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement. It is well known that creep is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of stresses. The aim of the paper is to study the process of creep in polymer concretes. Results and conclusions. It is shown that creep in polymer concrete occurs according to the same pattern as in many other polymer composites with the elastic core. Equations which indirectly es-tablish the relation between complete deformations of polymer concrete, in...

  19. Modeling semiflexible polymer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Broedersz, Chase P.; MacKintosh, Fred C.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of theoretical approaches to semiflexible polymers and their networks. Such semiflexible polymers have large bending rigidities that can compete with the entropic tendency of a chain to crumple up into a random coil. Many studies on semiflexible polymers and their assemblies have been motivated by their importance in biology. Indeed, crosslinked networks of semiflexible polymers form a major structural component of tissue and living cells. Reconstituted networks o...

  20. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Adriana Cziple; António J. Velez Marques

    2008-01-01

    This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs...

  1. Thermosetting Phthalocyanine Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, G.; Parker, J.; Achar, B.

    1985-01-01

    Group of phthalocyanine polymers resist thermal degradation. Polymers expected semiconducting. Principal applications probably in molded or laminated parts that have to withstand high temperatures. Polymers made from either of two classes of monomer: Bisphthalonitriles with imide linkages or Bisphthalonitriles with ester-imide linkages.

  2. Modeling semiflexible polymer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broedersz, C.P.; MacKintosh, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    This is an overview of theoretical approaches to semiflexible polymers and their networks. Such semiflexible polymers have large bending rigidities that can compete with the entropic tendency of a chain to crumple up into a random coil. Many studies on semiflexible polymers and their assemblies have

  3. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  4. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Program has developed new methods for the synthesis of conducting polymers and evaluated new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1996 included two ongoing efforts on membranes for gas separation and on electrochemical capacitors and a third new application: electrochemical reactors (ECRs) based on polymeric electrolytes. As a gas separation membrane, conducting polymers offer high selectivity and the potential to chemically or electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, electronically conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electric energy in low cost materials. Potential energy savings estimated at 1 quad/yr would result from introduction of electrochemical capacitors as energy storage devices in power trains of electric and hybrid vehicles, once such vehicles reach 20% of the total transportation market in the US. In the chlor-alkali industry, electrochemical reactors based on polymer electrolyte membranes consume around 1 % of the total electric power in the US. A new activity, started in FY 1996, is devoted to energy efficient ECRs. In the case of the chlor-alkali industry, energy savings as high as 50% seem possible with the novel ECR technology demonstrated by the author in 1996.

  5. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  6. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  7. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  8. Dairy Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  10. Polymers used to absorb fats and oils: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    One approach to problem of excessive oils and fats is to develop method by which oil is absorbed into solid mixture for elimination as solid waste. Materials proposed for these purposes are cross-linked (network) polymers that have high affinity for aliphatic substances, i. e., petroleum, animal, and vegetable oils.

  11. Electroluminescence of Multicomponent Conjugated Polymers. 1. Roles of Polymer/Polymer Interfaces in Emission Enhancement and Voltage-Tunable Multicolor Emission in Semiconducting Polymer/Polymer Heterojunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xuejun, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the electronic structure of polymer/polymer interfaces on the electroluminescence efficiency and tunable multicolor emission of polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes were explored...

  12. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  13. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  14. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  15. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1997-06-30

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  16. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2016-10-18

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  17. Advanced polymers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an up-to-date overview of the diverse medical applications of advanced polymers. The book opens by presenting important background information on polymer chemistry and physicochemical characterization of polymers. This serves as essential scientific support for the subsequent chapters, each of which is devoted to the applications of polymers in a particular medical specialty. The coverage is broad, encompassing orthopedics, ophthalmology, tissue engineering, surgery, dentistry, oncology, drug delivery, nephrology, wound dressing and healing, and cardiology. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine.

  18. Protein-based green resins and nanocomposites from waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Maksudur

    The main goal of the present research is to design and fabricate 'green' nanocomposites using eco-friendly and biodegradable polymers, an effort driven towards an alternative of conventional petroleum-derived polymers in structural applications considering environmental and economic concerns. The behavior of structure, composition and property relationships between the novel combinations of these materials has been analyzed and discussed. The materials used in this study, many of them from non-edible sources, are obtained, derived and/or synthesized using various wastes from agricultural and food industries, as much as possible, so as to utilize wastes that are discarded at present. At the same time, the use of waste sources reduces the dependency of edible source-based biopolymers in various structural applications and thus, reduces the cost of materials significantly. Overall, this study opens up new avenues in the fabrication of low-cost 'green' nanocomposite with facile and 'green' methodology using various agricultural and food wastes.

  19. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polymer Solidification Technology - Technical Issues and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Charles [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., Knoxville (United States); Kim, Juyoul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Many factors come into play, most of which are discovered and resolved only during full-scale solidification testing of each of the media commonly used in nuclear power plants. Each waste stream is unique, and must be addressed accordingly. This testing process is so difficult that Diversified's Vinyl Ester Styrene and Advanced Polymer Solidification are the only two approved processes in the United States today. This paper summarizes a few of the key obstacles that must be overcome to achieve a reliable, repeatable process for producing an approved Stable Class B and C waste form. Before other solidification and encapsulation technologies can be considered compliant with the requirements of a Stable waste form, the tests, calculations and reporting discussed above must be conducted for both the waste form and solidification process used to produce the waste form. Diversified's VERI{sup TM} and APS{sup TM} processes have gained acceptance in the UK. These processes have also been approved and gained acceptance in the U. S. because we have consistently overcome technical hurdles to produce a complaint product. Diversified Technologies processes are protected intellectual property. In specific instances, we have patents pending on key parts of our process technology.

  1. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  2. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carrión

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate, and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%, and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  3. Mechanical and physical properties of polyester polymer concrete using recycled aggregates from concrete sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco; Montalbán, Laura; Real, Julia I; Real, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate), and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption) was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%), and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  4. Microbial biotechnology addressing the plastic waste disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Narancic, Tanja; O'Connor, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO 2. However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14).

  5. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  6. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  7. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  9. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  10. Laboratory Study on the Potential EOR Use of HPAM/VES Hybrid in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Dingwei Zhu; Jichao Zhang; Yugui Han; Hongyan Wang; Yujun Feng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer flooding represents one of the most efficient processes to enhance oil recovery, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is a widely used oil-displacement agent, but its poor thermal stability, salt tolerance, and mechanical degradation impeded its use in high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs. In this work, a novel viscoelastic surfactant, erucyl dimethyl amidobetaine (EDAB), with improved thermal stability and salinity tolerance, was complexed with HPAM to overcome...

  11. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  12. Polymer Conformation under Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Bollas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The conformation of polymer chains under confinement is investigated in intercalated polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide/sodium montmorillonite, PEO/Na+-MMT, hybrids were prepared utilizing melt intercalation with compositions where the polymer chains are mostly within the ~1 nm galleries of the inorganic material. The polymer chains are completely amorphous in all compositions even at temperatures where the bulk polymer is highly crystalline. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR is utilized to investigate the conformation of the polymer chains over a broad range of temperatures from below to much higher than the bulk polymer melting temperature. A systematic increase of the gauche conformation relatively to the trans is found with decreasing polymer content both for the C–C and the C–O bonds that exist along the PEO backbone indicating that the severe confinement and the proximity to the inorganic surfaces results in a more disordered state of the polymer.

  13. Antioxidant Stabilisation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, Yurii A.

    1981-06-01

    Physicochemical aspects of the stabilisation of polymers are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the aging and stabilisation of polymers under processing conditions. Topics considered are the kinetics and mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of polymers, critical phenomena in the inhibited oxidation of polymers, the theory of synergism and antagonism among antioxidants, the reasons for differences in efficiency of antioxidants, and certain aspects of the relation between the efficiency of antioxidants and their molecular structure. A list of 132 references is included.

  14. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  15. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Adriana Cziple

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs significantly from other “degradable plastics” in the market as it does not attempt to replace the current popular materials but instead enhances them by rendering them biodegradable.

  16. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  17. Microencapsulation and storage stability of polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Navarro, Patricia; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-01-01

    Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain

  18. Korean Waste Management Law, Presidential Decree Number 13480, and Prime Minister Order Number 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    stock or property: more than 300,000,000 won of captal stock in case of a corporation, more thart 600.000.000 won of estimated properties in case of...theWtrust- disp F meth•bed ir•-cy• W 1):t- eco ntheti aub t f sto raget Leather 40, Waste Paint & Lacquer 50, Other Waste Synthetic High Polymers 601

  19. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Street 5, Vienna 1400 (Austria) and Department of Process and Chemical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: a-g.chmielewski@iaea.org; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad [International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Street 5, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Ahmed, Shamshad [Applied Chemistry Laboratories, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Box Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R and D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described.

  20. Gallbladder leiomyoma in absence of immune system disorders: an unusual diagnosis Leiomioma de vesícula biliar en ausencia de patología del sistema inmune: un diagnóstico inusual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Segura-Sampedro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal neoplasms of the gallbladder are rare and in particular leiomyomas of the gallbladder have been rarely reported, all of them in patients with immune system disorders. This is the first report in Spanish of a 23-year-old female patient with a gallbladder leiomyoma without associated immunodeficiency. The patient lacks a previous history of uterine leiomyoma or any other form of neoplasm. She refers several episodes of epygastralgia. A hydatic cyst led to an initial diagnosis and the gallbladder was removed by means of simple cholecystectomy. The abnormal macroscopic aspect of the sample prompted intraoperative biopsy which revealed a benign gallbladder angiomyoma. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of the resected sample yielded the diagnosis of intramural endocavitary leiomyoma negative for EBV and C-kit / CD-117. The patient has good general condition and remains asymptomatic 15 months after surgery.Las neoplasias mesenquimales de vesícula biliar son una patología muy poco frecuente, concretamente, son muy pocos los casos descritos de leiomioma de vesícula biliar y todos ellos diagnosticados en pacientes con enfermedades del sistema inmunitario. Se describe por primera vez en la literatura en lengua española el caso de un leiomioma vesicular en una mujer de 23 años sin compromiso inmunitario alguno. La paciente carece de historia de leiomioma uterino o cualquier otra neoplasia. Presenta una historia de epigastralgias de evolución. Se formuló un primer diagnóstico guiado por imagen de quiste hidatídico. La vesícula fue extirpada mediante colecistectomía simple. El aspecto macroscópico anormal motivó una biopsia intraoperatoria que fue informada como angiomioma vesicular benigno. El posterior estudio inmunohistoquímico de la pieza arrojó el diagnóstico de leiomioma intramural y endocavitario negativo para VEB y C-Kit / CD-117. La paciente presenta buen estado general y permanece asintomática 15 meses después de

  1. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Pal Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material of different origin were tested for growth and polymer production. Stockdale medium supplemented with 1% (w/v waste materials failed to yield good growth and polymer accumulation. Two–step cultivation was adopted for better growth and enhanced polymer accumulation. The candy factory waste was most suitable for synthesis of P(3HB accounting 17.8 and 40.58% using single and two-step cultivation conditions respectively. Wastes of domestic and poultry origin produced P(3HB-co-3HV with 3HV content 28.8 and 21.5 mol% respectively in two-step cultivation. Increase concentration of these wastes resulted in further upliftment of 3HV content of polymer with reduced growth and polymer accumulation. However, at optimum incubation the strain MAL-201 cells accumulated P(3HB 48.5% of CDW (at 40h from candy factory waste and P(3HB-co-3HV 24.75 % of CDW with 3HV 34.65 mol % from domestic waste. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and thermal degradation of the polymers accumulated in the cells grown in glucose, glucose with valerate and glucose with waste were compared.

  2. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many environmental friendly advantages. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis has been studied using termogravimetry apparatus NETZCH TG-DTA STA 409 EP. The pyrolysis of all polymers except for scrap tyres was a one-step process and temperature range was narrower than for coal pyrolysis. The overlapping temperature range for pyrolysis of polymers and coal was 200–600°C. The synergic effect and kinetics of co-pyrolysis of polymers and coal has been studied in the given temperature range. The addition of polymers to coal led to (i the enhancement of weight loss of brown coal, (ii the shift of temperature of the max pyrolysis speed and (iii the slight influence of EA of coal pyrolysis.

  3. Waste Reduction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  4. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  5. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  6. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  7. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  8. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  10. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  11. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  12. Sociālpedagoģiskā darbība ar 9- 11 gadīgiem bērniem dzīves prasmju pilnveidošanā Grašu bērnu ciematā

    OpenAIRE

    Tropa, Mārīte

    2009-01-01

    par Mārītes Tropas diplomdarbu „Sociālpedagoģiskā darbība ar 9-11 gadīgiem bērniem dzīves prasmju pilnveidošanā Grašu bērnu ciematā.” Dzīves prasmes ir tās prasmes, kas bērnam arī pēc dzīves ārpusģimenes aprūpes iestādē ir vienas no vis būtiskākajām, ko nepieciešams pielietot savā ikdienā – tāpēc šis posms, kurā bērns tās apgūst, ir ļoti būtisks un nepieciešams tajā gūt pozitīvus rezultātus. Visbiežāk svarīgākās dzīves prasmes bērns iemācās jau bērnībā – tāpēc, pēc darba autores domām, ve...

  13. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  14. SMART BIOCONVERSION OF PELT WASTE FROM TANNERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAINESCU Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The area of interest is the synthesis and study of properties of new types of hydrogels made from pelt waste, in order to recover waste from tanneries. Leather processing in tanneries results in about 500-600 kg of pelt waste from a ton of raw hides. These hydrogels are made using smart processes in order to then be applied in agriculture, for preservation of water in the soil or for controlled release of fertilizers, pesticides but also for the development of additivated agricultural film biodegradable over time (between 1 month and 6 months. Hydrogels that are based on biopolymers, compared with hydrogels based on synthetic polymers, have the advantage of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and a low level of toxicity. The paper presents the production of biodegradable polymer mixtures obtained from hydrolysis and enrichment of the resulting hydrolysate with phosphorus and potassium. Hydrogels with collagenous structure are tested using a high-performance instrumental analysis system (FT-IR-ATR, UV-VIS-NIR, SEM, EDAX, etc. The paper presents an experimental model for obtaining hydrogels with collagenous structure from pelt waste resulting from the liming process.

  15. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  16. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  17. Intégration d'élèves en situation de handicap dans l'école ordinaire au travers de l'EPS et mesure de ses effets sur l'estime de soi

    OpenAIRE

    Indermuehle, Jean-Claude; Borserini, Roberto; Blanc, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Nous avons essayé de développer une structure permettant d'intégrer des enfants porteurs d'un handicap (provenant principalement du milieu des institutions spécialisées) dans les structures scolaires ordinaires dans le cadre des périodes d'enseignement de l'éducation physique et sportive. Cette expérience a été menée dans un établissement secondaire lausannois, intégrant des élèves provenant d'une classe de 7e année, des enfants en fauteuils roulants et des enfants handicapés piétons. Consci...

  18. Le rapport des élèves et des enseignants aux tablettes numériques à l’école primaire : vers une évolution de la forme scolaire ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Dany; Villemonteix, François

    2015-01-01

    Ce texte présente une recherche exploratoire portant sur les représentations que des élèves et des enseignants ont de l’utilisation des tablettes numériques à l’école primaire. Elle s’inscrit dans le contexte de l’étude EXTATE (Expérience tablettes tactiles à l’école primaire), réalisée durant l’année 2013-2014 dans 8 écoles primaires réparties sur le territoire français (Villemonteix et al., 2014). Les résultats de l’analyse des discours recueillis permettent d’observer les changements perçu...

  19. Affinités et "discordances stylistiques entre Les Désordres de l'amour et La Princesse de Clèves : indices et enjeux d'une réécriture

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    L'aveu de Mme de Clèves est-il aussi « extraordinaire » que le dit Mme de Lafayette, ou plutôt qu'elle le fait dire à la princesse elle-même ?Il n'y a pas dans le monde une aventure pareille à la mienne, il n'y a point une autre femme capable de la même chose. Le hasard ne peut l'avoir fait inventer, on ne l'a jamais imaginée et cette pensée n'est jamais tombée dans un autre esprit que le mien. {PC, p. 367)La lecture des Désordres de l'amour2 en fait douter ; en effet la seconde partie du rom...

  20. Texte-dialogal, hasard et rature orale : analyse des processus d'écriture à deux par des élèves récemment alphabétisés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calil Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La dimension créative d’un texte subissant l’influence d’une multitude de facteurs doit se comprendre comme un système sémiotique multimodal complexe où le « dialogisme » et le « hasard » représentent des éléments-clés. Notre objectif est de discuter, en partant de ces phénomènes, de certaines formes de retour dans un processus de création mis en place par deux élèves écrivant ensemble un récit de fiction. Ces formes de retour, nommées « ratures orales », sont produites dans le flux de la co-énonciation pendant le moment où les élèves sont en train d’écrire le manuscrit. D’un point de vue théorique, le dialogisme est compris comme principe fondateur de tout discours et est donc relié. Nous considérons le point de tension du processus d’écriture à deux – et la rature qui lui donne une visibilité – comme une manifestation de l’absence de re-présentée où la dimension du « dialogisme interlocutif » et du « dialogisme interdiscursif » entretiennent des échanges sur deux plans, solidaires mais distincts, dans l’acte coénonciatif consistant à écrire un texte à deux. Cette manifestation de l’absence représentée à travers du double dialogisme se réfère à l’hétérogénéité constitutive du dire qui se constitue de manière « interdiscursive » à partir de sa relation avec l’extériorité, comme le déjà dit d’autres discours, et de manière « interlocutive » à partir du dire de l’interlocuteur dans le « texte dialogal » (Bres et Nowakowska, 2006. Nous analysons l’interaction entre une dyade qui doit se dérouler en contexte d’apprentissage in natura afin de garantir des conditions sociales réelles de production de texte en classe : 1 les sujets sont des élèves ayant entre 6 et 7 ans, qui, alphabétisés depuis peu de temps, écrivent leurs premiers textes ; 2 les informations impliquant l’ensemble du processus (de la présentation de la consigne par le

  1. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  2. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  3. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of ...

  4. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vity at ambient temperature (Wright 1975; Martuscelli et al 1984). Generally solid polymer electrolytes have many advantages, viz. high ionic conductivity, high specific energy, wide electrochemical stability windows, light and easy processibility. Apart from this, polymer electrolyte studies have been carried out in poly(vinyl ...

  5. Stiff quantum polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, H.

    2009-01-01

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  6. Polymers targeting habitual diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly for the treatment for cancer therapy has been addressed, but these polymers also find their way in treatment of various lifestyle disorders like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. The focus is being laid to develop biodegradable polymer ...

  7. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying ...

  8. Medical waste to energy: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, C; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Ottria, L; Mecheri, B; Licoccia, S

    2013-04-01

    Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room.

  9. Profil lexical à l’oral d’élèves de français langue seconde exposés à l’approche gestuelle AIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne S. Bourdages

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Résumé Malgré les nombreuses recherches sur le vocabulaire en langue seconde, rares sont celles qui portent sur le français langue seconde (FLS chez des enfants en milieu scolaire. C’est dans ce contexte que s’inscrit notre projet de recherche qui compare le profil lexical en production orale d’élèves de l’élémentaire en FLS selon deux orientations pédagogiques différentes. Nous avons comparé deux groupes de français de base (Core French, le premier ayant suivi l’approche gestuelle AIM—Accelerative Integrated Method (Maxwell, 1999 et, le deuxième, le programme régulier. La cueillette de données a été faite par des entrevues individuelles qui ont été enregistrées, transcrites et analysées. Nos résultats permettront de mieux cerner le rôle de la méthodologie d’enseignement quant au développement lexical d’élèves débutants en FLS. Abstract Despite the vast research on second language vocabulary, very little of it focuses on French as a second language (FSL in children in a school environment. In this context, our research project compares the FSL oral production lexical profile of elementary students exposed to two different pedagogical approaches. We have compared two Core French groups: one that followed the AIM—Accelerative Integrated Method (Maxwell, 1999 and one that followed the regular program. The data were collected through individual interviews that were recorded, transcribed and analysed. Our results will provide a better understanding of how the teaching approach affects beginner FSL students’ lexical development.

  10. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  11. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  12. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby...... the safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup....... This is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part. The sliding...

  13. All Polymer Micropump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system...... in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing PEDOT. First a method was developed, where the conducting polymer PEDOT can be integrated into non...... of the substrate, the PEDOT is integrated into the non-conductive polymer. The result is a material that retains the good conductivity of PEDOT, but gains the mechanical stability of the substrate. The best results were obtained for PEDOTjPMMA. The new mechanically stable PEDOTjPMMA was micro-patterned using clean...

  14. Mise en scène théâtrale de la réflexion bioéthique autour des soins palliatifs et de la fin de vie par des élèves de première scientifique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargent Géraldine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’atelier de bioéthique du Centre International de Valbonne concerne douze élèves de 1ère scientifique et se déroule sur le temps péri-scolaire. Ce groupe d’élèves, encadré par une équipe pédagogique et des intervenants du domaine de la santé et du théâtre a réfléchi sur le thème des soins palliatifs et de la fin de vie. Cette réflexion a été mise en scène par les élèves eux-mêmes, sous la forme d’une pièce de théâtre pour être présentée à la Journée de Bioéthique Jeunes à Aix en Provence, le 24 mars 2015. L’objectif de cet atelier a été de faire réfléchir les élèves sur leur position au sujet de la fin de vie et de susciter le débat et les échanges. Nous montrons dans cet article comment un atelier permet aux élèves d’exprimer et de faire évoluer leurs points de vue à travers une pièce de théâtre sur le thème des soins palliatifs et de la fin de vie.

  15. Recycling of polyurethane foams: A strategy in waste management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling ·of polymer materials such as polyurethane foam is one of the needed strategies to combat the menace of pollution in our environment. Pollution has been a consequence of ever-increasing massive quantity of wastes generated from household and industrial activities, posing a global challenge to man and the ...

  16. Toward zero waste production in the paint industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Two of these will be discussed in this paper, namely recycling wash water and the way in which effluent ... The thinking around the re-using or recycling of the sludge waste into a product that is useful to the paint or .... ers and polymers, and is therefore prone to microbiological attack. There is an inherent risk that if the water ...

  17. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  19. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  20. Polymer-Polymer Miscibility and Enthalpy Relaxations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Martin; Brinke, Gerrit ten; Ellis, Thomas S.

    Annealing of polymers below the glass transition temperature results in a decrease in enthalpy that is recovered during heating. The enthalpy recovery is visible as an endothermic peak in a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scan. The position of this peak depends on the thermal treatment given

  1. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tures of polymer melt rheology. Large-scale protein motions on the other hand are critical for proteins to coordi- nate precise biological functions. Structural studies have documented the confor- mational flexibility in proteins accompanying their activity. Results from macro- scopic studies such as biochemical kinetics and ...

  2. Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nigel

    2015-03-01

    Since nanoparticles are increasingly being added to polymers to impart mechanical and functional properties, we are exploring how nanoparticles impact polymer dynamics with a focus on the diffusion coefficients. In high molecular weight polymer melts, chain diffusion is well described by the reptation model. Motion proceeds as a snake-like diffusion of the chain as a whole, along the contour of a tube that mimics the role of physical entanglements, or topological constraints, with other chains. In polymer nanocomposites there are additional constraints due to the dispersed nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Chain motion can be altered by nanoparticle size, shape , aspect ratio, surface area, loading and the nature of the interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. We have observed a minimum in the diffusion coefficient as a function of nanoparticle concentration when the nanoparticles are rod-like and a collapse of the diffusion coefficient onto a master curve when the nanoparticles are spherical. We are simulating the dynamics using molecular and dissipative particle simulations in order to provide physical insight into the local structure and dynamics, and have also carried out highly coarse grained Monte Carlo simulations of entangled polymers to explore how reptation is affected by the presence of larger scale obstacles. We acknowledge support from the NSF/EPSRC Materials World Network Program.

  3. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  4. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  5. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  6. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  7. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  8. Adaptive polymer particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Crosby, Alfred J.

    2008-07-01

    Adaptable polymer particles that can change geometry, flow characteristics, and adsorption properties upon the stimulation of an environmental change, such as temperature, are fabricated by utilizing the residual stress developed at the interface of a bilayer. We propose a phase diagram that can be used to predict the shape and size of the adaptive polymer particles as a function of the material modulus, thickness ratio, and the bilayer's lateral dimensions. The materials used are gold/titanium and polydimethylsiloxane, but the method is applicable to a wide range of material combinations. Initial demonstrations of this responsive control and its impact on properties of the adaptive polymer particles are also presented.

  9. Microstructured polymer optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Large, Maryanne; Barton, Geoff; van Eijkelenborg, Martijn A

    2008-01-01

    Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres describes the optical properties of microstructured fibres, how they are made and modelled, and outlines some potential applications. These applications include areas where polymer fibres are already used, such as high-data rate transmission for Fibre-to-the Home or within cars, as well as completely new areas such as the photonic bandgap transmission of ""difficult"" wavelengths. Emphasising a conceptual understanding of the underlying physics, Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres is clearly written, and includes numerous illustrations. It provides an

  10. Development of Silicate Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob

      The development of inorganic polymers is a new promising technology that may be used in many applications. The syntheses of inorganic polymers are normally carried out either by mixing an amorphous material for example silicium dioxide with a mineral base or dissolving metal oxids or metal...... hydroxide in acid and increase pH to saturation of the metal hydroxide. It is assumed that the syntheses of the inorganic polymer are carried out through polymerisation of oligomers (dimer, trimer) which provide the actual unit structures of the three dimensional macromolecular structure. In this work...

  11. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  12. Polymers in separation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieszczycka, Karolina; Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-05-01

    Application of polymer materials as membranes and ion-exchange resins was presented with a focus on their use for the recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Several membrane techniques were described including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, diffusion and Donnan dialysis, electrodialysis and membrane extraction system (polymer inclusion and supported membranes). Moreover, the examples of using ion-exchange resins in metal recovery were presented. The possibility of modification of the resin was discussed, including hybrid system with metal cation or metal oxide immobilized on polymer matrices or solvent impregnated resin.

  13. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  15. Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovszky, Károly; Ronkay, Ferenc

    2014-11-01

    In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  17. Dendritic Polymers for Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Mou, Quanbing; Wang, Dali; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic polymers are highly branched polymers with controllable structures, which possess a large population of terminal functional groups, low solution or melt viscosity, and good solubility. Their size, degree of branching and functionality can be adjusted and controlled through the synthetic procedures. These tunable structures correspond to application-related properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, stimuli-responsiveness and self-assembly ability, which are the key points for theranostic applications, including chemotherapeutic theranostics, biotherapeutic theranostics, phototherapeutic theranostics, radiotherapeutic theranostics and combined therapeutic theranostics. Up to now, significant progress has been made for the dendritic polymers in solving some of the fundamental and technical questions toward their theranostic applications. In this review, we briefly summarize how to control the structures of dendritic polymers, the theranostics-related properties derived from their structures and their theranostics-related applications.

  18. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  19. Graphene-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, G.; Romeo, V.; Cannavaro, I.; Roncato, D.; Martorana, B.; Gosso, M.

    2012-09-01

    Graphene is a novel nanostructured material that can be conveniently used as filler for thermoplastic polymers or thermosetting resins, and the resulting nanocomposite material has unique mechanical and chemical/physical properties. Industrial production of graphene/polymer materials requires the availability of a chemical route to produce massive amount of graphene. Natural graphite flakes can be the best starting material for a bulk-production of graphene to be used in the polymeric nanocomposite preparation.

  20. Advanced Polymer Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    characteristic time 02 /UmaLJ =τ . Topologically bound monomers interact through the sum of the purely repulsive LJ potential ( arc 6/12= ) or so-called Weeks...3 Content of the simulated polymer double network. Self- attraction coefficient between particles within a network (first or second) is fixed at 1...technique to the study the microscopic topology and dynamics of a wide variety of polymer networks and gels.5–8 The pair interaction between

  1. Dendritic Polymers for Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yuan; Mou, Quanbing; Wang, Dali; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic polymers are highly branched polymers with controllable structures, which possess a large population of terminal functional groups, low solution or melt viscosity, and good solubility. Their size, degree of branching and functionality can be adjusted and controlled through the synthetic procedures. These tunable structures correspond to application-related properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, stimuli-responsiveness and self-assembly ability, which are the key poin...

  2. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  3. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  4. Reutilization of discarded biomass for preparing functional polymer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Qian, Wenzhen; He, Yufeng; Xiong, Yubing; Song, Pengfei; Wang, Rong-Min

    2017-07-01

    Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized. The discarded biomass mainly come from plant wastes generated in the process of agriculture and forestry production and manufacturing processes, animal wastes generated in the process of animal husbandry and fishery production as well as the residual wastes produced in the process of food processing and rural living garbage. Compared with the traditional treatment including burning, landfill, feeding and fertilizer, the novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass principally allotted to energy, ecology and polymer materials. The prepared functional materials covered in composite materials, biopolymer based adsorbent and flocculant, carrier materials, energy materials, smart polymer materials for medical and other intelligent polymer materials, which can effectively serve the environmental management and human life, such as wastewater treatment, catalyst, new energy, tissue engineering, drug controlled release, and coating. To sum up, the renewable and biodegradable discarded biomass resources play a vital role in the sustainable development of human society, as well as will be put more emphases in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Contact Us Share Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste that ... Regulations part 261 . Select a question below to learn more about each step in the hazardous waste ...

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  7. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2007-11-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute to a sustainable development in the future. Especially plant derived fats and oils bear a large potential for the substitution of currently used petrochemicals, since monomers, fine chemicals and polymers can be derived from these resources in a straightforward fashion. The synthesis of monomers as well as polymers from plant fats and oils has already found some industrial application and recent developments in this field offer promising new opportunities, as is shown within this contribution. (138 references.)

  8. Structure and properties of gel-form polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenofontov, B.S.; Kuleshov, V.I.

    1985-03-01

    Gel-form polymers such as polyacrylamide (PAAG) are used to thicken suspensions, treat wastes, reinforce soil and separate biopolymers, particularly protein macromolecules. Structural uniformity of these polymers is known to be affected by physical interaction on the reaction mix prior to their synthesis. NMR, gas chromatography and IR-spectra were used previously to study the effects of preliminary treatment of the reaction mix with a non-uniform electrical field on the structure of the polymer gel. In the present work protein relaxation time in PAAG was measured at 90 MHz with an impulse relaxometer. The results show that preliminary treatment of the reaction mix gives a more uniformly structured gel than without the treatment. 5 references, 2 figures.

  9. Complicações da cirurgia videolaparoscópica no tratamento de doenças da vesícula e vias biliares Videolaparoscopy complications in the management of biliary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Talasso Salim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O tratamento de escolha para as doenças da vesícula biliar é a colecistectomia, cujo objetivo é o alívio de sintomas e o tratamento e/ou prevenção das complicações. OBJETIVO: Identificar as principais complicações da cirurgia videolaparoscópica no tratamento das doenças da vesícula biliar e vias biliares. MÉTODO: Realizou-se busca eletrônica na base de dados LILACS e Medline desde o ano de 1981 a agosto de 2007; foram encontrados 57 artigos, sendo utilizados para o estudo 31 e três capítulos de livros. RESULTADOS: A produção científica submetida à análise de conteúdo evidenciou os seguintes núcleos temáticos: variações anatômicas (3 artigos, iatrogenias (5 artigos, síndrome pós-colecistectomia (1 artigo, complicações raras (3 artigos, síndrome de Mirizzi (1 artigo, complicações pulmonares (2 artigos e tratamento (1 capítulo de livro e três artigos. CONCLUSÕES: As complicações que podem ocorrer na cirurgia videolaparoscópica da vesícula biliar e das vias biliares têm basicamente duas vertentes: uma é a inexperiência dos cirurgiões com o método laparoscópico (curva de aprendizado e outra, as variações anatômicas com as quais os cirurgiões, mesmo os mais experientes, podem se deparar.BACKGROUND: The treatment of choice for diseases affecting the gallbladder is the cholecystectomy, whose aim is improvement of symptoms, treatment and/or prevention of complications. AIM: Identify the main complications with laparoscopic surgery used to treat diseases affecting the gallbladder and the bile ducts. METHODS: An internet search in the LILACS and Medline database covering the period from 1981 up to August 2007 was carried out and 57 studies were found relevant. The present work draws on 31 of these studies and one textbook chapter. RESULTS: The analysis of the content of the studies selected yielded the following thematic issues: anatomic variations (3 studies, iatrogenies (5 studies, post

  10. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  11. Investigation of the possibilities for application of NORM into polymer materials

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Ducman, Vilma; Sever Skapin, Adrijana; Fidancevska, Emilija; Anguseva, Biljana; Jovanov, Vojo

    2016-01-01

    There is growing trend towards the development of composites with low environmental impact and good commercial viability. Over the last few years different kinds of waste materials have been successfully utilized as filler in polymer composites with various applications. This not only reduces the production costs but also offers an opportunity for utilization of waste materials thereby reducing environmental pollution. Due to the environmental concerns and disposal difficulties, the utilizati...

  12. Polymers under Cylindrical Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Anodized alumina oxide (AAO) membranes offer a unique platform to investigate polymers under confinement. AAO membranes have been prepared where the diameters of the nanopores in the membrane have been varied from 8 to 50 nm by varying the anodization conditions. Capillary force is sufficiently large to draw high molecular weight polymers into the membrane, producing either nanotubes or nanorods. Polymer solutions can also be used place a thin film on the walls of the nanopores, forming nanotubes. With pore diameters less than the radius of gyration, a quantitative understanding of perturbations to chain dynamics due to geometric constraints was examined. We found a weak molecular weight-dependent mobility of polymers confined within AAO nanopores having diameters smaller than the dimension of the chains in the bulk. The measured mobility of polymers in the confined geometry was much higher than the mobility of the unconfined chain. Rayleigh instabilities in thin polymer films confined within nanoporous alumina membranes were also found where periodic undulations on the film surface were found to increase with time, eventually bridging across the cylindrical nanopore, resulting in the formation of polymer nanorods with a periodic array of encapsulated holes. With microphase separated block copolymers, where the characteristic period of the BCP morphology is comparable to the pore diameter, significant deviations from the bulk morphology as revealed by electron tomography. Small angle neutron scattering was also used to investigate the influence of cylindrical confinement on the order-to-disordered transition. This work was done in collaboration with T. J. McCarthy (UMass), K. Shin (Seoul National University), H. Jinnai (Kyoto University), D. Chen, J. Chen, H. Xiang, T. Kim, and P. Dobriyal, and was supported by the DOE, NSF MRSEC, NSF CHM.

  13. Laboratory Study on the Potential EOR Use of HPAM/VES Hybrid in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingwei Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding represents one of the most efficient processes to enhance oil recovery, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM is a widely used oil-displacement agent, but its poor thermal stability, salt tolerance, and mechanical degradation impeded its use in high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs. In this work, a novel viscoelastic surfactant, erucyl dimethyl amidobetaine (EDAB, with improved thermal stability and salinity tolerance, was complexed with HPAM to overcome the deficiencies of HPAM. The HPAM/EDAB hybrid samples were studied in comparison with HPAM and EDAB in synthetic brine regarding their rheological behaviors and core flooding experiments under simulated high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoir conditions (T: 85°C; total dissolved solids: 32,868 mg/L; [Ca2+] + [Mg2+]: 873 mg/L. It was found that the HPAM/EDAB hybrids exhibited much better heat- and salinity-tolerance and long-term thermal stability than HPAM. Core flooding tests showed that the oil recovery factors of HPAM/EDAB hybrids are between those of HPAM and EDAB. These results are attributed to the synergistic effect between HPAM and EDAB in the hybrid.

  14. Valorization and Miscellaneous Prospects of Waste Musa balbisiana Colla Pseudostem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resourceful utilization of the enormous quantum of agrowastes generated via agricultural practices can be supportive in waste management, environmental upgradation, and subsequent material and energy recovery. In this regard, the present study aimed at highlighting waste banana (Musa balbisiana Colla pseudostem (an agrowaste as a potential bio-based feedstock with miscellaneous applications. The pseudostem was characterized by carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen (CHN analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGDTA, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were estimated as a part of biochemical characterization. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were carried out as a part of antioxidant characterization. The waste banana pseudostem biomass (WBPB was also tried successfully as a natural filler in polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer composite. Thermal properties and water uptake test of the WBPB polymer composite were accessed as a part of composite characterization. The pseudostem had calorific value (15.22 MJ/kg, high holocellulose (58.67%, high free radical scavenging potential (69.9%, and a low ash content (6.8%. Additionally, the WBPB polymer composite showed improved water resistance and thermostability. The study suggests feasibility of WBPB as a prospective bioenergy feedstock, primary antioxidant source, and reinforcing agent in polymer composites.

  15. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  16. Surface tension of polymer melts - experimental investigations of its effect on polymer-polymer adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    The surface tension of polymer melts is important for the bond strength of two component polymer parts through their roles in the process of wetting, adsorption and adhesion. This investigation deals with the influence of the melt surface tension and substrate surface energy on the polymer......-polymer bond strength during two component polymer processing. Polymer materials PS, POM, ABS, PEl, PEEK and PC are chosen for the investigation. Pendant drop method showed that in case of PS and POM, the melt surface tension was decreased with increasing temperature. The substrate surface energies....... The results and discussion presented in this paper reflect the temperature dependent behaviours of the surface tension and surface energy of polymers and their effects on the polymer-polymer bond strength....

  17. Surface tension of polymer melts - experimental investigations of its effects on polymer-polymer adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    The surface tension of polymer melts is important for the bond strength of two component polymer parts through their roles in the process of wetting, adsorption and adhesion. This investigation deals with the influence of the melt surface tension and substrate surface energy on the polymer......-polymer bond strength during two component polymer processing. Polymer materials PS, POM, ABS, PEI, PEEK and PC are chosen for the investigation. Pendant drop method showed that in case of PS and POM, the melt surface tension was decreased with increasing temperature. The substrate surface energies....... The results and discussion presented in this paper reflect the temperature dependent behaviours of the surface tension and surface energy of polymers and their effects on the polymer-polymer bond strength....

  18. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  19. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  20. Piezoresistance in Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Reza

    Piezoresistivity in conductive polymer nanocomposites occurs because of the disturbance of particle networks in the polymer matrix. The piezoresistance effect becomes more prominent if the matrix material is compliant making these materials attractive for applications that require flexible force and displacement sensors such as e-textiles and biomechanical measurement devices. However, the exact mechanisms of piezoresistivity including the relationship between the matrix polymer, conductive particle, internal structure and the composite's piezoresistance need to be better understood before it can be applied for such applications. The objective of this thesis is to report on the development of conductive polymer nanocomposites for use as flexible sensors and electrodes. Electrically conductive and piezoresistive nanocomposites were fabricated by a scalable melt compounding process. Particular attention was given to elucidating the role of matrix and filler materials, plastic deformation and porosity on the electrical conduction and piezoresistance. These effects were parametrically investigated through characterizing the morphology, electrical properties, rheological properties, and piezoresistivity of the polymer nanocomposites. The electrical and rheological behavior of the nanocomposites was modeled by the percolation-power law. Furthermore, a model was developed to describe the piezoresistance behavior during plastic deformation in relation to the stress and filler concentration.

  1. Introduction to Polymer Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jarm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Presented is a condensed review of the current state of polymer nomenclature according to IUPAC recommendations. Two nomenclature systems, the source-based and the structurebased, differ on the viewpoint of how the structure of a polymer is represented and named. In the simpler and traditionally more popular source-based nomenclature, a polymer is named by attaching the prefix “poly” to the name of the starting monomer, e.g. polystyrene. This system suffers from the lack of clear definitions or rules. The more complex structure-based system consists of naming a polymer as poly(constitutional repeating unit, e.g. poly(1-phenyletane-1,2-diil. However, for the identification, orientation and naming of the preferred constitutional repeating unit, a number of principles and rules, according to the IUPAC recommended nomenclature of organic compounds, should be known and used. Application of both systems to certain polymer structures and their illustration with numerous examples are described.

  2. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  3. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of cleaning and recovery of contaminated sites rise. Large streams can also transport excess plastic waste to other areas creating a mobile contamination problem. Plastic waste comprises 60% to 80% of marine debris litter accumulated in ocean shores... consist of proteins (hair, silk, and wool). Plant fibres include bast (or stem or soft sclerenchyma) fibres, leaf or hard fibres, seed, fruit, wood, cereal straw, and other grass fibres. Knowledge of the structure of natural fibres is crucial...

  4. Converting inert plastic waste into energetic materials: A study on the light-accelerated decomposition of plastic waste with the Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Chan, Ching-Wan; Chan, Chung-Sum

    2018-01-30

    Better treatment and management strategies than landfilling are needed to address the large quantities of unrecycled plastic waste generated by daily human activities. Waste-to-energy conversion is an ideal benchmark for developing future large-scale waste management technologies. The present study explores a new approach for producing energetic materials by converting inert plastic waste into energy (thermal and mechanical energies) via a light-controlled process through the simple chemical activation of plastic waste, including polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride. The inert and non-polar polymer surfaces of the plastics were modified by generating a number of sulfonic groups (SO 3 - ) using chlorosulfuric acid, followed by grafting of Fe(III) catalyst onto the polymer chains to obtain activated polymer. Elemental analyses of these activated materials showed that the carbon-to-sulfur ratio ranged from 3:1 to 5:1. The FTIR spectra indicated the presence of CC bonds (v C=C : 1615-1630 cm -1 ) and SO bonds (v S=O : 1151-1167 cm -1 ) in the activated polymers after chemical reaction. These activated materials were energetic, as light could be used to convert them into thermal (1800-3200 J/g) and mechanical energies (380-560 kPa/g) using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under ambient conditions within 1 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  6. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  7. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik; Ambika Priyadarshini Mishra; Aishariya Durga; Gayatri Avipsa

    2016-01-01

    The towns and cities have become the centres of population growth and require three essential services viz., water supply, waste water treatment and solid wastes disposal. The tremendous increase in population accelerates the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Hence, the solid waste management (SWM) is one of the essential municipal services, to protect the environment, safeguard public health services and improve productivity.   In this context the case study is c...

  8. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  9. Polystyrene (PS) waste plastic conversion into aviation/kerosene category of fuel by using fractional column distillation process

    OpenAIRE

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman, Mohammed Molla

    2012-01-01

    Environmental degradation and depleting fuel reserves are matters of great concern around the global. Solid waste plastic is currently receiving renewed interest for fuel generation. Waste plastic to fuel is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in the world because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. A post-commercial PS polymer waste was thermal degradation and fractional distillation without cat...

  10. Toxic liquid waste handling eased with portable tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, R.D. (ABCO Industries, Roebuck, SC); Milford, C.O.; Powers, J.

    1983-03-01

    Hazardous wastes generated by the chemical processes at ABCO Industries, Roebuck, SC, are treated in the new Thermal Oxidation Division established by the firm for this purpose. The wastes result from the production of acrylic polymers for textile sizing. ABCO also treats hazardous wastes received from other firms that generate the material and require a suitable means of disposal. The highly effective treatment provided by the facility has attracted clients from afar. ABCO is currently receiving waste shipments from as far north as Massachusetts and as far west as the Mississippi River. Most of the volume, however, originates within a 200-mile radius of the plant. The portable tanks used by these shippers have simplified their transport problems and have enabled them to abide by federal and state regulations effectively.

  11. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  12. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  13. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  14. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  15. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  16. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  17. Adaptable Polymer Microsrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Crosby, Alfred J.

    2008-03-01

    Adaptable polymer particles that can change geometry, flow characteristics, and adsorption properties upon the stimulation of an environmental change, such as temperature are fabricated by utilizing the residual stress developed at the interface of a bilayer. We propose a phase diagram that can be used to predict the shape and the size of the adaptive polymer particles as a function of the materials modulus, thickness ratio and the bilayer's lateral dimensions. The method is applicable to any material combination that satisfies the design equations. The materials used in this work are gold/titanium (Au/Ti) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Initial demonstrations of this responsive control and its impact on properties of the adaptive polymer particles are also presented. These structures combined with their demonstrated reversibility have potential as capsules in drug delivery systems and novel conductive composites.

  18. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Rheology of Supramolecular Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    Supramolecular polymers are a broad class of materials that include all polymerscapable of associating via secondary interactions. These materials represent an emerging class of systems with superior versatility compared to classical polymers with applications in food stuff, coatings, cost...... efficient processes or biomedical areas. Design and development of supramolecular polymers using ionic, hydrogen bonding or transition metal complexes with tailored properties requires deep understanding of dynamics both in linear and non-linear deformations. While linear rheology is important to understand...... is often desirable. Such data is also needed to develop sophisticated multiscale models that can later be used for predicting the flow behavior and molecular dynamics of supramolecular networks.This thesis focuses on the experimental rheological study of two class of supramolecularpolymers namely: (a...

  20. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  1. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...... of this mechanism were investigated through a series of interaction experiments. Despite a very buried location in the native structure, evidence here suggest that the C-terminal tail is labile under slightly destabilizing conditions, providing new detail to this matter. A small infectious polymer unit was also...... constructed and used to show how polymerogenic seeding and polymer propagation might happen inside the body. The locking of central structural elements during α1AT folding or in the native state represents a therapeutic strategy to prevent polymerization. Using Molecular Dynamics simulations, we identified...

  2. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  3. Acoustomechanics of semicrystalline polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxian Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop an acoustomechanical theory for semicrystalline polymers and demonstrate that acoustic radiation force is capable of causing giant deformation in these materials. When a polymer layer is subjected to combined tensile mechanical force in plane and acoustic force (sound pressure through thickness, it becomes initially homogeneously thin but soon inhomogeneous when the two forces reach critical conditions. Critical conditions for such acoustomechanical instability are theoretically determined based on the J2-deformation theory. We demonstrate that pull-in instability can be acoustically triggered even if the in-plane mechanical force is fixed. Bifurcation in the critical condition for acoustomechanical instability occurs when the polymer exhibits sufficiently large hardening. The findings of this study enable reliability design of novel acoustic actuated devices.

  4. Flame spraying of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M. [Protech Laboratory Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kirk, S.M. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs.

  5. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  6. Electric field induced dewetting at polymer/polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.Q.; Kerle, T.; Russell, T.P.; Schäffer, E.; Steiner, U

    2002-01-01

    External electric fields were used to amplify interfacial fluctuations in the air/polymer/polymer system where one polymer dewets the other. Two different hydrodynamic regimes were found as a function of electric field strength. If heterogeneous nucleation leads to the formation of holes before the

  7. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 3 ... Polymer is an important constituent of polymer gel electrolytes along with salt and solvent. ... Although the polymer added provides mechanical stability to the electrolytes yet its effect on the conductivity behaviour of gel electrolytes as well as the interaction ...

  8. Dzīves mērķi un psiholoģiskā labklājība reliģiskām organizācijām piederošiem un nepiederošiem jauniešiem

    OpenAIRE

    Ikauniece, Signe

    2009-01-01

    Šī pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot, vai pastāv psiholoģiskās labklājības un dzīves mērķu rādītāju atšķirības reliģiskām organizācijām piederošiem un nepiederošiem jauniešiem; kādas ir saistību atšķirības starp dzīves mērķiem un psiholoģisko labklājību abās izlasēs; visbeidzot, kāda ir saistība starp dzīves mērķiem un reliģisko internalizāciju reliģiskām organizācijām piederošiem jauniešiem. Pētījuma dalībnieki ir 30 jaunieši, kas pieder kādai reliģiskai organizācijai (katoļi, luterāņi), kā arī ...

  9. Use of waste plastic materials for road construction in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kwabena Appiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper forms part of research to solve two main problems in Ghana: firstly, the management of municipal solid waste (MSW, particularly with regards to used plastics which have overwhelmed major cities and towns; secondly, the formation of potholes onroads due to excessive traffic and axle weight. This study examines the effect of blending waste thermoplastic polymers, namely High density polyethylene (HDPE and Polypropylene (PP in Conventional AC-20 graded bitumen, at various plastic compositions. The plastics were shredded and blended with the bitumen ‘in-situ’, with a shear mixer at a temperature range of 160 °C–170 °C. Basic rheological parameters such as penetration, ring & ball softening point and viscosity tests were employed to determine the resulting changes from base bitumen.FTIR spectroscopy was also employed to study the chemical functionalities present in the bitumen composite. The properties of the unmodified bitumen were found to be enhanced with the changes recorded in the rheological properties of the polymer modified bitumen (PMB. It was observed that polypropylene polymer, showed profound effect on homogeneity and compatibility with slight linear increment in the viscosity, softening and penetration values as against relatively high changes for HDPE modified bitumen.The viscosity of unmodified bitumen was enhanced with the addition of the polymers and thixotropic effect was observed for both HDPE and PP at 60 °C. For all modified binders prepared, the penetration values decrease as polymer-bitumen ratio increases whiles softening temperature generally increases as polymer ratio increases. The most compatible and incompatible blends for HDPE were respectively observed at 2% and 3% polymer loading. The most enhanced, homogenous blend is achieved with PP at 3% polymer loading. Three prominent peaks were identified in the spectrum of the unmodified bitumen, occurring at the 3000–2850 cm−1 IR frequency range

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopy in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raja, T.N.; Brouwer, A.M.; Demchenko, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer science is an interdisciplinary field, combining chemistry, physics, and in some cases biology. Structure, morphology, and dynamical phenomena in natural and synthetic polymers can be addressed using fluorescence spectroscopy. The most attractive aspect of fluorescent reporters is that their

  11. Polymer Chemistry in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

  12. Edible Polymers: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas C. Shit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible polymers have established substantial deliberation in modern eons because of their benefits comprising use as edible materials over synthetic polymers. This could contribute to the reduction of environmental contamination. Edible polymers can practically diminish the complexity and thus improve the recyclability of materials, compared to the more traditional non-environmentally friendly materials and may be able to substitute such synthetic polymers. A synthetic hydrogel polymer unlocked a new possibility for development of films, coatings, extrudable pellets, and synthetic nanopolymers, particularly designed for medical, agricultural, and industrial fields. Edible polymers offer many advantages for delivering drugs and tissue engineering. Edible polymer technology helps food industries to make their products more attractive and safe to use. Novel edible materials have been derived from many natural sources that have conventionally been regarded as discarded materials. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive introduction to edible polymers by providing descriptions in terms of their origin, properties, and potential uses.

  13. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  14. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  15. Shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  16. Delocalization in polymer models

    CERN Document Server

    Jitomirskaya, S Yu; Stolz, G

    2003-01-01

    A polymer model is a one-dimensional Schroedinger operator composed of two finite building blocks. If the two associated transfer matrices commute, the corresponding energy is called critical. Such critical energies appear in physical models, an example being the widely studied random dimer model. Although the random models are known to have pure-point spectrum with exponentially localized eigenstates for almost every configuration of the polymers, the spreading of an initially localized wave packet is here proven to be at least diffusive for every configuration.

  17. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  18. Polymers at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Shao-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Kalia and Fu's novel monograph covers cryogenic treatment, properties and applications of cryo-treated polymer materials. Written by numerous international experts, the twelve chapters in this book offer the reader a comprehensive picture of the latest findings and developments, as well as an outlook on the field. Cryogenic technology has seen remarkable progress in the past few years and especially cryogenic properties of polymers are attracting attention through new breakthroughs in space, superconducting, magnetic and electronic techniques. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, educators, engineers and graduate students in the field and at technical institutions.

  19. Nanoparticles from Renewable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Roman Wurm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin or by complex structure (proteins, lignin. This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.

  20. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  1. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P. [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  2. Dzīves mērķu saistība ar orientāciju uz laimi un to nozīme apmierinātībā ar dzīvi

    OpenAIRE

    Dzelzkalēja, Elīna

    2015-01-01

    Šī pētījuma mērķis bija izpētīt dažādu orientācijas uz laimi veidu un cilvēku mērķu nozīmi apmierinātībā ar dzīvi, kā arī šo mainīgo lielumu savstarpējo saistību. 158 respondenti (128 sievietes; 30 vīrieši; vidējais vecums – 27,38 gadi) atbildēja uz jautājumiem par apmierinātību ar dzīvi, saviem mērķiem un orientāciju uz laimi. Pētījumā izmantotās metodes: „Apmierinātības ar dzīvi” aptauja, „Dzīves mērķu skala” un „Orientācijas uz laimi aptauja”, kuras sākotnējā adaptācija veikta šī maģist...

  3. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  4. Degradable Polymers for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Joel; Bhise, Nupura; Green, Jordan J.

    2014-01-01

    Degradable polymers were synthesized that self-assemble with DNA to form particles that are effective for gene delivery. Small changes to polymer synthesis conditions, particle formulation conditions, and polymer structure led to significant changes to efficacy in a cell-type dependent manner. Polymers presented here are more effective than Lipofectamine 2000 or polyethylenimine for gene delivery to cancerous fibroblasts or human primary fibroblasts. These materials may be useful for cancer therapeutics and regenerative medicine. PMID:19964958

  5. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  6. Scaling exponents of star polymers

    OpenAIRE

    von Ferber, Christian; Holovatch, Yurij

    2002-01-01

    We review recent results of the field theoretical renormalization group analysis on the scaling properties of star polymers. We give a brief account of how the numerical values of the exponents governing the scaling of star polymers were obtained as well as provide some examples of the phenomena governed by these exponents. In particular we treat the interaction between star polymers in a good solvent, the Brownian motion near absorbing polymers, and diffusion-controlled reactions involving p...

  7. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    is potentially the case for microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs). Another advantage is that polymer materials have a higher biocompatibility than silica, meaning that it is easier to bond certain types of biosensor materials to a polymer surface than to silica. As with silica PCFs, it is difficult...

  8. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  9. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  10. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  11. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  12. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited...... and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  13. Mechanical Properties of Renewable Polymer with Thermoplastics Endurance to Ultraviolet irradiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Nurul Syamimi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the disposal of waste tyre rubber (WTR has become a major waste management problem in the world. Therefore in this study, polymer blended based on Polyethylene which is Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE or High Density Polyethylene (HDPE, with Renewable Polymer (RP and waste tyre rubber (WTR is prepared via injection molding. Blended polymer such as LDPE/RP/WTR and HDPE/RP/WTR is known as LRT and HRT respectively. The preparation of polymer blend steps start with the preparation of RP. The RP is prepared by crosslinking the renewable monomer with Polymethane Polyphenyl Isocyanate (MDI at composition ratio of 1:0.5. The second steps involved by adding 10 gm of liquid RP prepared earlier on with fixed amount of LDPE and HDPE of 100 gm. Then the blended LDPE/RP or HDPE/RP namely as LR or HR respectively is further added with WTR with different percentages ratio of 5 %, 10 % and 15 %. The manually blended polymer mixture and filler is then melt mixing using injection moulding to fabricate the tensile specimen for mechanical tensile test and physical determination such as density, distribution of WTR in polymer blend and surface fracture morphology using scanning electron microscope. The samples were then exposed to UV irradiation exposure in UV Accelerated Weathering for 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 hours to evaluate the photostability of the polymer blends. The optimum amount of WTR ratio composition is at 5 % for both LRT and HRT blends which indicate the stability of polymer blends towards UV irradiation exposure at 1000 hours.

  14. Knots in polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Knots and topological entanglements play an important role in the statistical mechanics of polymers. While topological entanglement is a global property, it is possible to study the size of a knotted region both numerically and analytically. It can be shown that long-range repulsive interactions, as well as entropy favor small ...

  15. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  16. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaou, N.; Karagianni, L.; Sarakiniatti, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) have been used in many applications over the years, from new construction to retrofitting. They are lightweight, no-corrosive, exhibit high specific strength and specific

  17. BIOCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the object of the article to review the specific hydrolytic, redox, and electron transfer reactions involving enzymes and their mechanisms...The stability of the synthetic high polymers in the biochemical environments is much higher than that of proteins in general, but the increasing use of

  18. Semi-metallic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report th...... a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics.......Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report...... that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being...

  19. Knots in polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Knots and topological entanglements play an important role in the statistical mechanics of polymers. While topological entanglement is a global property, it is possible to study the size of a knotted region both numerically and analytically. It can be shown that long-range repulsive interactions, as well as entropy ...

  20. The Usage Of Nutshell In The Production of Polypropylene Based on Polymer Composite Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akbaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been commonly utilized to reinforced materials for many years. Recently due to advantages of natural fibers such as low cost, high physical and mechanical resistance are produced plastic-composite materials by mixing various proportions. In addition, plastic composites are used natural fibers include agricultural wastes (wheat straw, rice straw, hemp fiber, shells of various dry fruits, etc.. In this study, polymer composites were manufactured using waste nutshell flour as filler and polypropylene (PP as polymer matrix. The nutshell-PP composites were manufactured via extrusion and compression methods. The final product tested to determine their tensile, flexural, impact strength properties as well as some physical features such as thickness swelling and water absorptions. The best results were obtained composites containing 30% nutshell flour. In addition, composites which were produced nutshell provided the values of ASTM D6662 standard. The data collected in our country which waste a large portion of nutshell allows for the evaluation of the production polymer composites. The incorporation of nutshell flour feasible to produce plastic composites when appropriate formulations were used. As a result hazelnut shell which was considered agricultural waste can be utilized in polymer composite production.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Burdonov; V.V. Barakhtenko; E.V. Zelinskaya; E.O. Suturina; A.V. Burdonova; A.V. Golovnina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will ...

  2. Mechanical characterization using optical fiber sensors of polyester polymer concrete made with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable management of solid wastes encourages metallurgic and metal-mechanic industries to look for safety applications for their wastes, thereby attenuating the environmental impact or lowering the costs. The study herein proposes strain monitoring the recycling of foundry sand with organic pollutants, as inert, in the manufacturing process of polymer concrete using optical fiber sensors. This work also analyzes the compressive strength of polyester polymer concrete made with foundry waste, i.e., recycled foundry sand and polyester polymer concrete made with fresh sand. The foundry sands are contaminated with Sodium Silicate from the mould-making process. Polymer Concrete (PC is a composite material in which the binder consists entirely of a synthetic organic polymer. Optical fiber sensors present a great deal of potential in monitoring the structural health condition of materials. Experimental results show that the use of the embedded FBG sensor can accurately measure strain, providing information to the operator that the structure is subjected to failure. Multiplexed FBG strain sensors enable measuring strain in different locations by occupying only one tiny optical fiber.

  3. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  4. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force...

  5. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimblin, Clare; Miller, Kirk; Vogel, Bob; Quam, Bill; McHugh, Harry; Anthony, Glen; Mike, Grover

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

  6. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  7. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings......Informed decisions regarding new recycling schemes require waste characterisation studies which provide in addition to data on waste amounts and the share of recyclable fractions, accurate data on physico-chemical characteristics of the waste materials considering the material specific input...... were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...

  8. Quality restoration of waste polyolefin plastic material through the dissolution-reprecipitation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Jasim Arkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the restoration of waste plastic polymers based on LDPE, HDPE or PP through dissolution/reprecipitation. Experimental conditions of the recycling process, including type of solvent/non-solvent, original polymer concentration and dissolution temperature were optimized. Results revealed that by using the different prepared solvents/non-solvents at various ratios and temperatures, the polymer recovery was always greater than 94%. The FTIR spectra and the thermal properties (melting point and crystallinity of the polymers before and after recycling were measured using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Mechanical properties of the waste polymer before and after recycling were also measured. Besides small occasional deviations, the properties did not change. The tensile strength at maximum load was 7.1, 18.8, and 7.4 MPa for the recycled LDPE, HDPE and PP, respectively and 7.78, 18.54 and 7.86 MPa for the virgin polymer. For the waste, the strength was 6.2, 15.58 and 6.76 MPa.

  9. Polymer additives for engine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.K.; Saxton, R.G. [Texaco R and D, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Polymers and oligomers are an important area of research for the oil industry, and many uses for them have been discovered over the years. One important application for polymers is in crankcase lubricants, in which various specialty polymers and copolymers are used as viscosity modifiers, dispersants, and pour-point depressants. These polymers give an oil all-season properties and are the most effective additives in producing multigrade oils. Polymer structures can be modified to produce multi-functional polymer additives that improve the viscosity index and impart other properties to the oil (i.e., dispersancy, antioxidant, and antiwear properties). In this article the authors will present an overview of the role of polymers in crankcase lubricants and then describe some work Texaco has done in the field.

  10. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  11. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  12. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  13. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling waste water.

  14. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  15. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer/Polymer grafted nanoparticle composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lynden

    Addition of nanoparticles to polymers is a well-practiced methodology for augmenting various properties of the polymer host, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, barrier properties, dimensional stability and wear resistance. Many of these property changes are known to arise from nanoparticle-induced modification of polymer structure and chain dynamics, which are strong functions of the dispersion state of the nanoparticles' and on their relative size (D) to polymer chain dimensions (e.g. Random coil radius Rg or entanglement mesh size a) . This talk will discuss polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) comprised of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PEG) dispersed in polymers as model systems for investigating phase stability and dynamics of PNCs. On the basis of small-angle X-ray Scattering, it will be shown that favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered chains and a polymer host provides an important mechanism for creating PNCs in which particle aggregation is avoided. The talk will report on polymer and particle scale dynamics in these materials and will show that grafted nanoparticles well dispersed in a polymer host strongly influence the host polymer relaxation dynamics on all timescales and the polymers in turn produce dramatic changes in the nature (from diffusive to hyperdiffusive) and speed of nano particle decorrelation dynamics at the polymer entanglement threshold. A local viscosity model capable of explaining these observations is discussed and the results compared with scaling theories for NP motions in polymers This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation Award Nos. DMR-1609125 and CBET-1512297.

  16. An efficient method of material recycling of municipal plastic waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Michálková, Danuše; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2004), s. 975-979 ISSN 0141-3910. [IUPAC Microsymposium on Degradation, Stabilisation and Recycling of Polymers /42./. Prague, 14.07.2003-17.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : recycling * municipal plastic waste * compatibilisation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  17. Coarse-graining polymers as soft colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, A.A.; Bolhuis, P. G.; Finken, R.; Krakoviack, V.; de Meijer, E. J.; Hansen, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We show how to coarse grain polymers in a good solvent as single particles, interacting with density-independent or density-dependent interactions. These interactions can be between the centres of mass, the mid-points or end-points of the polymers. We also show how to extend these methods to polymers in poor solvents and mixtures of polymers. Treating polymers as soft colloids can greatly speed up the simulation of complex many-polymer systems, including polymer-colloid mixtures.

  18. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  19. Experimental investigation on the effects of recycled aggregate on fracture behavior of polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable management of solid wastes stimulates metallurgic and metal mechanics industries to look for safety applications for these wastes. The present paper examines the fracture behavior of polymer concrete (PC manufactured with recycled foundry waste in substitution of fresh one. The recycled foundry sand is contaminated with polymer resin from the mold making process. Epoxy and unsaturated polyester resins were used as binder as cement substitute. The fracture results are analyzed by fracture energy; Gf, fracture toughness, K Ic, and the crack tip opening displacement, CTOD. It is found that the use of recycled foundry sand significantly influences the fracture properties. The use of recycled sand increase fracture toughness and similar fracture energy is observed. These results show that recycled sand is an excellent alternative as raw material.

  20. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  1. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  2. Polymer Physics Prize Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    Polymer electrolytes have been particularly difficult to describe theoretically given the large number of disparate length scales involved in determining their physical properties. The Debye length, the Bjerrum length, the ion size, the chain length, and the distance between the charges along their backbones determine their structure and their response to external fields. We have developed an approach that uses multi-scale calculations with the capability of demonstrating the phase behavior of polymer electrolytes and of providing a conceptual understanding of how charge dictates nano-scale structure formation. Moreover, our molecular dynamics simulations have provided an understanding of the coupling of their conformation to their dynamics, which is crucial to design self-assembling materials, as well as to explore the dynamics of complex electrolytes for energy storage and conversion applications.

  3. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-03-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  4. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  5. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  6. On Value and Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Value and waste are concepts that are used in improvement projects. In lean the concepts are fairly simple. Reduce the waste and the value has increased. However, value is both multidimensional and differs over time. If the concepts value and waste are to be used, the concepts must be clearly defined and measured. Otherwise, value can be reduced for the customer/user and the cost increased for the producer/seller. The purpose in this thesis is to investigate how value and waste are perceived ...

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  8. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  9. Metal phthalocyanine polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4", 4"'=tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  10. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  11. [Hemocompatibility testing of polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfert, U T; Perkins, S; Kümmel, M

    1996-01-01

    Haemoincompatibility induced by contact with artificial materials is a major obstacle to further development of artificial organs and accounts for much of morbidity in circumstances when the blood is circulated through an extracorporeal system or a catheter is placed. Material's testing was performed using different models and a score system (0-60 scorepoints) was developed. Our models can characterize ex vivo haemocompatibility of different polymers. Flow characteristics and preanalytical effects (e.g. anticoagulants) may not be neglected.

  12. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  13. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Karpunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The executed investigations have made it possible to ascertain that a morphological structure of starch granules mainly determine technological peculiarities of starch isolation from raw material, its modification and its later use. Morphological structure of starch granules primarily depends on type of plant starch-containing raw material which has been used for its isolation. Class of raw material exerts a strong impact on the shape and size of the granules. Linear “light” amylose chains and “heavy” amylopectin branch chains form a starch granule ultrastructure. X-ray research has proved that starch granules are characterized by presence of interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. In this case polymer orientation using stretching of the obtained end product influences on its physical and mechanical  indices which are increasing due to polymer orientation. For the purpose of packaging orientation of polymer films can solve such important problems as significant improvement of operational properties, creation of  thermosetting film materials, improvement of qualitative indices of the recycled film.Results of the conducted research have proved the fact that it is necessary to make changes in technology in order to increase biological degradability of the recycled packaging made from polymers and improve physical and mechanical indices. In this regard film production technology presupposes usage of such substances as stark and others which are characterized by rather large presence of branch chains of molecules and interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. Such approach makes it possible to obtain after-use package which is strong and quickly degradable by micro-organisms.

  15. Dynamics of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, U. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    1996-11-01

    Neutron scattering from amorphous polymers allows to switch from incoherent to coherent scattering in the same substance. The power of the tool for the study of the picosecond dynamics of disordered matter is illustrated for polybutadiene, polycarbonate and polystyrene. The results suggest a mixture of sound waves and localized modes, strongly interacting with each other, in the picosecond range. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 39 refs.

  16. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  17. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  18. Simulated Associating Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Joris

    Telechelic associating polymer networks consist of polymer chains terminated by endgroups that have a different chemical composition than the polymer backbone. When dissolved in a solution, the endgroups cluster together to form aggregates. At low temperature, a strongly connected reversible network is formed and the system behaves like a gel. Telechelic networks are of interest since they are representative for biopolymer networks (e.g. F-actin) and are widely used in medical applications (e.g. hydrogels for tissue engineering, wound dressings) and consumer products (e.g. contact lenses, paint thickeners). In this thesis such systems are studied by means of a molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo simulation. At first, the system in rest is studied by means of graph theory. The changes in network topology upon cooling to the gel state, are characterized. Hereto an extensive study of the eigenvalue spectrum of the gel network is performed. As a result, an in-depth investigation of the eigenvalue spectra for spatial ER, scale-free, and small-world networks is carried out. Next, the gel under the application of a constant shear is studied, with a focus on shear banding and the changes in topology under shear. Finally, the relation between the gel transition and percolation is discussed.

  19. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  20. COAL/POLYMER COPROCESSING WITH EFFICIENT USE OF HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. LINDA J. BROADBELT; MATTHEW J. DE WITT

    1997-03-20

    Environmental and economical concerns over diminishing landfill space and the growing abundance of mixed plastic waste mandate development of viable strategies for recovering high-valued resources from waste polymers. Co-processing of waste polymer mixtures with coal allows for the simultaneous conversion of coal and plastics into high-valued fuels. However, there is limited information about the underlying reaction pathways, kinetics, and mechanisms controlling coal liquefaction in the presence of polymeric materials. A series of model compound experiments has been conducted, providing a starting point for unraveling the complex, underlying chemistry. Neat pyrolysis studies of model compounds of polyethylene and coal were conducted in batch reactors. Tetradecane (C{sub 14} H{sub 30} ) was used as a polyethylene mimic, and 4-(naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM) was used as a coal model compound. Reaction temperatures were 420 and 500 C, and batch reaction times ranged from 5--150 minutes. Detailed product analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry enabled the reactant conversion and product selectivities to be determined. Reaction of single components and binary mixtures allowed the kinetic coupling between feedstocks to be examined.

  1. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  2. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  3. Recovery of metals from simulant spent lithium-ion battery as organophosphonate coordination polymers in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Emilie; Andre, Marie-Laure; Navarro Amador, Ricardo [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Hyvrard, François; Borrini, Julien [SARPI VEOLIA, Direction Technique et Innovations, Zone portuaire de Limay-Porcheville, 427 route du Hazay, 78520 Limay (France); Carboni, Michaël, E-mail: michael.carboni@cea.fr [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Meyer, Daniel [ICSM, Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/UM, Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Original waste disposal strategies for battery. • Precipitation of metals as coordination polymers. • Organo-phosphonate coordination polymers. • Selective extraction of manganese or co-precipitation of manganese/cobalt. • The recycling process give a promising application on any waste solution. - Abstract: An innovative approach is proposed for the recycling of metals from a simulant lithium-ion battery (LIBs) waste aqueous solution. Phosphonate organic linkers are introduced as precipitating agents to selectively react with the metals to form coordination polymers from an aqueous solution containing Ni, Mn and Co in a hydrothermal process. The supernatant is analyzed by ICP-AES to quantify the efficiency and the selectivity of the precipitation and the materials are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) and nitrogen gas sorption (BET). Conditions have been achieved to selectively precipitate Manganese or Manganese/Cobalt from this solution with a high efficiency. This work describes a novel method to obtain potentially valuable coordination polymers from a waste metal solution that can be generalized on any waste solution.

  4. Writing on polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jean-François

    2013-11-19

    Synthetic polymer materials are currently limited by their inability to store information in their chains, unlike some well-characterized biopolymers. Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information, and amino acids encode the complex tridimensional structures and functions within proteins. To confer similar properties on synthetic materials, researchers must develop"writing" mechanisms, facile chemical pathways that allow control over the primary structure of synthetic polymer chains. The most obvious way to control the primary structure is to connect monomer units one-by-one in a given order using iterative chemistry. Although such synthesis strategies are commonly used to produce peptides and nucleic acids, they produce limited yields and are much slower than natural polymerization mechanisms. An alternative strategy would be to use multiblock copolymers with blocks that have specified sequences. In this case, however, the basic storage element is not a single molecular unit, but a longer block composed of several repeating units. However, the synthesis of multiblock copolymers is long and tedious. Therefore, researchers will need to develop other strategies for writing information onto polymer chains. In this Account, I describe our recent progress in the development of sequence controlled polymerization methods. Although our research focuses on different strategies, we have emphasized sequence-regulation in chain-growth polymerization processes. Chain-growth polymerizations, particularly radical polymerization, are very convenient methods for synthesizing polymers. However, in most cases, such approaches do not lead to controlled monomer sequences. During the last five years, we have shown that controlled/living chain-growth polymerization mechanisms offer interesting advantages for sequence regulation. In such mechanisms, the chains form gradually over time, and therefore the primary structure can be tuned by using time-controlled monomer additions. For

  5. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  6. Waste management and the workplace*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    . 48 For instance, the City's Solid Waste Department argues that specialised, expensive recycling equipment is required at drop-off centres to recycle garden waste and building rubble. Also, the compactor trucks used for waste collection are ...

  7. Claisen thermally rearranged (CTR) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Alberto; Rangou, Sofia; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers, which are considered the next-generation of membrane materials because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability, are proven to have significant drawbacks because of the high temperature required for the rearrangement and low degree of conversion during this process. We demonstrate that using a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, the temperature required for the rearrangement of a solid glassy polymer was reduced by 200°C. Conversions of functionalized polyimide to polybenzoxazole of more than 97% were achieved. These highly mechanically stable polymers were almost five times more permeable and had more than two times higher degrees of conversion than the reference polymer treated under the same conditions. Properties of these second-generation TR polymers provide the possibility of preparing efficient polymer membranes in a form of, for example, thin-film composite membranes for various gas and liquid membrane separation applications. PMID:27482538

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  9. Terminology of Polymers Containing Ionizable or Ionic Groups and of Polymers Containing Ions, VII.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of ionic polymers has widespread application in many areas of everyday life, in industrial production, and in the processes of living matter. The properties of ionic polymers depend on the polymer structure, and the nature, content, and location of the ionic groups. To clear differences among various ionic polymers, the IUPAC recommendations present 34 definitionsfor the ionomer, polyacid, polybase, polyampholytic polymer, ion-exchange polymer, polybetaine, polyelectrolyte, intrinsically conducting polymer, solid polymer electrolyte, etc

  10. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  11. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  12. Polymer brushes under high load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Balko

    Full Text Available Polymer coatings are frequently used to provide repulsive forces between surfaces in solution. After 25 years of design and study, a quantitative model to explain and predict repulsion under strong compression is still lacking. Here, we combine experiments, simulations, and theory to study polymer coatings under high loads and demonstrate a validated model for the repulsive forces, proposing that this universal behavior can be predicted from the polymer solution properties.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  14. Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.

  15. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  16. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  17. Food-Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2017-10-01

    Literature published in 2016 and early 2017 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  18. Nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  19. Waste statistics 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  20. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Waste Sector, as with many sectors of the economy, is responding to the call to transition to a Green Economy. Globally, waste management is changing from one of ‘collect-transport-dispose’, to one of ‘secondary resource management’, driven...