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Sample records for verticillata lf royle

  1. Responses of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guidi; Wu, Zhonghua; Yin, Jun; Chai, Lulu

    2018-02-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is frequently detected in water bodies and is harmful to aquatic systems. We conducted an experiment to explore the ecological sensitivity of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate. Our research focused on the physiological responses of H. verticillata and V. natans after exposure to various concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 80 mg/L) in hydroponic culture after one day (1D) and seven days (7D). The results show that after 1D, the soluble protein content of H. verticillata was significantly stimulated under low herbicide concentrations. Other indices for H. verticillata and V. natans had no remarkable changes at 1D. After 7D of treatment, the soluble protein content of H. verticillata showed no significant differences, while the malondialdehyde (MDA), pigment contents and catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased at low glyphosate concentrations. Guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity in H. verticillata significantly increased with increasing herbicide concentrations. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of H. verticillata sharply decreased above 10 mg/L. For V. natans, soluble protein, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid content; and CAT activity declined significantly after glyphosate application, while other indicators showed no significant changes. Our results indicate that glyphosate concentrations from 0 to 80 mg/L can induce oxidative stress in H. verticillate and may impede metabolism processes for protein and pigments without causing oxidative stress in V. natans. Taken together, our results suggest that the sensitivity of H. verticillata to glyphosate exposure is higher than that of V. natans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    genetic clusters . ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-32 February 2014 3 Benoit (2011) built upon these early studies and conducted a formal cladistic analysis of...Schnell. 1997. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the phonetic relationships among world-wide accessions of Hydrilla verticillata. Aquatic

  3. Integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement in leaves of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arkajo; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Directional chloroplast photorelocation is a major physio-biochemical mechanism that allows these organelles to realign themselves intracellularly in response to the intensity of the incident light as an adaptive response. Signaling processes involved in blue light (BL)-dependent chloroplast movements were investigated in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle leaves. Treatments with antagonists of actin filaments [2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA)] and microtubules (oryzalin) revealed that actin filaments, but not microtubules, play a pivotal role in chloroplast movement. Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in controlling chloroplast avoidance movement has been demonstrated, as exogenous H2O2 not only accelerated chloroplast avoidance but also could induce chloroplast avoidance even in weak blue light (WBL). Further support came from experiments with different ROS scavengers, i.e., dimethylthiourea (DMTU), KI, and CuCl2, which inhibited chloroplast avoidance, and from ROS localization using specific stains. Such avoidance was also partially inhibited by ZnCl2, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) as well as 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a photosynthetic electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitor at PS II. However, methyl viologen (MV), a PS I ETC inhibitor, rather accelerated avoidance response. Exogenous calcium (Ca(+2)) induced avoidance even in WBL while inhibited chloroplast accumulation partially. On the other hand, chloroplast movements (both accumulation and avoidance) were blocked by Ca(+2) antagonists, La(3+) (inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca(+2) channel) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca(+2) chelator) while LiCl that affects Ca(+2) release from endosomal compartments did not show any effect. A model on integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) (influx from apolastic space) in actin-mediated chloroplast avoidance has been proposed.

  4. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic effects of heavy metal pollutants on senescence in submerged aquatic plants. [Potamogeton pectinatus L. , Vallisneria spiralis L. , Hydrialla Verticillata (L. f. ) Royle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, S.; Choudhuri, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of many combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants, viz., mercuric chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride and cupric sulphate, on the senescence of isolated mature leaves of submerged aquatic plants, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Vallisneria spiralis L., and Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metal pollutants caused senescence in all three species by decreasing chlorophyll, DNA, RNA, protein and dry wt, and increasing free amino acid, tissue permeability, the activities of protease and RNase, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. The effects were highest in Potamogeton and lowest in Hydrilla. The degree of senescence in the three submerged plants by combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants is much higher due to synergism than that by individual heavy metal pollutants.

  6. Do the U.S. Dioecious and Monoecious biotypes of Hydrilla verticillata L.F. Royle hybridize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical note reports the results of two studies to address the question of whether the two hydrilla biotypes present in the U.S. can hybridize. These include whether hybridization can occur under controlled conditions and in field populations where the two hybrids coexist in close proximity ...

  7. Hydrilla verticillata employs two different ways to affect DNA methylation under excess copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danlu; Zhuang, Kai; Xia, Yan; Zhu, Changhua; Chen, Chen; Hu, Zhubing; Shen, Zhenguo

    2017-12-01

    Because of the accumulation of heavy metals, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, a rooted submerged perennial aquatic herb, is being developed as a potential tool to clean the aquatic ecosystem polluted by heavy metals. However, its physiological responses for heavy metal remain to be elucidated. Here, through employing proteomics approach, we found that excess Cu significantly induced the expressions of four DNA methylation related proteins in H. verticillata, which were the homologues of two domains rearranged methyltransferases (DRM), a methyltransferases chromomethylase (CMT) and a histone H3 lysine-9 specific SUVH6-like (SUVH6). Consistently, a dramatic change in DNA methylation patterns was detected in excess Cu-exposed H. verticillata. Surprisingly, administration of the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMZ) that block production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could trigger the remethylation of genomic sites that were demethylated by excess Cu, indicating that Cu-induced ROS might be another way to affect DNA methylation. Further analysis suggested this changed DNA methylation may be owing to the ROS-induced DNA damage. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that two different ways to influence DNA methylation in excess Cu-treated H. verticillata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Growth and Rooting Depth Characteristics of Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Myriophyllum Spicatum L. on Fertilized and Unfertilized Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Bremner, J. M. (1965). "Inorganic forms of nitrogen." Methods of soil analy- sis, Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties . C. A. Black, ed... demands of Myriophyllum and Hydrilla were reflected in patterns of N and P removal from low-N sediment (Fig- ures 13 and 14). Depressed concentrations of...Cambridge. Barkham, J. P. (1980). "Population dynamics of the wild daffodil ( Narcissus pseudonarsissus) Il. Oranges in number of shoots and flowers

  9. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/02/0156-0162. Keywords. Hydrilla verticillata; keystone species; invasive weeds; carbon sequestration; bioremediation; AVM disease. Author Affiliations. Stephen Sumithran1 P J Sanjeeva Raj. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY. 40475 ...

  11. Recording Fathometer Techniques for Determining Distribution and Biomass of Hydrilla verticillata Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    cover, and distance from the top of vegetation to the water surface, were calculated from the graph paper utilizing a 25-cm ruler, planim- eter, and... Hyacinth Contr. J. 13:48-50. Hestand, R. S., and C. C. Carter. 1974. The effects of a winter draw- down on aquatic vegetation in a shallow water ...reservoir. Hyacinth Contr. J. 12:9-12. 44 Hestand, R. S., B. E. May, D. P. Schultz, and C. R. Walker. 1973. Eco- logical implications of water levels on

  12. Abietane diterpeniods from Hyptis verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Roy B R; Biggs, Duanne A C; Reynolds, William F

    2009-01-01

    Seven abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Hyptis verticillata (Labiatae). One is a novel natural product, 7-acetoxy-16-benzoxy-12-hydroxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (1), while the other six known compounds are 11,14 dihydroxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-7-one (2), 11,14-dihydroxy-12-methoxy- 18(4-->3betaH) abeo-abieta-4(19),8,11,13-tetraene-7-one (3), 7-acetoxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (4), royleanone (5), 7,6-dehydroroyleanone (6) and 7-acetoxyhorminone (7). All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and mass spectrometric means.

  13. Effects of nitric oxide on the growth and antioxidant response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results provided the evidence that 25 - 100 μM SNP increased the growth of H. verticillata by alleviating the oxidative stress and 200 - 400 μM SNP might enhance the oxidative stress in plant cell. The results suggested that NO has dual role on the growth and ROS metabolism of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

  14. Biomass expansion factors of Olea ferruginea (Royle) in sub tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood biomass gives information about total productivity of the forest as well as individual tree. Olea ferruginea (Royle) which is small and evergreen is widely distributed in native sub tropical forests of Pakistan and extensively used as fuelwood domestically. This study was carried out in the sub tropical forests of Pakistan at ...

  15. Composition of the essential oil of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hayta, Sukru; Dogan, Gulden; Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The essential oil composition of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) analysed and yield of compositions were analysedMaterial and Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus coupled to a 2 L round-bottom flask. A total of 100 g of fresh plant material (aerial parts) and 1 L of water were used for the extraction. Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were applied to ext...

  16. Evidence that inducible C-4-type photosynthesis is a chloroplastic CO2-concentrating mechanism in Hydrilla, a submersed monocot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiskind, JB; Madsen, TV; VanGinkel, LC; Bowes, G

    Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle exhibits an inducible C-4- type photosynthetic cycle, but lacks Kranz anatomy. Leaves in the C-4-type state (but not C-3-type) contained up to 5-fold higher internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIG) concentrations than the medium, indicating that they possessed a

  17. Inventory and Assessment of Aquatic Plant Management Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Paper A-81-3, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Smith, G. K. 1950. The Freshwater Macrophytes of the United...spicatumi L.) Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata SAM (L.f.) Royle) Glyphosate Giant reed (Phragmites communis SACS (Roundup) (Trin.) Rud.) No chemical -- NCS

  18. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parts of America and the Caribbean countries. (Picking et al., 2013). Hyptis verticillata has been used medicinally in Mesoamerica since the times of the Aztec and Mayan cultures. (Ocampo and Balick, 2009). It is among the most abundant species of the genus Hyptis and it grows up to the height of one to two meters.

  19. Selected papers, with commentary, of Tony Hilton Royle Skyrme

    CERN Document Server

    Skyrme, T H R

    1994-01-01

    The most important papers of Tony Hilton Royle Skyrme are collected in this volume which also includes commentaries by G Brown and other articles relating to the life and work of Tony Skryme, R Dalitz, E Witten and others. Skyrme's work was brilliant, profound and surprisingly useful. He provided an original solution to the problem of constructing fermions from bosons, formulating the topological soliton model of the nucleon. His two-parameter model of effective interactions in nuclei has yielded a remarkably accurate description of nuclear structure. His a-particle model of nuclei gave deep i

  20. Phytochemical studies for quantitative estimation of iridoid glycosides in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sultan, Phalisteen; Jan, Arif; Pervaiz, Qazi

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa Royle commonly known as ‘Kutki or Kutaki’ is an important medicinal plant in Ayurvedic system of medicine and has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract...

  1. A New Phenolic Amide from the Roots of Paris verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ro Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic amide 8, together with the nine known phenolic compounds 1-7,9 and 10 were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Paris verticillata. Thestructure of the new compound 8 was determined to be 1-N-feruloylaminobutyl-4-ρ-hydroxybenzamide by spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested forcytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines using the SRB assay.

  2. Sesquiterpene and acyclic diterpenes from Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duanne A C; Porter, Roy B R; Reynolds, William F

    2009-03-01

    From the methanolic extract of the plant Hyptis verticillata Jacq, was isolated five compounds: the novel compounds cadina-10(15)-en-3-one and 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-1-en-3-ol and the known compounds 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol, 7,11,15-trimethyl-3-methylenehexadecane-1,2-diol and myo-inositol. All structures were established by spectroscopic means.

  3. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  4. A Practical Module System for LF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Rabe, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Module Systems for proof assistants provide administrative support for large developments when mechanizing the meta-theory of programming languages and logics. In this paper we describe a module system for the logical framework LF. It is based on two main primitives: signatures and signature...... morphisms, which provide a semantically transparent module level and permit to represent logic translations as homomorphisms. Modular LF is a conser- vative extension over LF, and integrates an elaboration of modular into core LF signatures. We have implemented our design in the Twelf system and used...... it to modularize large parts of the Twelf example library....

  5. DNA analysis of the genes encoding acidocin LF221 A and acidocin LF221 B, two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LF221

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majhenič, A.Č.; Venema, K.; Allison, G.E.; Matijašić, B.B.; Rogelj, I.; Klaenhammer, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri LF221, an isolate from the feces of a child, produces two bacteriocins. Standard procedures for molecular techniques were used to locate, clone and sequence the fragments of LF221 chromosomal DNA carrying the acidocin LF221 A and B structural genes, respectively. Sequencing

  6. Acclimation of Hydrilla verticillata to sediment anoxia in vegetation restoration in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Rui, Shengyang; Cui, Naxin; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2015-12-01

    Sediment anoxia generally results from intense organic enrichment and is a limiting factor in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters. To investigate the effect of sediment anoxia on a typical pollution-tolerant submerged macrophyte species, Hydrilla verticillata, and acclimation mechanisms in the plant, a gradient of sediment anoxia was simulated with additions of sucrose to the sediment, which can stimulate increased concentrations of total nitrogen, NH4(+) and Fe in pore water. H. verticillata growth was significantly affected by highly anoxic conditions, as indicated by reduced total biomass in the 0.5 and 1% sucrose treatments. However, slight anoxia (0.1% sucrose addition) promoted growth, and the shoot biomass was 22.64% higher than in the control. In addition to morphologic alterations, H. verticillata showed physiological acclimations to anoxia, including increased anaerobic respiration and changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in roots. The soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents in roots of the 1% treatment were both significantly higher compared with those in the control. The increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate content in the roots suggested that H. verticillata has a well-developed capacity for anaerobic fermentation. This study suggests that highly anoxic sediments inhibit the growth of H. verticillata and the species has a degree of tolerance to anoxic conditions. Further in situ investigations should be conducted on the interactions between sediment conditions and macrophytes to comprehensively evaluate the roles of sediment in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters.

  7. Phytochemical studies for quantitative estimation of iridoid glycosides in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Phalisteen; Jan, Arif; Pervaiz, Qazi

    2016-01-01

    Background Picrorhiza kurroa Royle commonly known as ?Kutki or Kutaki? is an important medicinal plant in Ayurvedic system of medicine and has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract. The plant is the principle source of iridoid glycosides, picrosides I, II and kutkoside used in various herbal drug formulations mainly as strong hepatoprotective and immune-modulatory compound. The species has become endangered to near extinction due to the unregulate...

  8. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Leaves of Abies Pindrow Royle

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, D; Bhardwaj, R; Gupta, R K

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities. The methanol extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity while acetone extract showed presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. The present study provid...

  9. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  10. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-01-01

    ...-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated...

  11. ASPECTOS BOTÂNICOS E DE USOS DE Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis (VITACEAE):INSULINA-VEGETAL

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Fabiano Alves; Neto, Germano Guarim

    2013-01-01

      RESUMO - (Aspectos botânicos e de usos de Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis (Vitaceae): insulina-vegetal). No presente trabalho são apresentados dados botânicos e de usos de uma importante planta usada na medicina popular, denominada de insulina-vegetal, Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis, da familia Vitaceae. Palavras-chave: Cissus, planta medicinal, insulina-vegetal.

  12. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284?bp in length, consisting of 118 unique...

  13. Measurement of MOSFET LF Noise Under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new measurement technique is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET LF noise under large signal RF excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does not depend on the frequency of

  14. Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c. f. verticillata for antitumour activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. N. Rao

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbatacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wvl and Wv2 have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and anti-tumour activities of the norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12µg/ml as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%.

  15. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol ...AND SUBTITLE Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...1 Invasion Biology and Biocontrol Lab, Wuhan Botanical Institute, CAS ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 3 named previously as Bagous sp. 3 and

  16. Hyptis verticillata Jacq: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picking, D; Delgoda, R; Boulogne, I; Mitchell, S

    2013-05-02

    Hyptis verticillata Jacq. (Lamiaceae) (John Charles) is an important medicinal plant with a long history of traditional use, originating in Central America and now extending from Florida to Colombia and across the Caribbean. Records of its earliest use date back to the ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures of Mesoamerica. There is no indication that this plant is being used outside of the Americas. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity and toxicology of Hyptis verticillata and to highlight the opportunities for greater development of the plant's medicinal properties at a local and international level. An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analysed and included in the review. A wide range of traditional uses are cited in the literature, from internal uses for conditions affecting the respiratory system, digestive tract and gynaecological system to external uses for conditions affecting the skin and musculoskeletal system. Pharmacological studies to date have demonstrated significant activity which support the traditional use of the plant as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antisecretory agent and hormone modulator. In addition studies have identified anti-cancer, acaricidal, insecticidal and molluscicidal activity. No clinical trials had been completed at the time of this review. A number of key phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date including: 17 lignans; 4 triterpenes; 11 diterpenes, 3 sesquiterpenes, 3 monoterpenes, 2 flavonoids, 1 polyphenol and 1 alkaloid. Nine of these phytochemicals are novel to Hyptis verticillata. Plant extracts and isolated phytochemicals exhibit a broad range of activities that include: antimitotic; antiproliferative; cytotoxic; antioxidant; antiinflammatory; antibacterial; antifungal; antiviral; anti-HIV; antisecretory; hepatoprotective; insecticidal and

  17. Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

    2013-10-01

    Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-Fiend Vector Magnetometer (V-400-LF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This 2010 NASA SBIR Phase 1 proposal for an innovative Low-Field Vector Magnetometer (V-400-LF) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and...

  19. Biological activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Petrea C; Porter, Roy B R; Reese, Paul B; Williams, Lawrence A D

    2005-06-15

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq. was elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The oil was dominated by the sesquiterpenoids cadina-4,10(15)-dien-3-one (15.1%) (1) and aromadendr-1(10)-en-9-one (squamulosone) (30.7%) (2). The oil exhibited chemosterilant activities against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus Canest., and toxic action against adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer, the most destructive pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea species).

  20. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-02-11

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data.

  1. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data. PMID:26865528

  2. Shipborne LF-VLF oceanic lightning observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M. B.; Said, R. K.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 90% of natural lightning occurs over land, but recent observations, using Global Lightning Detection (GLD360) geolocation peak current estimates and satellite optical data, suggested that cloud-to-ground flashes are on average stronger over the ocean. We present initial statistics from a novel experiment using a Low Frequency (LF) magnetic field receiver system installed aboard the National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Ronald W. Brown research vessel that allowed the detection of impulsive radio emissions from deep-oceanic discharges at short distances. Thousands of LF waveforms were recorded, facilitating the comparison of oceanic waveforms to their land counterparts. A computationally efficient electromagnetic radiation model that accounts for propagation over lossy and curved ground is constructed and compared with previously published models. We include the effects of Earth curvature on LF ground wave propagation and quantify the effects of channel-base current risetime, channel-base current falltime, and return stroke speed on the radiated LF waveforms observed at a given distance. We compare simulation results to data and conclude that previously reported larger GLD360 peak current estimates over the ocean are unlikely to fully result from differences in channel-base current risetime, falltime, or return stroke speed between ocean and land flashes.

  3. The bioassay-guided isolation of growth inhibitors of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR characterization of hyptoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Toshiyuki; White, Yohann; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Oiso, Yusuke; Fijita, Masaki J; Okamura, Hiroaki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo; Arima, Naomichi

    2012-08-17

    Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata.

  4. Wood Density and Mechanical Properties of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Missanjo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of an appropriate tree breeding strategy and wood utilization requires information on wood properties. This study was therefore conducted to assess wood density and mechanical properties of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Wood samples from six families of P. kesiya at the age of 30 years were used for the study. The estimated mean wood density, Modulus of Elasticity (MoE, Modulus of Rupture (MoR and moisture content were 0.593 ± 0.001 g/cm3, 13.46 ± 0.07 GPa, 113.67 ± 0.57 MPa and 12.08% ± 0.03%, respectively. There were statistically significant (p < 0.001 differences in wood density and mechanical properties along the radial direction and stem height. Wood density and mechanical properties increased from pith to bark and decreased from the butt upwards. There were no significant (p > 0.05 differences in wood density and mechanical properties among the families. This is an indication that any tree among the families can be selected for tree improvement programs if density is considered as a variable. Wood density had a strong positive significant linear relationship with both MoE (r = 0.790; p < 0.001 and MoR (r = 0.793; p < 0.001. This suggests that it has the potential to simultaneously improve the wood density and mechanical properties of this species. Therefore, controlling wood density for the tree improvement program of P. kesiya in Malawi would have a positive impact on mechanical properties.

  5. Differential proteomics of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. in response to dark stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Jai; Kashyap, Sanjeeta; Kalita, Prakash Jyoti; Devi, Manjula; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Dutt, Som

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.) an important medicinal herb of western Himalayan region has been used to treat various diseases and disorders. Over-harvesting and lack of cultivation has led to its entry in Red Data Book as an endangered species. Further, its very restrictive habitat and lesser biomass production are major limitations for bringing it under commercial cultivation. All these issues necessitate deeper insights into mechanisms governing its growth and interaction with the environmental cues. Light may be one of the important factors to be studied for its role in regulating growth and adaptation of Picrorhiza as in natural habitat it prefers shady niches. Keeping this in view, proteome of Picrorhiza kept under light vis-à-vis under dark was analysed and compared. Leaf as well as root proteome of Picrorhiza was studied. Denaturing two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to detect and identify differentially expressed proteins, respectively. Twenty two proteins from leaf and 25 proteins from root showed differential expression levels under dark and light conditions. Among the differentially expressed proteins, majority were those involved in metabolism, protein synthesis, and stress and defense response. Other differentially expressed proteins were those involved in photosynthetic process, photorespiration and few proteins were with unknown function indicating that many different processes work together to establish a new cellular homeostasis in response to dark and light conditions. Proteins found to be differentially expressed under light vis-à-vis dark conditions suggested a range of biochemical pathways and processes being associated with response of plant to dark conditions. The identified proteins may be utilized for developing strategies for improving the biomass production/performance of Picrorhiza under varied light/dark habitats.

  6. MOSFET LF noise under Large Signal Excitation: Measurement, Modelling and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding LF noise in MOSFETs, it is noted that the MOSFET is a surface channel device. Both n and p-channel devices exhibit similar low frequency (LF) noise behaviour that can be explained by a carrier number fluctuation model (section 3.5). LF noise in MOSFETs is predominantly caused by Random

  7. Phytochemical studies for quantitative estimation of iridoid glycosides in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Phalisteen; Jan, Arif; Pervaiz, Qazi

    2016-12-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa Royle commonly known as 'Kutki or Kutaki' is an important medicinal plant in Ayurvedic system of medicine and has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract. The plant is the principle source of iridoid glycosides, picrosides I, II and kutkoside used in various herbal drug formulations mainly as strong hepatoprotective and immune-modulatory compound. The species has become endangered to near extinction due to the unregulated collection from the wild, slower plant growth and ecological destruction of natural habitats. There is a severe shortage of plant material, while the market demand is ever increasing. Hence, it is very important to apply a simple and precise analytical method to determine and validate the concentration of the major bioactive constituents in different populations of this plant species for development of a high yielding chemotype for large scale production and its commercial exploitation on scientific lines. This study assessed and validated a fast and reliable chromatography method for the determination of picroside-I and picroside-II in different populations of this priortized medicinal plant species. Separation and resolution of picrosides was carried out on a reversed phase (C-18) column by using a mobile phase of methanol and water (40:60 v/v). The detection of picrosides was carried out at 270 nm. The average levels of these two major marker compounds in all the seven accessions showed significant quantitative variation (ANOVA, p < 0.05) between mean levels of marker compounds and their accumulation in different parts of the plant viz. roots, rhizomes and leaves. The highest content of pk-I was found in the accession from Gurez altitude (3750 masl) while the highest content of pk-II was found in accession from Keller (Shopian) altitude (3300 masl) demonstrate that picroside accusation is directly correlated with altitudinal variation. The method was validated in terms of

  8. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A preliminary study on the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using seaweed, Hydrilla verticillata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baral, S.S., E-mail: ss_baral2003@yahoo.co.in [Chemical Engineering Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani - Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa-403726 (India); Das, Namrata; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Das, S.N. [Department of Environment and Sustainability, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar-751013 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The Cr(VI) adsorption efficiency of the seaweed, Hydrilla verticillata, was studied in batches. The adsorbent was characterized using SEM, BET surface area analyzer, Malvern particle size analyzer, EDAX and FT-IR. Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the adsorbent was studied as a function of different adsorption parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, pH, adsorbent dose, particle size, adsorbate concentration, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm equations were used in the equilibrium modeling. The adsorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step. Experimental data follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of the adsorption process were evaluated to find out the feasibility of the adsorption process. The negative values of Gibb's free energy and positive enthalpy values show the feasibility and endothermic nature of the process. The significance of different adsorption parameters along with their combined effect on the adsorption process has been established through a full 2{sup 4} factorial design. Among the different adsorption parameters, pH has the most influential effect on the adsorption process followed by adsorbate concentration and combined effects of all the four parameters were tested. The correlation among different adsorption parameters were studied using multi-variate analysis.

  10. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a poor clinical prognosis, and a rapid resistance to chemotherapy is rapid. Cytotoxicity assay-directed fractionation identified a novel lignan-related agent, 4-methoxy-9-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated. The novel agent, 4-MTDND, exhibited cytotoxicity against myriad cancer types, with a wide therapeutic index of 30- to 40-fold, promoted G(2)/M arrest and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and BAX, as well as enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, consistent with apoptosis induction. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells were as susceptible to 4-MTDND as their non-resistant control counterparts, with 4-MTDND having greater efficacy compared to standard chemotherapy agents etoposide and mitoxantrone. The novel cytotoxic agent 4-MTDND induces G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells possibly due to direct DNA damage or interference with topoisomerase II.

  11. Vegetative propagation of insulin (Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis by cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Propagation techniques may support handling, this way providing an alternative for producers of medicinal plants, thus avoiding indiscriminate collection. We aimed to evaluate the size of cuttings with and without leaves on the seedling production of insulin (Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis. The herbaceous apical cuttings were prepared with diagonal cut at the bottom and straight cut at the apex, with 5, 10 or 15 cm in length, kept with two whole leaves, two leaves cut in half or without leaves, being sterilized with sodium hypochlorite at 0.5% for 15 minutes. The cuttings were planted in plastic containers with 180 mL capacity with vermiculite as substrate and placed in greenhouse at the temperature of 22 ± 2° C. The experimental design was completely randomized and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. After 60 days, we found that the cutting of 5 cm with whole leaves and with leaves cut in half and the cutting of 10 cm with whole leaves had rates above 70% of rooting with the best means for number and length of roots. There was a high mortality rate for cuttings made without leaves. The callus and the percentage of live cuttings were not significant for the treatments. Therefore, 5 cm long cuttings with whole or half leaves and 10 cm long cuttings with whole leaves are the most suitable for the vegetative propagation of insulin.

  12. Cathepsin B cysteine protease gene is upregulated during leaf senescence and exhibits differential expression behavior in response to phytohormones in Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jai Parkash; Sanjeeta Kashyap; Shruti Kirti; Anil Kumar Singh; Som Dutt

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal importance of Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth — an herb of western Himalayan region) and its endangered status in Red Data Book presses an urgent need for intensive R&D interventions towards ensuring its availability for the medicinal use, its sustainability and improvement. The present study was conducted on cathepsin B cysteine protease in Picrorhiza. Cathepsin B cysteine protease has been reported to function in diverse processes such as senescence, abscission, prog...

  13. Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)+-pulegone and menthone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Yanina Estefanía; Canavoso, Lilián; Palacios, Sara María

    2012-03-01

    Intense applications of synthetic insecticides for the control of adult Musca domestica have led to the insects developing resistance to most of them. In consequence, there is interest in new active ingredients as alternatives to conventional insecticides. Essential oils (EO) are potential tools for controlling M. domestica because of their effectiveness and their minimal environmental effects. In a fumigant assay, M. domestica adults treated with Minthostachys verticillata EO [LC(50)=0.5 mg/dm(3); majority components by SPME-GC: (4R)(+)-pulegone (67.5%), menthone (22.3%) and (4R)(+)-limonene (3.8%)], died within 15 min or less. The terpenes absorbed by the flies and their metabolites, analyzed using SPME fiber, were (4R)(+)-limonene (LC(50)=6.2 mg/dm(3)), menthone (LC(50)=1.9 mg/dm(3)), (4R)(+)-pulegone (LC(50)=1.7 mg/dm(3)) and a new component, menthofuran (LC(50)=0.3 mg/dm(3)), in a relative proportion of 12.4, 6.5, 35.9 and 44.2% respectively. Menthofuran was formed by oxidation of either (4R)(+)-pulegone or menthone mediated by cytochrome P450, as demonstrated by a fumigation assay on flies previously treated with piperonyl butoxide, a P450 inhibitor, which showed a decrease in toxicity of the EO, (4R)(+)-pulegone and of menthone, supporting the participation of the P450 oxidizing system in the formation of menthofuran. The enzymatic reaction of isolated fly microsomes with the EO or the (4R)(+)-pulegone produced menthofuran in both cases. Contrary to expectations, the insect detoxification system contributed to enhance the toxicity of the M. verticillata EO. Consequently, resistant strains overexpressing P450 genes will be more susceptible to either M. verticillata EO or (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Based on TMS320LF2407 Environment Temperature Humidity Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    hao, Wang; sha, Sha

    This design with TMS320 series DSP and the new digital sensor DS18B20 as the core component temperature measurement and control system. The system USES TMS320 series TMS320LF2407 DSP as control chip, complete temperature receiving, conversion, display management; DALLAS produced by the new single serial digital temperature sensor DS18B20, complete temperature measurement and analysis capabilities. The whole system has the high level of integration, reliability and anti-interference is strong, extensible, available recognition serial number composition multi-point measurement, small volume, low power dissipation characteristics. This system has a temperature sensor, limit alarm and lower limit alarm, temperature control and display function, this paper introduces single line digital temperature sensor basic content of structure and main performance characteristics.

  15. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  16. Uncertain diagnosis of fabry disease in patients with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma or cornea verticillata: consensus on the approach to diagnosis and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, L. van der; Cassiman, D.; Houge, G.; Janssen, M.C.; Lachmann, R.H.; Linthorst, G.E.; Ramaswami, U.; Sommer, C.; Tondel, C.; West, M.L.; Weidemann, F.; Wijburg, F.A.; Svarstad, E.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Biegstraaten, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  17. Disturbances in LF radio-signals as seismic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kingsley

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Low Frequency (LF radio signals lie in the band 30-300 kHz. Monitoring equipment able to measure the electric strength of such signals, at field sites with very low noise levels, were designed and assembled in Italy. From 1993 onwards, the electric field strength of the MCO (216 kHz, France broadcasting station has been measured at two sites in Central Italy. At the end of 1996, radio signals from the CLT (189 kHz, Italy and the CZE (270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting stations were included in the measurements. During this monitoring period, evident attenuation of the electric field strength in some of the radio signals was observed at some of the receivers. The duration of the attenuation observed was several days and so it could have been related to particular meteorological conditions. On the other hand, this phenomenon could also represent precursors of moderate (3.0 =M =3.5 earthquakes that occurred near the receivers (within 50 km along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case it is possible that some local troposphere defocusing of the radio signals, produced by the pre-seismic processes, might have occurred. These observations were related only to moderate earthquakes and in these cases it may be that suitable meteorological conditions are needed to observe the effect. During February-March 1998 at one measuring site, we observed a significant increase in the CZE electric field strength. Unfortunately, the data of the other receiver could not be used in this case because of frequent interruptions in the recordings. The increase might have been a precursor of a strong earthquake (M = 5.3 that occurred on March 26, 1998 in the Umbria-Marche zone at a location over 100 km from the receiver, but which lay along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case, it is possible that an ionospheric disturbance, produced by the pre-seismic processes, might have occurred. If this pre-seismic behaviour of the LF signals could be confirmed then this

  18. Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are reported to inhabit the gut mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), however, little is known about the importance of host factors for the interplay between AIEC and the human gut.To examine if differences in bacterial adhesion patterns are disease associated......, the AIEC-prototype strain LF82 was evaluated for its ability to adhere to ileal and colonic biopsies from CD and healthy controls (HC). Moreover, the efficacy of the non-pathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa was assessed.Similar numbers of LF82 adhered to biopsies...... from CD and HC. A significantly greater LF82 attachment to ileal versus colonic mucosa was found in HC (P adhesion of LF82 to ileal specimens in CD or HC.These results show that enhanced bacterial adhesion ability is unlikely to play any significant...

  19. The European VLF/LF Radio Network: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Colella, Roberto; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren; Silva, Hugo; Contadakis, Michael; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydin; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers has been put into operation in Europe in order to study earthquakes precursors. At the moment the network consists of eleven receivers four of which are located in Italy, two in Greece and one in Portugal, Romania, Malta, Cyprus and Turkey. The data (sampling rate of 1min) are downloaded automatically at the end of each day and they are stored in the server located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy), that is the central node of the network. Still, in some case, problems of connection exist. The different trends are open and visible on the web site: http://beta.fisica.uniba.it/infrep/Hom.aspx. The data files can be downloaded by the same web site but they are protected by username and password. Among the different methods of data analysis the Wavelet spectra appear to be the most sensitive ones. The software able to apply this technique on the radio data automatically at the end of each day has been planned and realized. At the moment it operates on four signals collected by one of the Italian receivers; if an anomaly stands up and it is over a fixed threshold a warning advise appears. In the web site, this activity is protected by a specific username and password.

  20. Cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, an indigenous endangered medicinal plant, through vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelam; Sharma, Bindu

    2003-01-01

    The cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (IC 266698), an endangered medicinal plant of India was investigated. Shoot tips (about 1 mm in length) excised from four-week-old proliferating shoot cultures were precultured on MS medium supplemented with various osmotica before dehydrating with PVS2 solution at 0 degrees C. The dehydrated shoot tips were directly immersed in LN2. Following cryopreservation, and after rapid rewarming at 45 degrees C, shoot tips were quickly washed with 1.2 M sucrose solution and then plated on solidified shoot culture medium. Shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification, when they were precultured on medium supplemented with 5% DMSO at 4 degrees C for two days before dehydrating in PVS2 for 10-20 minutes at 0 degrees C. Average survival in terms of normal shoot formation after 4 wks of plating was about 20% without callus formation. Cold hardening of shoot cultures for four weeks at 4 degrees C significantly improved the survival and shoot regeneration of cryopreserved shoot tips to 70% and 35%, respectively.

  1. Comparative Study on Effects of Arnebia Euchroma (Royle) Johnst Granular and Decoction Forms on Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hua LIU; Hua SUN; Yun-yu FA

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of 2 dosage-forms (granular and decoction) of Arnebia euchroma (royle) Johnst (Arnebia EJ in short below) on medical abortion with that of mifepristone combined with misoprostol Methods Totally 648 women, who had pregnancy of 38-45 d and were willing to terminate pregnancy with mifepristone and misoprostol, were randomly divided into 3groups, each of which was respectively given granular of Arnebia E J, placebo granular,or decoction of Arnebia EJ besides mifepristone and misoprostol. The abortion results,bleeding duration, menstruation recovery and side-effects were observed.Results Neither complete abortion rates nor average bleeding durations of the granular group and the decoction group were significantly different (P>0. 05). The complete abortion rate and bleeding duration of the two groups were respectively higher and shorter than those of the placebo group (P<0. 05). However, the menstruation recovery was not significantly different among the three groups (P>0. 05). The decoctionof Arnebia EJ caused significantly more nausea and vomiting than the other groups (P<0. 05).Conclusion The granular form did not have the odor of Arnebia E J, and caused much less nausea and vomiting compared with the decoction form. The granular and decoction forms were equally effective in improving the results of medical abortion. Therefore it is necessary to conduct further studies on the granular form of Arnebia EJ.

  2. Effect of acid hydrolysis on morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchi; Wen, Fanting; Zhang, Shurong; Shen, Ruru; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effect of acid hydrolysis on the morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was investigated in this study. The hydrolysis degree of C. auriculatum starch rapidly increased to 63.69% after 4days and reached 78.67% at the end of 9days. Morphology observation showed that the starch granules remained intact during the first 4days of hydrolysis. However, serious erosion phenomenon was observed after 5days and starch granules completely fell into pieces after 7days. During acid hydrolysis process, the crystal type of hydrolyzed starch changed from original CB-type to final A-type. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns showed the semi-crystalline growth rings started to be hydrolyzed after 4days. The proportions of single helix and amorphous components as well as amylose content in starch gradually decreased, whereas the proportion of double helix components continuously increased during acid hydrolysis. However, the contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were almost constant during acid hydrolysis process, indicating the in vitro digestion property of C. auriculatum starch was not affected by acid hydrolysis. Our results provided novel information on the inner structure of C. auriculatum starch granules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims

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    Antoinette Labuschagné

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 625.0 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28 μg/mL. A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0 μg/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1 and 5-(hydroxymethylfuran-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1 was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL.

  4. Karakteristik Bubuk Instan Cemcem ( spondiaz pinnata lf kurz

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    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of tropical plant used as a traditional beverage in Bali is Kecemcem or Cemcem (Spondias pinnata (Lf Kurz or in Indonesian called Kedondong Hutan. Empirically, the beverage is mentioned for treating coughs, increasing appetite, and body refreshment. Besides used as a beverage, Cemcem leafs are also used as a flavor enhancer of fish products. The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of Cemcem instant powder produced by encapsulation using maltodextrin and dried by the thin layer drying method. Cemcem instant powder was then analyzed its content of vitamin C, total phenols, tannins, antioxidant capacity, water cntent, ash content, and solubility. The flavor compounds in Cemcem instant powder obtained in Bukit Jimbaran area are identified by GC-MS devices. The result showed that cemcem instant powder which was produced by 24 hours of maceration time has the best characteristics and potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant products. It has the highest of total phenol, tannin, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. The content of vitamin C, total phenol, and tannin were 135.06 mg/100g, 38.95 mg GAE/g, and 11.01% respectively. The antioxidant activity of cemcem instant powder which analyzed by DPPH method was about 43.80%. There are 17 compounds detected by GC-MS, these compounds belonged alkenesalcoholsphenols compounds and esters of fatty acidsThe whole compounds were the building blocks of flavor cemcem leaves.Keywords : Characteristic of cemcem instant powder, antioxidant capacity, andflavor compounds of cemcem leaves

  5. Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are reported to inhabit the gut mucosa in Crohn's disease (CD), however, little is known about the importance of host factors for the interplay between AIEC and the human gut. To examine if differences in bacterial adhesion patterns are disease associated......, the AIEC-prototype strain LF82 was evaluated for its ability to adhere to ileal and colonic biopsies from CD and healthy controls (HC). Moreover, the efficacy of the non-pathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa was assessed. Similar numbers of LF82 adhered to biopsies...

  6. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  7. Effect of mercury on some aquatic plants. [Hydrilla verticillata Presl. ; Pistia stratiotes L. ; Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Three aquatic plants, Hydrilla verticillata Presl, Pistia stratiotes L. and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell, were treated with different concentrations of mercury ranging from 1 to 1000 ..mu..g liter/sup -1/ at three different exposure durations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5 h. All were found to be severely affected by mercury. Foliar injury, chlorophyll content and phytomass showed perceptible effects with increasing exposure to the metal. In the case of floating plants a positive relationship was obtained between Leaf Injury Index (LII) and doses of the metal. The possible use of aquatic plants in general, and floating plants in particular, as simple bioassay material in biomonitoring and toxicity studies is discussed with special reference to LII as a simple biomonitoring parameter.

  8. Impacts of residual aluminum from aluminate flocculant on the morphological and physiological characteristics of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Wei; He, Feng; Ma, Jian-Min; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Bi-Yun; Min, Fen-Li; Dai, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Aluminate is generally used as a flocculant in water and wastewater treatment processes, but the residual aluminum (Al) may have toxic effects on aquatic organisms when the concentration accumulates beyond a threshold level. The in situ and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of residual Al on submerged macrophytes in West Lake, Hangzhou, China, which receives Al flocculant-purified water diverted from the Qiantang River. The responses of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata were investigated based on their morphological and physiological parameters in pot culture and aquarium simulation experiments. In the pot culture experiments, the biomass, seedling number, plant height, stolon number, stolon length, and root weight were significantly higher at a site located 150m from the inlet compared with those at a site located 15m from the inlet (P macrophytes were stressed by residual Al. V. natans and H. verticillata accumulated 0.052-0.227mg of Al per gram of plant biomass (fresh weight, mg/g FW) and 0.045-0.205mg Al/g FW in the in situ experiments, respectively, where the amounts of Al were significantly higher in the plants in the treatment aquaria during the laboratory experiments than those in the controls. These results may have important implications for the restoration of submerged macrophytes and ecological risk assessments in Al-exposed lakes. It is recommended that the Al salt concentration used for the control of lake eutrophication should be reduced to an appropriate level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible earthquake precursors revealed by LF radio signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Among radio signals, low frequency (LF radio signals lie in the band between 30–300 kHz. Monitoring equipment with the ability to measure the electric strength of such signals at field sites, were designed and assembled in Italy. From 1993 onwards, the electric field strength of the MCO (216 kHz, France broadcasting station has been collecting measurements at two sites in central Italy that were chosen according to very low noise levels. At the end of 1996, radio signals from the CLT (189 kHz, Italy and CZE (270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting stations were included in the measurements. Meteorological data from central Italy were also collected over the same time period in order to study the influence of weather conditions on the experimental measurements. During the monitoring period, we observed some evident attenuation of the electric field strength in some of the radio signals at some of the receivers. The duration of the attenuation observed was several days, so it could possibly be related to particular meteorological conditions. On the other hand, this phenomenon might represent precursors of moderate (3.0 M 3.5 earthquakes that occurred near the receivers (within 50 km along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case, it is possible that the pre-seismic processes could have produced irregularities in the troposphere, such as ducts, reflecting layers and scattering zones, so that some local troposphere defocusing of the radio signals might have occurred. These observations were related only to moderate earthquakes and in these cases, suitable meteorological conditions were probably needed to observe the effect. Between February – March 1998, we observed at one measuring site, a significant increase in the CZE electric field strength. Unfortunately, we could not use the data of the other receiver in this case, due to frequent interruptions in the data set. The increase might have been a precursor of the strong seismic sequence (M = 5

  10. VR versus LF: towards the limitation-free 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Tibor; Kara, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of 3D technologies shows a cyclical learning curve with a series of hypes and dead ends, with mistakes and consequences. 3D images contain significantly more information than the corresponding 2D ones. 3D display systems should be built on more pixels, or higher speed components. For true 3D, this factor is in the order of 100x, which is a real technological challenge. If not fulfilled, the capabilities of 3D systems will be compromised: headgears will be needed, or the viewers should be positioned or tracked, single-user devices, lack of parallax, missing cues, etc. The temptation is always there: why to provide all the information, just what the person absorbs that moment (subjective or objective visualization). Virtual Reality (VR) glasses have been around for more than two decades. With the latest technical improvements, VR became the next hype. 3D immersion was added as a new phenomenon; however, VR represents an isolated experience, and still requires headgears and a controlled environment. Augmented Reality (AR) in this sense is different. Will the VR/AR hype with the headgears be a dead end? While VR headsets may sell better than smart glasses or 3D TV glasses, also consider that using the technology may require a set of behavioral changes that the majority of people do not want to make. Displays and technologies that restrict viewers, or cause any discomfort will not be accepted on the long term. The newer wave of 3D is forecasted to 2018-2020, answering the need for unaided, limitation-free 3D experience. Light Field (LF) systems represent the next-generation in 3D. The HoloVizio system, having a capacity in the order of 100x, offers natural, restrictions-free 3D experience on a full field of view, enabling collaborative use for an unlimited number of viewers, even in a wider, immersive space. As a scalable technology, the display range goes from monitor-style units, through automotive 3D HUDs, screen-less solutions, up to cinema systems

  11. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis LF) in central India and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and its relationship with rainfall and moisture index. Somaru Ram H P Borgaonkar A B Sikder. Volume 117 Issue 5 October 2008 pp 637-645 ...

  12. Genetic Improvement of Wood Properties in Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon for Sawn Timber Production in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Missanjo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of genetic potential and response to selection in breeding requires knowledge of genetic parameters for important selection traits. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters for wood properties in Khasi pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Data on wood properties and growth traits were collected from six families of Pinus kesiya at the age of 30. The results show that wood density had a higher genetic control (h2 = 0.595 ± 0.055 than wood stiffness (h2 = 0.559 ± 0.038 and wood strength (h2 = 0.542 ± 0.091. The genetic correlation among wood quality traits was significantly moderate (0.464 ± 0.061 to high (0.735 ± 0.025. The predicted genetic response indicated that selection for wood density at 10% selection intensity would increase stiffness and strength by 12.6% and 8.85%, respectively. The genetic correlations between growth and wood quality traits were moderately unfavourable. However, sufficient variation exists within the breeding population to select individuals with both good growth rate and high wood quality traits. It is therefore suggested that all trees with both diameter at breast height (DBH greater than 32.0 cm and density greater than 0.593 g/cm3 must be selected in order to increase the efficiency of the breeding programme. However, in the long term, it is recommended that the best selection strategy would be to develop a multiple-trait selection index. The selection index should be developed using optimal index weights for the advanced Pinus kesiya breeding programme in Malawi.

  13. Determinação de massa fresca, massa seca, água e cinzas totais de folhas de Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata e avaliação do processo de secagem em estufa com ventilação forçada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. BRAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata (Vitaceae é conhecida popularmente como insulina vegetal, cortina japonesa, uva-brava, anil trepador e cipó-pucá e utilizada na medicina popular na forma de chá das folhas no tratamento da diabetes, como antiinflamatório, antiepilético, antihipertensivo, antitérmico, antireumático, antigripal e contra infecções respiratórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de massa fresca, massa seca, percentual de água e percentual de cinzas totais, visando melhoria das condições de secagem, armazenamento, dispensação e uso pela população. As folhas da espécie foram coletadas no bairro Antônio Dias, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram selecionadas, lavadas e secas em estufa com ventilação forçada à 45ºC e determinou-se as cinzas totais e perda por dessecação (através do método gravimétrico, ambos de acordo com a Farmacopéia Brasileira. Os resultados mostraram que as folhas de C. verticillata subsp. verticillata possuem alto teor de água. O processo de secagem em estufa de ventilação forçada, a temperatura de 45ºC, foi eficaz, proporcionando folhas com 11,47% de umidade e 17,99% de cinzas totais. Palavras-chave: Cissus verticillata; insulina vegetal; qualidade; gravimetria.

  14. LF 15-0195, a novel immunosuppressive agent prevents rejection and induces operational tolerance in a mouse cardiac allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dejun; O'Brien, Catherine; Shum, Jeffrey; Garcia, Bertha; Min, Weiping; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Dutartre, Patrick; Zhong, Robert

    2003-08-27

    LF 15-0195 (LF) is a new analogue of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG) that is less toxic and more potent than DSG. The present study was undertaken to determine (1). the dose response of LF monotherapy, (2). its ability to induce tolerance, and (3) its interaction with cyclosporine (CsA), FK 506 (FK), and rapamycin (RAPA). Varying doses of LF were administered to determine dose-dependent effects on graft survival in a C57BL/6 to BALB/c heterotopic heart allograft mouse model. Transplanting-donor and third-party skin grafts into long-term survivors were used to assess the tolerance status. CsA, FK, and RAPA were combined with LF to determine their interactive effects on graft survival. The efficacy and toxicity of LF was dose dependent. High-dose LF monotherapy (>2 mg/kg) induced donor-specific operational tolerance, but it was associated with high mortality. Simultaneous administration of high-dose calcineurin inhibitors (CsA FK) prevented tolerance induced by LF. In contrast, a short course of LF combined with a subtherapeutic dose of CsA FK achieved indefinite survival of C57/BL6 cardiac allografts. RAPA and LF had a synergistic effect in induction of tolerance. The efficacy and toxicity of LF were dose dependent. A short course of LF significantly reduced the requirement of CsA or FK to prevent rejection. RAPA and LF had synergy in induction of tolerance. These data indicate that LF may be a promising agent that warrants further studies in nonhuman primate models of transplantation.

  15. Arsenic, zinc, and aluminium removal from gold mine wastewater effluents and accumulation by submerged aquatic plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid; Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  16. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  17. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  18. Marinas may act as hubs for the spread of the pseudo-indigenous bryozoan Amathia verticillata (Delle Chiaje, 1822 and its associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Marchini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spaghetti bryozoan Amathia verticillata, formerly known as Zoobotryon verticillatum, was first described in 1822 from Naples, Italy, although this species was already present in 1807 at Cadiz, Spain. This ctenostome has long been considered a native species in the Mediterranean Sea but it has recently been suggested to be of Caribbean origin. It is most likely to have been introduced by vessels as hull fouling. This pseudo-indigenous species, i.e. a non-indigenous species (NIS having been perceived to be native, has been found in several marinas and harbours within the Mediterranean Sea. In November 2014, this bryozoan species was abundant in the La Grande Motte marina on the south coast of France. Several thousand colonies were estimated to be present within this marina attached to the floating pontoon units that supported a floating boardwalk. Of the berthed craft examined, 31% were fouled with this species, and it was occasionally a prominent fouling species. Several macroinvertebrate species were associated with A. verticillata colonies, including some NIS, Paracerceis sculpta, Paranthura japonica and Caprella scaura, that are recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean coast of France. A. verticillata might support their transfer elsewhere by providing a habitat and substrate when attached to vessel hulls.

  19. PLC-δ1-Lf, a novel N-terminal extended phospholipase C-δ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Bo Seong; Bak, Hye Jin; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Park, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2013-10-10

    Phospholipase C-δ (PLC-δ), a key enzyme in phosphoinositide turnover, is involved in a variety of physiological functions. The widely expressed PLC-δ1 isoform is the best characterized and the most well understood phospholipase family member. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of PLC-δ1 remain obscure. Here, we identified that the N-terminal region of mouse PLC-δ1 gene has two variants, a novel alternative splicing form, named as long form (mPLC-δ1-Lf) and the previously reported short form (mPLC-δ1-Sf), having exon 2 and exon 1, respectively, while both the gene variants share exons 3-16 for RNA transcription. Furthermore, the expression, identification and enzymatic characterization of the two types of PLC-δ1 genes were compared. Expression of mPLC-δ1-Lf was found to be tissue specific, whereas mPLC-δ1-Sf was widely distributed. The recombinant mPLC-δ1-Sf protein exhibited higher activity than recombinant mPLC-δ1-Lf protein. Although, the general catalytic and regulatory properties of mPLC-δ1-Lf are similar to those of PLC-δ1-Sf isozyme, the mPLC-δ1-Lf showed some distinct regulatory properties, such as tissue-specific expression and lipid binding specificity, particularly for phosphatidylserine. © 2013.

  20. Packed-bed column biosorption of chromium(VI) and nickel(II) onto Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Tripathi, Brahma Dutt; Rai, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the biosorption potential of Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass (FMB) in removing chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions from wastewater using up-flow packed-bed column reactor. Effects of different packed-bed column parameters such as bed height, flow rate, influent metal ion concentration and particle size were examined. The outcome of the column experiments illustrated that highest bed height (25cm); lowest flow rate (10mLmin(-1)), lowest influent metal concentration (5mgL(-1)) and smallest particle size range (0.25-0.50mm) are favourable for biosorption. The maximum biosorption capacity of FMB for chromium(VI) and nickel(II) removal were estimated to be 89.32 and 87.18mgg(-1) respectively. The breakthrough curves were analyzed using Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Thomas models. The experimental results obtained agree to both the models. Column regeneration experiments were also carried out using 0.1M HNO3. Results revealed good reusability of FMB during ten cycles of sorption and desorption. Performance of FMB-packed column in treating secondary effluent was also tested under identical experimental conditions. Results demonstrated significant reduction in chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions concentration after the biosorption process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing the Sensitivity of Lidar Systems Based on the LF/LIF Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, M. V.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.; Losev, V. F.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The results of studies on the development of laser sources in the UV and IR spectral ranges for the lidar systems operating on the basis of a method of laser fragmentation with subsequent laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) are presented. It is shown that LF/LIF is an effective method for the remote detection of harmful and dangerous substances including nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. The formation of a high-quality sounding UV radiation in excimer lasers and its transportation along the atmospheric path is studied. The causes are revealed that lead to the formation of noise arising in the atmosphere and limiting the sensitivity of the applied method.

  3. The Terminator Time in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation as recorded by the Romanian VLF/LF radio monitoring system related to earthquake occurrence and volcano erruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Biagi, P. F.; Ionescu, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Romanian VLF/LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data is part of the European international network named INFREP. Information on electromagnetic fields' intensities created by transmitters at a receiving site are indicating the quality of the propagation along the paths between the receivers and transmitters. Studying the ionosphere's influences on the electromagnetic waves' propagation along a certain path is a method to put into evidence possible modifications of its lower structure and composition as earthquakes' precursors. The VLF/LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 and has already 3 years of testing, functioning and proving its utility in the forecast of some earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simultaneously we monitor, in the same site with the VLF/LF receiver, the vertical atmospheric electric field and different other meteorological parameters as: temperature, pressure or rainfall. The global magnetic conditions are emphasized with the help of Daily Geomagnetic Index Kp. At a basic level, the adopted analysis consists in a simple statistical evaluation of the signals by comparing the instantaneous values to the trend of the signal. In this paper we pay attention to the terminator times in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation, which are defined as the times of minimum in amplitude (or phase) around sunrise and sunset. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around the earthquake. In the case of Kobe earthquake, there were found significant shifts in both morning and evening terminator times and these authors interpreted the shift in terminator time in terms of the lowering of lower ionosphere by using the full-wave mode theory. A LabVIEW application which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet was developed. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data

  4. Demonstration of a hybrid Ho:YLF Ho:LuLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a continuous-wave slab laser utilising both Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF as laser gain media. 30 W of output power at 2 µm was demonstrated in a stable concave-plane resonator while 13 W was achieved in a hybrid stable...

  5. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tree-ring-width index chronologies of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) from three sites in central India have been studied for their ... that the teak tree-ring chronologies can be used as high resolution proxy for past precipitation and moisture level in the ..... 1870–2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming ...

  6. Hoezo Iepen Mienskip? : Tussenraportage van participatief onderzoek nar de sociale legacy van Culturele Hoofdstad LF 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirk Willem Postma

    2017-01-01

    Postma, D.W. (2017). Hoezo Iepen Mienskip? Tussenrapportage van participatief onderzoek naar de sociale legacy van Culturele Hoofdstad LF 2018. In: Dijkstra, J. & Zwarter, IJ. (red). (2017). Werken aan Iepen Mienskip. Onderzoek naar de doorwerking van Leeuwarden-Friesland Europese Culturele

  7. A new 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase gene encoding the committed-step enzyme in the MEP pathway from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Rong; Chen, Min; Yang, Chunxian; Wang, Qiang; Gong, Yifu

    2007-01-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR; EC 1.1.1.267) catalyzes a committed step of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) precursors. The full-length cDNA sequence was cloned and characterized from a TIA-producing species, Rauvolfia verticillata, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The new cDNA was named as RvDXR and submitted to GenBank to be assigned with an accession number (DQ779286). The full-length cDNA of RvDXR was 1804 bp containing a 1425 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.88. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that RvDXR showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, an extended Pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif in its N-terminal region owned by all plant DXRs. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that DXRs had two groups including a plant and bacterial group; RvDXR belonged to angiosperm DXRs that were obtained from Synechocystis through gene transfer according to the phylogenetic analysis. The structural modeling of RvDXR showed that RvDXR had the typical V-shaped structure of DXR proteins. The tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that RvDXR expressed in all tissues including roots, stems, leaves, fruits and followers but at different levels. The lowest transcription level was observed in followers and the highest transcription was found in fruits of R. verticillata; the transcription level of RvDXR was a little higher in roots and stems than in leaves. The cloning and characterization of RvDXR will be helpful to understand more about the role of DXR involved in R. verticillata TIA biosynthesis at the molecular level and provides a candidate gene for metabolic engineering of the TIAs pathway in R. verticillata.

  8. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  9. The Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Growth Inhibitors of Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL, from the Jamaican Plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR Characterization of Hyptoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi Arima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata.

  10. Ileal adhesion of virulent E. coli LF82 is not enhanced in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) comprise a new group of E. coli species named from their distinctive ability to adhere to and invade the intestinal epithelium. The AIEC strains have been associated to the ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), and the impact of AIEC in the pathogenesis....... A second purpose was to assess the probiotic efficacy of E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa. Ileal and colonic specimens were obtained from patients with CD ileitis and controls (n¼10). A model was developed to investigate bacterial adhesion to intestinal biopsies...... and comprised: 1) incubation of tissue (inclusive of mucous) with 107 bacteria or buffer for 1 hour, 2) removal of non-adhered bacteria by extensive washing, and 3) absolute quantification of tissue-adhered LF82 and indigenous E. coli by a pre-validated assay including quantitative real-time PCR. Selective...

  11. Shielding effectiveness of planar materials: (semi)-standardized measurements from LF to μW

    OpenAIRE

    Catrysse, Johan; Pissoort, Davy; Vanhee, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Due to the impact of higher and higher frequencies in a lot of applications, the Shielding Effectiveness (SE) characterisation of materials is expanding from LF up to frequencies well above 1 GHz. Additionally, requirements with respect to energy-efficiency necessitate the use of light-weight shielding materials such as composites, especially in aerospace applications. A typical concern about composite materials is their internal homogeneity, which may result in a nearly isotropic up to a fu...

  12. Variety discrimination of Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC. assesed by different length RAPD primers

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Piña-Escutia

    2010-01-01

    Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC. is one of the important phytogenetic resources of México. This species is used as ornamental, food and medicinal purposes. Despite its ornamental and economic potential, there is little information about the genetic variability. In this study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10, 15 and 20 bases were used to assess the level of genetic variation among nine botanical varieties of Tigridia pavoniacollected in three localities within State of Méxic...

  13. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, strain LF82 disrupts apical junctional complexes in polarized epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Juan C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, mechanisms of intestinal injury and immune activation remain unclear. Identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC strains in IBD patients offers an opportunity to characterize the pathogenesis of microbial-induced intestinal inflammation in IBD. Previous studies have focused on the invasive phenotype of AIEC and the ability to replicate and survive in phagocytes. However, the precise mechanisms by which these newly identified microbes penetrate the epithelial lining remain to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate the effects of AIEC, strain LF82 (serotype O83:H1 on model polarized epithelial monolayers as a contributor to intestinal injury in IBD. Results Infection of T84 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-I polarized epithelial cell monolayers with AIEC, strain LF82 led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and increased macromolecular (10 kilodalton dextran flux. Basolateral AIEC infection resulted in more severe disruption of the epithelial barrier. Increased permeability was accompanied by a redistribution of the tight junction adaptor protein, zonula occludens-1, demonstrated by confocal microscopy and formation of gaps between cells, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. After 4 h of infection of intestine 407 cells, bacteria replicated in the cell cytoplasm and were enclosed in membrane-bound vesicles positive for the late endosomal marker, LAMP1. Conclusion These findings indicate that AIEC, strain LF82 disrupts the integrity of the polarized epithelial cell barrier. This disruption enables bacteria to penetrate into the epithelium and replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. These findings provide important links between microbes related to IBD, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and disease pathogenesis.

  14. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P goat were optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P goats. Crude protein digestibility was optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  15. In vitro regeneration and genetic fidelity of Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC.

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Piña-Escutia

    2010-01-01

    Plants of Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC were regenerated from twin-scaling explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog and N6 basal medium. The highest formation of shoots per responding explant was obtained on N6 medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid in combination with 2.2 µM benzylaminopurine. Shoots rooted readily on N6 basal medium supplemented with 1 g l-1 activated charcoal and 2.6 µM naphtalenacetic acid. The rooted shoots achieved 100% survival. Inter Simple Seque...

  16. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Lectin Frontier Database (LfDB, and Data Generation Based on Frontal Affinity Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hirabayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a large group of carbohydrate-binding proteins, having been shown to comprise at least 48 protein scaffolds or protein family entries. They occur ubiquitously in living organisms—from humans to microorganisms, including viruses—and while their functions are yet to be fully elucidated, their main underlying actions are thought to mediate cell-cell and cell-glycoconjugate interactions, which play important roles in an extensive range of biological processes. The basic feature of each lectin’s function resides in its specific sugar-binding properties. In this regard, it is beneficial for researchers to have access to fundamental information about the detailed oligosaccharide specificities of diverse lectins. In this review, the authors describe a publicly available lectin database named “Lectin frontier DataBase (LfDB”, which undertakes the continuous publication and updating of comprehensive data for lectin-standard oligosaccharide interactions in terms of dissociation constants (Kd’s. For Kd determination, an advanced system of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC is used, with which quantitative datasets of interactions between immobilized lectins and >100 fluorescently labeled standard glycans have been generated. The FAC system is unique in its clear principle, simple procedure and high sensitivity, with an increasing number (>67 of associated publications that attest to its reliability. Thus, LfDB, is expected to play an essential role in lectin research, not only in basic but also in applied fields of glycoscience.

  18. The Lectin Frontier Database (LfDB), and data generation based on frontal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Jun; Tateno, Hiroaki; Shikanai, Toshihide; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2015-01-08

    Lectins are a large group of carbohydrate-binding proteins, having been shown to comprise at least 48 protein scaffolds or protein family entries. They occur ubiquitously in living organisms-from humans to microorganisms, including viruses-and while their functions are yet to be fully elucidated, their main underlying actions are thought to mediate cell-cell and cell-glycoconjugate interactions, which play important roles in an extensive range of biological processes. The basic feature of each lectin's function resides in its specific sugar-binding properties. In this regard, it is beneficial for researchers to have access to fundamental information about the detailed oligosaccharide specificities of diverse lectins. In this review, the authors describe a publicly available lectin database named "Lectin frontier DataBase (LfDB)", which undertakes the continuous publication and updating of comprehensive data for lectin-standard oligosaccharide interactions in terms of dissociation constants (Kd's). For Kd determination, an advanced system of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is used, with which quantitative datasets of interactions between immobilized lectins and >100 fluorescently labeled standard glycans have been generated. The FAC system is unique in its clear principle, simple procedure and high sensitivity, with an increasing number (>67) of associated publications that attest to its reliability. Thus, LfDB, is expected to play an essential role in lectin research, not only in basic but also in applied fields of glycoscience.

  19. A novel homogenization procedure to model the skin layers in LF numerical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Valerio; Chen, Xi Lin; Cruciani, Silvano; Campi, Tommaso; Feliziani, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    In this study we focus on the validity of the skin layer currently implemented in up-to-date human-body anatomical models employed in low frequency (LF) numerical dosimetry. Indeed, the several layers of the skin structure, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC), dermis, and epidermis are in these models embedded into a unique fairly-thick (2-3 mm) layer encompassing all of them. While a previous work from the authors showed that for normal-standing (or limb-non-touching) postures a single-layer skin model could conservatively estimate the peak electric field induced in the skin, at least a two-layer skin model comprising of the SC and the remaining skin layers should be used for limb-touching exposure scenarios. This implies notable efforts to discretize the tiny SC layer questioning the validity of current anatomical models. A novel strategy based on the homogenization of the several skin layers has been therefore proposed in order to eliminate the SC from the computational domain opening the doors to future LF magnetic applications even for limb-touching scenarios.

  20. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D.; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L.; Pandey, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations. PMID:27434060

  2. Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16 meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8. The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 % and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed.

  3. Amelioration of Colitis in Mouse Model by Exploring Antioxidative Potentials of an Indigenous Probiotic Strain of Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the preliminary screening of eight indigenous putative probiotic Lactobacilli, Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1 was selected for assessing its antioxidative efficacy in DSS colitis mouse model based on its ability to enhance the expression of “Nrf2” by 6.43-fold and malondialdehyde (MDA inhibition by 78.1  ±  0.24% in HT-29 cells under H2O2 stress. The Disease Activity Index and histological scores of Lf1-treated mice were lower than the control group. However, expression of “Nrf2” was not observed in Lf1-treated mice. A significant increase in the expression of antioxidative enzymes such as SOD2 and TrxR-1 was recorded in both of the groups. The expression of SOD2 was significantly downregulated in colitis-induced mice by −100.00-fold relative to control group, and the downregulation was considerably reduced to −37.04-fold in colitis Lf1 treatment group. Almost, a similar trend was recorded in case of “thioredoxin” expression, though “CAT” was refractile to expression. The Lf1-treated group had decreased malondialdehyde level as compared to colitis control (37.92  ±  6.31 versus 91.13  ±  5.76 μM/g. These results point towards Lf1-induced activation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the mouse model and its prospects to be explored as a new strategy for IBD management.

  4. Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 and its functional characterization as a yogurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Burns, Patricia; Tabacman, Eduardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 is a strain which is able to produce high levels (approximately 1 g/l) of crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) when it is grown in optimised conditions. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional aspects of this EPS extract, focusing on its application as a dairy food additive. Our findings are consistent with an EPS extract that acts as moderate immunomodulator, modifying s-IgA and IL-6 levels in the small intestine when added to yogurt and milk, respectively. Furthermore, this EPS extract, in a dose feasible to use as a food additive, provides protection against Salmonella infection in a murine model, thus representing a mode of action to elicit positive health benefits. Besides, it contributes to the rheological characteristics of yogurt, and could function as a food additive with both technological and functional roles, making possible the production of a new functional yogurt with improved texture.

  5. Cognitive LF-Ant: A Novel Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alencar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with the emergency degree of each patient. The intra-cluster emergency reporting is inspired by the different capabilities of leg-manipulated ants. The inter-cluster reporting is aided by the cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing, which can detect new emergency reporting requests and forward them. Simulations results show the decrease of average delay time as the probability of opportunistic access increases, which privileges the emergency reporting related to the patients with higher priority of resources’ usage. Furthermore, the packet loss rate is decreased by the use of cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing.

  6. Research on Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Based on TMS320LF2407A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufei, Xu; Guangqun, Nan

    The direct torque control of Induction Motor is one of the high performance control system, which was proposed after the vector control scheme. During the recent 20 years, It has been developed rapidly for its concise system scheme, excellent dynamic and static performances. DTC system directly controls the electromagnetic torque and stator flux, using the analyzing method of space vector and stator flux orientation. This paper establishes the mathematical model of direct torque control (DTC) system of induction motor, and direct torque control (DTC) scheme of induction motor based on TMS320LF2407A is introduced. The control scheme gets the switch control signal of inverter with the space voltage vector modulation technology. Finally the approach has been implemented on DSP in a 1.1 kW drive. The results show that the DTC with SVPWM has many merits such as simple realization, good running performance and high voltage utilization ratio.

  7. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  8. PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE Tectona grandis L.f. PROVENIENTE DO VALE DO RIO DOCE, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTA, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    MOTTA, Javan Pereira. Propriedades tecnológicas da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) proveniente do Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. 2011. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Florestais) Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alegre-ES, Orientador: Prof. Dr. José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira. Coorientador: Prof. Dr. Juarez Benigno Paes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as propriedades tecnológicas da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) de árvores co...

  9. Three invasive species occurring in the diets of fishes in a Neotropical floodplain

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    A Isaac

    Full Text Available The composition of the diets of 66 species of fishes was investigated from September 2009 to June 2010 in three subsystems of the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil, following invasion by the two mollusk species Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, and the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle. Limnoperna fortunei was consumed in all three subsystems and occurred in the diet of 15 fish species, with a high proportion in the diet of Leporinus obtusidens. Corbicula flumineawas present in the diet of Pterodoras granulosus caught in the Paraná and Ivinheima subsystems. Hydrilla verticillataoccurred in the diet of Schizodon nasutus caught in the Ivinheima and Paraná subsystems. It is not yet possible to evaluate the potential of these species to control invasive mollusks in the study area or the impact of these species on the structure of the food chain. Omnivorous and herbivorous fishes in the study area may have little impact on the population of H. verticillata.

  10. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Duistermaat, H.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe.

  11. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

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    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  12. A statistical study on the effect of earthquakes on the ionosphere, based on the subionospheric LF propagation data in Japan

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    S. Maekawa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A superimposed epoch analysis has been undertaken, in order to find the correlation of the ionospheric perturbations with seismic activity. We take the wave path from the Japanese LF transmitter (frequency=40 kHz and an observing station of Kochi (wave path length of 770 km, and a much longer period (of five years than before, is considered. This subionospheric LF propagation can be called "an integrated measurement" in the sense that any earthquakes in the LF sensitive area just around the great-circle path can influence the observed LF signals, so that we define the "effective magnitude" (Meff by integrating the total energy from different earthquakes in the sensitive area on a current day and by converting it back into magnitude. A superimposed epoch analysis for the effective magnitude greater than 6.0 has yielded that the ionosphere is definitely disturbed in terms of both amplitude and dispersion, and that these perturbations tend to take place prior to an earthquake. The statistical z-test has also been performed, which has indicated that the amplitude is definitely depleted 2–6 days before the earthquake day and also that the dispersion is very much enhanced during the same period. This statistical study has given strong support to the existence of seismo-ionospheric perturbations for high seismic activity.

  13. SELEÇÃO DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DA ESPÉCIE Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. CROIZAT EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS FLORESTAIS DO SUL DO ESPIRITO SANTO

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    Alessandra Abreu Rodrigues Vieira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil abriga a flora mais rica do planeta, sendo a Floresta Atlântica um dos sistemas mais diversificados que compõe essa paisagem. Por outro lado, a atuação antrópica desordenada transformou esse bioma, originalmente contínuo, em um mosaico de fragmentos isolados colocando em risco a biodiversidade. A coleta de sementes de alta qualidade é muito importante para qualquer programa de produção de mudas voltado para restauração e conservação dos recursos genéticos. Dessa forma, com esse estudo objetivou-se avaliar indivíduos de Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. Croizat presentes na FLONA de Pacotuba e RPPN Cafundó (Cachoeiro de Itapemirim - Espírito Santo, como matrizes para banco de sementes. O maior DAP foi de 17,6 cm e o menor foi de 5 cm, a média foi de 8,66 cm. Todas as matrizes avaliadas encontravam-se em boas condições de sanidade e aparência fenotípica. A partir dos dados foi possível identificar árvores matrizes que servirão como banco de sementes e empregadas nos projetos de reflorestamento e recuperação de áreas degradadas da própria região.

  14. Structural characterization and molecular identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza morphotypes of Alzatea verticillata (Alzateaceae), a prominent tree in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Adela; Haug, Ingeborg; Oberwinkler, Franz; Kottke, Ingrid

    2007-10-01

    The vast majority of the highly diverse trees in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador form arbuscular mycorrhizas, and previous molecular investigations revealed a high diversity of fungi. In this study, we present a first trial to link fungal DNA-sequences with defined morphotypes characterized on the basis of partly new mycelial features obtained from field material of one tree species, Alzatea verticillata. Fine roots were halved lengthwise to study the mycelium anatomy on one half and to obtain fungal nuclear rDNA coding for the small subunit rRNA of Glomeromycota from the other half. Light microscopy revealed conspicuously large amounts of mycelium attaching to the surface of the rootlets. The mycelium formed fine- or large-branched appressoria-like plates, vesicles of regular or irregular shape, and very fine, multibranched structures ensheathed by septate hyphae. These previously undescribed features of the supraradical mycelia combined with intraradical mycelium structures were used for distinguishing of four main morphogroups and subordinate 14 morphotypes. DNA sequences of Glomus group A, Acaulospora and Gigaspora, were obtained and linked to three morphogroups. Two sequence types within Glomus group A could be tentatively associated to subordinate morphotypes.

  15. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

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    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  16. Evaluation of four bioestimulantes and three sustrates in the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f.

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    Sonia Rosero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research consisted in evaluating four biostimulants and three substrates for the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f. in greenhouse conditions. The biostimulants corresponded to: plant hormone rooting (B1, agrohormones 10-10-10 (B2, ESPOCH biostimulant (B3 and Gron Gibb (B4. The substrates consisted of: 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% sand (S1; 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% humus (S2 and 50% peat + 50% humus (S3. For the study, it was used a randomized complete design (RCD with factorial arrangement, it was determined the coefficient of variation and the Tukey test at 5% for the separation of means. The application of the biostimulants in the substrates was done at the time of planting. According to the results obtained, the best biostimulants corresponded to B1 (plant hormone rooting, applied in the seeds for 15 minutes, with which the highest emergency percentage was obtained (70.96%; with biostimulant B2 (agrohormones 10-10-10, applied for five minutes it was obtained 70.67% and with B3 (Gron Gibb 70.37%. The best substrate for emergence of plants was: 50% peat + 50% humus with 73.67% of emergence, where the highest plant height and root length were achieved, instead, the ESPOCH biostimulant (microoganisms reported a 67, 11% emergency.

  17. Extraction, purification and anti-radiation activity of persimmon tannin from Diospyros kaki L.f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhide; Huang, Yong; Liang, Jintao; Ou, Minglin; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Guiyin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, persimmon tannin was extracted from Diospyros kaki L.f. using ultrasound-assisted extraction and purified by D101 macroporous resin column chromatography and polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane. The tannin content of the final persimmon tannin extracts was attained to 39.56% calculated as catechin equivalents. Also, the radioprotective effects of persimmon tannin for HEK 293T cells proliferation and apoptosis after Gamma irradiation were investigated by CCK-8, Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry assay and intracellular reactive oxygen species assay (ROS). Persimmon tannin was pre-incubated with HEK 293T cells for 12 h prior to Gamma irradiation. It was found that pretreatment with persimmon tannin increased cell viability and inhibited generation of Gamma-radiation induced ROS in HEK 293T cells exposed to 8 Gy Gamma-radiation. The percentage of apoptotic cells were only 6.7% when the radiation dose was 8 Gy and pretreated with 200 μg/ml of persimmon tannin. All these results indicated that persimmon tannin offered a potent radioprotective effect on cell vitality and cell apoptosis of Gamma-radiation exposure in HEK 293T cells. This study would serve as a pre-clinical evaluation of persimmon tannin for use in people with radiation protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  19. Effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion behavior of LF6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The LF6 aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding method. The tool rotational (1180 rpm) and transverse speed (0.56 mm s-1) were kept constant during welding of 4 mm thick plates. The microstructural features, hardness and tensile properties of the welded samples were determined to evaluate the structural integrity in comparison with the base metal. The electrochemical behavior of base metal (BM), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and weld nugget zone (WNZ) was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The microstructural study revealed significant grain refinement and agglomeration of β (Mg2Al3) intermetallic precipitates in the WNZ. The relatively higher hardness and a decrease in the ductility (3%) also assured the formation of precipitates β precipitates in the WNZ welded samples. The fracture surface of welded sample also revealed the existence of β precipitates within the elongated dimples which may be considered as the crack initiation sites. The relatively lower corrosion rate (23.68 mpy) and higher charge transfer resistance (403 Ω cm2) of BM compared to WNZ could be associated with the galvanic dissolution of Al-matrix through competitive charge transfer and relaxation (adsorption/desorption of intermediate species) processes specifically at the vicinity of the β precipitates.

  20. A R2R3-MYB Gene LfMYB113 is Responsible for Autumn Leaf Coloration in Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Hsiang; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The regulation of autumn leaf coloration in deciduous trees has long been an enigma. Due to the fact that different coloration phenotypes may be considered when planting, more understanding of the regulation mechanism is needed. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene LfMYB113 was identified from a subtropical deciduous tree species Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance). The expression patterns of LfMYB113 in four selected phenotypes were different and were positively correlated with leaf anthocyanin content. In a 35S::LfMYB113 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plant, both the early and late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were shown to be up-regulated. It was also shown that LfMYB113 can activate the promoter sequence of LfDFR1 and LfDFR2. Transient overexpression of LfMYB113 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed strong anthocyanin accumulation and pre-senescence; the latter was confirmed by up-regulation of senescence-associated genes. In addition, the activation of proLfSGR::YFP by LfMYB113 in transient experiments indicated that LfMYB113 may have a role in regulation of Chl degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first time a R2R3-MYB transcription factor has been functionally identified as one of the key regulators of autumn leaf coloration and autumn leaf senescence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. taper equations in northern Thailand

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    Andrew J. Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. is highly valued as one of the world's most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

  2. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations in Central America

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    J. Fernandez Moya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f. nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity?Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama.Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantationsResearch highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg-1 Fe, 43 mg kg-1 Mn, 11 mg kg-1 Cu, 32 mg kg-1 Zn and 20 mg kg-1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period.Key words: forest nutrition; age-related decline in productivity; nutrient foliar concentration; nutrient bole concentration; resorption.

  3. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  4. The European VLF/LF radio network to search for earthquake precursors: setting up and natural/man-made disturbances

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    P. F. Biagi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last years disturbances in VLF/LF radio signals related to seismic activity have been presented. The radio data were collected by receivers located on the ground or on satellites. The ground-based research implies systematic data collection by a network of receivers. Since 2000 the "Pacific VLF network", conducted by Japanese researchers, has been in operation. During 2008 a radio receiver was developed by the Italian factory Elettronika (Palo del Colle, Bari. The receiver is equipment working in VLF and LF bands. It can monitor 10 frequencies distributed in these bands and, for each of them, it saves the power level. At the beginning of 2009, five receivers were made for the realization of the "European VLF/LF Network"; two were planned for Italy and one for Greece, Turkey and Romania, respectively. In 2010 the network was enlarged to include a new receiver installed in Portugal. In this work, first the receiver and its setting up in the different places are described. Then, several disturbances in the radio signals related to the transmitters, receivers, meteorological/geomagnetic conditions are presented and described.

  5. The effect of different fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana/pineapple leaf (PaLF)/glass hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafee, Z. M.; Khalina, A.; Norkhairunnisa, M.; Syams, Z. Edi; Liew, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana-pineapple leaf (PaLF)-glass reinforced epoxy resin under tensile loading. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on specimens with different fibre contents (30%, 40%, 50% in weight). The composite specimens consists of 13 different combinations. The effect of hybridisation between synthetic and natural fibre onto tensile properties was determined and the optimum fibre volume fraction was obtained at 50% for both banana and PaLF composites. Additional 1 layer of woven glass fibre increased the tensile strength of banana-PaLF composite up to 85%.

  6. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  7. Eficácia do diquat no controle de Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa e Egeria najas e toxicidade aguda para o Guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of diquat in the control of Hydrylla verticillata, Egeria densa and Egeria najas and its acute toxicity to Phallocerus caudimaculatus, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.P. Henares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as macrófitas aquáticas submersas, Egeria densa e Egeria najas, têm causado prejuízos aos usos múltiplos da água. Hydrilla verticillata foi recentemente introduzida, mas tem histórico como planta problemática nos EUA, no México e na Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as suscetibilidades relativas dessas três macrófitas aquáticas ao diquat e os riscos da utilização desse herbicida para o guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para isso, foram instalados ensaios em condições de laboratório, a fim de avaliar a suscetibilidade relativa das três macrófitas por meio da manutenção de ponteiros dessas plantas em soluções contendo 0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; e 1,6 mg L-1 de diquat (Reward® por 14 dias. A avaliação foi realizada pela variação do acúmulo de matéria fresca e do comprimento dos ponteiros no período de exposição ao herbicida. H. verticillata mostrou maior sensibilidade ao diquat em comparação com as duas macrófitas do gênero Egeria, mesmo em baixas concentrações do herbicida. Nas maiores concentrações, E. densa mostrou maior sensibilidade que E. najas. O risco da aplicação do diquat para P. caudimaculatus foi estimado pela toxicidade aguda. Alevinos de P. caudimaculatus de 0,4 ± 0,2 mg foram expostos a soluções de 0,0; 1,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0; 20,0; 25,0; e 30,0 mg L-1 de diquat. A concentração letal de 50% (CL(I (50;96h do diquat estimada para P. caudimaculatus foi de 7,17 mg L-1. Para P. caudimaculatus, a toxicidade aguda foi superior à concentração recomendada para o controle de macrófitas aquáticas submersas, indicando risco muito baixo para esse peixe.In Brazil, the submerged plants Egeria densa and Egeria najas have caused damage to multiple uses of water. Hydrilla verticillata has been recently introduced, but it has a history as a problem plant in the U.S., Mexico and Australia. The objectives of this work were to assess the relative susceptibilities of these three

  8. Recombinant expression of porcine lactoferrin peptide LF-6 with intein technology and its immunomodulatory function in ETEC K88-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qin; Zhang, Haiwen; Xie, Yonggang; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-10-01

    LF-6 is a modified antibacterial peptide derived from LFP-20, a major active ingredient of porcine lactoferrin, whose antibacterial activity is 200 times higher than its native protein counterpart. Moreover, LF-6 displays even higher antibacterial activity than LFP-20 and negligible toxic adverse effects, make it a potential therapeutic agent for antibacterial purposes. Escherichia coli expression system has been a preferred choice and workhorse for most recombinant proteins. However, LF-6 must be coexpressed with a fusion partner to avoid its potentially fatal toxicity which would threat E. coli expression system. In this study, we successfully introduced intein system to solve this problem, which LF-6 was N-terminally fused to dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced self-cleavable intein, and it conduct cleavage when the intein-fusion peptide passing through a chromatography column filled with chitin, then the spliced peptide was purified with RP-HPLC and identified with mass spectroscopy. A bacteriostatic test showed that the recombinant LF-6 displayed nearly the same antibacterial activity as the chemically synthetized LF-6, and an in vivo immunoprotection analysis showed that the recombinant LF-6 exerted protective effects on Escherichia coli (ETEC)-K88-infected mice, which significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines level in plasma and intestine, and resistant to intestinal mucosal injury compared to the infective alone groups. Our study indicates that the intein system allows a safe and efficient method to produce recombinant LF-6, which not only has antibacterial activity, but more importantly, has an immunomodulatory function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of dielectric top lids on materials processing in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W. M.; Chan, C. S.; Xu, L.; Xu, S.

    2014-08-01

    The advent of the plasma revolution began in the 1970's with the exploitation of plasma sources for anisotropic etching and processing of materials. In recent years, plasma processing has gained popularity, with research institutions adopting projects in the field and industries implementing dry processing in their production lines. The advantages of utilizing plasma sources would be uniform processing over a large exposed surface area, and the reduction of toxic emissions. This leads to reduced costs borne by manufacturers which could be passed down as consumer savings, and a reduction in negative environmental impacts. Yet, one constraint that plagues the industry would be the control of contaminants in a plasma reactor which becomes evident when reactions are conducted in a clean vacuum environment. In this work, amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films were grown on glass substrates in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor with a top lid made of quartz. Even though the chamber was kept at high vacuum ( 10-4 Pa), it was evident through secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) that oxygen contaminants were present. With the aid of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) the contaminant species were identified. The design of the LF-ICP reactor was then modified to incorporate an Alumina (Al2O3) lid. Results indicate that there were reduced amounts of contaminants present in the reactor, and that an added benefit of increased power transfer to the plasma, improving deposition rate of thin films was realized. The results of this study is conclusive in showing that Al2O3 is a good alternative as a top-lid of an LF-ICP reactor, and offers industries a solution in improving quality and rate of growth of thin films.

  10. D-region ionospheric oscillations measured by LF transmitter observations after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Nozaki, Kenro; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Nakata, Hiroyuki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi

    2017-04-01

    So far, a lot of studies for the F-region ionosphere associated with earthquakes have been reported, although few studies for the D-region ionosphere have reported. It is difficult to observe the D-region electron density by MF/HF radio sounding techniques such as ionosondes, because the MF radio waves are highly attenuated in daytime D-region, and HF radio waves penetrate into the D-region in both night and day. In this study, we investigate the D-region disturbances associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Magnitude: 9.0) using intensity and phase variations of LF transmitter signals. The reflection height of the signals estimated from the phase variations corresponds to the electron density in the D-region. The propagation paths are Saga -Rikubetsu (RKB) over Japan and BPC (China)-RKB (Japan). As a result, two kinds of oscillations were detected over both propagation paths after the mainshock: one was clear oscillations of the intensity with a period of about 100 s observed about 6 minutes after the mainshock, and the other was 30-90 s oscillations of the intensity and phase about 17 minutes after the mainshock. The one-to-one correspondence between the intensity and reflection height was not seen clearly. The changes of the intensity and reflection height for the oscillations were about 0.1 dB and 50 - 65 m, respectively. The time difference between the earthquake onset and the 100-s oscillations was consistent with the propagation time of the Rayleigh waves (seismic waves) propagating from the epicenter to the LF propagation paths along the Earth surface, plus the vertical propagation time of acoustic waves propagating from the ground to a 68-km altitude, which is estimated based on neutral atmosphere simulation. Thus, the LF oscillations may be caused by the acoustic waves excited by the Rayleigh waves. In the presentation, we will discuss the cause of the LF oscillations in more detail.

  11. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  12. Yaş baca gazı desülfürizasyon yöntemler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yaş baca gazı desülfürizasyon prosesi, güç santrallerinin atık gaz muamelerinde geniş çapta kullanılmaktadır. Kullanılan birçok proses arasında en etkili proses olduğundan, bu proses işletmeler tarafından tercih edilmektedir. Yüksek SO2 geri kazanımı, absorpsiyon kimyasallarının geniş uygulanabilirliği ve kimyasal prosesin yönetiminde büyük çapta bir bilgiye gerek duyulmaması bu prosesin avantajları arasında yer almaktadır. Bu yayında başta kireç/kireç taşı prosesi olmak üzere çeşitli yaş baca gazı desülfürizasyon proseslerinden bahsedilmiştir.

  13. Online HPLC-DPPH method for antioxidant activity of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. and characterization of kutkoside by ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir S

    2010-03-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., is widely used in the Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various liver ailments. Since, the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of liver injury has become generally recognized, in present study the free radical scavenging effect of P. kurroa was assessed by on-line HPLC-DPPH and colorimetric DPPH methods. The comparative study on antioxidant activity of P. kurroa extracts by both methods revealed that colorimetric method showed very less free radical scavenging effect while HPLC-DPPH method showed high activity. Further, the kutkoside, an important ingredient of a potent hepatoprotective formulation "kutkin/picroliv" was investigated for its chemical composition by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-QTOF-MS). Kutkoside was considered to be a single compound and reported as picroside-II or kutkoside, however, present investigation illustrated that kutkoside is a mixture of iridoid glycosides namely, picroside II, picroside IV and 6-ferulloylcatalpol.

  14. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aquatic plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] and giant duckweed [Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden], were successfully surface sterilized and cultured on liquid basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium under aseptic conditions. Shoot explants obtained from ...

  15. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Three aquatic plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] and giant duckweed [Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden], were successfully surface sterilized and cultured on liquid basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium under aseptic conditions. Shoot.

  16. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    His doctoral research was on the Nilgiri Tahr in the. Nilgiris and he has since continued his research into several endangered species both in India and globally. His research interests .... Epizoic Forms: An incredible 2000–3000 species of free- living microbes, like bacteria and diatoms are known to adhere to Hydrilla.

  17. PLAGAS Y ENFERMEDADES EN PLANTACIONES DE TECA (Tectona grandis L.F EN LA ZONA DE BALZAR, PROVINCIA DEL GUAYAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Flores Velasteguí

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se diagnosticó las plagas y enfermedades en plantaciones de Tectona grandis L.F (Teca en la zona de Balzar, provincia del Guayas. Los objetivos fueron recolectar e identificar los insectos plagas y los agentes causales de enfermedades que se encuentran presentes en las plantaciones de Teca, determinar el nivel de incidencia y severidad de los problemas fitosanitarios. Se realizaron muestreos al azar mediante recorridos en transeptos y se establecieron parcelas de 500 m2 distribuidas según las superficies de las haciendas. Los insectos se recolectaron en época seca y lluviosa durante seis meses. Las plagas y enfermedades de mayor incidencia y severidad fueron: Hyadaphis erysimi y Hortensia similis (Homóptera; y Colletotrichum sp., Olivea tectonae y Ceratocystis sp. en época lluviosa. Atta sp. (Hymenóptera, Hemileuca maia y Scolytus sp. (Coleóptera; y Olivea tectonae en época seca.

  18. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive plant species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DE Wiel, C C M; VAN DER Schoot, J; VAN Valkenburg, J L C H; Duistermaat, H; Smulders, M J M

    2009-07-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe. As a consequence, its import was banned in the Netherlands. It can be difficult to distinguish H. ranunculoides from other species of the genus on a morphological basis. In this regard, DNA barcoding may become a good alternative once this could be performed on a routine basis. In this study, we show that it is possible to distinguish H. ranunculoides from a series of closely related congeners by using a single plastid DNA sequence, trnH-psbA. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA Y MOLECULAR DE NUEVE VARIEDADES BOTÁNICAS DE Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Piña-Escutia

    2010-01-01

    Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC es una planta bulbosa nativa de México con potencial ornamental alto. México es considerado el centro de mayor diversidad de esta especie, por lo cual, el estudio de su diversidad genética y fenotípica es muy importante para establecer estrategias de manejo, conservación y utilización en programas de mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar nueve variedades botánicas de Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC, con 21 marcadores morfológicos y cinco mol...

  20. Quebra de dormência em diásporos de teca (Tectona grandis L.f. Break of numbness in diaspores of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tectona grandis L.f. é uma essência florestal exótica de importância econômica e social para o Brasil. As mudas dessa espécie são produzidas através de diásporos constituídos dos frutos com endocarpo e mesocarpo rígidos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de métodos de quebra de dormência na germinação das sementes desta espécie. Para superar a dormência do endocarpo e mesocarpo, os diásporos de teca foram submetidos à imersão em água quente, imersão em ácido sulfúrico (33,5% e imersão em água corrente. Os diásporos foram distribuídos em substrato constituído de areia, e o teste de germinação foi realizado em câmara de germinação com temperatura de 30 ºC, sob luz branca durante oito horas por dia. As avaliações foram feitas diariamente, durante 60 dias. O método de imersão dos diásporos em ácido sulfúrico por três minutos, foi o tratamento mais eficiente, apresentando 73% das sementes germinadas.Tectona grandis L.f. it is an exotic forest essence of economical and social importance to Brazil. The seedlings of that species are produced through diaspores constituted by the fruits with rigid endocarp and mesocarp. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of methods of numbness break in the germination of the seeds of this species. To overcome the numbness of the endocarp and mesocarp, the teak fruits were submitted to the immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid (33,5% and immersion in running water. The diaspores were distributed in substratum constituted of sand, and the germination test was accomplished in germination camera with temperature of 30 ºC, under white light for eight hours a day. The evaluations were made daily, for 60 days. The method of immersion of the diaspores in sulfuric acid for three minutes was the most efficient treatment, presenting 73% of germinated seeds.

  1. Nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF Method of Computing LF/HF Ratio: A More Reliable Index of Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond Jr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardi

  2. Ho:YLF & Ho:LuLF slab amplifier system delivering 200 mJ, 2 µm single-frequency pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-frequency single-pass amplifier based on Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF in a scalable slab architecture delivering up to 210 mJ at 2064 nm is demonstrated. The amplifier was end-pumped by a 1890 nm Tm:YLF slab laser and was seeded with a 69 mJ single...

  3. LF-15 & T7, synthetic peptides derived from tumstatin, attenuate aspects of airway remodelling in a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karryn T Grafton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumstatin is a segment of the collagen-IV protein that is markedly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Tumstatin can play an important role in the development of airway remodelling associated with asthma due to its anti-angiogenic properties. This study assessed the anti-angiogenic properties of smaller peptides derived from tumstatin, which contain the interface tumstatin uses to interact with the αVβ3 integrin. METHODS: Primary human lung endothelial cells were exposed to the LF-15, T3 and T7 tumstatin-derived peptides and assessed for cell viability and tube formation in vitro. The impact of the anti-angiogenic properties on airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR was then examined using a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airways disease. RESULTS: The LF-15 and T7 peptides significantly reduced endothelial cell viability and attenuated tube formation in vitro. Mice exposed to OVA+ LF-15 or OVA+T7 also had reduced total lung vascularity and AHR was attenuated compared to mice exposed to OVA alone. T3 peptides reduced cell viability but had no effect on any other parameters. CONCLUSION: The LF-15 and T7 peptides may be appropriate candidates for use as novel pharmacotherapies due to their small size and anti-angiogenic properties observed in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Comparative pathogenesis of piscirickettsiosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolt experimentally challenged with LF-89-like and EM-90-like Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Serri, M; Ildefonso, R; Peña, A; Enríquez, R; Barrientos, S; Maldonado, L

    2017-10-01

    Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) is the most prevalent bacterial disease in Chilean salmon aquaculture and is responsible for high economic losses. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize the pathogenesis of SRS in post-smolt Atlantic salmon during the early and late stages of infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89-like (PS-LF-89) and EM-90-like (PS-EM-90) using a cohabitation challenge. The pathogenesis of cohabitant fish infected with the two isolates was relatively different due to cohabitant fish infected with PS-EM-90 showing higher cumulative mortality and shorter time until death compared with PS-LF-89 fish. PS-LF-89 caused an SRS infection characterized by kidney and liver lesions, whereas PS-EM-90 caused systemic and haemorrhagic disease characterized by kidney, liver, heart, brain, skeletal muscle and intestine lesions. Decreased serum concentration of total proteins and albumin as well as increased serum ALT, AST and creatinine levels in fish infected with both isolates confirmed that changes in liver and kidney function occurred during infection. Tissue damage, expressed as an SRS histoscore, showed a strong positive correlation with the bacterial load expressed as abundance of P. salmonis 16S rRNA transcripts in the livers and kidneys of fish affected with either isolate, but the correlation was significantly higher in fish infected with PS-EM-90. The results contribute to improving the understanding of the bacteria-host interaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, p-hydroxybenzoate-m-geranyltransferase and genes of phenylpropanoid pathway exhibits positive correlation with shikonins content in arnebia [Arnebia euchroma (Royle Johnston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Madhu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP and p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB are the basic precursors involved in shikonins biosynthesis. GPP is derived from mevalonate (MVA and/or 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway(s, depending upon the metabolite and the plant system under consideration. PHB, however, is synthesized by only phenylpropanoid (PP pathway. GPP and PHB are central moieties to yield shikonins through the synthesis of m-geranyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (GHB. Enzyme p-hydroxybenzoate-m-geranyltransferase (PGT catalyses the coupling of GPP and PHB to yield GHB. The present research was carried out in shikonins yielding plant arnebia [Arnebia euchroma (Royle Johnston], wherein no molecular work has been reported so far. The objective of the work was to identify the preferred GPP synthesizing pathway for shikonins biosynthesis, and to determine the regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of GPP, PHB and GHB. Results A cell suspension culture-based, low and high shikonins production systems were developed to facilitate pathway identification and finding the regulatory gene. Studies with mevinolin and fosmidomycin, inhibitors of MVA and MEP pathway, respectively suggested MVA as a preferred route of GPP supply for shikonins biosynthesis in arnebia. Accordingly, genes of MVA pathway (eight genes, PP pathway (three genes, and GHB biosynthesis were cloned. Expression studies showed down-regulation of all the genes in response to mevinolin treatment, whereas gene expression was not influenced by fosmidomycin. Expression of all the twelve genes vis-à-vis shikonins content in low and high shikonins production system, over a period of twelve days at frequent intervals, identified critical genes of shikonins biosynthesis in arnebia. Conclusion A positive correlation between shikonins content and expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (AeHMGR and AePGT suggested critical role played by these genes in shikonins

  6. [Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells after Escherichia coli LF82 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Jun; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Ya; Chen, Peng-De; Hu, Chong-Kang; Zeng, Ling-Chao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Xi; Jiang, Xun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant. After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (Pcoli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (Pcoli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (Pcoli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated Caco-2

  7. Inventore Biomasa dan Karbon Jenis Jati (Tectona grandis L.f. di Hutan Rakyat Desa Jatimulyo, Karanganyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ris Hadi Purwanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hutan menyimpan biomassa dan karbon dalam bentuk pepohonan hidup, bagian organ tumbuhan yang sudah mati yang berada di lantai hutan (misalnya seresah, tanah dan hasil kayu. Kajian ini memaparkan hasil inventore biomassa bagian organ tanaman jati (Tectona grandis L.f. diatas permukaan tanah (above ground biomass yang tumbuh di lahan hutan rakyat Desa Jatimulyo, Kabupaten Karanganyar. Diawali dengan penyusunan allometrik, kegiatan inventore dilakukan untuk menaksir potensi biomassa organ tanaman jati di atas permukaan tanah yang tumbuh di lahan hutan rakyat tersebut. Untuk menyusun persamaan allometrik, sebanyak 410 pohon diukur untuk menentukan hubungan antara tinggi pohon (H dan diameter batang setinggi dada (D. Sepuluh pohon sampel dengan ukuran yang bervariasi ditebang dan berat biomassa masing-masing organ tanaman di atas permukaan tanah (batang, cabang dan daun diukur. Hasil penyusunan allometrik ini menunjukkan bahwa diameter batang setinggi dada (±1.3 meter diatas permukaan tanah, D merupakan penduga yang baik untuk tinggi pohon (H dengan nilai koefisien determinasi r2 diatas 0,8886. Ketika parameter D dikombinasi dengan H, nilai r2 semakin meningkat untuk biomassa batang, cabang dan total biomasa di atas permukaan tanah; menandakan bahwa pola pertumbuhan antar dimensi pohon saling mempengaruhi secara kuat (closely interdependent. Simpanan karbon tegakan jati di hutan rakyat ini diukur dengan asumsi bahwa kadar karbon (C sebesar 50% dari berat biomasanya. Simpanan biomasa hidup dari organ tanaman jati bagian di atas permukaan tanah yang tumbuh di hutan rakyat Desa Jatimulyo ini selanjutnya diinventore dengan menggunakan beragai persamaan allometrik yang telah disusun. Hasil inventore menunjukkan bahwa total biomasa diatas permukaan tanah untuk tegakan jati yang tumbuh di lahan hutan rakyat Desa Jatimulyo sebesar 27,064 ton/ha, setara dengan simpanan karbon sebesar 13,532 ton/ha, dengan luas bidang dasar sebesar 6,1526 m2/ha. Berdasarkan

  8. The clinical efficacy of a bovine lactoferrin/whey protein Ig-rich fraction (Lf/IgF) for the common cold: a double blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Coulson, Samantha; Beck, Shoshannah L; Gramotnev, Helen; Du, Sharon; Lewis, Sophie

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a bovine lactoferrin/whey protein Ig-rich fraction (Lf/IgF) combination was effective in reducing the number of colds and in turn improving symptom recovery in a cohort of males and females that reported frequently contracting a cold. A double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. One-hundred and twenty-six participants matched by age, BMI, dietary and physical parameters with self-reported frequent upper respiratory tract symptoms and infections were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg of Lf/IgF or a placebo daily for 90 days. A total of 90 participants (47 receiving the active and 43 placebo) completed the 90 day trial and 15 completed 45 days participation (6 in the active and 9 in the placebo group). The total number of colds recorded over the study period was 48 for the treatment group versus 112 for the placebo group (p cold-associated symptoms reported by participants that received Lf/IgF was significantly less than those in the placebo group (p cold and cold severity were reduced over the clinical trial period for Lf/IgF over placebo, but the trend was not significant. These findings demonstrate that the Lf/IgF combination significantly decreased the incidence of colds and the cumulative number of cold-related symptoms over placebo. This therapeutic combination may be indicated for the prevention of colds and its most common symptoms in the general population when administered as a preventative supplement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Adherent/Invasive Escherichia coli Strain LF82 Invades and Persists in Human Prostate Cell Line RWPE-1, Activating a Strong Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Maria P; Aleandri, Marta; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Conte, Antonietta L; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Gambara, Guido; Palombi, Fioretta; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Palamara, Anna T; Riccioli, Anna; Longhi, Catia

    2016-11-01

    Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains have recently been receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli (NMEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 would be able to infect prostate cells as an extraintestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line. The results obtained indicated that LF82 and EC73 are able to adhere to, invade, and survive within prostate epithelial cells. Invasion was confirmed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Moreover, cytochalasin D and colchicine strongly inhibited bacterial uptake of both strains, indicating the involvement of actin microfilaments and microtubules in host cell invasion. Moreover, both strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are strong biofilm producers. In silico analysis reveals that LF82 shares with UPEC strains several virulence factors: namely, type 1 pili, the group II capsule, the vacuolating autotransporter toxin, four iron uptake systems, and the pathogenic island (PAI). Furthermore, compared to EC73, LF82 induces in RWPE-1 cells a marked increase of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and of NF-κB already by 5 min postinfection, thus inducing a strong inflammatory response. Our in vitro data support the hypothesis that AIEC strains might play a role in prostatitis, and, by exploiting host-cell signaling pathways controlling the innate immune response, likely facilitate bacterial multiplication and dissemination within the male genitourinary tract. Copyright © 2016 Conte et al.

  10. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  11. Córnea verticilata - marcador clínico da doença de Fabry: relato de caso Cornea verticillata - a clinical marker of Fabry disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Fabry é erro inato do metabolismo dos glicoesfingolipídeos (GL, resultante da atividade deficiente da enzima alfa-galactosidase A (a-Gal, com herança ligada ao cromossomo X. O acúmulo progressivo de GL nos tecidos resulta nas manifestações clínicas da doença, mais evidentes em homens hemizigotos, e incluem angioqueratomas, acroparestesias, córnea verticilata, hipo-hidrose, envolvimento cardíaco, renal e manifestações cerebrovasculares. Foi realizada avaliação em família acometida pela doença, sendo dois pacientes do sexo feminino e três do sexo masculino. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame oftalmológico completo e dosagem da atividade da enzima a-Gal. O único achado clínico presente em todos foi a córnea verticilata. Isto demonstra o importante papel que o exame oftalmológico apresenta no diagnóstico da doença, já que as alterações oculares são tão características.Fabry's disease is a rare X-linked lisosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid (GL metabolism, caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A activity. The progressive accumulation of GL in tissues results in the clinical manifestations of the disease, that are more evident in hemizygous males, and include angiokeratomas, acroparesthesia, cornea verticillata, cardiac and kidney involvement, cerebrovascular manifestations. A family with Fabry's disease including 2 female patients and 3 male patients is reported. The patients were submitted to complete medical history, ophthalmological examination and alpha-galactosidase activity test. Cornea verticillata was a constant finding in all patients. This demonstrates the important role of the ophtalmological examination for the diagnosis of Fabry's disease since the eye findings are so characteristic of the disease.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis L.f. leaves from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Mauricio; Quijano, Clara; Pino, Jorge; Madriñán, Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Drimys granadensis L.f., a native plant from Colombia, has been included in the Vademecum de Plantas Medicinales de Colombia by the Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, due to its widespread use in the folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS analyses. A total of 85 components were identified, with the major compounds germacrene D (1, 14.7%), sclarene (9.5%), a-cadinol (7.3%), longiborneol acetate (2, 6.3%), drimenol (4.2%), (Z)-β-ocimene (3, 4.2%), a-pinene (4, 3.2%), and β-elemene (5, 2.7%). The essential oil was also tested against eight bacteria using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Most of the Gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to the D. granadensis essential oil, while the Gram-negative bacteria tested were not.

  13. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  14. Anaerobic decomposition of a native and an exotic submersed macrophyte in two tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Chiba de Castro

    Full Text Available Some aquatic plants have fast metabolism and growth, even at sub-optimal conditions, and become dominant in lentic environments such as large reservoirs, altering the nutrient cycle and impairing their environmental quality. There is great need in the knowledge impact processes of invasive species in aquatic environments, among the major, those related to the decomposition. This study evaluated the anaerobic decomposition of invasive submerged macrophytes Egeria densa Planch, native, and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle, exotic in Porto Primavera and Jupiá reservoirs, Paraná basin. We evaluated the decay of organic matter, humification degree of the leached material, electrical conductivity and pH of the decomposition process. Mathematical models were utilised to describe the decomposition patterns over time. Both species showed the same heterogeneous pattern of decay of organic matter and carbon mineralisation. The models of carbon mineralisation, compared with the experimentally obtained data presented were adequate. Both species show no significant differences in the decomposition processes. Incubations of both species presented rapid t ½ for POC mineralisation and low DOC mineralisation.

  15. Arquitetura, anatomia e histoquímica das folhas de Gomphrena arborescens L.f. (Amaranthaceae Architecture, anatomy and histochemistry of the leaves of Gomphrena arborescens L.f. (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Margaret Fank-de-Carvalho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de Gomphrena arborescens L.f., nativa do Cerrado, são utilizadas contra dismenorréia na medicina popular. As investigações morfológica, anatômica e histoquímica das folhas visam fornecer elementos para taxonomia, para controle de qualidade de drogas e identificação microscópica de fitoterápicos. Folhas foram coletadas em Brasília, DF, nas áreas de Cerrado do Centro Olímpico da Univesidade de Brasília e na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE. Foram efetuadas análises morfológicas, anatômicas e histoquímicas. Os estudos de arquitetura foliar, densidade estomática e de vênulas terminais foram efetuados em folhas diafanizadas, apresentando médias de 42,39±15,50 estômatos mm-2 e 11,7±3,55 vênulas terminais mm². As folhas apresentaram duas formas de tricomas tectores. O mesofilo bilateral apresenta tecido clorenquimático disposto radialmente à bainha parenquimática completa que envolve os feixes vasculares, características da síndrome Kranz associada ao ciclo fotossintético C4. O amido concentra-se na bainha parenquimática. As folhas são ricas em celulose, drusas de oxalato de cálcio, proteínas, lignina e outros compostos fenólicos, entre eles os flavonóides. As folhas apresentam morfologia variável, mas o padrão anatômico e de venação são constantes.Leaves of the Brazilian Cerrado plant Gomphrena arborescens L.f. are used against dismenorea in popular medicine. The morphological, anatomical and histochemical investigation aims to help taxonomy, quality control of drugs and microscopical identification of phytotherapics. The leaves have been collected in Brasília, DF, in the Olympical Center of the University of Brasilia and in the Ecological Reserve of IBGE. The leaf architecture, stomatal and veinlet densities have been studied in clarified leaves, presenting average of 42,39±15,50 stomata mm² and 11,7±3,55 veinlet mm-2. Leaves presented two forms of tector trichomes. The bilateral mesophyll

  16. (Guizotia abyssinica (LF) Cass.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Initially, two experiments were conducted to identify the appropriate morphological stage of capitula (buds) for harvesting maximum number of responsive anthers and to study the optimum cold pretreatment duration for callus induction from ...

  17. K3LF METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  18. Tectona grandis Lf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... in DNA analysis for assessing the genetic diversity of the parent population. ... parent and eight progeny populations) by the CTAB (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide) extraction method (Doyle and. Doyle 1987). DNA was ...

  19. Study of water dynamics in the soaking, steaming, and solid-state fermentation of glutinous rice by LF-NMR: a novel monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Tu, Chuanhai; Rui, Xin; Gao, Yangwen; Li, Wei; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Yu; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of starchy grain is a traditional technique for food and alcoholic beverage production in East Asia. In the present study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was introduced for the elucidation of water dynamics and microstructure alternations during the soaking, steaming, and SSF of glutinous rice as a rapid real-time monitoring method. Three different proton fractions with different mobilities were identified based on the degree of interaction between biopolymers and water. Soaking and steaming significantly changed the proton distribution of the sample. The different phases of SSF were reflected by the T2 parameters. In addition, the variations in the T2 parameters were explained by the microstructure changes of rice induced by SSF. The fermentation time and T2 parameters were sigmoidally correlated. Thus, LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method for SSF in starch systems.

  20. Inhibition of a NF-κB/Diap1 Pathway by PGRP-LF Is Required for Proper Apoptosis during Drosophila Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Tavignot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB pathways are key signaling cascades of the Drosophila innate immune response. One of them, the Immune Deficiency (IMD pathway, is under a very tight negative control. Although molecular brakes exist at each step of this signaling module from ligand availability to transcriptional regulation, it remains unknown whether repressors act in the same cells or tissues and if not, what is rationale behind this spatial specificity. We show here that the negative regulator of IMD pathway PGRP-LF is epressed in ectodermal derivatives. We provide evidence that, in the absence of any immune elicitor, PGRP-LF loss-of-function mutants, display a constitutive NF-κB/IMD activation specifically in ectodermal tissues leading to genitalia and tergite malformations. In agreement with previous data showing that proper development of these structures requires induction of apoptosis, we show that ectopic activation of NF-κB/IMD signaling leads to apoptosis inhibition in both genitalia and tergite primordia. We demonstrate that NF-κB/IMD signaling antagonizes apoptosis by up-regulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Diap1. Altogether these results show that, in the complete absence of infection, the negative regulation of NF-κB/IMD pathway by PGRP-LF is crucial to ensure proper induction of apoptosis and consequently normal fly development. These results highlight that IMD pathway regulation is controlled independently in different tissues, probably reflecting the different roles of this signaling cascade in both developmental and immune processes.

  1. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two 'Endgame' Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Damayanti, Rita; Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Suharno, Nugroho; Bradley, Mark; Lynam, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City) fit this criteria-one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds. To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members' experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806). Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (p<0.001); perceived safety of the LF drugs (p<0.001) and knowing someone in the household has complied (p<0.001). Results indicated that specialized messages were needed to reach women and younger men. Both districts used these recommendations to implement changes to their MDA without additional financial support. An endline survey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811). Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (p<0.05). Those who reported having ever taken the LF drug rose from 79% to 90% (p<0.001) in both sites. Micronarrative surveys were shown to be a valid and effective tool to detect operational issues within

  2. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two ‘Endgame’ Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Damayanti, Rita; Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Suharno, Nugroho; Bradley, Mark; Lynam, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City) fit this criteria—one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds. Methodology/Principal Findings To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members’ experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806). Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (p<0.001); perceived safety of the LF drugs (p<0.001) and knowing someone in the household has complied (p<0.001). Results indicated that specialized messages were needed to reach women and younger men. Both districts used these recommendations to implement changes to their MDA without additional financial support. An endline survey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811). Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (p<0.05). Those who reported having ever taken the LF drug rose from 79% to 90% (p<0.001) in both sites. Conclusions/Significance Micronarrative surveys were shown

  3. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two 'Endgame' Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Krentel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City fit this criteria-one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds.To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members' experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806. Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (p<0.001; perceived safety of the LF drugs (p<0.001 and knowing someone in the household has complied (p<0.001. Results indicated that specialized messages were needed to reach women and younger men. Both districts used these recommendations to implement changes to their MDA without additional financial support. An endline survey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811. Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (p<0.05. Those who reported having ever taken the LF drug rose from 79% to 90% (p<0.001 in both sites.Micronarrative surveys were shown to be a valid and effective tool to detect operational issues

  4. Lysosomal membrane stabilization and anti-inflammatory activity of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f., a traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Prakash; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2011-06-01

    Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f., is used to treat several inflammatory diseases and arthritis in Indian traditional system and folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scientific basis of antiinflammatory activity of different organic solvent extracts of Clerodendrum phlomidis and to evaluate the active crude extract for its antiarthritic activity in FCA induced animal model. The antiinflammatory activity of Clerodendrum phlomidis was studied using the carrageenan and cotton pellet induced inflammatory models. The crude ethanol extract was standardized with the known standard using HPLC. The antiarthritic activity was studied using Freund's complete adjuvant induced rat model. For antiarthritic activity, the active crude extract was administered at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight. The effect of the ethanol extract on serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, plasma lysosomal enzymes and protein bound carbohydrates of FCA arthritic animals were studied. The ethanol extract at 100, 200, and 400mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (100 mg/kg-47.73%; 200 mg/kg-54.00% and 400 mg/kg-65.15%). In cotton pellet induced granuloma, the ethanol extract at different concentrations showed significant reduction in granuloma weight. In FCA induced arthritis, the ethanol extract showed a significant reduction in paw thickness (100 mg/kg-51.71%; 200 mg/kg-57.58% and 400 mg/kg-62.48%). The levels of lysosomal enzymes and protein bound carbohydrates were significantly decreased in the ethanol extract treated groups compared with the arthritic control. The pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner in all the Clerodendrum phlomidis treated groups. Clerodendrum phlomidis displays considerable potency in antiinflammatory action and has prominent antiarthritic effect on adjuvant induced arthritis. Future studies will provide new insights into the

  5. Lightning characteristics observed by a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Höller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes lightning characteristics as obtained in four sets of lightning measurements during recent field campaigns in different parts of the world from mid-latitudes to the tropics by the novel VLF/LF (very low frequency/low frequency lightning detection network (LINET. The paper gives a general overview on the approach, and a synopsis of the statistical results for the observation periods as a whole and for one special day in each region. The focus is on the characteristics of lightning which can specifically be observed by this system like intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground stroke statistics, vertical distributions of intra-cloud strokes or peak current distributions. Some conclusions regarding lightning produced NOx are also presented as this was one of the aims of the tropical field campaigns TROCCINOX (Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment and TroCCiBras (Tropical Convection and Cirrus Experiment Brazil in Brazil during January/February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment during November/December 2005 and January/February 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, and of AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses in W-Africa during June–November 2006.

    Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin, land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia. Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak active monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning stroke rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N

  6. Heart rate variability is augmented in patients with positional obstructive sleep apnea, but only supine LF/HF index correlates with its severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevari, Aikaterini; Vagiakis, Emmanouil; Zakynthinos, Spyridon

    2015-03-01

    Data on cardiac autonomic functioning, as expressed by heart rate variability (HRV), in patients with positional obstructive sleep apnea (p-OSA) disorder are lacking. The purpose of the study was to compare HRV indices between sleep segments derived from supine body position and another body position with and without apneic events, respectively. Our intention was to find some correlation between HRV indices and the pathophysiological characteristics of the corresponding temporal period. Nocturnal polysomnograms derived from twenty-seven patients (22 men) with documented positional apnea were retrospectively reviewed. Patients never treated for OSA and free from diseases/drugs altering HRV were examined. Data from total sleep studies were collected. Two N2 sleep segments, from supine body position with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and another body position without SDB were analyzed. Apneic events (namely, apneas, hypopneas, and respiratory effort-related arousals (RERAs)), arousals, number of desaturations, minimum pulse oximetry (SaO2min), time domain variables (average RR, SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, pNN50, and HRV triangular index) and frequency domain variables (VLF, LF, HF, TP, LF/HF) were recorded for both temporal periods. With the exception of average RR and HF, all other variables were significantly higher in segments with SDB. Only LF/HF_supine ratio was positively correlated with the apneic_supine_index (t = 3.13, p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with SaO2min (t = -2.9, p < 0.01) and the desaturation_supine_index (t = -2.5, p = 0.02). Arousals were negatively correlated with SaO2min (t = -2.8, p < 0.01). SDB augments autonomic tone in patients with p-OSA, but only LF/HF correlates with its severity and might be used as a screening tool in the future. On the contrary, parasympathetic tone, as reflected by HF, remains constant in both periods.

  7. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L. inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liancheng Wu

    Full Text Available In maize (Zea mays, leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  8. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  9. A Proof of Concept to Bridge the Gap between Mass Spectrometry Imaging, Protein Identification and Relative Quantitation: MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Laëtitia; Centeno, Delphine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Astruc, Thierry; Rémond, Didier; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric; Feasson, Léonard; Hébraud, Michel; Béchet, Daniel; Chambon, Christophe

    2016-10-26

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool to visualize the spatial distribution of molecules on a tissue section. The main limitation of MALDI-MSI of proteins is the lack of direct identification. Therefore, this study focuses on a MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow to link the results from MALDI-MSI with potential peak identification and label-free quantitation, using only one tissue section. At first, we studied the impact of matrix deposition and laser ablation on protein extraction from the tissue section. Then, we did a back-correlation of the m/z of the proteins detected by MALDI-MSI to those identified by label-free quantitation. This allowed us to compare the label-free quantitation of proteins obtained in LC-MS/MS with the peak intensities observed in MALDI-MSI. We managed to link identification to nine peaks observed by MALDI-MSI. The results showed that the MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow (i) allowed us to study a representative muscle proteome compared to a classical bottom-up workflow; and (ii) was sparsely impacted by matrix deposition and laser ablation. This workflow, performed as a proof-of-concept, suggests that a single tissue section can be used to perform MALDI-MSI and protein extraction, identification, and relative quantitation.

  10. Crowdsourcing a Spatial Temporal Study of Low Frequency (LF) Propagation Effects Due to a Total Solar Eclipse: Engaging Students and Citizens in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, N. A.; Lukes, L.; Nelson, J.; Liles, W. C.; Kerby, K. C.; Crowov, F.; Rockway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first experiments to study the effects of a solar eclipse on radio wave propagation were done in 1912 utilizing Low Frequency (LF; 30 - 300 kHz) radio waves at a handful of sites across Europe before any theory of the ionosphere had been confirmed and even before the word "ionosphere" existed. In the 1920s, a large cooperative experiment was promoted in the U.S. by Scientific American magazine. They collected over 2000 reports of AM broadcast stations from throughout the U.S. Unfortunately, many of the submissions were unusable because they lacked critical information such as date, time or location. We propose to use the 2017 solar eclipse over the continental U.S. to conduct the first wide-area LF propagation study. To perform this study, we plan to crowdsource the collection of the data by engaging student groups, citizens, and the scientific community. The tools for the different collection stations will consist of a simple homemade antenna, a simple receiver to convert the radio frequency (RF) signals to audio frequencies and a smart phone app. By using the time, date and location features of the smart phone, the problems experienced in the Scientific American experiment will be minimized. By crowdsourcing the observation sites, a number of different short, medium and long-paths studies can be obtained as the total eclipse crosses the continental U.S. The transmitter for this experiment will be WWVB located near Fort Collins, Colorado on 60.000 kHz. This is a U.S. frequency standard that is operated by NIST and transmits time codes. A second frequency, 55.500 kHz transmitted by a LF station in Dixon, CA is also being considered for this experiment. We will present an overall strategy for recruiting participants/crowdsourcing the RF collections during the 2017 total solar eclipse. Preliminary coverage calculations will be presented for WWVB and Dixon, as well as path loss calculations that can be expected during the solar eclipse condition. We will also

  11. Ionospheric turbulence from ground-based and satellite VLF/LF transmitter signal observations for the Simushir earthquake (November 15, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Francesco Biagi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Signals from very low frequency (VLF/ low frequency (LF transmitters recorded on the ground station at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and on board the French DEMETER satellite were analyzed for the Simushir earthquake (M 8.3; November 15, 2006. The period of analysis was from October 1, 2006, to January 31, 2007. The ground and satellite data were processed by a method based on the difference between the real signal at night-time and the model signal. The model for the ground observations was the monthly averaged signal amplitudes and phases, as calculated for the quiet days of every month. For the satellite data, a two-dimensional model of the signal distribution over the selected area was constructed. Preseismic effects were found several days before the earthquake, in both the ground and satellite observations.

     

  12. Evaluation of the formation of volatiles and sensory characteristics of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) fruit wines using different commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Cai; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Liu, Sheng Jiang; Cheng, He Xing; Xu, Na; Yu, Hai Yan; Xiao, Zuo Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of five strains (IFFI 1346, IFFI 1363, CICC 31482, D254 and CGMCC2.346) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic profiles of fermented persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) musts. A total of 50 and 60 compounds were identified in persimmon wine by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. According to odour activity values (OAVs), 26 detected compounds showed an OAV above 1. Principal component analysis explained the distribution of these persimmon wines on the basis of volatile compounds with OAV>1. The volatile compounds with high OAV included ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, linalool and geraniol. Quantitative descriptive analysis was employed. The result showed that persimmon wines fermented with strains IFFI 1363 and D254 were strongly correlated with persimmon, aroma harmony, fruity, fusel and taste balanced, fullness, hedonic scale. Therefore, the two yeast strains could be used as starter culture for persimmon wine production.

  13. The GuLF STUDY: A Prospective Study of Persons Involved in the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response and Clean-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Richard K; Engel, Lawrence S; Miller, Aubrey K; Blair, Aaron; Curry, Matthew D; Jackson, W Braxton; Stewart, Patricia A; Stenzel, Mark R; Birnbaum, Linda S; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-04-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster led to the largest ever marine oil spill. Individuals who worked on the spill were exposed to toxicants and stressors that could lead to adverse effects. The GuLF STUDY was designed to investigate relationships between oil spill exposures and multiple potential physical and mental health effects. Participants were recruited by telephone from lists of individuals who worked on the oil spill response and clean-up or received safety training. Enrollment interviews between 2011 and 2013 collected information about spill-related activities, demographics, lifestyle, and health. Exposure measurements taken during the oil spill were used with questionnaire responses to characterize oil exposures of participants. Participants from Gulf states completed a home visit in which biological and environmental samples, anthropometric and clinical measurements, and additional health and lifestyle information were collected. Participants are being followed for changes in health status. Thirty-two thousand six hundred eight individuals enrolled in the cohort, and 11,193 completed a home visit. Most were young (56.2% ≤ 45 years of age), male (80.8%), lived in a Gulf state (82.3%), and worked at least 1 day on the oil spill (76.5%). Workers were involved in response (18.0%), support operations (17.5%), clean-up on water (17.4%) or land (14.6%), decontamination (14.3%), and administrative support (18.3%). Using an ordinal job exposure matrix, 45% had maximum daily total hydrocarbon exposure levels ≥ 1.0 ppm. The GuLF STUDY provides a unique opportunity to study potential adverse health effects from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  14. Ocular application of the kinin B1 receptor antagonist LF22-0542 inhibits retinal inflammation and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

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    Mylène Pouliot

    Full Text Available Kinin B(1 receptor (B(1R is upregulated in retina of Streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats and contributes to vasodilation of retinal microvessels and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. Systemic treatment with B(1R antagonists reversed the increased retinal plasma extravasation in STZ rats. The present study aims at determining whether ocular application of a water soluble B(1R antagonist could reverse diabetes-induced retinal inflammation and oxidative stress.Wistar rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p. and 7 days later, they received one eye drop application of LF22-0542 (1% in saline twice a day for a 7 day-period. The impact was determined on retinal vascular permeability (Evans blue exudation, leukostasis (leukocyte infiltration using Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC-coupled Concanavalin A lectin, retinal mRNA levels (by qRT-PCR of inflammatory (B(1R, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF receptor type 2, IL-1β and HIF-1α and anti-inflammatory (B(2R, eNOS markers and retinal level of superoxide anion (dihydroethidium staining.Retinal plasma extravasation, leukostasis and mRNA levels of B(1R, iNOS, COX-2, VEGF receptor type 2, IL-1β and HIF-1α were significantly increased in diabetic retinae compared to control rats. All these abnormalities were reversed to control values in diabetic rats treated with LF22-0542. B(1R antagonist also significantly inhibited the increased production of superoxide anion in diabetic retinae.B(1R displays a pathological role in the early stage of diabetes by increasing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators involved in retinal vascular alterations. Hence, topical application of kinin B(1R antagonist appears a highly promising novel approach for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) Collected from Hydrilla Verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha- and ß-diversity values indicated that the chironomid communities on aquatic plants from Lake Bisina and Lake Tanganyika (Burundi) were markedly different. Studies of chironomids and other invertebrates associated with macrophytes in other African lakes will add significantly to knowledge of the natural history of ...

  16. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  17. An Internal Regulatory Draft Law Written in the Beginning of Turkish Republic for the Library of Istanbul Darülfünun Cumhuriyetin Başlangıcında Kaleme Alınan İstanbul Darülfünunu Kütüphanesi'ne Ait Bir Dahilî Nizâmnâme Lâyihası

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Candemir

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Library of İstanbul Darülfünun which has been prepared in 1924 by the librarian of the Law Faculty. The draft law is important since it's preparation period and it's creator who was a librarian. Furthermore, this draft is the one of the most comprehensive documents on the Library of Istanbul Darülfünun containing the functions of description, management, shelving, budget, acquisition, working hours, public services, circulation within the Library of Istanbul Darülfünun. Makalenin konusunu teşkil eden İstanbul Darülfünunu Kütüphanesine ait dahilî nizâmnâme lâyihası (tasarısı, Cumhuriyetin başlangıcında (1924 yılında Hukuk Fakültesi Kütüphane Memuru tarafından kaleme alınmıştır. Bu bakımdan tasarı, hazırlanış tarihinin yanı sıra, hazırlayanın bir kütüphane memuru olması yönüyle de önem taşımaktadır. Ayrıca İstanbul Darülfünunu Kütüphanesi çerçevesinde tanım, yönetim, yerleştirme sistemi, bütçe, eser sağlama, çalışma saatleri, kütüphaneden yararlandırma, kitap ödünç verme gibi işlemleri içeren geniş kapsamlı bir belge durumundadır.

  18. Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry in hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) muscle after different freezing and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Moreno, Pilar; Careche, Mercedes

    2014-06-15

    Low field NMR T2 transverse relaxation measurements were performed on muscle samples from sixty hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.). Fish fillets from hake stored in ice for 3 and 14 days were subjected to different freezing methods (air blast, liquid nitrogen or walk-in freezer) and storage conditions (-20 and -10°C for 5 days, 8 and 18 weeks). Distribution analysis of T2 data of unfrozen muscle displayed a major band (T21), accounting for 90-92% of the total signal, with a relaxation time centred at 47-60 ms and a broad band with protons of higher mobility between 300 and 800 ms, accounting for 3-5% of the signal. Upon freezing, T21 became wider and an extra band appeared within the range 120-360 ms. Whereas no changes were detected at -20°C, the T21 time constant decreased during frozen storage at -10°C in a similar way for all three freezing methods. The relative abundance of T21 declined with storage time but differences were found as a function of freezing. Results are discussed in the light of morphological alterations and protein denaturation, and it is concluded that LF NMR relaxometry is sensitive to different freezing and frozen storage conditions which can have important implications for the quality of fish muscle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efeito do volume de tubetes e tipo de substratos na qualidade de mudas de Cryptomeria japonica (L.F. D. Don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constâncio Bernardo dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A Cryptomeria japonica (L.F. D. Don. é uma espécie de grande potencial para plantios nas regiões altas e frias do Brasil. Destaca-se pelo seu rápido crescimento, boa adaptação ao clima e solo do sul do País, e boa resposta às tecnologias silviculturais, associada à qualidade e diversidade de utilização de sua matéria-prima para fábricas de celulose e papel, chapas, construções de casas, móveis, barcos e navios, entre outras. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento das mudas produzidas em diferentes tipos de tubetes e de substratos. Usou-se um experimento bifatorial no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos em cinco repetições com quarenta mudas por tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que, para a produção de mudas desta espécie, o substrato de solo + vermiculita foi o que apresentou melhor crescimento das plantas, em recipiente de 120 cm3.

  20. Scaling up the Benefits of Smallholder Forestry beyond Timber: Success story of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. Leaves Marketing in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoudji, AKN.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The marketing of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. leaves was studied in southern Benin, in order to seek out opportunities for increased financial returns in smallholder tree growing. A survey was carried out across the commercialization system. Seventy-six traders were interviewed in nine markets purposely selected, based on their functions in the commercialization system. Respondents provided information on their marketing functions, the costs borne, and their revenues. The marketing system was led by women who controlled the main functions. Three categories of traders were identified, namely collectors-wholesalers-retailers, collectors-retailers, and retailers. The commercialization of teak leaves increases the return from tree growing. Traders' monthly revenue was XOF 4,659–15,927 (USD 9.3–31.9 during the rainy season and XOF 6,621–21,655 (USD 13.2–43.3 during the dry season. As substitute for polyethylene bags in food packaging, teak leaves offer a potential to tackle environmental pollution in southern Benin. The study shows the necessity to consult beneficiaries to ensure the proper selection of tree species in farm forestry programs.

  1. Evaluation of the Toxic Effect from Eupatorium Microphyllum L.F. (Asteraceae Extracts on Aedes Aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory Conditions

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    Álvaro Rozo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the toxic activity ofextracts of Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. wasevaluated on 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoAedes aegypti (Linneaus, under laboratoryconditions. Aqueous extracts were utilized inconcentrations of 500 mg L-1, 1,500 mg L-1 and2,500 mg L-1 and acetone in concentrations of10 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 30 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1and50 mg L-1. The bioassays were carried out fortriplicate each one with 20 larvae, exposedfor 24 hours to 150 mL of solution. In all thebioassays were employed control groups. Inthe evaluation of the acetone extracts, a negativecontrol was employed to avoid that themortality of the larvae to occur on account ofthe solvent. The Aqueous extracts showed lowmoderate action in the mortality of larvae, lessthan 20%. On the contrary, the action of theacetone extracts was observed to 10 and 20 mgL-1with 15% of mortality, while to 30 and 40mg L-1 were registered 22 to 38% of mortality.However, to 50 mg L-1 the mortality wasof 95.4% with highly significant statisticalresults. The concentrations of the acetone extractsshowed to be the most efficient for thecontrol of the mosquitoes selected. Both typesof extracts showed toxic effect in larvae of A.aegypti, nevertheless, greater effect in theacetone extracts was observed relating to theaqueous extracts of E. microphyllum, whichconstitutes a viable alternative in the search ofnew larvicides from composed natural.

  2. Ionospheric perturbations associated with two huge earthquakes in Japan, using principal component analysis for multiple subionospheric VLF/LF propagation paths

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    Maria Solovieva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The presence of ionospheric perturbations in possible association with two huge earthquakes (Noto-hanto peninsula and Niigata-chuetu-oki earthquakes in 2007 was studied on the basis of a conventional statistical study for a particular propagation path from the JJI transmitter in Miyazaki, Kyushu, to Moshiri in Hokkaido. This is based on automatic routine-based signal processing, in which the trend as the average nighttime amplitude is significantly decreased, with almost simultaneous significant enhancement in the night-time fluctuation as the night-time integration of negative fluctuation from the average. It is, however, shown that this routine-based signal analysis sometime suffers from artificial (or man-made effects. Thus, in this study, we propose an additional use of principal component analysis (PCA for simultaneous observation of a few VLF/LF propagation paths. With the application of this PCA method to multi-path data, the artificial effects can be reasonably removed, and also only the geophysical effects associated with earthquakes are detected, by focusing mainly on the third principal component. The satisfactory separation of the principal components is made possible by pre-analysis of the VLF data (extraction from the raw data of the average over a whole year. This PCA method enables us to identify the seismogenic effects in association with earthquakes with smaller magnitudes, down to M 5.5 or M 5.0.

     

  3. Clock genes and diurnal transcriptome dynamics in summer and winter in the gymnosperm Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D.Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Mine; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2014-11-18

    The circadian clock and diurnal dynamics of the transcriptome are presumed to play important roles in the regulation of physiological, biological and developmental processes synchronized with diurnal and annual cycles of plant environments. However, little is known about the circadian clock and its regulation in gymnosperms, including conifers. Here we present the diurnal transcriptome dynamics of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D.Don) in both active (summer) and dormant (winter) periods. Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in transcripts between summer and winter, and diurnal transcriptome dynamics only in the summer. About 7.7% of unique genes (556 out of 7,254) on the microarray were periodically expressed in summer. Expression patterns of some genes, especially light-related genes, did not show significant oscillation in Japanese cedar, thus differing from those reported in angiosperms. Gene network analysis of the microarray data revealed a network associated with the putative core clock genes (CjLHYa, CjLHYb, CjTOC1, CjGI and CjZTL), which were also isolated, indicating their importance in the diurnal regulation of the transcriptome. This study revealed the existence of core clock genes and diurnal rhythms of the transcriptome in summer in Japanese cedar. Dampening of diurnal rhythms in winter indicated seasonal change in the rhythms according to environmental conditions. The data also revealed genes that showed different expression patterns compared to angiosperms, suggesting a unique gene regulatory network in conifers. This study provides fundamental data to understand transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in conifers.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the international consultation incontinence questionnaire male lower urinary tract symptoms-long form (ICIQ-MLUTS-LF) in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Mazdak, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate male lower urinary tract symptoms long form (MLUTS-LF) questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian speaking subjects. Assessment instrument is essential for research, making diagnosis, and for evaluating the treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of either gender. Long form of MLUTS questionnaire is a robust self-report questionnaire that investigates the major aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life. After getting permission from the International Consultation International Questionnaire website, the forward and backward translation MLUTS carried out by researcher team and assess content/face/construct validity, reliability in sample of MLUTS Iranian patients and, quality rating and pilot testing. The irritating and obstructing lower urinary disorders were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe in the study sample. Twenty two subjects were suffering from urinary incontinence and most of the participants had benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.819. Correlations between the MLUTS and International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 0.753. The MLUTS Questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content validity, and construct validity, as measured by correlation with scores on the IPSS. The Iranian version of the MLUTS questionnaire is a valid and robust instrument that can be used in clinical settings and in research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta daninha capim-camalote Growth and development of the weed itchgrass (Rottboelia exaltata L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O capim-camalote (Rottboelia exaltata L.f. é uma planta daninha com rápida disseminação nas áreas canavieiras do Brasil, causando significativas perdas de produtividade na cultura. Assim, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento, o desenvolvimento vegetativo e a capacidade reprodutiva do capim-camalote, como mecanismo de melhoria do manejo a ser adotado. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação da ESALQ/USP, entre julho e outubro de 2004, quando foram realizadas 14 avaliações periódicas de crescimento, determinando-se: massa fresca e seca (total, parte aérea e raízes, área foliar e fenologia das plantas. Realizou-se a contagem do número de rácemos florais de 16 plantas e do número de sementes de 100 rácemos após florescimento. Pôde-se observar um rápido crescimento inicial das plantas, de tal forma que o início do florescimento ocorreu aos 49 dias após a semeadura. No fim do ciclo, verificaram-se nas plantas valores próximos a 120 g, 25 g e 1.600 cm² de massa fresca total, massa seca total e área foliar, respectivamente. Na ocasião das contagens, as plantas haviam emitido, em média, o total de 163 rácemos com 12 sementes cada uma, o que corresponde a mais de 2.000 sementes por planta. Pelos resultados alcançados verifica-se elevada capacidade de crescimento e habilidade reprodutiva do capim-camalote, explicando as razões que fazem dessa planta daninha um novo problema em potencial para a agricultura brasileira.Itchgrass (Rottboelia exaltata L.f. is a weed that has presented fast dissemination in sugar-cane fields in Brazil, causing significant yield losses to the crop. Therefore, this research had the objective of evaluating the growth, vegetative development and reproductive capacity of the species, as a mechanism of improving the management to be adopted. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the months of July to

  6. The development of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP) by designing new analysing software and by setting up new recording locations of radio VLF/LF signals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Dolea, Paul; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Based on scientific evidences supporting the causality between earthquake preparatory stages, space weather and solar activity and different types of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances together with the benefit of having full access at ground and space based EM data, INFREP proposes a complex and cross correlated investigation of phenomena that occur in the coupled system Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionsophere in order to identify possible causes responsible for anomalous effects observed in the propagation characteristics of radio waves, especially at low (LF) and very low frequency (VLF). INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe in 2009, having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. The Romanian NIEP VLF / LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver -made by Elettronika S.R.L. (Italy) and provided by the Bari University- and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data, is a part of the international initiative INFREP. The NIEP VLF / LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 in Bucharest and relocated to the Black-Sea shore (Dobruja Seismologic Observatory) in December 2009. The first development of the Romanian EM monitoring system was needed because after changing the receiving site from Bucharest to Eforie we obtained unsatisfactory monitoring data, characterized by large fluctuations of the received signals' intensities. Trying to understand this behavior has led to the conclusion that the electric component of the electromagnetic field was possibly influenced by the local conditions. Starting from this observation we have run some tests and changed the vertical antenna with a loop-type antenna that is more appropriate in highly electric-field polluted environments. Since the amount of recorded data is huge, for streamlining the research process

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of 3-hydroxy, 2-methoxy sodium butanoate from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Babu, N; Saravanan, S; Pandikumar, P; Bala Krishna, K; Karunai Raj, M; Ignacimuthu, S

    2014-02-01

    The leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f. have been used in the Indian traditional system of medicine to treat several inflammatory diseases and arthritis. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of the leaves of C. phlomidis and to isolate the active principle by bioactivity guided fractionation. To find the anti-inflammatory constituents from this plant, fractionations were performed with concurrent bioassays. Carrageenan-induced inflammation and Freund complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic rat models were used. The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of the isolated compound were studied by assessing the histology of the joints, levels of lysosomal enzymes, protein-bound carbohydrates, acute phase protein, etc., in plasma, as well as by estimating the levels and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints. Repeated fractionations and bioassays yielded a novel bioactive compound: 3-hydroxy, 2-methoxy-sodium butanoate. Treatment with this compound reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan and FCA dose dependently. The levels of lysosomal enzymes and protein-bound carbohydrates decreased significantly upon treatment with the compound. The level of plasma acute phase protein was also decreased compared with control animals. Protein levels and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in the joints were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner and the histopathological data also added evidence of the anti-arthritic property of the compound. The 3-hydroxy,2-methoxy sodium butanoate isolated from plant leaves displays considerable potency in anti-inflammatory action and has a prominent anti-arthritic effect. This is the first report of this natural compound with bioactivity.

  8. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LAS PROPIEDADES FÍSICO-MECÁNICAS DE LA MADERA DE TECA (Tectona grandis L.F. DE QUEVEDO Y BALZAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Crespo Gutiérrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la madera de Teca (Tectona grandis L.F. procedente de Quevedo y Balzar. Los objetivos fueron: determinar el porcentaje de duramen y albura de los árboles, las propiedades físicas en estado verde y anhidro de la madera, las propiedades mecánicas en estado de equilibrio y las principales diferencias físico-mecánicas de la madera. En Quevedo se colectaron cinco árboles de teca de 22 años de edad y en Balzar se colectaron cinco árboles de teca de 18 años de edad. De cada árbol se obtuvieron dos trozas de 2.50 m de largo y de cada troza se obtuvo un tablón central de 10 cm de ancho por 2.50 m de longitud del cual se extrajo las viguetas y finalmente las probetas. Se elaboraron 60 probetas (seis probetas por árbol para los ensayos de las propiedades físicas. Para el estudio de las propiedades mecánicas se elaboraron 60 probetas (una por cada ensayo por árbol. La metodología empleada para el estudio de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se fundamentó en las normas ASTM D 143-94 (American Society for Testing and Materials. Los resultaron mostraron que no existe diferencia significativa entre la madera de las dos zonas. La madera de Teca de Quevedo y Balzar presentó mediana densidad, por lo que tiene mejores posibilidades de uso en la fabricación de muebles y gabinetes, usos exteriores, molduras, parquet y pisos en general, carpintería en general, entablados, puertas y ventanas, herramientas agrícolas y vehículos, entre las principales.

  9. Perubahan Kadar MDA, SOD, dan Kapasitas Antioksidan Hati Tikus sprague dawley pada Pemberian Ekstrak Bubuk Daun Cemcem (spondias pinnata (l.f kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Eny Sulistyadewi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cemcem leaves (Spondias pinnata (Lf kurz is one plant that is used as a traditional drink for health benefits. This study was carried out to (1 Influence of Cemcem leaves powder extract to increased antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the Sprague Dawley (SD rat liver and (2 determine the best doses to increased antioxidant capacity and enzym activity of SOD and decreas the levels of MDA in the Sprague Dawley (SD rat liver. Methods used to determination of the effect of Cemcem leaves powder extract on levels of antioxidant capacity, SOD and MDA were performed in SD rat. The dose which was consumed were 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day, 150 mg/kg/day, and 200 mg/kg/day. The results showed that the cemcem leaves powder extract that was consumed orally for seven weeks at a dose of 50 mg / kg / day up to 200 mg / kg / day was able to significantly (P <0.05 decrease the levels of MDA and increase antioxidant capacity and SOD enzyme activity in rat liver. The conclusion of this study is that the extract at a dose of 50 mg / kg / day up to 200 mg / kg bw / day can increase the antioxidant capacity and SOD enzyme activity, as well as decrease the levels of MDA in the Sprague Dawley rat liver and Cemcem leaves powder extract at a dose of 200 mg / kg / day have the same ability by administering Vitamin C 50 mg / kg / day.Keywords : Cemcem Leaf Powder Extract, Maltodextrin, antioxidant capacity, SODand MDA

  10. Fe-bLf nanoformulation targets survivin to kill colon cancer stem cells and maintains absorption of iron, calcium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Roy, Kislay; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Prasad, Neerati; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2015-01-01

    To validate the anticancer efficacy of alginate-enclosed, chitosan-conjugated, calcium phosphate, iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) nanocarriers/nanocapsules (NCs) with improved sustained release and ability to induce apoptosis by downregulating survivin, as well as cancer stem cells. The stability, nanotoxicity of the modified nanoformulation was evaluated and their anticancer efficacy was re-examined. Their mechanism of internalization was studied and we identified the role of various miRNAs in absorption of these NCs/iron in various body parts of mice. We determined the effect of these NCs on survivin, stem cell markers, red blood cell count, iron, calcium and zinc concentration in mice, determined the antiangiogenic properties of these NCs and studied their effect on cancer stem-like cells. Spherical NCs (396.1 ± 27.2 nm) exceedingly reduced viability of Caco-2 cells (32 ± 2.83%). The NCs also showed effective internalization and reduction of cancer stem cell markers in triple-positive CD133, survivin and CD44 cancer stem-like cells. Mice treated with the NCs showed no nanotoxicity and did not develop any tumors in xenograft colon cancer models. We found that the serum iron, zinc and calcium absorption were increased. DMT1, LRP, transferrin and lactoferrin receptors were responsible for internalization of the NCs. Different miRNAs were responsible for iron regulation in different organs. Interestingly, NCs inhibited survivin and its different isoforms. Our results confirmed that NCs internalized and changed the expression of selected miRNAs that further enhanced their uptake. The NCs activated both extrinsic, as well as intrinsic apoptotic pathways to induce apoptosis by targeting survivin in cancer cells and cancer stem cells, without inducing any nonspecific nanotoxicity. Apart from inhibiting angiogenesis and stem cell markers, NCs also maintained iron and calcium levels.

  11. Uptake and allocation of 13C by Enhalus acoroides at sites differing in light availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiswara, W.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fixation and allocation were studied using 13C incubation and leaf marking techniques in mature monospecific stands of Enhalus acoroides L.f. Royle in August 1998 and January 1999 in Banten Bay, Indonesia. The highest rate of 13C uptake (>0.008 g 13C g C-1 d-1) was found in the middle to

  12. LF-NMR study of effect the octadecylamine addition in the copolymerization process between acrylic acid and styrene monomers; Estudo por RMN de baixo campo do efeito da adicao de octadecilamina na copolimerizacao dos monomeros de acido acrilico e estireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroza, Oscar J.O.; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: oscarjop@ima.ufrj.br, mibt@ima.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The copolymer content at least two monomer units that are the repetitive unities in the polymeric chains. The use of Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR), MARAN ultra 23, was applied to measure the proton spin-lattice relaxation time values. The process of copolymerization between the acrylic acid (A) and the styrene (S) monomers was studied with the addition of the octadecylamine (D) in the acrylic acid monomer. These materials were submitted at reflux by 24 hours. After this process the polymerization was carried out at room temperature. The values of the relaxation parameter are showed in Table 1. The co polymerizations between acrylic acid and styrene monomers were influenced by the octadecylamine addition. The results showed that an increase in the amine concentration promotes flexibility in the final material. This can be explained in terms of chains size after amine addition, which promotes an increasing in the free space among the polymer chains. (author)

  13. İncir kurdu, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae)'ya sülfüril florit (SO2F2)quot123in bazı etkileri üzerine araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    AKAN, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    İncir kurdu, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) kurutulmuş meyvelerin önemli zararlılarından birisidir. Sülfüril florit (SO2F2) depolanmış ürün zararlı ile savaşımda, kullanımdan kaldırılmış olan metil bromit’e alternatif bir fümigant olarak E. cautella’nın yumurta, larva, pupa ve ergin evresine etkinliği bu çalışmanın konusunu oluşturmuştur. Çalışma 15, 20 ve 25o

  14. Effets de lisière sur la productivité du teck (Tectona grandis L.f.: étude de cas des teckeraies privées du Sud-Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge Effects on the Productivity of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.: a Case Study of Private Teak Plantations in Southern Benin. The present study aims to improve the production of teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f. in private plantations in southern Benin through the application of a central concept in landscape ecology: the edge effect. As teak is an heliophilous species, the hypothesis of a higher wood production in edges was tested on the basis of the basal area. Sixty-two private teak plantations were investigated and 10,667 trees were measured. The stratified sampling scheme in three distinct parts for each plantation (the centre, the edge and the summits permitted to highlight the edge effect on wood production. For each part, a plot was installed and the diameter at breast height (dbh was measured for all trees. The leaf area between the edge and the centre of plantations was measured. Finally, the influence of the spatial configuration of plantations and the direction of each side of these plantations on the production of wood was tested. Results show that the edge effect on the production of teak wood affects four planting lines, the first presenting a production of 150% relative to the centre. We noticed a significant influence of the edge on the leaf area of about 218% relative to the centre. No influence of the direction of the sides of the plantation was observed. The shape of the plantations presents a significant influence on the wood production. These results permitted to propose a planting model included in an agroforestry system that optimizes the production of wood per area and having a succession of two planting lines interrupted by fields.

  15. (Roxb. Ex Wild.) Royle et de Crataeva adanso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 2.10-2 mol.l-1. (ammoniaque) provenant de. «CARLO ERBA Reagents». Des dilutions successives sont effectuées pour donner des échantillons avec des titres compris entre 8.10-. 5 et 2.10-2 mol.l-1.Vingt-cinq microlitres de l'acide ou de la ...

  16. Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2003-08-01

    For assessing free radical scavenging potential of P. kurrooa, the antioxidant activity of P. kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68%) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract.

  17. Tolerability and efficacy of a three-age class dosage schedule of Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) in the treatment of microfilaria carriers of Wuchereria bancrofti and its implications in mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, S P; Das, L K; Vanamail, P

    2005-03-01

    A six-age class dosage schedule of Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) of 50mg (1-2 years), 100mg (3-4 years), 150mg (5-8 years), 200mg (9-11 years), 250mg (12-14 years) and 300mg for above 14 years is being adopted for annual single dose MDA for LF elimination treat Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria carriers. In order to increase the community compliance as well as to make the distribution easier during MDA, a revised 3 age class dosage schedule of 100mg (2-4 years), 200mg (5-14 years) and 300mg for above 14 years was evaluated for its tolerability and efficacy. By this change, it was observed that the 4-8 years age class is receiving 50 mg higher and 11-14 years age class is receiving 50mg lesser dose compared to the earlier class schedule. Therefore, the safety aspect in the age class of 4-8 years and efficacy component in the age class of 11-14 years were assessed. Apparently "healthy" asymptomatic microfilaraemic volunteers between the age class of 4-8 and 11-14 years were recruited for the study. The incidence of side reaction in the 4-8 years age class was 50.0% with 150mg dose and 66.7% with 200mg (P>0.05). No life threatening adverse reactions was observed in any dosage schedule. Fever, headache and myalgia, the predominant adverse reactions were mild and similar in both schedules. The mean intensity of the three major specific adverse reactions (fever, headache and myalgia) also did not differ significantly (P>0.05). For the purpose of LF elimination, efficacy in terms of reduction in mean microfilaria load is important. In the 11-14 year age class considerable reduction in the geometric mean density (GMD) was observed by day 90 and 180 post-therapy in both groups (250mg group and 200mg group) compared to pre-therapy level. By day 360 post-therapy, the difference was statistically not significant (P>0.05) (reduction of 72.2% in 250mg and 69.6% reduction in 200mg). The reductions in GMD were statistically significant when compared to pre-therapy levels in both the

  18. Effectiveness of the two microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets, in women affected by bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicariotto, Franco; Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli. The main limitation is the inability to offer a long-term defensive barrier, thus facilitating relapses and recurrences. This study was undertaken firstly to assess the ability of selected lactobacilli to in vitro antagonize G. vaginalis to determine an association with a strain able to inhibit E. coli, thus identifying a possible use in AV. The second step of the study was to conduct a human pilot trial in women affected by BV using an association of the most promising and active bacteria. For this purpose, neutralized supernatants of individual lactobacilli were tested at percentages ranging from 0.5% to 4% to determine their ability to hinder the growth of G. vaginalis American Type Culture Collection 10231. The bacterium that was able to exert the strongest inhibition was subsequently tested with Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 in a human intervention, placebo-controlled, pilot trial involving 34 female subjects (aged between 18 and 50, mean 34.7±8.9, no menopausal women) diagnosed with BV. The 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 (DSM 26955) and L. plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) were delivered to the vagina by means of slow-release vaginal tablets, also containing 50 mg of tara gum. The amount of each strain was 400 million live cells per dose. The women were instructed to apply a vaginal tablet once

  19. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    https://doi.org/10.2307/3434847. Gairola S, Shariff NM, Bhatt A, Kala CP. 2010. Influence of climate change on production of secondary chemicals in high altitude medicinal plants: Issues needs immediate attention. J. Med. Plants Res., 4(18): 1825-1829. Griffiths DW, Thomas T A. 1981. Phytate and total phosphorus content ...

  20. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    were for morphological evidence of herbivority ( teeth type, peritoneum color, intestine length) and for actual evidence of hydrilla feeding (stomach...brought to shore for examination for natural enemies and damage. The plants to be examined were normally floated in water-filled white enamel pans. The...sected for evidence of hydrilla feeding and herbivority. All four species were carnivorous. They had silver peritoneums, holding teeth , and short

  1. RECYCLING OF LF-WHITE SLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallotti, P.L.; Mapelli, C.; Memoli, F.; Pustorino, M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years technologies of the plants dedicated to recycle of ladle slag have been improved. The type of recycling evaluated in the present study mainly consists in the reuse of the ladle slag and refractory, injecting them into the Electric Arc Furnace. The recycling of ladle slag can permit to achieve interesting advantageous results: decreasing the amount of dumped material, the cost of EAF fluxes and improve the slag foaminess.

  2. Micropropagation of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kher Mafatlal M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. is an important medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, particularly its roots, which are used for various therapeutic purposes in a pulverized form. The objective of this study was to develop a standard protocol for axillary shoot proliferation and rooting of C. phlomidis for its propagation and conservation. Nodal explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that was supplemented with one of six cytokinins: 6-benzyladenine, kinetin, thidiazuron, N6-(2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP, trans-zeatin (Zea and meta-topolin. Callus induction, which was prolific at all concentrations, formed at the base of nodal explants and hindered shoot multiplication and elongation. To avoid or reduce callus formation with the objective of increasing shoot formation, the same six cytokinins were combined with 4 μM 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA alone or in combination with 270 μM adenine sulphate (AdS. Nodal explants that were cultured on the medium supplemented with 9.12 μM Zea, 4 μM TIBA and 270 μM AdS produced significantly more and longer shoots than on medium without TIBA and AdS. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with 8.05 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid was the best medium for root formation. Most (75% in vitro rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized under natural conditions.

  3. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA LLUVIA DE SEMILLAS DE Gaiadendron punctatum (RUIZ & PAVÓN G.DON. (LORANTHACEAE Y Ternstroemia meridionalis MUTIS EX L.F. (THEACEAE EN EL PARQUE NATURAL MUNICIPAL RANCHERÍA (BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA PARADA QUINTERO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pavón G. Don y Ternstroemia meridionalis Mutis ex L.f. son especies ornitócoras del bosque altoandino, la primera abundante en el parque natural municipal Ranchería, y la segunda rara localmente. Se evaluó la lluvia de semillas y la fenología de la fructificación de G. punctatum y T. meridionalis. El muestreo se realizó entre marzo y diciembre de 2010, período que incluye época seca y lluviosa. Se instalaron 8 trampas, con una superficie de recolección de 1 m2. La fructificación de las dos especies fue continua, con alto porcentaje de frutos inmaduros; la mayor fructificación se presentó en época lluviosa. Las dos especies presentaron lluvia de semillas durante todo el estudio, G. punctatum presentó lluvia de semillas más alta con un promedio de 169/m2, mientras que T. meridionalis presentó 50 semillas/m2. La mayor abundancia de semillas de G. punctatum se presentó en época seca, mientras que en T. meridionalis fue en época lluviosa. A pesar de la baja lluvia de semillas, T. meridionalis, mostró un porcentaje alto de semillas viables. G. punctatum presentó mayor presión de propágulos, lo que explicaría el alto número de individuos en el área. Aunque el número de semillas de T. meridionalis no es muy alto, representa un potencial para la prevalencia de esta especie y la necesidad de buscar los factores que impiden la persistencia de estos propágulos.

  4. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet.

  5. Transcriptional profiling of C. elegans DAF-19 uncovers a ciliary base-associated protein and a CDK/CCRK/LF2p-related kinase required for intraflagellar transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirke, Prasad; Efimenko, Evgeni; Mohan, Swetha; Burghoorn, Jan; Crona, Filip; Bakhoum, Mathieu W; Trieb, Maria; Schuske, Kim; Jorgensen, Erik M; Piasecki, Brian P; Leroux, Michel R; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Cilia are ubiquitous cell surface projections that mediate various sensory- and motility-based processes and are implicated in a growing number of multi-organ genetic disorders termed ciliopathies. To identify new components required for cilium biogenesis and function, we sought to further define and validate the transcriptional targets of DAF-19, the ciliogenic C. elegans RFX transcription factor. Transcriptional profiling of daf-19 mutants (which do not form cilia) and wild-type animals was performed using embryos staged to when the cell types developing cilia in the worm, the ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs), still differentiate. Comparisons between the two populations revealed 881 differentially regulated genes with greater than a 1.5-fold increase or decrease in expression. A subset of these was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Transgenic worms expressing transcriptional GFP fusions revealed CSN-specific expression patterns for 11 of 14 candidate genes. We show that two uncharacterized candidate genes, termed dyf-17 and dyf-18 because their corresponding mutants display dye-filling (Dyf) defects, are important for ciliogenesis. DYF-17 localizes at the base of cilia and is specifically required for building the distal segment of sensory cilia. DYF-18 is an evolutionarily conserved CDK7/CCRK/LF2p-related serine/threonine kinase that is necessary for the proper function of intraflagellar transport, a process critical for cilium biogenesis. Together, our microarray study identifies targets of the evolutionarily conserved RFX transcription factor, DAF-19, providing a rich dataset from which to uncover-in addition to DYF-17 and DYF-18-cellular components important for cilium formation and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Representation of Ireland in Bertalan Szemere’s Utazás külföldön or A Journey Abroad A Study of Szemere’s Image-Forming Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintér Márta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study adds to my ongoing research into Irish-Hungarian relations in the nineteenth century. As such it is concerned with Bertalan Szemere’s representation of Ireland in his travelogue Utazás külföldön [A Journey Abroad]. It approaches Szemere’s work from the perspective of the following three questions. How does Szemere’s trip to Ireland fit into the tradition of Irish-Hungarian contacts? What urged Szemere to sail over to Ireland and extend his already long and tiring tour of Europe? And finally, what factors shaped Szemere’s image of Ireland in his travel account? A preliminary study of the conditions of Szemere’s trip and his actual account of the country has led me to the hypothesis that in the process of creating his own representation of Ireland Szemere heavily relied on external sources. I seek to answer these questions by identifying the place of Szemere’s travel account in the tradition of Hungarian-Irish contacts; by relating it to other texts on Ireland by Szemere’s Hungarian contemporaries; and by comparing it to particular reports on Ireland by European travellers. My aim is to prove that Szemere’s representation of Ireland was primarily informed and moulded by German and English sources as they were transferred to Szemere by some Hungarian periodicals. My study also emphasizes the importance of further research into the interaction of Hungarian and European discourse on Ireland in the nineteenth century.

  7. VARIAÇÃO BIOMÉTRICA DE DIÁSPOROS DE BURITI (Mauritia flexuosa L.f. – ARECACEAE EM VEREDAS EM DIFERENTES ESTÁGIOS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano dos Santos Matos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As veredas são fitofisionomias do bioma Cerrado, onde, no estrato arbóreo, predomina a palmeira arbórea Mauritia flexuosa L.f. - buriti, espécie considerada recurso-chave para muitos animais, que a utilizam como moradia e fonte alimentar, e também pelo próprio homem, que usa suas folhas e frutos como matéria-prima e alimento. Apesar de ocorrerem em ambientes protegidos pela legislação ambiental, ações antrópicas nas veredas têm afetado as populações do buriti, por meio da diminuição do número de indivíduos ocasionada por desmatamento, assoreamento e drenagem dessas áreas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a morfometria de frutos e sementes de buriti oriundos de seis veredas em diferentes estágios de conservação, situadas na Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Pandeiros (norte de Minas Gerais. Foram amostrados, no total, 1800 frutos e sementes, que foram mensurados em comprimento, largura, espessura e peso. Para detectar diferenças das medidas morfométricas dos frutos e das sementes entre as áreas de coleta foi feita a análise de variância. Foram observadas variações nas medidas morfométricas de frutos e sementes entre as áreas de estudo, sendo que 87,5% das maiores médias ocorreram em áreas com menores intervenções antrópicas. Esse fato, possivelmente, está relacionado aos impactos ocorridos nas veredas, além das variações genéticas que podem incidir sobre os indivíduos.

  8. Estudio de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, trabajabilidad y secado de la teca (Tectona grandis L.f de Puerto libertador (Córdoba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Salgado Carlos A.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Productos Forestales " Héctor Anaya López" de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín. Dado el interés de la Empresa Reforestadora del Caribe, por conocer las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, trabajabilidad y secado de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. ; de cuya especie la Empresa estableció en Noviembre de 1987, una plantación en el municipio de Puerto libertador (Córdoba. Las propiedades físicas que se evaluaron fueron; peso especifico (verde, seco al aire, básico, anhidro y ajustado al 12 % de contenido de humedad, contracción y contenido de humedad. En lo relacionado a las propiedades mecánicas, se realizaron ensayos de flexión estática, compresión paralela a las fibras, compresión perpendicular al las fibras, cizallamiento, dureza, extracción de clavos e impacto; los ensayos se llevaron a cabo tanto en estado verde (CH>30% como en estado seco al aire (CH<15%. La madera presentó peso especifico anhidro (0.57 g/ cm3 , ubicándose dentro del grupo de maderas medianamente pesadas, las propiedades mecánicas de la especie se colocaron en el rango de algo medianas a medianas. Al comparar estos resultados con los estudios reportados para la especie, no se observo diferencia alguna. Los ensayos de trabajabilidad se realizaron en estado seco al aire (CH<15%, evaluando la respuesta de la madera al cepillado, moldurado y taladrado. Los defectos que se presentaron en cepillado fueron grano arrancado, grano velloso y en relieve, siendo de mayor importancia el último, debido a que los demás, se pueden eliminar fácilmente mediante lijado.

  9. Influencia de la lateralidad dominante de la jugadora en puesto específico de base en el juego de ataque en Liga Femenina 2 [Laterality dominance of female point guard influences in the offensive patterns in LF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Manzano Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La lateralidad de la jugadora con el rol de base puede ser sólo una característica individual, o bien un factor influyente en el juego de su equipo, y por tanto, una herramienta a considerar por  parte del equipo rival. El trabajo de investigación se centra en la necesidad de reflejar si la lateralidad de una jugadora con rol de base en baloncesto, al iniciar la acción de juego (bote o pase influye de manera determinante en la toma de decisiones. El contexto de trabajo utilizado es la segunda categoría de baloncesto femenino nacional, Liga Femenina 2. En la observación han participado varios equipos de dicha categoría, con total de 10 partidos analizados y un total de 170 situaciones de juego analizadas (N=170. Para establecer las relaciones entre las variables se utilizó el Coeficiente de Contingencia. Los resultados muestran una relación estadísticamente significativa de la lateralidad de la base y el lado del campo en el que se empieza a jugar (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pPalabras clave: Baloncesto, Lateralidad, Base, Análisis de juego.   AbstractLaterality of the point-guard can be an individual characteristic, or in the other hand, an important factor in the offensive patterns of the team. In this way, it will be a useful information for the other team.  This research has focused in the laterality of the point guard, and it influences in the decision making. The League studied was the second female Spanish basketball league, LF2. 10 matches were observed and 170 game situations analyzed (N=170. Crosstabs Command and the Contingency Coefficient were used to establish the relationship between variables. The results shows a significant relationship between the laterality of the point guard and the side of the field where the attack begin (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pKey words:  Basketball, laterality, point guard, game analysis.

  10. R. Bohlin, De Osynliga. Det Europas fattiga arbetarklass; M. Linton, De hatade. Om radikalhögerns måltavlor; B. Elmbrant, Europas stålbad. Krisen som slukar välfärden och skakar euron (All titles by Atlas, Stockholm, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following volumes: Bohlin, Rebecka (2012, De Osynliga. Det Europas fattiga arbetarklass (The invisibles. Europe’s poor working class, Stockholm: Atlas; Linton, Magnus (2012, De hatade. Om radikalhögerns måltavlor (The hated. About the targets of the radical right, Stockholm: Atlas; Elmbrant, Björn (2012, Europas stålbad. Krisen som slukar välfärden och skakar euron (Europe’s baptism of fire. The crisis swallowing Welfare State and shaking euro, Stockholm: Atlas.

  11. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  12. Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutaki Royle ex Benth as a hepatoprotective agent--experimental & clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa (Pk, a known hepatoprotective plant, was studied in experimental and clinical situtations. The standardization of active principles--Picroside 1 and 2 was done with High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Picroside 1 ranged from 2.72 to 2.88 mg/capsule and picroside 2 from 5.50 to 6.00 mg/capsule. In the galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats, Pk at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in liver lipid content, GOT and GPT. In a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial in patients diagnosed to have acute viral hepatitis (HBsAg negative, Pk root powder 375 mg three times a day was given for 2 weeks (n = 15 or a matching placebo (n = 18 was given. Difference in values of bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT was significant between placebo and Pk groups. The time in days required for total serum bilirubin to drop to average value of 2.5 mg% was 75.9 days in placebo as against 27.44 days in Pk group. The present study has shown a biological plausability of efficacy of Pk as supported by clinical trial in viral hepatitis, hepatoprotection in animal model and an approach for standardizing extracts based on picroside content.

  13. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Shitiz

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I and Picroside-II (P-II, which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE, coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  14. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  15. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  16. Influence of mycorrhizal developmental stages and plant age on rhizosphere mycoflora of Pinus kesiya (Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively the population was recorded to be high around thc mycorrhizal roots. Some fungi were specific to different stages of mycorrhizal development. Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella elegans were recorded at 5% mycorrhizal association stage. Fusarium sp. was found at 20% mycorrhizal association, while Mucor spp. were obtained at 60% stage. Verticillium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence in the beginning of mycorrhizal association but later on Penicilium spp. were found to be the most common. Sugar content of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots were determined to assess their effect on the mycorrhizospheric micropopulation. The mannitol and trehalose were present only in mycorrhizal roots.

  17. Breaking the resistance of Escherichia coli: Antimicrobial activity of Berberis lycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Ahad, Shazia; Tantry, Mudasir A; Hussain, P R; Johri, R K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of root bark of Berberis lycium and its principal component berberine was tested against a panel of microbial strains using agar well diffusion test and further analyzed using micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary analysis, on the basis of zone of Inhibition (ZOI) showed that the methanolic extract of B. lycium was highly effective against Escherichia coli (ZOI 41 ± 1 mm). Among the bacterial strains E. coli was found to be most susceptible and among fungi Candida albicans was the most susceptible for berberine as well as the crude methanolic extract of the plant. Methanolic extract of the plant was more effective for E. coli (MIC 1.7 ± 1.18; MBC 2.4 ± 1.18) than berberine (MIC 3.5 ± 0.57) (p E. coli showed the development of resistant colonies after 72 h when tested with berberine but the development of such colonies was not observed with the methanolic extract of the plant. This could be due to the presence of resistance breaking molecules in the crude methanolic extract of B. lycium. Also the MIC index of crude methanolic extract was 1.39 for E. coli, which showed the mode of action to be bactericidal. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of berberine at highest concentration in methanolic extract of the plant, followed by aqueous extract. Potentiation of this berberine by resistance breaking molecules in the crude extract could be a possible explanation for its strong effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct shoot regeneration from intact leaves of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnston using thidiazuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Sharma, Shveta; Sharma, Madhu; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2010-04-08

    The present study highlights the importance of preculture time and concentration of TDZ (thidiazuron) for direct regeneration from in vitro leaves (attached to shoots) in Arnebia euchroma. Shoot buds proliferated to form multiple shoots on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog medium) with 5.0 microM Kn. Different additives viz. ascorbic acid, PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone), PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) or activated charcoal (50, 100 and 250 mg/l each) were used to check the phenolic exudations. Direct shoot regeneration was obtained when shoots were initially precultured for 40 days on medium with a higher concentration of TDZ (20.0 muM) and then transferred to a lower concentration (5.0 microM TDZ). The identity of shoot buds was confirmed by histological studies. Regenerated shoots were cultured for 30 days on medium containing Kn (5.0 microM) for proliferation and then transferred to IBA (0.25 microM)-containing medium for rooting. Rooted plantlets were transferred to greenhouse with 45-50% survival.

  19. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woojong; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Junki; Seong, Rack Seon; Shim, Young Hun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Cynanchum auriculatum is a climbing vine belonging to the Apocynaceae family and shows very similar morphology to Cynanchum wilfordii, a medicinal plant. The complete chloroplast genome of C. auriculatum was generated by de novo assembly using the small amount of whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of C. auriculatum was 160 840 bp in length and consisted of four distinct regions, such as large single copy region (91 973 bp), small single copy region (19 667 bp), and a pair of inverted repeat regions (24 600 bp). The overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome were 37.8%. A total of 114 genes were predicted and included 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that C. auriculatum is most closely related to Cynanchum wilfordii, a medicinal plant.

  1. Phytochemical Observation on Leaf of Justicia Tranquebariesis. L.F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilandeswari, S.; Mainmaran, S.; Valarmathi, R.; Kumara, S. Karpagam; Loganathan, Sundari V.

    2001-01-01

    Photochemical studies of leaf of the herbs Justicia tranquebariensis. (Acanthaceae) carried out in the presence of phytosterols, flavonoids, Glycosides and absence of triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins tannins have been reported in this herb for the first time. PMID:22557013

  2. Antilipolytic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of dietary Salvia triloba Lf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of dyslipidemia, and diabetes and obesity. This study was aimed to ... Obesity and its cardiovascular comorbidities .... obesity. Impressively, pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase natural inhibitors offer the utility for adjuvant or alternative treatment to statins or orlistat as likely synergies can exist between new.

  3. VLF/LF/MF Whispering Gallery Propagation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-09

    can be expressed as ry0 HGF = AnGn (z)Gn(z) - tn)1/2ki(tn - z)Ai(t - ). (8)n n n ~ 2 (Yo 0 ~ If both the transmitting and receiving antennas are...6503 10 PR 1/2 [n ~D v- h [a sin D/aJ AnGn (Z)Gn(;) exp 1--61 V/m, (9) n where all lengths are in meters and the radiated power, PR’ is in kilowatts...P.Greifinger) 2 Pacific-Sierra Research Corp., 1456 Cloverfield Boulevard, Santa Monica , CA 90404 (E. C. Field) I Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics

  4. Research Note: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) Aedes albopictus : A new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis, an ancient disease is a major global problem infecting more than 120 million men, women and children. Vectors for the causative ... This is no good news considering the health implications and bearing in mind that Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for at least 22 arboviruses. The finding of W.

  5. LF-lähetin 137 kHz:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heikura, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön aiheena oli suunnitella ja rakentaa ra diolähetin taajuusvälille 135,7–137,8 kHz. Tämä taajuusalue on varattu radioamatöörikäyttöön ja sitä käytetään sähkötykseen. Lähettimen vähimmäislähetysteho täytyi olla 50 W 50 W:n kuormaan. Insinöörityön tilaajana toimi Kajaanin ammattikorkeakoulu. Laitteisto koostuu pääosiltaan oskillaattorista, kahdesta taajuusjakajasta, avainnuksesta, pääteasteesta ja LCsuodattimesta. Oskillaattorissa muodostetaan taajuus, joka syötetä...

  6. VLF/LF High-Voltage Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    c m rm s) 35 40 calc smooth dry obs stranded dry calc dtranded dry obs stranded wet calc stranded wet Esmooth = 17.25+12/d^0.43 Estr dry = 8+13/d...0.5 Estr wet = 3 + 13/d^0.6 Cables have 12 outer strands below 1 cm and 18 above Figure 6-25. Corona onset surface fields for stranded cables at 43

  7. Research Note: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) Aedes albopictus : A new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis, an ancient disease is a major global problem infecting more than 120 million men, women and children. Vectors for the causative agent Wuchereria bancrofti were investigated in Abia State, Nigeria. Of all the mosquito vectors encountered using sweep net, test tube and Pyrethrum Knockdown Count ...

  8. LF airport ground noise mitigation using scattering sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, C.; Eisses A.R.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Ground noise due to aircraft starting from the Amsterdam airport runway ‘Polderbaan’ has been an issue since its construction in 2003. Take off operation in headwind conditions causes downwind sound propagation towards a residential area situated 2,5 km Southwest of the runway. Due to the large

  9. Treatment of LF slag to prevent powdering during cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorai S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic transformation of the monoclinic β-polymorph to the orthorhombic γ-polymorph of di-calcium silicate at around 500°C during cooling results in disintegration of slag. The slag generated, during the production of thermo mechanically treated steel in ladle furnace at M/s Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India, behaves in similar manner. An attempt has been made to prevent the crumbling of ladle furnace slag. The experiments were conducted in 10 kg air induction furnace. Various types of silica source were used to prevent the disintegration of ladle furnace slag by reducing the basicity and optimizing the additives amount. Apart from silica sources, other additives like borax and barium carbonate were also used to stabilize the β phase. Present investigation reveals that disintegration of ladle furnace slag can be prevented either by addition of 0.2% boarx or 2% barium carbonate. Dust formation can also be prevented by decreasing the ladle furnace slag basicity to about 1.7. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test, of the borax and barium carbonate treated slag samples, indicates that barium carbonate treated slag cannot be used for the dusting prevention as it contains high level of barium.

  10. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  11. Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla Verticillata; Final Report on Surveys in East Africa, 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    unstable and difficult to work from. A weed drag was used in most cases to collect samples. Diving was a much more effective means of collecting plants...a considerable dele- terious effect on African aquatic systems, with increased runoff and erosion leading to heavier sediment loads in rivers and to...outbreaks of Salvinia molesta, limited * . stands of Najas peotinata and Potamogeton spp., especially on eastern and southern shores; L;tricularia

  12. Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

  13. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sapna N; Mengi, Sushma; Vaidya, Rama; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2010-07-01

    As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR) drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD) - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group) - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective.Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g) and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g) compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001). Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g) of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001). In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  14. Cardioprotective effect of root extract of Picrorhiza kurroa (Royle Ex Benth) against isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Kumari, Santosh; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Mehra, Raj; Narang, Rajiv; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2013-09-01

    Normal rats pre-treated with P. kurroa (200 mg/kg) alone did not showed significant change, however, isoproterenol (ISP) administration resulted in hemodynamic and left ventricular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. Such cardiac dysfunction was significantly prevented by P. kurroa root extract pre-treatment. Pre-treatment significantly attenuated the ISP-induced oxidative stress by restoring myocardial superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes except reduced glutathione content. P. kurroa pre-treatment markedly attenuated the ISP-induced rise in lipid peroxidation, thereby prevented leakage of myocyte creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The results suggest that P. kurroa root extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-peroxidative, and myocardial preservative properties.

  15. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna N Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective. Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001. Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001. In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  16. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications.

  17. Plant regeneration, genetic fidelity, and active ingredient content of encapsulated hairy roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Janhvi Mishra; Rawat, Balwant; Mehrotra, Shakti

    2013-06-01

    Among five hairy root lines of Picrorhiza kurrooa that were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes, one (H7) was selected for encapsulation due to high accumulation of picrotin and picrotoxinin (8.3 and 47.6 μg/g DW, respectively). Re-grown encapsulated roots induced adventitious shoots with 73 % frequency on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, following 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Regenerated plantlets had 85 % survival after 2 months. Regenerants were of similar morphotype having increased leaf number and branched root system as compared to non-transformed plants. The transformed nature of the plants was confirmed through PCR and Southern blot analysis. Genetic fidelity analysis of transformed plants using RAPD and ISSR showed 5.2 and 3.6 % polymorphism, respectively. Phytochemical analysis also showed that picrotin and picrotoxinin content were similar in hairy root line and its regenerants.

  18. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-Ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1-8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced.

  19. Phytochemical screening and anti-oxidant activity of the two plants Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew and Cedrela serrata Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Phytochemical studies of medicinal plants are a basic and helping tool for the isolation of active secondary metabolites. The isolation of active compounds is made easy by the help of preliminary phytochemical studies, which shows the presence of a specific class or group of compounds present in these medicinal plants. Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata are medicinal plants with valuable local uses. The present study is for the first Phytochemical investigation of these two medicinal plants which consists of, Quantitative tests showing very good results except Ziziphus oxyphylla plants which does not showed the results for Ester value and Peroxide value. Color reactions are studied for all the crude extracts showing the presence of a number of chemical groups belonging to the class of Alkaloids, Phenol compounds, Phenothiazines, Aromatic compounds, Amino acids, Sulfur compounds etc. Brine shrimp activity was performed which showed a LD50 value of 45.74 and 53.36 in the case of Ziziphus oxyphylla roots and Cedrela serrata bark respectively, which is comparable to the standard drug Cyclophosphamide results of 16.09. Insecticidal activity did not show any promising result indicating the absence of any insect killing potency. Antioxidant activity was very positive for all the extract particularly, the Ziziphus oxyphylla roots, which showed even better results than the standard drug Ascorbic acid used in various dilutions.

  20. Polarity directed optimization of phytochemical and in vitro biological potential of an indigenous folklore: Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Madiha; Fatima, Humaira; Qasim, Muhammad; Gul, Bilquees; Ihsan-Ul-Haq

    2017-08-03

    Plants have served either as a natural templates for the development of new chemicals or a phytomedicine since antiquity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to appraise the polarity directed antioxidant, cytotoxic, protein kinase inhibitory, antileishmanial and glucose modulatory attributes of a Himalayan medicinal plant- Quercus dilatata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined colorimetrically and various polyphenols were identified by RP-HPLC analysis. Brine shrimp lethality, SRB and MTT assays were employed to test cytotoxicity against Artemia salina and human cancer cell lines respectively. Antileishmanial activity was determined using standard MTT protocol. Glucose modulation was assessed by α-amylase inhibition assay while disc diffusion assay was used to establish protein kinase inhibitory and antifungal spectrum. Among 14 extracts of aerial parts, distilled water-acetone extract demonstrated maximum extract recovery (10.52% w/w), phenolic content (21.37 ± 0.21 μg GAE/mg dry weight (DW)), total antioxidant capacity (4.81 ± 0.98 μg AAE/mg DW) and reducing power potential (20.03 ± 2.4 μg/mg DW). On the other hand, Distilled water extract proficiently extracted flavonoid content (4.78 ± 0.51 μg QE/mg DW). RP-HPLC analysis revealed the presence of significant amounts of phenolic metabolites (0.049 to 15.336 μg/mg extract) including, pyrocatechol, gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and quercetin. Highest free radical scavenging capacity was found in Methanol-Ethyl acetate extract (IC 50 8.1 ± 0.5 μg/ml). In the brine shrimp toxicity assay, most of the tested extracts (57%) showed high cytotoxicity. Among these, Chloroform-Methanol extract had highest cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line (IC 50 3.88 ± 0.53 μg/ml). About 50% of the extracts were found to be moderately antiproliferative against Hep G2 cell line. Methanol extract exhibited considerable protein kinase inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E strain (28 ± 0.35 mm bald phenotype at 100 μg/disc; MIC = 12.5 μg/ disc) while, Chloroform extract displayed maximum antidiabetic activity (α-amylase inhibition of 21.61 ± 1.53% at 200 μg/ml concentration). The highest antileishmanial potential was found in Ethyl acetate-Acetone extract (12.91 ± 0.02% at 100 μg/ml concentration), while, Q. dilatata extracts also showed a moderate antifungal activity. This study proposes that multiple-solvent system is a crucial variable to elucidate pharmacological potential of Q. dilatata and the results of the present findings prospects its potential as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, antidiabetic, antileishmanial and antioxidant agents.

  1. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  2. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  3. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis L.f. (WINTERACEAE Floral Phenology And Flower Visitors In Drimys granadensis L.f. (Winteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIER MARQUINEZ

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (nombre común: canelo; Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena ( 2.850 m , cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9,5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12,5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a seis órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.The purpose of this research was to characterize the flowering phenological phases and to determine the flower visitors in a natural population of Drimys granadensis (common name: canelo; Winteraceae in Altos de Yerbabuena, eastern mountains of Sabana de Bogotá ( Colombia . Floral phenology development lasted 9.5 days when flowering occurred under sunny conditions, 12.5 days under rainy conditions and 16 days when flower visitors were excluded using cloth bags. It was done observations related with the resources used, the phenological phases of visited flowers and the pollen load on the flower visitors. Visitors corresponded with 29 morphospecies, 6 orders y 21 families of insects. Four species of coleoptera and two species of diptera were considered as possible pollinators taking in account abundance and pollen load. The results are analyzed in relation with those reported for other species in the genus Drimys and in the family Winteraceae.

  4. ELF/VLF/LF Radio Propagation and Systems Aspects (La Propagation des Ondes Radio ELF/VLF/LF et les Aspects Systemes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Umime 11uld sb’ngft R11111M fgM 7-1 INVESTIGATIONS OF EQUATORIAL IONOSPHERE NIGHTTIME MODE CONVERSION AT VLF* Verne Hildebrand IWG Corporation, 1940 Fifth...uniform, Symposium), supposing that has an length equal to Ŗa" and it is MIT, Cambridge oriented on the zz direction (fig.8). USA, Julio 1991 Let us...about 10 to 14 years. My from the floor, would someone like to start off? own experience as a systems engineer is that Verne Hildebrand the systems have

  5. Surveys for Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla verticillata in the People’s Republic of China in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Matching the origin of an invasive weed for selection of a herbivore haplotype for a biological control programme. Molecular Ecology 15:287-297...performance of two candidate biological control agents of Brazilian peppertree in Florida. Biological Control 47:167-171. Monoecious Hydrilla- A

  6. Lespedeza cuneata and Asclepias verticillata detection by dogs on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Prairie City, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary:Working Dogs for Conservation deployed two handlers and three dogs to the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR), Prairie City, Iowa, for the detection...

  7. Salvia verticillata L. in the Czech Republic – variability of morphological characteristics, seed quality and essential oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Dušek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lilac sage (Whorled sage, as one of the medicinal plants chosen as perspective for the recultivation of flowering meadows in the Czech Republic, was studied for the variability of its morphological cha­rac­ters, seed quality and content of essential oil. Seven particular populations of this genus were stu­died in the Czech Republic and there were found statistically significant differences in morphological characters (height and width of plants, length and width of leaves and length of inflorescences but not in the content of the essential oil. Studied populations reached only between 0.028 and 0.072% of essential oil in dry mass and also the quality of seeds was found very low (germination between 0–52% in the seeds from natural localities but this fact could be influenced by testing method.

  8. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  9. Denk je zèlf! Developing a personalised virtual coach for emotional eaters using personas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, A.; Kulyk, O.; Velthuijsen, H.; Gemert-Pijnen, J.E.W.C. van; Strien, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a fast growing societal threat, causing chronic conditions, physical and psychological health problems, as well as absenteeism and large healthcare costs. Despite numerous attempts to promote physical activity and healthy diet, existing interventions do not focus on often occurring

  10. Comparison study of Lightning VHF interferometric and LF time-of-arival maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, A.; Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z.; Ushio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning discharges radiate broad band frequency electromagnetic waves from ULF to UHF. Using sensors which detect this radiation is an effective technique to detect lightning flashes, even if they are in a cloud. If multiple sensors are present, a lightning flash can be located using various techniques. At low frequencies, the power radiated by lightning is very high, but because the wavelengths are long, the location resolution is somewhat low. At very high frequencies, the wavelengths are much shorter allowing for much better location resolution, but the power radiation is also much lower, making it more difficult to detect. The VHF band is a good compromise between good location resolution, and good detection efficiency. One technique to locate VHF signals from lightning is interferometry. Using this technique, the signals arriving at three or more VHF broadband antennas are coherently combined to produce an image of the lightning flash. The current generation broadband lightning interferometer being developed in Japan by RAIRAN and the University of Osaka called Lightning Interferometer via VHF Emission (LIVE). Currently, LIVE is installed in Kaizuka, a city to the south of Osaka, near Osaka Bay to observe Japanese summer lightning. In the current study, we are comparing the high detail, 2-dimensional lightning maps produced by LIVE to the lower detail, 3-dimensional maps produced by a low frequency time-of-arrival system called the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorms (BOLT). In order to better compare the data, a new GPS timing device is being developed for LIVE to allow high absolute timing accuracy without sacrificing one of the 4 high speed digitizer channels. The objectives of the study are to better understand Japanese summer lightning, and to prepare for a future campaign as part of the GLM validation study.

  11. VLF/LF Propagation Measurements Over Long Paths On Board a High-Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    due to the characteristics of the amplitude modulated wave. WWV3 is amplitude modulated (binarily) and coded to indicate the day and time. Since data is...28.2 + 12.U" -33.6 + 14.t-’ Fh F (t: C f( (’, L I TUDE LAl I I UDE LONG I i UDF FULU- 1 Pt’[ DAl F J 45 25. 2 1 ft(Y 75 -56.6 N45.36 . 132 V A23 FE...32 7 -(2.p + 4. C N’ -(12.0 + (.V-92.5 + 7.9M-6?.3 + 9. m A27 F rCUE NCY ,AL -LI UDF L A I I [UDE LONCI ILtDK I JLU- 1I NK E Al 36222. N-5.36 W65

  12. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  13. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis L.f. (WINTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIER MARQUINEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (nombre común: canelo; Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena (2.850 m, cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9,5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12,5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a seis órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.

  14. Optimization of DNA extraction for ISSR studies in Tectona grandis Lf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... DNA extraction method and sample type are very important consideration for reproducible ISSR-based molecular marker analysis in teak. ... proteins or RNAs (Sambrook et al., 1989). For ISSR marker analysis, Primer .... vegetable and other crops (Csaikl et al., 1998; Boiteux et al., 1999; Henry, 2001).

  15. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.

    2010-01-01

    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  16. Allelopathic potential of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous shoot and root extracts of Arctotis arctotoides were tested for their allelopathic properties on cabbage, carrot, tomato and spinach seed germination and seedling growth. The addition of the two extracts at 8 and 10 mg ml-1 resulted in the highest germination inhibitions. The shoot extract at 10 mg ml-1 inhibited ...

  17. Performance of Teak ( Tectona grandis L.F) wood on exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Teak wood on exposure to outdoor weather conditions was investigated. Six even age trees of similar class diameter comprising 15, 20 and 25- year old Teak wood respectively were studied. Wood samples were collected from three points along the tree radial and longitudinal positions. Percentage ...

  18. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic toxicity of Aster tataricus L.F. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the liver; much less on the heart. The LD50 was 15.74 g/kg BW in mice, and the subchronic toxicity study, used a dosage of 0.34 g/kg/d.BW, showed that the toxic components of Aster tataricus L. f. were mainly concentrated in the petroleum ether fraction, followed by the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-butyl alcohol fraction, ...

  19. Therapeutic potential of Gnidia capitata L.F.: investigations on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The findings presented in this study may explain the potential use of G. capitata for the treatment of certain skin conditions. The potent antioxidant activity could help control the negative effects associated with inflammatory mediators that are produced during the immune response in people that are affected by ...

  20. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  1. RPW: Very Low Electric Field Measurements for LF Bandwidth (F<20MHZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panh, J.; Fiachetti, C.; Berge, R.; Guilhem, E.; Lourme, E.; Sampl, M.; Kapper, M.

    2016-05-01

    Embedding RPW (Radio Plasma Wave) instrument on Solar Orbiter implies to be able to measure very low level of the electric field from DC to 20MHz. And this low level is required either for RPW antenna calibration or for radiated emission qualification of the other units and instruments of the spacecraft. This document presents the steps in order to define an applicable setup. The first part of this document presents the context of the study and the levels to work with. The second part concerns the characterisations of the performances of the antenna. The last part presents the setups that allow achieving low level and the approach to do an estimation of the field expected in flight.

  2. The Lectin Frontier Database (LfDB), and Data Generation Based on Frontal Affinity Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Hirabayashi; Hiroaki Tateno; Toshihide Shikanai; Kiyoko F. Aoki-Kinoshita; Hisashi Narimatsu

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are a large group of carbohydrate-binding proteins, having been shown to comprise at least 48 protein scaffolds or protein family entries. They occur ubiquitously in living organisms—from humans to microorganisms, including viruses—and while their functions are yet to be fully elucidated, their main underlying actions are thought to mediate cell-cell and cell-glycoconjugate interactions, which play important roles in an extensive range of biological processes. The basic feature of eac...

  3. Langt fran nordisk välfärdsmodell / Hans Norrbom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Norrbom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Baltimaade ja Põhjala kiiret poliitilist lähenemist pärsib Baltimaade erinev ühiskonnamudel ja madalate maksudega üliliberaalne majandus. Põhjalale sarnaneb enim ajalooliselt Rootsi ja Taaniga seotud ning Soomega keelesuguluses olev Eesti

  4. An overview on preseismic anomalies in LF radio signals revealed in Italy by wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ermini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the electric field strength of the two broadcasting stations MCO (f=216 kHz, southeast France and CZE (f=270 kHz, Czech Republic has been sampled every ten minutes by a receiver (AS located in central Italy. Here, we review the results obtained by a detailed analysis applied to the data recorded from February 1996 up to December 2004. At first, the daytime and nighttime data were extracted and then, in the daytime data, the data collected in winter were separated from those collected in summer. On the second step the wavelet transform was applied. The results of this analysis are radio anomalies detected as earthquake precursors both for MCO and CZE data. In particular, regarding the MCO data, the main result was the appearance of a very clear anomaly during May-August 1998, at daytime and at nighttime. Such an anomaly can be considered as a precursor of a seismic sequence started on August 15, 1998 with 17 earthquakes (M=2.2-4.6 on the Reatini mountains, a seismogenic zone located 30 km far from the AS receiver along the path MCO-AS. As concerns with the CZE data, the first result was obtained from the summer daytime data and it was the appearance of a very clear anomaly during August-September 1997, that can be considered a precursor of the two earthquakes with magnitude M=5.6 and M=5.9 that occurred on September 26 in the Umbria-Marche region (Central Italy. The second result was the appearance of an anomaly during February-March 1998, at daytime and at nighttime, that can be related to the preparatory phase of the strong (M=5.1-6.0 Slovenia seismic sequence that occurred in a zone lying in the middle of the CZE-AS path.

  5. Stored Radioactive Material Landfill Site no. 7 (LF-7), Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Waste Remedial Actions Program Oak Ridge, Tennessee Managed by: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy Under...OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH/RADIATION HEALTH (OEHH) WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OHIO CERTIFICATE OF CAL/ BRA TION Model 222 1 ..;;,;:;.:;,-;--- Model ~Y...OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEAL THIRADIATION HEALTH (OEHH) WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OHIO CERTIFICATE OF CALIBRATION Meter Mig L ~J I v."’ Model £1-d.d

  6. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm.: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-E-In, Md Moshfekus; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-10

    Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A. arctotoides. Additionally, this review will help to fill the existing gaps in knowledge and highlight further research prospects in the field of phytochemistry and pharmacology. Information on A. arctotoides was collected from various resources, including books on African medicinal herbs and Zulu medicinal plants, theses, reports and the internet databases such as SciFinder, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Mendeley by using a combination of various meaningful keywords. This review surveys the available literature of the species from 1962 to April 2017. In vitro and in vivo studies of the medicinal properties of A. arctotoides were reviewed. The main isolated and identified compounds were reported as sesquiterpenes, farnesol derivatives, germacranolide, guaianolides and some steroids, of which, nine were reported as antimicrobial. Monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids were the predominant essential oil compound classes of the leaves, flowers, stems and roots. The present review revealed potential pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities of plant extracts as well as isolated compounds. Moreover, the review reports the safety profile (toxicity) of the crude extracts that had been screened on brine shrimps, rats and human cell lines. The present review has focused on the phytochemistry, botany, ethnopharmacology, biological activities and toxicological information of A. arctotoides. On the basis of reported data, A. arctotoides has emerged as a good source of natural medicine for the treatment of microbial infections, skin diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents and also provides new insights for further isolation of new bioactive compounds, especially the discovery of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer novel therapeutic lead drug molecules. Additionally, intensive investigations regarding pharmacological properties, safety assessment and efficacy with their mechanism of action could be future research interests before starting clinical trials for medicinal practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) Studies Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) Study Publications Uterine Fibroid Study (UFS) Studies Uterine Fibroid Study (UFS) Study Publications Various Resources Epigenetics & Stem Cell Biology Genome Integrity & Structural Biology Immunity, ...

  8. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  9. Performance of Teak (Tectona grandis L.F) wood on exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    yellowing colour change, adhesion of layers, peeling, chalking, splitting and checking. Correlation of changes of selected properties under accelerated test serves for predicting service durability (de la Caba et al, 2007). The surface durability of any material is its resistance to undesirable changes caused by the.

  10. Vitex altissima L.f of verbenaceae is a large tree of dry deciduous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evergreen forests with spreading crown and greyish brown scaly bark (tree in the picture is a young specimen). Leaves are compound with three or five leaflets. Flowers are numerous on branched inflorescence, small and white, tinged with blue.

  11. Verleden en heden van IJzervaren (Cyrtomium falcatum (L.f.) C.B.Presl.) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    2003-01-01

    Cyrtomium falcatum is an ornamental fern species which is popular in horticulture. It is commonly grown as a houseplant in West Europe and as a garden plant in warmer areas. The species is native in the Palaeotropics, where it is distributed from southeastern Africa to China and Japan. It has been

  12. Effect of flaming on Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. survival. An initial experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der W.J.; Michielsen, J.G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The background of this pilot experiment was to find out if treatment in nature with hydrogen peroxide would be feasible as control measure. The experiment was designed to 1. try to raise plants in containers, and 2. to observe the effect of hydrogen spraying on the plants. This would allow to

  13. Pharmacology and chemistry of a potent hepatoprotective compound Picroliv isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa royle ex benth. (kutki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Praveen C; Basu, Vaishali; Gupta, Vijayta; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq Ur

    2009-09-01

    Natural products from plants are of major pharmaceutical and therapeutic importance, several of which are often obtained from the underground parts of the concerned plants. Deviation from standard rules in modern medicines, where instead of a single isolated fraction, a group of naturally occurring components exerts the desired therapeutic effect, was noted in case of Picroliv or Kutkin of Picrorhiza kurroa. "Picroliv" mainly a glucoside, is one such compound, normally obtained from 3 - 4 years old roots and rhizomes of an endangered medicinal plant - Picrorhiza kurroa (kutki) and constitute an important component of many Indian herbal preparations, used mainly for the treatment of a variety of liver ailments. It is an iridoid glycoside mixture containing 60% picroside I and kutkoside in the ratio of 1:1.5. Picroliv has shown efficacy comparable to silymarin in rodent models of galactosamine, paracetamol, thioacetamide and CCl(4) induced hepatic damage. Picroliv has also shown cholerectic effect in rats and anti-cholestatic effect in rats, guinea pigs and cats treated with paracetamol and ethinyl estradiol. It has also anti-viral and immune-stimulant activities and is devoid of any significant CNS and CVS, autonomic and other systemic activity. Because of its apparent ability as a strong hepato-protective and immune-modulatory compound, it is in high demand in both national and international markets. The review discusses the potential of Picrorhiza in various hepatic diseases as well as the chemistry and activity of individual compound of crude drug Picroliv.

  14. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  15. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  16. Analyse sensorielle de la viande bovine additionnée aux huiles essentielles Thymus ciliatus ( Zaitra) et Ammoïdes verticillata (Nunkha)

    OpenAIRE

    AISSANI, FETHI

    2015-01-01

    ت ا ه ا % ھ '# ( , ا ر و ت ا ا ت ا ا ! "# ا إن ا را 7, #8 ض، . ا ا %; . 0- ا%. ا 6#( ا ' ) ا '* ا + , ) ا - ا%. ت ا / # ا 01 21 3 اد ' 5 اء * إ 6 . @A ة وا ا 0 ت ا ا ? @ (# ا ت ا ا ت , و # د ا % 1.53 , ر 7) 0 ا ت ا ا ة ت F 78 . 0- # ا )...

  17. La cinétique microbienne et d’acidité du yaourt associé aux huiles essentielles Ammoïdes verticillata et Thymus ciliatus

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHDOUR, MANEL

    2016-01-01

    Les huiles essentielles renferment plusieurs constituants qui sont bénéfiques pour le corps humain. Cependant il est difficile de les consommer directement. Pour cette raison on a étudié leurs effet sur vecteur alimentaire tel que le yaourt. Ce dernier en le préparant, on ajoute l’huile essentielle de Thymus ciliatus et d’ Ammoïdes verticullata avec des concentrations de 0.3 et 0.6%, pour compter le nombre des bactéries lactiques (Streptococcus thermophilus et Lactobacillus bul...

  18. Occurrence of green alga Ernodesmisverticillata (Kuetzing) Boergesen at Malvan (Maharashtra coast)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.

    of marine algal resources of the Maharashtra Coast, a green marine algal species was collected and identified as E. verticillata. From the literature it was observed that E. verticillata has not so far been reported from the Indian coast...

  19. Estudo de biomassa de Tectona grandis L.f. sob diferentes espaçamentos no Estado de Mato Grosso Biomass study of Tectona grandis L.f. under different spacing conditions in the north of Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliazel Vieira Rondon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, conduzido no Município de Sinop, Estado de Mato Grosso, teve por objetivo avaliar a circunferência, a altura total e a produção de biomassa de plantas de Tectona grandis, em diferentes densidades populacionais, obtidas com diferentes espaçamentos e arranjos de plantio. Foram avaliados os espaçamentos de 3x2 m, 3x3 m, 4x3 m, 4x4 m, 5x3 m, 5x4 m e 5x5 m, com densidades populacionais que variaram de 400 a 1.666 plantas por hectare. Selecionaram-se três árvores por tratamento, constituindo a individualização dos componentes folhas, galhos e tronco. O experimento teve duração de 76 meses. O aumento da densidade populacional promoveu diminuição na circunferência das plantas de teca, enquanto a altura permaneceu constante. No espaçamento mais denso, a produção de biomassa total da parte aérea teve aumento nas plantas de tectona grandis, concentrando-se principalmente no tronco da árvore.This work was carried out in the municipality of Sinop, State of Mato Grosso with the objective of evaluating the circumference, total height and biomass production of Tectona grandis plants, in different population densities, obtained with different spacings and planting arrangements. The spacings 3x2 m, 3x3 m, 4x3 m, 4x4 m, 5x3 m, 5x4 m and 5x5 m, were evaluated with the population density varying from 400 to 1.666 plants / hectare. Three trees were selected per treatment, with the individualization consisted of leaves, branches and trunk components. The experiment lasted for 76 months. The increase in population density caused a decrease in teak tree circumference, whereas the height was constant. There was increase in total biomass production of the aerial part of the Tectona grandis plants in the denser spacings, concentrated mainly in the tree trunk.

  20. An antimicrobial alkaloid and other metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. An endophytic fungus isolated from Mauritia flexuosa L.f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Soares, Elzalina Ribeiro; Silva, Felipe Moura Araujo da; Almeida, Richardson Alves de; Souza, Afonso Duarte Leao de, E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Medeiros, Livia Soman de; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima de [Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The alkaloid glandicoline B (1) and six other compounds: ergosterol (2), brassicasterol (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), cerevisterol (5), mannitol (6) and 1-O-{alpha}-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from Penicillium sp. strain PBR.2.2.2, a fungus from Mauritia flexuosa roots. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by spectral analysis. MeOH extract of the fungal mycelium at 500 {mu}g mL{sup -1} exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the compound 1 at 100 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was active against S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The relationship between the bioactive properties of the fungus PBR.2.2.2 and those achieved for glandicoline B, as well the potential of this substance as bacteriide is discussed. (author)

  1. Cloning and characterization of a novel 2-ketoisovalerate reductase from the beauvericin producer Fusarium proliferatum LF061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ketoisovalerate reductase (EC 1.2.7.7 is required for the formation of beauvericin via the nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic pathway. It catalyzes the NADPH-specific reduction of ketoisovaleric acid to hydroxyisovalerate. However, little is known about the bioinformatics’ data about the 2-Kiv reductase in Fusarium. To date, heterologous production of the gene KivRFp from Fusarium has not been achieved. Results The KivRFp gene was subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pET expression system. The gene KivRFp contained a 1,359 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that it showed 61% and 52% amino acid identities to ketoisovalerate reductase from Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 (ACI30654 and Metarhizium acridum CQMa 102 (EFY89891, respectively; and several conserved regions were identified, including the putative nucleotide-binding signature site, GXGXXG, a catalytic triad (Glu405, Asn184, and Lys285. The KivRFp exhibited the highest activity at 35°C and pH 7.5 respectively, by reduction of ketoisovalerate. It also exhibited the high level of stability over wide temperature and pH spectra and in the presence of metal ions or detergents. Conclusions A new ketoisovalerate reductase KivRFp was identified and characterized from the depsipeptide-producing fungus F. proliferatum. KivRFp has been shown to have useful properties, such as moderate thermal stability and broad pH optima, and may serve as the starting points for future protein engineering and directed evolution, towards the goal of developing efficient enzyme for downstream biotechnological applications.

  2. Surgical on-pump beating-heart treatment of ischemic patients with low LF ejection fraction: immediate results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Чернявский

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The study compares the early results of on-pump beating-heart (ONBEAT surgery versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG with cardioplegic arrest (ONSTOP in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Methods. In a single-center randomized trial, 60 patients operated for severe left ventricular dysfunction (EF<35% between January 2012 and January 2014 were randomized to ONBEAT (n=30 or ONSTOP (n=30 cohorts. All patients received preventive hemodynamic support before surgery (determined by randomization: intra-aortic balloon pump or levosimendan. Preoperative, operative and postoperative variables were evaluated in both groups. Results. Preoperative characteristics were similar between both groups. The time of stay in the ICU was 3 (2; 5 days in the first group and 3 (2; 4 days in the second one (p = 0.2. In the ONBEAT group 62 distal anastomoses (30 arterial were performed and in the ONSTOP group 70 distal anastomoses (30 arterial were done (p = 0.3. Completeness of revascularization on the beating heart corresponded to that in the group with cardioplegic arrest. The presence of complications such as stroke (p = 1.0, renal failure (p = 0.5, respiratory events (p = 0.2 and heart failure (p = 0.5 did not differ significantly between the two groups. Atrial fibrillation tended to occur more often in the postoperative period in the ONSTOP group (p = 0.03. The concentration of troponin I at all stages of the study did not differ significantly between the two groups. Both groups showed a significant increase in LV ejection fraction postoperatively: the first group 30 (26; 33 to 34 (30; 39 %, (p = 0,009; the second group - 31 (27 and 33 to 35 (30; 37 % (p = 0.01. Hospital mortality in the first group was observed in 1 case and in the second one in two cases (p = 0.5. Conclusions. The on-pump beating heart technique has no advantages comparing with conventional CABG in cases of preventive hemodynamic support. Both techniques were comparable with regard to complications, hospital stay duration and in-hospital mortality.

  3. Zwölf Grundformen des Lehrens eine allgemeine Didaktik auf psychologischer Grundlage, Medien und Inhalte didaktischer Kommunikation, der Lernzyklus

    CERN Document Server

    Aebli, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Hans Aebli verbindet psychologische Erkenntnisse aus der neueren Zeit mit der Erkenntnis seiner Vorbilder: Jean Piaget, John Dewey, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; Psychologen und Pädagogen, deren Einsichten allgemein neu diskutiert werden. Das Buch beweist unmittelbar den Wert einer fundierten didaktischen Theorie und es zeigt, wie sie sich in der Praxis des Unterrichtens einsetzen läßt.

  4. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): A preferred timber for shipbuilding in India as evidenced from shipwrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    of these crafts, until it was replaced by iron/steel. As the size of the vessels increased to accommodate more cargo and overseas trade became more frequent, superior quality timber was used in the construction of vessels. Among the timbers used, teak was mostly...

  5. The Propagation Characteristic of DGPS Correction Data Signal at Inland Sea - Propagation Characteristic on LF/MF Band Radio Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Okuda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available User at the Inland Sea requires high position accuracy which is 5 m (2drms or less. Therefore the position accuracy of standalone GPS is insufficiency. Consequently it needs to use DGPS for navigator sailing the Inland Sea. We executed numerical simulation of the propagation characteristic on the extended line of bridge pier at opposite side from DGPS station, and already confirmed that bit error in DGPS correction data signal occurs, and that correction data could not form by bit error. Furthermore, we carried out numerical simulation of the propagation characteristic of DGPS correction data signal received at sailing through center of the bridge, and solved receiving condition of DGPS correction data signal before and after passing through the bridge. In this paper, we executed to inspect mutually results of electric field intensity simulation for oversea and overland propagation on some sea area of the Inland Sea and measuring results of electric field intensity for DGPS correction data signal, and evaluated the possibility of abnormal propagation comprehensively.

  6. The Propagation Characteristic of DGPS Correction Data Signal at Inland Sea - Propagation Characteristic on LF/MF Band Radio Wave

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeyuki Okuda; M. Toba; Yasuo Arai

    2013-01-01

    User at the Inland Sea requires high position accuracy which is 5 m (2drms) or less. Therefore the position accuracy of standalone GPS is insufficiency. Consequently it needs to use DGPS for navigator sailing the Inland Sea. We executed numerical simulation of the propagation characteristic on the extended line of bridge pier at opposite side from DGPS station, and already confirmed that bit error in DGPS correction data signal occurs, and that correction data could not form by bit error. Fur...

  7. Investigation of correlation of LF power modulation of light in natural and artificial illumination situations and acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberg, Florian P.; Gutzmann, Holger L.; Weyer, Cornelia; Weiß, Jürgen; Dörfler, Joachim; Hahlweg, Cornelius F.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper is a follow up of a paper presented in 2013 at the Novel Optical Systems conference in the session on Optics and Music. It is derived from an ongoing study on the human perception of combined optical and acoustical periodical stimuli. Originating from problems concerning artificial illumination and certain machinery with coherent optical and acoustical emissions there are effects to be observed which are interesting in the context of occupational medicine. It seems, that acoustic stimuli in the frequency range of the flicker fusion and below might lead to unexpected perceptible effects beyond those of the single stimuli. The effect of infrasound stimuli as a whole body perception seems to be boosted. Because of the difficulties in evaluation of physical and psychological effects of such coherent stimuli in a first step we question if such coherence is perceivable at all. Further, the problem of modulation of optical signals by acoustical signal is concerned. A catalogue of scenarios and 'effects to look for' including measurement concepts is presented and discussed.

  8. Alva Myrdal och svenskt familjeplaneringsbistånd : Affinitet mellan välfärdsideologi och principerna bakom befolkningskontroll

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Around the 1950s an explosive population growth started in the Third World. Parallel with the population growth a global network grew up advocating population control and limited population growth. Sweden had a unique place in that network through a pioneering role promoting the issue in the UN organization. During the 20th century Sweden was a pioneer country in terms of initiatives for population control. Ceylon family planing pilot project was something new in a time when other donors cons...

  9. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The content of the phenolic compounds was: ascorbic acid (S. suffruticosa: 23.98 % and S. verticillata: 33.53 %), p- hydroxyl benzoic acid (S. suffruticosa 11.50 % and S. verticillata 3.83 %), vanilic acid (S. suffruticosa 5.86% and S. verticillata: 6.55 %), syringic acid (S. suffruticosa 6.29 %), ferulic acid (S. suffruticosa: 6.35 ...

  10. Solar radiation and tidal exposure as environmental drivers of Enhalus acoroides dominated seagrass meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K F Unsworth

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large ≈250 ha meadow in tropical north east Australia. Annual monitoring of the intertidal Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle seagrass meadow over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant overall reduction from 2000 to 2010. Partial Least Squares Regression found this reduction to be significantly and negatively correlated with tidal exposure, and significantly and negatively correlated with the amount of solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when interpreting the results of seagrass monitoring programs.

  11. Environ: E00144 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e), Apoverticine, Peimiphine, Peimidine, Peimitidine, Peiminoside, Fritimine Fritillaria verticillata [TAX:59070] Same as: D06774 Lil...iaceae (lily family) Fritillaria bulb Major component: P

  12. Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Richard K; McGrath, John A; Lowe, Sarah R; Engel, Lawrence S; Jackson, W Braxton; Curry, Matthew D; Payne, Julianne; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-12-01

    Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico) disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up) and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired) who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08-1·37) and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07-1·71). Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37-1·78) and PTSD (2·25, 1·71-2·96). Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23-1·53) and PTSD (1·41, 1·15-1·74), as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21-1·57; and 2·01, 1·58-2·55, respectively). An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total hydrocarbons and PTSD remained (1·75, 1·11-2·76). Oil spill clean-up workers with high amounts of total hydrocarbon exposure or potentially stressful job experiences had an increased prevalence of depression and PTSD. These findings provide evidence that response and clean-up work is associated with adverse psychological effects and suggest the need for mental health services both before and after the event. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. ’MODESRCH’, An Improved Computer Program for Obtaining ELF/VLF/LF Mode Constants in an Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    DIhDC*D33l-DL *DD31DC-D13Wt*D~i DPDC (K) = -ODENC*P(K)/DLN+(-D12*0033DC+DUI)3DC*L)32)/DEN r 41 DIOC(K) = O)* DPDC (K) +UQlOCtK)*P(K) $ -(-DIt*D32+Di2... DPDC (l)-CTOC(2)*P(1))*FACIOR =~kl) -RZlDL)ENtiC/DtN $ .UR -(0QDCMi-DQC(i))*FACTTh Uh PRIMi 96C 9.30 FQRMAT(O’,PROBLEM IN SORTING Q VALUES’) PR~INT 995

  14. 75 FR 77880 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... been exposed to a range of known and suspected toxins in crude oil, burning oil, and dispersants, to... instruments, contact: Dr. Dale P. Sandler, Chief, Epidemiology Branch, NIEHS, Rall Building A3-05, PO Box...

  15. 75 FR 62132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... and suspected toxins in crude oil, burning oil, and dispersants, to excessive heat, and possibly to... P. Sandler, Chief, Epidemiology Branch, NIEHS, Rall Building A3-05, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle...

  16. InAlN/GaN HEMT technology for robust HF receivers: An overview of the HF and LF noise performances

    OpenAIRE

    Nsele, Séraphin Dieudonné; Tartarin, Jean-Guy; Escotte, Laurent; Piotrowicz, S; Delage, S.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; From the first developments of Nitride technologies using AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for designing high power, high frequency HEMT devices, we now assist to the emergence of new declination with InAlN/GaN heterostructures. Considering the expected better interface quality of this last technology as a consequence of the better lattice match, and better electrical properties, these HEMT devices attract much interest for high frequency applications (transmitter for power,...

  17. Omgaan met ongeschreven regels : hoe beleidsambtenaren zélf ruimte kunnen creëren voor openheid in de beleidsontwikkeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Herold (Max)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis research started with an exploration of the tension between vertical (government) and horizontal (governance). A lot of research has been done about this tension. However, the influence of unwritten rules on the degree of openness in policy development (horizontal) and how to

  18. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa, especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales. En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana se identificaron 68 productos provenientes de nueve especies de plantas del canaguchal, teniendo las palmas (Astrocaryum chambira, Euterpe precatoria, M. flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorrhiza el mayor potencial comercial. Los productos más frecuentes fueron las mochilas de fibras de A. chambira (chambira y los precios de venta más altos correspondieron a las esculturas de Brosimum rubescens (palo de sangre. No existen estadísticas oficiales de este mercado, ni entes del Estado que regulen y orienten la producción y comercialización de los productos que se extraen del bosque. No obstante, los PFNMs representan una alternativa para diversificar las oportunidades productivas de los pobladores de la región.

  19. 78 FR 66945 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment request: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study (GuLF STUDY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. To Submit... assigned to the Biomedical Surveillance Sub-cohort. In order to minimize loss to follow-up, updated contact... mental health services in the Gulf region. Participants in the Biomedical Surveillance Sub-cohort will be...

  20. A contingent valuation study of buriti ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f. in the main region of production in Brazil: is environmental conservation a collective responsibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlaine R. Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The immature leaves of the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa are widely harvested in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão, for the production of handicrafts, which are sold to locals and tourists. The increasing demand for these artisanal goods is stimulating the emergence of an informal market for immature buriti leaves, leading to an intensification of their extraction and resulting in negative effects on local buriti palm populations and the ecosystem. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the environmental value of the buriti palm tree based on the maximum willingness to pay (WTP for its conservation, using the contingent valuation method. Among the respondents, 99.74% reported that the palm species should be protected and the majority of them (65.75% agreed to pay for its conservation (annual WTP R$ 179.49 ± 222.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that the WTP was not influenced by the socio-economic profile of the respondents. The main reasons for non-WTP are related to dissatisfaction with the government and the belief that financial contributions would not solve problems of environmental damage. Overall, the evaluated population believes that environmental conservation is not an obligation of the government or that of the population, but is a collective responsibility.

  1. Developing a personalised virtual coach 'Denk je zèlf!' For emotional eaters through the design of emotion-enriched personas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, A.; Kulyk, O.; Velthuijsen, H.; Gemert-Pijnen, J.E.W.C. van; Strien, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-growing societal threat, causing chronic conditions, physical and psychological health problems, as well as sickness absence and heavy healthcare costs. Despite numerous attempts to promote physical activity and healthy diet, existing interventions do not focus on the common

  2. Mineral and Anti-Nutritional Contents of Niger Seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f. Cass., Linseed (Linumusitatissimum L. and Sesame (Sesamumindicum L. Varieties Grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Deme

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are rich sources of micronutrients and contribute to combating malnutrition caused by micronutrient deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the mineral and anti-nutritional contents of different varieties of niger seed, linseed and sesame. Five niger seed, eight linseed and ten sesame varieties were used. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES was used for mineral analysis and the standard method was adopted to estimate tannin and phytate. Twelve mineral elements; Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, S, Se and Zn were analyzed for each oilseed variety. In niger seed, phosphorous was the most abundant mineral element ranging from 661 to 867 mg/100 g and selenium was the least, ranging from 0.1 to 0.33 mg/100 g. Potassium was recorded in the range of 502 to 732 mg/100 g for linseed varieties. Calcium was the most common mineral element in sesame (1112 to 1787 mg/100 g. The average phytate contents of niger seed, linseed and sesame varieties were353 mg/100 g, 104 mg/100 g and 285 mg/100 g, respectively. Tannin ranged from 91 to 201 mg/100 g, 96 to 695 mg/100 g and 85 to 660 mg/100 g in niger seed, linseed and sesame, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant variation among the varieties within each crop species as well as among the different oilseeds in terms of their mineral and anti-nutritional contents.

  3. Mineral and Anti-Nutritional Contents of Niger Seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass., Linseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) and Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) Varieties Grown in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deme, Tesfaye; Haki, Gulelat D; Retta, Nigussie; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie; Geleta, Mulatu

    2017-04-01

    Oilseeds are rich sources of micronutrients and contribute to combating malnutrition caused by micronutrient deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the mineral and anti-nutritional contents of different varieties of niger seed, linseed and sesame. Five niger seed, eight linseed and ten sesame varieties were used. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for mineral analysis and the standard method was adopted to estimate tannin and phytate. Twelve mineral elements; Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, S, Se and Zn were analyzed for each oilseed variety. In niger seed, phosphorous was the most abundant mineral element ranging from 661 to 867 mg/100 g and selenium was the least, ranging from 0.1 to 0.33 mg/100 g. Potassium was recorded in the range of 502 to 732 mg/100 g for linseed varieties. Calcium was the most common mineral element in sesame (1112 to 1787 mg/100 g). The average phytate contents of niger seed, linseed and sesame varieties were353 mg/100 g, 104 mg/100 g and 285 mg/100 g, respectively. Tannin ranged from 91 to 201 mg/100 g, 96 to 695 mg/100 g and 85 to 660 mg/100 g in niger seed, linseed and sesame, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant variation among the varieties within each crop species as well as among the different oilseeds in terms of their mineral and anti-nutritional contents.

  4. Astrocytes require insulin-like growth factor I to protect neurons against oxidative injury [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2lf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Genis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a proposed mechanism in brain aging, making the study of its regulatory processes an important aspect of current neurobiological research. In this regard, the role of the aging regulator insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I in brain responses to oxidative stress remains elusive as both beneficial and detrimental actions have been ascribed to this growth factor. Because astrocytes protect neurons against oxidative injury, we explored whether IGF-I participates in astrocyte neuroprotection and found that blockade of the IGF-I receptor in astrocytes abrogated their rescuing effect on neurons. The protection mediated by IGF-I against oxidative stress (H2O2 in astrocytes is probably needed for these cells to provide adequate neuroprotection. Indeed, in astrocytes but not in neurons, IGF-I helps decrease the pro-oxidant protein thioredoxin-interacting protein 1 and normalizes the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, IGF-I cooperates with trophic signals produced by astrocytes in response to H2O2 such as stem cell factor (SCF to protect neurons against oxidative insult. After stroke, a condition associated with brain aging where oxidative injury affects peri-infarcted regions, a simultaneous increase in SCF and IGF-I expression was found in the cortex, suggesting that a similar cooperative response takes place in vivo. Cell-specific modulation by IGF-I of brain responses to oxidative stress may contribute in clarifying the role of IGF-I in brain aging.

  5. Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Kwok, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. Methods: We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. Findings: Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08–1·37 and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07–1·71. Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37–1·78 and PTSD (2·25, 1·71–2·96. Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23–1·53 and PTSD (1·41, 1·15–1·74, as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21–1·57; and 2·01, 1·58–2·55, respectively. An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total hydrocarbons and PTSD remained (1·75, 1·11–2·76. Interpretation: Oil spill clean-up workers with high amounts of total hydrocarbon exposure or potentially stressful job experiences had an increased prevalence of depression and PTSD. These findings provide evidence that response and clean-up work is associated with adverse psychological effects and suggest the need for mental health services both before and after the event. Funding: National Institutes of Health (NIH Common Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

  6. Trygghet som handelsvara : Privat folkförsäkring i det framväxande välfärdssamhället 1900–1950

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Alf

    2016-01-01

    Industrial Life Insurance (ILI) was introduced in Sweden in the beginning of the 1900s. Following models already used in the United Kingdom and the United States, this insurance was specifically aimed at manual labourers, promising pension savings and compensation to surviving relatives. The insurance was an immediate success, with almost three million insurance policies in force by the mid-1900s. ILI was characterised by extensive and carefully monitored marketing practices. By managing an a...

  7. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of the oils from three morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L.f, from the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three morphotypes of aguaje Mauritia flexuosa were tested, classified by the color of their mesocarpium: “color”, “shambo” and “amarillo”, collected from different areas near the city of Iquitos, Peru. Also, physical-chemical analyses of the mesocarpium were performed, such as the characterization of fatty acids by gas chromatography, determination of β- carotene y α – tocopherol by high efficiency liquid chromatography system in normal and reverse phase and the determination of oxidation induction time in the Rancimat apparatus. Proximate, mineral and fatty acid analyses were done on the seeds. The aguaje mesocarpium is rich in oleic oil (“amarillo”: 75.63% ± 0.31, β-carotene (“amarillo”: 342.42ug/g ± 0.71 and α- tocopherol (“color”: 685.81mg/L ± 1.04, plus the morphotype “color” has a superior oxidation induction time compared to other morphotypes with 6.91 ± 0.01. The aguaje seed contains significant amounts of ω6 (linoleic oil in “shambo” with 36.04 ± 0.09%. The results indicate that these oils, regardless their classification, contain important chemical compounds that give them a special nutritive value.Se estudiaron tres morfotipos de aguaje Mauritia flexuosa L. f., clasificados por el color del mesocarpio: “color”, “shambo” y “amarillo”, recogidos de localidades cercanas a la ciudad de Iquitos- Perú. Del mismo modo a partir del mesocarpio se realizaron los análisis fisicoquímicos, la caracterización de los ácidos grasos por cromatografía gaseosa, la determinación de β-caroteno y α– tocoferol por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia (HPLC fase reversa y normal y la determinación del tiempo de inducción de la oxidación en el equipo de Rancimat. A partir de la semilla se realizaron los análisis centesimales, de minerales y ácidos grasos. Los mesocarpios de aguaje son ricos en ácido oleico (amarillo: 75.63% ± 0.31, β-caroteno (amarillo: 342.42 ug/g ± 0.71 y α- tocoferol (color: 685.81mg/L ± 1.04, y además el morfotipo “color” tiene un tiempo de inducción superior a los otros morfotipos con 6.91 ± 0.01, asimismo en la semilla de aguaje se encuentran cantidades considerables de ω6 (ácido linoleico en “shambo” con 36.04 ± 0.09%. Los resultados obtenidos nos indican que estos aceites independientemente de la clasificación que se le asigne contienen importantes compuestos químicos que le brindan un altor valor nutricional.

  8. Engaging plant anatomy and local knowledge on the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.: Arecaceae): the microscopic world meets the golden grass artisan's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rebeca V. R.; Scatena, Vera L.; Eichemberg, Mayra T.; Sano, Paulo T.

    2016-11-01

    Considering that both Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems share a common ground—observations of the natural world—the dialogue between them should not only be possible, but fruitful. Local communities whose livelihoods depend on traditional uses of the local biodiversity not only develop knowledge about nature, making several uses of such knowledge, but, with that process, several inquiries about nature can be raised. Here we present our experience with the engagement of Western Science with golden grass artisan's knowledge about the buriti palm (M. flexuosa). We applied 25 semi-directive interviews, combined with field diary and participative observation, in two quilombola communities from Jalapão region (Central-Brazil). One of the inquiries that emerged from the artisan's perspectives was about the differences between male and female buriti palms' fiber. We then engaged both local and scientific perspectives regarding this issue using plant anatomy as a dialogue instrument. Here we describe this experience and resort to Paulo Freire's ideas on dialogue to argue that, to integrate Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems in a collaborative and contextualized perspective, the research should be faced as a mutual learning practice.

  9. Evaluation of Bent Trees in Juvenile Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. Plantations in Costa Rica: Effects on Tree Morphology and Wood Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Guzmán

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bent trees have been observed during the early years in juvenile plantations (less than 5 years-old of Tectona grandis in Costa Rica. The relationship between bending and the morphological characteristics of the trees was explored. An evaluation of bent trees was conducted in six juvenile plantations (8, 17, 27, 28, 31, and 54 months old of Tectona grandis. Site 1 with 8-month-old plantations did not display any relationship with any tree morphological variable (diameter, height, and crown weight of tree, whereas for the sites 2, 3, and 4 with 17-, 27-, and 28-month-old plantations, respectively, all the tree morphological variables were statistically correlated with the bent trees. A multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were height to crown base, crown weight, diameter, and total height of the tree. An evaluation of the bending risk factor (RF was correlated with the height to crown base, crown weight, and form factor. The modulus of elasticity and chemical compositions of bent trees differed from those of straight trees. The causes of tree bending are complex, involving, among other factors, the morphology of the trees, plantation conditions, and other factors specific to the xylem, such as the specific gravity, modulus of elasticity, and presence of calcium and magnesium in the wood.

  10. Efeito do volume de tubetes e tipos de substratos na qualidade de mudas de cryptomeria japonica (l.f. d. don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constâncio Bernardo dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don. is a species of great potential for planting in elevated and cold regions of Brazil. It is remarkable for its fast growth, good adaptation to the climate and soil of Southern Brazil, and it also shows a good response to silvicultural technologies. In addition, it is notable for the quality and diversity of its raw material usage for the industries of pulp and paper, plywood, construction of houses, furniture, boats, ships, etc. The experimental plan was bifactorial in the entirely randomized design with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions with 40 seedlings per treatment. The results indicated that for the production of seedlings of this species, the substrate soil + vermiculite showed the best development of the seedlings in 120 cm3 containers.

  11. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    , conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. Most methods showed medium potential......Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. The present study...... cultivars were simultaneously sampled for analyses of content and scanned by the five different scanning methods. The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids...

  12. A synopsis of the genus Enicostema Bl., nom. cons. (Gentianaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1968-01-01

    In 1759 Linnaeus described an American species under Gentiana, as G. verticillata. In 1781 his son recorded (Suppl. 174) a specimen from India leg. D. D. Fabricius under the same name, without reference to the earlier G. verticillata, and gave a full description. Whether this was just a new record

  13. Comparative leaf anatomy of Trigonobalanus Forman (Fagaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of the recently discovered Neotropical species Trigonobalanus excelsa is described and compared with that of the Old World species T. doichangensis and T. verticillata. Trigonobalanus excelsa appears to be very similar in its leaf anatomy to T. verticillata from Borneo and Sumatra.

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 ref|YP_203357.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Mortierella vert...icillata] gb|AAW51694.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Mortierella verticillata] YP_203357.1 1e-25 43% ...

  15. Turboatomizador e repasse com pistola manual na cobertura de pulverização de agrotóxicos em caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.f. Air-jet sprayer and spray gun in the pesticide spray coverage of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Riyuiti Higashibara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do caquizeiro vem crescendo em importância no Brasil e, com o aumento do cultivo, tem havido também incremento dos problemas relacionados a doenças e pragas. A pulverização de agrotóxicos é o método mais utilizado na prevenção e no controle desses problemas e a principal forma de aplicação é a pulverização hidráulica com auxílio de fluxo de ar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação da taxa de aplicação e do repasse na parte interna das plantas em pulverização com pistola manual, na cobertura de calda das folhas. A pulverização foi realizada em plantas de caquizeiro com 17 anos, utilizando-se equipamento composto de trator e pulverizador turboatomizador. A aplicação foi realizada com duas velocidades de avanço do equipamento, o que promoveu diferentes taxas de aplicação. Para a realização do repasse, utilizou-se pistola manual acoplada ao mesmo equipamento. Para a avaliação da cobertura, utilizou-se calda preparada com corante fluorescente dissolvido em água. Foram coletadas folhas nas posições externa e interna das plantas. Posteriormente, em sala escura e com iluminação ultravioleta para destacar a área atingida pelo corante fluorescente, as superfícies abaxial e adaxial de cada folha foram fotografadas com câmera digital. Cada imagem gerada foi submetida à análise pelo software SIARCS 3.0, resultando em porcentagem de cobertura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subsubdivididas com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial (taxas alta e baixa de aplicação, com e sem repasse manual, localizações interna e externa da folha na planta. Foi avaliada a cobertura das superfícies abaxial e adaxial das folhas. Houve interação significativa entre tratamentos (taxa de aplicação e repasse manual, posição e superfície das folhas. A maior taxa de aplicação promoveu aumento significativo da cobertura na superfície abaxial das folhas, independentemente da posição destas na planta (interna ou externa. Houve efeito do repasse com pistola na cobertura da superfície abaxial das folhas situadas na posição interna, mas não na externa à planta. Considerando que a maioria dos agentes causadores de danos fitossanitários inicia a ocorrência na superfície abaxial das folhas, pode-se concluir que o repasse manual foi mais eficiente do que o aumento da taxa de aplicação, visando à cobertura nas folhas posicionadas no interior da planta.Persimmon crop is growing in importance in Brazil, and with the increase of the production area there also has been an increase in the problems related to diseases and pests. For the control and prevention of these problems, most often it is used pesticides spray, and one of the main techniques is the spray with the aid of air flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of changes in the application rate and transfer with a spray gun on the leaves mixture coverage. The spraying was performed using tractor and air flow sprayer. The application was performed with two forward speeds of the equipment, leading to different application rates. The transfer was made with a spray gun attached to the same equipment. For the assessment of the coverage it was used a mixture prepared with fluorescent tracer dissolved in water. Leaves were collected in the inside and outside of the tree. Later, in dark room with ultraviolet lighting to highlight the area affected by the fluorescent tracer, the upper and lower surfaces of each leaf were photographed with a digital camera. Each image was subjected to analysis generated by software SIARCS 3.0, resulting in percentage of coverage. It was used a randomized block design with subdivided parcels with four replications, being the treatments in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme (high or low application rate, with or without transfer, inside or outside the tree. The evaluations were made in the upper and lower leaf surfaces. There was significant interaction between treatments (application rate and spray gun transfer, leaf position and surface. High application rate promoted a significant increase in the coverage of the lower leaves, regardless the site in the plant (inside or outside. The inside leaves had a better coverage with the spray gun transfer. As most of the agents of plant damage begin to occur in the lower surface of leaves, it can conclude that the spray gun transfer was more effective to cover the leaves inside the plant than increasing the application rate.

  16. Biomedical Sensors of Ionizing Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, S; Speller, R; Royle, G; Olivo, A

    2010-01-01

    Sensors Technology Series Editor-in-Chief's Preface vii Preface ix 1 Biomedical Sensors: Temperature Sensor ... G. Kim Prisk 4 Biomedical Sensors of Ionizing Radiation 129 Robert Speller, Alessandro Olivo, Silvia Pani, and Gary Royle 5 ...

  17. Antiviral activities of lactoferrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Strate, BWA; Beljaars, L; Molema, G; Harmsen, MC; Meijer, DKF

    2001-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron binding glycoprotein that is present in several mucosal secretions. Many biological functions have been ascribed to LF. One of the functions of LF is the transport of metals, but LF is also an important component of the non-specific immune system, since LF has

  18. Evaluation in vivo de I'activite FSH et de I'oestrogenicite de I'extrait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation in vivo de I'activite FSH et de I'oestrogenicite de I'extrait aqueux du melange de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis chez la rate immature.

  19. Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis sur la fertilité et quelques parametres biochemiques de la reproduction chez la rate.

  20. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    grayish white hyssop Agastache cana Sensitive gypsum blazing star Mentzelia perenis Sensitive gypsum wort Pseudoclappia arenaria Sensitive La Jolla...summa Eustoma exaltatus Chrysothamnus pulchellus elatior Aletes filifolius Tetradymia filifolia Agastache verticillata Opuntia wootonil Zephranthes

  1. Sinopsis sobre las Hydrocharitaceae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Mumm Udo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae is actually represented in Colombia by seven genera and seven species (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnobium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. A first record of Hydrilla verticillata growing spontaneously in outside conditions is made for this geographical area. A key to genera is presented, with each species briefly commented and illustrated.En Colombia la familia de plantas acuáticas Hydrocharitaceae se encuentra representada por siete géneros y siete especies (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnabium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. Para el país se registra por primera vez a Hydrilla verticillata. Adicionalmente se presenta una clave para los géneros, con las especies brevemente comentadas e ilustradas.

  2. The usage of activated carbon from teak sawdust (tectona grandis l.f.) and zeolite for the adsorption of Cr(VI) and its analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Mulyani, B.; Qorina, I.; Yoshimura, K.; Takehara, K.; Matsuoka, S.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the usage of teak sawdust and zeolite as an adsorbent of Cr(VI) ion; optimal composition ratio of the composite adsorbent; and the sensitivity of solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) as a method to determine the levels of Cr(VI) ion as an adsorption results of adsorbents. The adsorbent used were teak sawdust activated carbon and zeolite as a single and composite adsorbents. The teak sawdust carbonization using muffle furnace and then activated with H3PO4 10% while the zeolite with H2SO4 10%. The contacting process of the adsorbents with Cr(VI) was done by varying the compositions. Analysis of Cr(VI) level was done using SPS method. Characterization of adsorbent before and after being activated is done using a FTIR. The results showed that teak sawdust and zeolite can be used as adsorbents to adsorb Cr(VI) in the simulated liquid waste with the adsorption capacity 1.19 µg/g the optimum composition ratio of teak sawdust activated carbon and zeolite was 75%:25% with the percentage of adsorption was 62.72%. Solid-phase spectrophotometry is a sensitive method to analyze the decreased levels of Cr(VI) as an adsorption results in µg/L level with the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 µg/L.

  3. Influencia de la lateralidad dominante de la jugadora en puesto específico de base en el juego de ataque en Liga Femenina 2 [Laterality dominance of female point guard influences in the offensive patterns in LF2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alejandra Manzano Rivera; Javier García Rubio

    2010-01-01

    Resumen La lateralidad de la jugadora con el rol de base puede ser sólo una característica individual, o bien un factor influyente en el juego de su equipo, y por tanto, una herramienta a considerar por...

  4. La saturación de acidez y el encalado sobre el crecimiento de la teca (tectona grandis l.f. en suelos ácidos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Alvarado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis en suelos ácidos de Costa Rica, en las zonas sur y norte del país, se encuentran principalmente en suelos rojos y arcillosos (Inceptisoles y Ultisoles con diferentes grados de acidez. En el presente trabajo, se demuestra la sensibilidad de la teca a la saturación de acidez del suelo, donde valores del 3% reducen significativamente el incremento medio anual en altura; por otro lado, valores de saturación con calcio en el suelo superiores al 68%, favorecen su crecimiento significativamente. Bajo estas condiciones, la adición de 1 kg CaCO3 por árbol causó un incremento en la altura de los árboles del 59% y cuando se acompañó la enmienda con 150 g de 14-22-15-4-5 (N-P2O5–K2O-MgO-S por árbol, el incremento en altura de los árboles de un año de edad fue del 216%.

  5. Head-on collision of ultrarelativistic charges[97.60.Lf Black holes; 04.30.-w Gravitational waves: theory; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichelburg, Peter C [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Balasin, Herbert [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU-Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Kerber, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2004-02-07

    We consider the head-on collision of two oppositely charged point particles moving at the speed of light. Starting from the field of a single charge we derive in a first step the field generated by a uniformly accelerated charge in the limit of infinite acceleration. From this we then calculate explicitly the burst of radiation emitted from the head-on collision of two charges and discuss its distributional structure. The motivation for our investigation comes from the corresponding gravitational situation where the head-on collision of two ultrarelativistic particles (black holes) has recently aroused renewed interest.

  6. Establishing genomic tools and resources for Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.-the development of a library of expressed sequence tags, microsatellite loci, and the sequencing of its chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Kane, Nolan C; Ostevik, Katherine L; Geleta, Mulatu; Barker, Michael S; Lai, Zhao; Stewart, Megan L; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2010-11-01

    We present an EST library, chloroplast genome sequence, and nuclear microsatellite markers that were developed for the semi-domesticated oilseed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica) from Ethiopia. The EST library consists of 25 711 Sanger reads, assembled into 17 538 contigs and singletons, of which 4781 were functionally annotated using the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR). The age distribution of duplicated genes in the EST library shows evidence of two paleopolyploidizations-a pattern that noug shares with several other species in the Heliantheae tribe (Compositae family). From the EST library, we selected 43 microsatellites and then designed and tested primers for their amplification. The number of microsatellite alleles varied between 2 and 10 (average 4.67), and the average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.49 and 0.54, respectively. The chloroplast genome was sequenced de novo using Illumina's sequencing technology and completed with traditional Sanger sequencing. No large re-arrangements were found between the noug and sunflower chloroplast genomes, but 1.4% of sites have indels and 1.8% show sequence divergence between the two species. We identified 34 tRNAs, 4 rRNA sequences, and 80 coding sequences, including one region (trnH-psbA) with 15% sequence divergence between noug and sunflower that may be particularly useful for phylogeographic studies in noug and its wild relatives. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. AcEST: BP917248 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KSQTVDLVLTAHPTQS+ Sbjct: 153 AEVFDALKSQTVDLVLTAHPTQSV 176 >tr|Q93XG8|Q93XG8_HYDVE Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Hydrill... Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Hydrilla verticillata PE=2 SV=2 Length = 970 Score = 134 bits (337), Exp... 182 >tr|Q93XG7|Q93XG7_HYDVE Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Hydrilla verticillata PE=2 SV=1 Length = 970

  8. Contribution to Early Holocene vegetation and climate history of Eastern Orinoco Llanos, Venezuela, from a paleoecological record of a Mauritia L.f. swamp Contribuição para a história da vegetação e clima durante o Holoceno Temprano do Llanos Orientais do Orinoco, Venezuela, a partir de um registro paleoecológico de um pântano Mauritia L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Leal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A palynological analysis of an organic paleosol found at 150-125 cm depth in a Mauritia swamp from the Eastern Orinoco Llanos is presented. The 25 cm pollen record summarizes the vegetation history during the Early Holocene, from 10,225 to 7,800 calendar yr BP. The vegetation was characterized by a Poaceae marsh, where Asteraceae, Melastomataceae, Schefflera-type and Phyllanthus were the most abundant shrubs and trees. Pollen-types richness was lower than that recorded today in similar environments, and Mauritia pollen was absent. Results suggest that climate was as humid as present during the beginning of the Holocene, with a decreasing trend in humidity from around 8,000-7,000 yr BP, in coincidence with the beginning of the "Early-Mid-Holocene Dryness" that affected deeply the Amazon Basin and neighboring areas. Dry climatic conditions could have existed in the study site until the Mid-Late Holocene when a Mauritia swamp developed, and humid conditions similar to present established. Main climate phases inferred in our study site fit well with regional trends recorded in other places located north Amazon Basin. However, conclusions are still limited by the lack of additional Quaternary records in the Orinoco Llanos area, avoiding regional correlations.Realizou-se uma análise de pólen amostrada em paleossolos orgânicos, entre 150-125 cm de profundidade, em um pântano Mauritia os lhanos do Orinoco. O registro de pólen dessa amostra resumiu a história da vegetação durante o Holoceno Temprano, entre 10,225-7,800 cal. anos AP. A vegetação durante esse período foi caracterizada por um pântano de Poaceae, com maior abundância de arbustos e árvores de Asteraceae, Melastomataceae, tipo-Schefflera e Phyllanthus. Encontrou-se que a riqueza de tipos polínicos no Holoceno Temprano foi menor do que a riqueza atualmente encontrada em ambientes similares; o pólen de Mauritia esteve ausente de todas as amostras. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que o clima durante o início do Holoceno foi úmido, semelhante ao clima atual. Houve também uma tendência de diminuição de umidade entre 8,000-7,000 anos AP, o que coincidiu com o início da "seca do Holoceno Temprano-Médio". Esta seca afetou profundamente a Bacia Amazônica e áreas adjacentes, persistindo no local de estudo até o Holoceno Médio-Final, período em que surgiram o pântano Mauritia e as condições climáticas atuais. Fases climáticas principais deduzidas se encaixam bem com as tendências regionais registradas em outros lugares localizados ao norte da Bacia Amazônica. No entanto, as conclusões ainda são limitadas pela falta de novos registros quaternários na área lhanos do Orinoco, evitando correlações regionais.

  9. A practical strategy for responding to a case of lymphatic filariasis post-elimination in Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Humpress; Asugeni, James; Jimuru, Christopher; Gwalaa, John; Ribeyro, Elmer; Bradbury, Richard; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) due to Wuchereria bancrofti is being eliminated from Oceania under the Pacific Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis Programme. LF was endemic in Solomon Islands but in the 2010-2020 Strategic Plan of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF, Solomon Islands was listed as non-endemic for LF. In countries now declared free of LF an important question is what monitoring strategy should be used to detect any residual foci of LF? This paper describes how a new case ...

  10. Characterization of recombinant human lactoferrin N-glycans expressed in the milk of transgenic cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Le Parc

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF is one of the most abundant bioactive glycoproteins in human milk. Glycans attached through N-glycosidic bonds may contribute to Lactoferrin functional activities. In contrast, LF is present in trace amounts in bovine milk. Efforts to increase LF concentration in bovine milk led to alternative approaches using transgenic cows to express human lactoferrin (hLF. This study investigated and compared N-glycans in recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF, bovine lactoferrin (bLF and human lactoferrin by Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF Mass Spectrometry. The results revealed a high diversity of N-glycan structures, including fucosylated and sialylated complex glycans that may contribute additional bioactivities. rhLF, bLF and hLF had 23, 27 and 18 N-glycans respectively with 8 N-glycan in common overall. rhLF shared 16 N-glycan with bLF and 9 N-glycan with hLF while bLF shared 10 N-glycan with hLF. Based on the relative abundances of N-glycan types, rhLF and hLF appeared to contain mostly neutral complex/hybrid N-glycans (81% and 52% of the total respectively whereas bLF was characterized by high mannose glycans (65%. Interestingly, the majority of hLF N-glycans were fucosylated (88%, whereas bLF and rhLF had only 9% and 20% fucosylation, respectively. Overall, this study suggests that rhLF N-glycans share more similarities to bLF than hLF.

  11. A broader definition of occupancy: Comment on Hayes and Monfils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Martha M. Ellis; Courtney L. Amundson

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence-absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility....

  12. Plants, collected during the year 1922 by Mr. and Mrs. Visser—Hooft during their Kara-Korum-Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1925-01-01

    Ephedra Gerardiana Wall. A num. list of dried spec. no. 6048. — ROYLE, III. Bot. Him. p. 40, 348! [1839]. — O. STAPF, Die Arten der Gattung Ephedra in Denkschr. der Kais. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 56 [1889] p. 75! Foot of the Lashiglacier, 5090 M., 27 July 1922 (coll. VISSERHOOFT, no. 35).

  13. In Vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Abies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities.

  14. Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a β-cyclodextrin complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H J; van Uden, W; Frijlink, H W; Lerk, C F; Pras, N; Malingré, T M

    Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of β-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with β-cyclodextrin, a

  15. Tendon transfer for the restoration of thumb opposition: the effects of friction and pulley location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duymaz, Ahmet; Karabekmez, Furkan E; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    The authors compared the gliding resistance among three commonly used pulley sites used for oppositional transfers. Eight fresh-frozen cadaver forearms were studied. The ring finger's flexor digitorum superficialis was used as a donor tendon in all specimens. An oppositional transfer was created to the thumb using three pulley sites: the Royle-Thompson, the Guyon canal, and the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon loop pulleys. The flexor digitorum superficialis was inserted into the palmar radial portion of the abductor pollicis brevis in all cases. Gliding resistance was then measured and compared. Final thumb position was measured to assess the amount of thumb palmar abduction and opposition created with each pulley configuration. The average gliding resistance of tendons passed within the Royle-Thompson, Guyon canal, and flexor carpi ulnaris loop pulley were 1.27, 0.58, and 0.44 N, respectively. Gliding resistance for the Royle-Thompson pulley was found to be significantly higher than that for the Guyon canal or flexor carpi ulnaris loop pulley (p pulleys with regard to gliding resistance. The flexor carpi ulnaris loop pulley produced the greatest amount of palmar abduction (p pulleys produced the greatest amount of thumb opposition. The Guyon canal and flexor carpi ulnaris loop pulleys produced lower friction than the Royle-Thompson pulley. The Guyon canal pulley produced greater thumb opposition compared with the flexor carpi ulnaris loop pulley and represents an ideal pulley site for restoration of thumb opposition.

  16. vorms invul en die aansoek vir Pretoria aan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in haar plek. / Hoera! Hoera! Hoera!” (184). In sekere sin word die siening wat Bennett. Royle in die 2004-uitgawe van hulle Introduc- tion to Literature, Criticism and Theory weergee in Kroes verhaalmatig ondersoek: “Racism is an effect of language. In particular, (. . .) Ellison. (. . .) suggests that racism is an effect of synec-.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adanlemegbe, Mikagnamé. Vol 11, No 3 (2017) - Articles Conditions de synergie d'action des extraits anti-radicalaires de Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Wild.) Royle et de Crataeva adansonii Forst. f. avec inductions acido-basiques extérieures. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  18. WAJM 29(2) LATEST.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 29, No. 2 March–April 2010. *Royle Eye Department, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston, PE21 9QS, England, †Ophthalmology, Bassetlaw General Hospital, Worksop. S81 0BD, England. ‡Ophthalmology, Ahmadu Bello Teaching University Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr. C. Olali, ...

  19. Inference from presence-only data; the ongoing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Trevor; Fithian, Will

    2013-08-01

    Presence-only data abounds in ecology, often accompanied by a background sample. Although many interesting aspects of the species' distribution can be learned from such data, one cannot learn the overall species occurrence probability, or prevalence, without making unjustified simplifying assumptions. In this forum article we question the approach of Royle et al. (2012) that claims to be able to do this.

  20. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  1. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Location Fingerprinting (LF) is a promising location technique for many awareness applications in pervasive computing. However, as research on LF systems goes beyond basic methods there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed LF systems. Developers of LF systems are also lacking g...

  2. Study on the polymorphism of bovine lactoferrin gene and its relationship with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Li, Ning

    2004-05-01

    Mastitis is a major cause of economic loss to the dairy industry. Lactoferrin (Lf) is known to contribute to resistance against bacterial infections. Hence, we decided to characterize the relevance between mastitis resistance and the variants of Lf gene. By using PCR-SSCP, five fragments within 5' region and all exons of bovine lactoferrin gene were amplified and identified the nucleotide diversity. For the five segments within the 5'-region: Lf5'-1, Lf5'-2, Lf5'-3, Lf5'-4, and Lf5'-5 from upstream to downstream, we found that three had base variation. Totally, mutations were observed in Lf5'-1, Lf5'-3, and Lf5'-5, exons 4, 8, 9, 11, 15, and intron 4. We analyzed the effects of all mutated loci on milk production traits with least squares method.

  3. Various forms of mouse lactoferrins: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S H; Chen, Y H

    1999-04-16

    This work was conducted to study the microheterogeneity of mouse lactoferrin (LF). Two forms, LF1 and LF2, could be purified from uterine luminal fluid by ion-exchange HPLC on a Protein PAK SP 5PW column. Another form, LF3, was purified from the epididymis homogenate by affinity chromatography on a column of Protein A-Sepharose coupled with the purified LF2 antibody that was prepared to give no crossreaction with serum albumin. Both LF1 and LF2 showed a Mr 74000 band while LF3 gave a Mr 70000 band on reducing SDS-PAGE. All of them were reduced to a Mr 68000 band after they had been digested with N-glycosidase F. The data from automated Edman degradation confirmed the completely identical 19 amino acid sequences in the N-terminal regions of these three LFs, except the lack of N-terminal Lys-Ala of LF2/LF3 in LF1. LF in tissue homogenates was immunodetected by Western blot procedure using the purified LF2 antibody. Different amounts of LF with a molecular mass of the 70000 or 74000 were distributed in the non-sexual organs such as kidney, spleen, lung, heart and liver and the sexual glands including epididymis, vagina, uterus, ovary and prostate. No LF was detected in stomach, intestine, testis and seminal vesicle.

  4. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for heat denaturation of human recombinant lactoferrin from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Eduardo; Pérez, María Dolores; Franco, Indira; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    Heat denaturation of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) from rice with 3 different iron-saturation degrees, holo rhLf (iron-saturated), AsIs rhLf (60% iron saturation), and apo rhLf (iron-depleted), was studied. The 3 forms of rhLf were subjected to heat treatment, and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the denaturation process were determined. Thermal denaturation of rhLf was assessed by measuring the loss of reactivity against specific antibodies. D(t) values (time to reduce 90% of immunoreactivity) decreased with increasing temperature of treatment for apo and holo rhLf, those values being higher for the iron-saturated form, which indicates that iron confers thermal stability to rhLf. However, AsIs rhLf showed a different behaviour with an increase in resistance to heat between 79 °C and 84 °C, so that the kinetic parameters could not be calculated. The heat denaturation process for apo and holo rhLf was best described assuming a reaction order of 1.5. The activation energy of the denaturation process was 648.20 kJ/mol for holo rhLf and 406.94 kJ/mol for apo rhLf, confirming that iron-depleted rhLf is more sensitive to heat treatment than iron-saturated rhLf.

  5. Salivary lactoferrin is transferred into the brain via the sublingual route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takashi; To, Masahiro; Saruta, Juri; Sato, Chikatoshi; Yamamoto, Yuko; Kondo, Yusuke; Shimizu, Tomoko; Kamata, Yohei; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2017-07-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is produced by exocrine glands including salivary gland, and has various functions including infection defense. However, the transfer of LF from peripheral organs into the brain remains unclear. To clarify the kinetics of salivary LF (sLF), we investigated the consequences of sialoadenectomy and bovine LF (bLF) sublingual administration in rats. The salivary glands were removed from male Wistar rats, and we measured rat LF levels in the blood and brain at 1 week post-surgery. We also examined the transfer of LF into the organs of the rats after sublingual administration of bLF. Rat LF levels in the blood and brain were significantly reduced by sialoadenectomy. Sublingual bLF administration significantly increased bLF levels in the brain, which then decreased over time. These results indicate that LF is transferred from the sublingual mucosa to the brain, in which favorable effects of sLF on brain will be expected via the sublingual mucosa.

  6. Antibacterial activity in bovine lactoferrin-derived peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, K S; Milne, J M; Grieve, P A; Dionysius, D A; Smith, R

    1997-01-01

    Several peptides sharing high sequence homology with lactoferricin B (Lf-cin B) were generated from bovine lactoferrin (Lf) with recombinant chymosin. Two peptides were copurified, one identical to Lf-cin B and another differing from Lf-cin B by the inclusion of a C-terminal alanine (lactoferricin). Two other peptides were copurified from chymosin-hydrolyzed Lf, one differing from Lf-cin B by the inclusion of C-terminal alanyl-leucine and the other being a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bo...

  7. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. Copyright

  8. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 100, No 1&2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbivory OF hydrilla verticillata by Cichlid fish in Lake Bisina, Uganda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Fred Wanda, Brian Gidudu, Silvester Wandera, Robert S Copeland, James P Cuda, William A Overholt. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.100.0107 ...

  9. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 101, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from Hydrilla Verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) and other submersed aquatic Macrophytes in Lake Bisina and other Ugandan Lakes · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Robert S Copeland, Brian Gidudu, Fred Wanda, John H Epler, James P Cuda, William A Overholt.

  10. Water Quality Management Studies Lake Seminole, April-November 1978. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    srrulata; speckled alder x Bgetula nigra; river birch x Brasenia schreberi; watershield x Cabomba caroliniana; fanwort x Sphencclea zeylandica; chicken spike...crassipes; water hyacinth P Game Management Area Myipyllum spicatur; Eurasian waterrnilfoil 75 aribras iuiensis; parrotfeather 5 Cbma caroliniana; fanwort 5...splitleaf pennywort P Lemna perpusilla; commion duckweed P Fish Pond Drain Area Hydrilla verticillata; Hydrilla 75 Cabomba caroiniia; fanwort P ajps spp

  11. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  12. Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Some Traditionally Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts were obtained from the leaves of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Malva verticillata L. (Malvaceae), Syzygium guineense DC. (Myrtaceae); and from the rhizomes of Ferula communis L. (Apiaceae), and from the aerial part of Ranunculus multifidus Forssk (Ranunculaceae). Except for the extract of F. communis, ...

  13. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Steud Polygonum spp. smartweed N Emergent Pontederia cordata L. pickerelweed N Emergent Potamogeton illinoensis Illinois pondweed N Submersed Morong...H. verticillata Ludwigia spp. M. spicatum P. cordata Tamarisk spp. Polygonum spp. P. illinoensis Scirpus spp. Above Eagle Pass, boat launch 8/19/03

  14. Use of phosphorus to alleviate stress induced by cadmium and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, these results suggested that Cd and Zn exerted their toxic effects on the growth of E. nuttallii and H. verticillata, at least in part, by the induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis. Through comparing the response of the two plants to oxidative stress caused by Cd and Zn, it was found that E. nuttallii was ...

  15. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Chanchal Kumar shows how Legendre polynomials can be obtained by the Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization process. The article on the freshwater weed Hydrilla verticillata points out that its scientific management can be very beneficial to the ecosystem. V V Raman continues his Darsana Jolts, and discusses the nature of ...

  16. An evaluation of the Bayesian approach to fitting the N-mixture model for use with pseudo-replicated count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribo, S.G.; Gray, B.R.; Liang, S.

    2011-01-01

    The N-mixture model proposed by Royle in 2004 may be used to approximate the abundance and detection probability of animal species in a given region. In 2006, Royle and Dorazio discussed the advantages of using a Bayesian approach in modelling animal abundance and occurrence using a hierarchical N-mixture model. N-mixture models assume replication on sampling sites, an assumption that may be violated when the site is not closed to changes in abundance during the survey period or when nominal replicates are defined spatially. In this paper, we studied the robustness of a Bayesian approach to fitting the N-mixture model for pseudo-replicated count data. Our simulation results showed that the Bayesian estimates for abundance and detection probability are slightly biased when the actual detection probability is small and are sensitive to the presence of extra variability within local sites.

  17. Multinomial mixture model with heterogeneous classification probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M.D.; Gray, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Royle and Link (Ecology 86(9):2505-2512, 2005) proposed an analytical method that allowed estimation of multinomial distribution parameters and classification probabilities from categorical data measured with error. While useful, we demonstrate algebraically and by simulations that this method yields biased multinomial parameter estimates when the probabilities of correct category classifications vary among sampling units. We address this shortcoming by treating these probabilities as logit-normal random variables within a Bayesian framework. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo to compute Bayes estimates from a simulated sample from the posterior distribution. Based on simulations, this elaborated Royle-Link model yields nearly unbiased estimates of multinomial and correct classification probability estimates when classification probabilities are allowed to vary according to the normal distribution on the logit scale or according to the Beta distribution. The method is illustrated using categorical submersed aquatic vegetation data. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Experiment list: SRX069225 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX069225 hg19 DNase-seq DNase-Seq Others HPdLF Tissue=epithelium|Description=periodo...al_provider=Lonza || cell=HPdLF || cell organism=Human || cell description=Normal Human Periodontal Ligament

  19. Experiment list: SRX069121 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX069121 hg19 DNase-seq DNase-Seq Others HPdLF Tissue=epithelium|Description=periodo...l_provider=Lonza || cell=HPdLF || cell organism=Human || cell description=Normal Human Periodontal Ligament

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSK451 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pinlfhffftflgtvaniw klifvk*fikvktessff*lf*rkfimlapiftchf*nyml*ikkxikk Frame C: *v...ifvk*fikvkt essff*lf*rkfimlapiftchf*nyml*ikkmn*kkmi*kkm--- ---FSLSSSSXPGRFVASKSHCTPGCNSHNLTGFPS*iptfiafiaila...ccieitlytrlqft*snrlsilntnfhcfychssifilr*eggsst*kfsihpkitff rvvf*viiknsaiivifiyyfeilfkgypinlfhffftflgtvaniwkl

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSH440 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YLF VNGTSWISIGSPEPLPINKNKSSSFISSFFSFLNPFCYF*nikkkmkk*kkk*innate* *lf Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Fra...KDKIVLSGLFLKRI KNHYSVRINSGIPLNIGNIRSIVSFNSSTIVLNRTIDNGNEVVREVSIYLSNSPSDSYLF VNGTSWISIGSPEPLPINKNKSSSFISSFFSFLNPFCYF*nikkkmkk*kkk*inna...te* *lf Frame C: lylfninkdfhnfkfhl*frylptrcnkkwsrlhhyllfttcmsntnnnt*kr*k*ilfi skstk

  2. MEMPELAJARI FISIOLOGI PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN TEHNIK RADIOISOTOP (Study in the Physiology of Environment Pollution Using Radiotracer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1. Perbedaan kemampuan daya serap tumbuhan air Hydrilla verticillata, Enceng gondok (Eichhomia crassipes dan Kangkung terhadap residu Malathion, menggunakan akuarium (diisi dengan air + Hydrilla Verticillata + Enceng Gondok + Kangkung + Malathion radioisotope 14C. 2. Perbandingan kadar malathion dalam jaringan ikan yang mendapat makanan Hydrilla verticilata dengan yang mendapat makanan kangkung, menggunakan: (akuarium pertama diisi air + Hydrilla Vericillata + ikan mas + Malathion radioisotope 14C; akuarium ke dua diisi air + kangkung + ikan mas + malathion radiisotop 14C. 3. Perbandingan ukuran penyerapan pada jaringan mammalia (tikus yang diberi makan jaringan ikan mas dengan yang diberi makan tumbuhan air (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. Jaringan ikan mas dan kangkung dilakukan pengabuan basah, lalu diberikan masing-masing kepada 30 ekor tikus. Kadar Malathion dari semua percobaan satu, dua dan tiga, diketahui dengan menggunakan alat pencacah Sintilator cair (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer, LSC- 753 (ALOKA”. Hasil yang didapat dibandingkan dengan menggunakan uji-t Student. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa: 1. Hydrilla Verticillata lebih efisien dari pada Enceng Gondok dan Kangkung dalam menyerap residu insektisida malathion dalam air. 2. Ikan yang diberi makan Hydrilla verticillata mengkonsentrasikan malathion lebih tinggi dari pada ikan yang diberi makan kangkung. 3. Mammalia (tikus yang mengkonsumsi daging ikan yang terkontaminasi akan mengkonsentrasikan malathion dalam tubuhnya lebih banyak dari pada tikus yang memakan sayuran (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine: 1.The comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata, water hyacinth and water spinach of Malathion insecticide residues in water, (aquarium filled with water + Hydrilla verticillata + water hyacinth + water spinach + 20 mci 14C malathion radioisotope; 2

  3. Première éclaircie par méthodes simplifiées dans une plantation de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscription or Fee Access. Première éclaircie par méthodes simplifiées dans une plantation de Pinus kesiya Royle à l\\'Ouest-Cameroun. R Njoukam, R Peltier. Abstract. Résumé Un essai d\\'éclaircie par des méthodes simplifiées a été installé en savane humide du Cameroun, dans un jeune peuplement de Pinus kesiya ...

  4. The transformer species of the Ukrainian Polissya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protopopova Vira V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the transformer species participation (Echinocystis lobata (Michx. Torr. & A. Gray, Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Robinia pseudoacacia L. in different plant communities of the Ukrainian Polissya (Forest zone of Ukraine are presented. All the abovementioned species are strong edificators in the region that can significantly change important species composition parameters of communities and character of landscape.

  5. Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Leif Kjær

    We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed by G....... Royle, four of the known cages including the Hoffman-Singleton graph, some graphs constructed by G. Exoo and some new smallest known graphs. k...

  6. Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Leif Kjær

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree $k$ and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed ...... by Royle, four of the known cages including the Hoffman-Singleton graph, some graphs constructed by Exoo and some new smallest known graphs....

  7. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1981. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    more to a loss of the plants than to the direct lethal effects of the low temperatures on the insects. By March, populations were again dispersing...34 ot I albigutfis population intensities as influenced by latitude and pattu in both north and south Florida, but alack of seasonality in the central...philozeroide. (Mart.) Griseb. Cabomba Cabomba carolinian. Gray Cham Chara spp. Dckweed Lemna spp. Hydrifla Hydrill aer t Royle I iypphila Hygrophila

  8. Cleaning and Processing RSS measurements for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Handling variations in sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) is neassary for achieving robust location fingerprinting (LF). Current research has only proposed limited system-specific models for how to handle the cleaning of RSS variations. However, this paper propose a novel model for both...... cleaning and processing RSS measurements for LF systems. The proposed model is evaluated with a state-of-the-art LF system. The evaluation results show improved accuracy for the evaluated LF system when used with the proposed model....

  9. Dietary bovine lactoferrin increases intestinal cell proliferation in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Comstock, Sarah S; Yi, Cuiyi; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-09-01

    Lactoferrin is a bioactive milk protein that stimulates cell proliferation in vitro; however, limited in vivo evidence exists to allow lactoferrin to be incorporated into infant formula. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on neonatal intestinal growth and maturation was investigated guided by the hypothesis that bLF would increase cellular proliferation leading to functional differences in neonatal piglets. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 0.4 [control (Ctrl)], 1.0 (LF1), or 3.6 (LF3) g bLF/L for the first 7 or 14 d of life. To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Intestinal cell proliferation, histomorphology, mucosal DNA concentration, enzyme activity, gene expression, and fecal bLF content were measured. Intestinal enzyme activity, DNA concentration, and villus length were unaffected by bLF. However, crypt proliferation was 60% greater in LF1- and LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets, and crypt depth and area were 20% greater in LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets. Crypt cells from LF3-fed piglets had 3-fold higher β-catenin mRNA expression than did crypt cells from Ctrl piglets. Last, feces of piglets fed bLF contained intact bLF, suggesting that some bLF was resistant to digestion and could potentially affect intestinal proliferation through direct interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary bLF stimulates crypt cell proliferation in vivo. The increased β-catenin expression indicates that Wnt signaling may in part mediate the stimulatory effect of bLF on intestinal cell proliferation. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed a control low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat)(C-LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat)(HF45) for a period of 72 days. Dietary treatments included: 1) C-LF; 2) C-LF + blueberry juice in place of drinking water; 3) C-LF + anthocyanins in the drinking water...

  11. Near infrared photoluminescence modulation by defect site design using aryl isomers in locally functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Uchimura, Shunsuke; Shiraishi, Tomonari; Onitsuka, Hisashi; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2017-11-21

    We newly introduce positional isomeric structures at the defect sites of locally-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (lf-SWNTs) showing unique near infrared photoluminescence (PL). The observed PL is significantly different from that of typical para-aryl modified lf-SWNTs; i.e., (i) an extraordinary PL wavelength shift of the meta-aryl modified lf-SWNTs, and (ii) remarkably red-shifted PL from the ortho-aryl modified lf-SWNTs are revealed.

  12. Lactoferrin Directly Scavenges Hydroxyl Radicals and Undergoes Oxidative Self-Degradation: A Possible Role in Protection against Oxidative DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ogasawara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the protective effect of lactoferrin against DNA damage induced by various hydroxyl radical generation systems. Lactoferrin (LF was examined with regard to its potential role as a scavenger against radical oxygen species using bovine milk LF. Native LF, iron-saturated LF (holo-LF, and apolactoferrin (apo-LF effectively suppressed strand breaks in plasmid DNA due to hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction. In addition, both native LF and holo-LF clearly protected calf thymus DNA from fragmentation due to ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of H2O2. We also demonstrated a protective effect of all three LF molecules against 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG formation in calf thymus DNA following ultraviolet (UV irradiation with H2O2. Our results clearly indicate that native LF has reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability, independent of its nature as a masking component for transient metals. We also demonstrated that the protective effect of LF against oxidative DNA damage is due to degradation of LF itself, which is more susceptible to degradation than other bovine milk proteins.

  13. An evaluation of Wb123 antibody elisa in individuals treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSI159 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |AW682908.2 NF001G03LF1F1023 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF001... 6e-16 1 AW683430 |AW683430.2 NF011H04LF1F1043 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF011H04LF 5',

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHK887 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BG453581 |BG453581.1 NF092A07LF1F1050 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA cl...one NF092A07LF 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 BG453480 |BG453480.1 NF092C08LF1F1055 Developing leaf Medicago t

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHA105 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 73-367476 strain AX4, complete sequence. 38 0.39 6 BE317387 |BE317387.2 NF068C10LF1F1070 Developing...49770.2 NF022C10LF1F1081 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF022C10LF 5', mRNA sequence. 36 0.5

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHF675 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complete sequence. 48 0.15 1 BG453581 |BG453581.1 NF092A07LF1F1050 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA...15 1 BG453480 |BG453480.1 NF092C08LF1F1055 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF092C08LF 5', mRN

  18. Dicty_cDB: SFF194 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 124-6045772 strain AX4, complete sequence. 34 0.50 7 BE317387 |BE317387.2 NF068C10LF1F1070 Developing leaf M...249770 |BE249770.2 NF022C10LF1F1081 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF022C10LF 5', mRNA seque

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHF346 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 453581 |BG453581.1 NF092A07LF1F1050 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF092A07LF 5', mRNA seque...nce. 48 0.26 1 BG453480 |BG453480.1 NF092C08LF1F1055 Developing leaf Medicago tru

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSA794 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tcistmlmpitql vn*mltikvlvsmvnvefvimltvvptllkvkvpqelvysqvnsqlstlqagllvdtmkn qskfg*qfssv*lf*f*lstswv...vysqvnsqlstlqagllvdtmkn qskfg*qfssv*lf*f*lstswvs*rnnkyrfvk*yfffl*LILYNVHQIFSISMNLVPC KKFDKDGDDCIAYKNVEASNLLT...qvnsqlstlqagllvdtmknqskfg*qfssv*lf*f* lstswvs*rnnkyrfvk*yfffl*lily Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences pr

  1. Lactoferrin: Structure, function, denaturation and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Blanch, Ewan; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-21

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein occurring in many biological secretions including milk. It possesses iron binding/transferring, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. These functional properties intimately depend on the structural integrity of LF especially its higher order conformation. LF is primarily extracted from bovine milk and it is subsequently added into many commercial products such as nutritional supplements, infant formula, cosmetics and toothpaste. LF is sensitive to denaturation induced by temperature and other physicochemical stresses. Hence, the extraction, powder formation processes of LF and processing parameters of LF-containing products have to be optimized to minimise its undesired denaturation. This review documents the advances made on structure-function relationships and discusses the effectiveness of methods used to preserve the structure of LF during thermal processing. Oral delivery, as the most convenient way for administering LF, is also discussed focusing on digestion of LF in oral, gastric and intestinal stages. The effectiveness of methods used to deliver LF to intestinal digestion stage in structurally intact form is also compared. Altogether, this work comprehensively reviews the fate of LF during thermal processing and digestion, and suggests suitable means to preserve its structural integrity and functional properties. Scope of review The manuscript aims at providing a comprehensive review of the latest publications on four aspects of LF: structural features, functional properties, nature and extent of denaturation and gastrointestinal digestion. It also analyses how these publications benefit food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  3. Quantification of specific E. coli in gut mucosa from Crohn's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Struve, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We here present a method based on qRT-PCR to quantify E. coli LF82 in intestinal human samples. Two different primer-probe sets were designed to detect LF82, and a third to target total E. coli. The assay showed high robustness and specificity for detection of LF82 in the presence of intestinal...

  4. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Bolscher, Jan G M; Hyndman, M Eric; Hancock, Robert E W; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits broad-spectrum anticancer activity, while a similar peptide derived from human LF (hLF) is not as active. In this work, several peptides derived from the N-terminal regions of bLF and hLF were studied for their anticancer activities against leukemia and breast-cancer cells, as well as normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cyclized LFcinB-CLICK peptide, which possesses a stable triazole linkage, showed improved anticancer activity, while short peptides hLF11 and bLF10 were not cytotoxic to cancer cells. Interestingly, hLF11 can act as a cell-penetrating peptide; when combined with the antimicrobial core sequence of LFcinB (RRWQWR) through either a Pro or Gly-Gly linker, toxicity to Jurkat cells increased. Together, our work extends the library of LF-derived peptides tested for anticancer activity, and identified new chimeric peptides with high cytotoxicity towards cancerous cells. Additionally, these results support the notion that short cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides can be combined to create new adducts with increased potency.

  5. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin content in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, V M-R; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N; Colinet, F G; Georges, M V; Bertozzi, C; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    2009-05-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is mainly present in milk and shows important physiological and biological functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability and correlation values of LF content in bovine milk with different economic traits as milk yield (MY), fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score (SCS). Variance components of the studied traits were estimated by REML using a multiple-trait mixed model. The obtained heritability (0.22) for LF content predicted using mid-infrared spectrometry (pLF) suggested the possibility of animal selection based on the increase of LF content in milk. The phenotypic and genetic correlation values calculated between pLF and SCS were moderate (0.31 and 0.24, respectively). Furthermore, a preliminary study of bovine LF gene polymorphism effects was performed on the same production traits. By PCR, all exons of the LF gene were amplified and then sequenced. Three new polymorphisms were detected in exon 2, exon 11, and intron 8. We examined the effects of LF gene polymorphisms of exons 2, 4, 9, 11, and 15, and intron 8 on pLF, MY, fat and protein percentages, and SCS. The different observed effects did not reach a significant level probably because of the characteristics of the studied population. However, the results were promising, and LF may be a potential indicator of mastitis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of genetic selection based on LF content on the improvement of mastitis resistance.

  6. Use of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin affinity chromatography in the structural analysis of the bovine lactoferrin N-linked glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S.; Schoemaker, Ruud J. W.; Timmer, Christel J. A. M.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Background: Over the years, the N-glycosylation of both human and bovine lactoferrin (LF) has been studied extensively, however not all aspects have been studied in as much detail. Typically, the bovine LF complex-type N-glycans include certain epitopes, not found in human LF N-glycans, i.e.

  7. Synbiotic administration of canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 and inulin to healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strompfová, Viola; Lauková, Andrea; Cilik, Dušan

    2013-05-01

    The canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 has been demonstrated to exert certain health benefits as a probiotic in dogs. Synbiotic combinations are widely used but are rarely studied in dogs. In this study the prebiotic inulin in combination with L. fermentum CCM 7421 was tested for its effects on faecal microbial populations, faecal characteristics, and blood biochemistry in canine experiments. Healthy adult dogs (n = 36) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (12 dogs/treatment): (i) the control group (C), (ii) the probiotic group (LF group: L. fermentum CCM 7421, 10(8) CFU/mL of Ringer buffer, 0.1 mL/kg of body mass), and (iii) the synbiotic group (LF+I group: L. fermentum CCM 7421 + inulin (I; Raftifeed IPS) added as 1% of diet). The experiment lasted for 7 weeks with a 2-week treatment period. We detected a significant increase of lactic acid bacteria (LF versus C, day 7; LF versus C and LF versus LF+I, days 28 and 49), a decrease of clostridia (LF versus C, day 14), a lower pH value (LF versus LF+I, day 28), and a higher ammonia concentration (LF versus LF+I, days 14 and 49) in faecal samples. The synbiotic LF+I combination did not intensify the probiotic L. fermentum CCM 7421 efficacy, but its slight laxative effect can be useful to prevent constipation, e.g., in senior dogs.

  8. Comparative analysis of virulence traits between a Legionella feeleii strain implicated in Pontiac fever and a strain that caused Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changle; Saito, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tamami; Amako, Kazunobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Legionella strains of the same species and serogroup are known to cause Legionnaires' disease (a potentially fatal atypical pneumonia) or Pontiac fever (a mild, flu-like disease), but the bacterial factors that define these dramatic differences in pathology have not been elucidated. To gain a better understanding of these factors, we compared the characteristics of Legionella feeleii strains that were isolated from either a sample of freshwater implicated in an outbreak of Pontiac fever (ATCC 35072, serogroup 1, LfPF), or a patient with Legionnaires' disease (ATCC 38549, serogroup 2, LfLD). Growth of LfPF and LfLD in BYE broth was slower than the positive control, Legionella pneumophila strain JR32. However, LfLD grew faster than LfPF at 42 °C. After in vitro infection to J774 murine or U937 human macrophage cell lines and A549 human lung epithelial cell line, LfLD showed a higher cell infection rate, stronger internalization by host cells, and greater cytotoxicity than that of LfPF. Large amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were secreted by human host cells after infection with LfLD, but not with LfPF. LfLD possessed mono-polar flagellum while LfPF was unflagellated. When LfLD was cultured at 25, 30 and 37 °C, the bacteria had higher motility rate at lower temperatures. Based on our results, this is the first study that showed distinct characteristics between LfPF and LfLD, which may give important leads in elucidating differences in their virulence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrical Assessment, Capacity, and Demand Study for Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Cost: The options with the lowest lifecycle cost are to be favored • Operational Consideration: This is to capture operational impacts and/or changes...building 1,250 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 1X1 33,852 LF 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 1X2 22,110 LF 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 2X2 990 LF 64% Ductbank, 4...in. PVC , 2X3 278 LF 64% Ductbank, 4-in. PVC , 3X4 708 :LF 64% MV Switchgear 15kV Air-Circuit Breaker 24 80% 5kV Air-Circuit Breaker 4 80% 15kV

  10. Bone regeneration by lactoferrin released from a gelatin hydrogel.

    OpenAIRE

    Takaoka, Ryohei; HIKASA, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Kentaro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein, to induce bone regeneration. A biodegradable gelatin hydrogel was prepared to allow LF release in vivo in a sustained fashion. When subcutaneously implanted into the back of mice, the gelatin hydrogel incorporating LF showed a longer LF retention period at the site of implantation than that of LF solution injection. An in vitro culture experiment with 3T3E1 cells (mouse-derived osteobla...

  11. Lactoferrin interacts with bile acids and increases fecal cholesterol excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kanae; Morishita, Satoru; Ono, Tomoji; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Kato, Hisanori; Ikeda, Ikuo; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional cationic protein (pI 8.2-8.9) in mammalian milk. We previously reported that enteric-LF prevented hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in a diet-induced atherosclerosis model using Microminipig, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because LF is assumed to electrostatically interact with bile acids to inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption, LF could promote cholesterol excretion. In this study, we assessed the interaction between LF and taurocholate in vitro, and the effect of LF on cholesterol excretion in rats. The binding rate of taurocholate to LF was significantly higher than that to transferrin (pI 5.2-6.3). When rats were administered a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 5% LF, LF was detected using ELISA in the upper small intestine from 7.5 to 60 min after the administration. Rats were fed one of the following diets: control, HCD, or HCD + 5% LF for 21 days. Fecal neutral steroids and hepatic cholesterol levels in the HCD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The addition of LF to a HCD significantly increased fecal neutral steroids levels (22% increase, p cholesterol levels (17% decrease, p cholesterol excretion via interactions with bile acids.

  12. Macrophage Infiltration Is a Causative Factor for Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy through the Activation of Collagen Production in Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeyuki; Hara, Masamitsu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Yokota, Kazuya; Kijima, Ken; Yoshizaki, Shingo; Harimaya, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Inagaki, Yutaka; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy causes lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leading to leg pain and disability in activities of daily living in elderly individuals. Although previous studies have been performed on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that infiltrating macrophages were a causative factor for LF hypertrophy. Induction of macrophages into the mouse LF by applying a microinjury resulted in LF hypertrophy along with collagen accumulation and fibroblasts proliferation at the injured site, which were very similar to the characteristics observed in the severely hypertrophied LF of human. However, we found that macrophage depletion by injecting clodronate-containing liposomes counteracted LF hypertrophy even with microinjury. For identification of fibroblasts in the LF, we used collagen type I α2 linked to green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and selectively isolated green fluorescent protein-positive fibroblasts from the microinjured LF using laser microdissection. A quantitative RT-PCR on laser microdissection samples revealed that the gene expression of collagen markedly increased in the fibroblasts at the injured site with infiltrating macrophages compared with the uninjured location. These results suggested that macrophage infiltration was crucial for LF hypertrophy by stimulating collagen production in fibroblasts, providing better understanding of the pathophysiology of LF hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MiR-21 promotes fibrosis and hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum in lumbar spinal canal stenosis by activating IL-6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Tian, Jiwei; Liu, Xinhui; Guan, Guoping

    2017-08-26

    The molecular mechanism underlying the fibrosis of ligamentum flavum(LF) in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis(LSCS) remains unknown. MicroRNAs are reported to play important roles in regulating fibrosis in different organs. The present study aimed to identify fibrosis related miR-21 expression profile and investigate the pathological process of miR-21 in the fibrosis of LF hypertrophy and associated regulatory mechanisms. 15 patients with LSCS underwent surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. For the control group, 11 patients with lumbar disc herniation(LDH) was included. The LF thickness was measured on MRI. LF samples were obtained during the surgery. Fibrosis score was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of miR-21 in LF tissues were determined by RT-PCR. Correlation among LF thickness, fibrosis score, and miR-21 expression was analyzed. In addition, Lentiviral vectors for miR-21 mimic were constructed and transfected into LF cells to examine the role of miR-21 in LF fibrosis. Types I and III collagen were used as indicators of fibrosis. IL-6 expression in LF cells after transfection was investigated by RT-PCR and ELISA. Patients in two groups showed similar outcomes regarding age, gender, level of LF tissue. The thickness and fibrosis score of LF in the LSCS group were significantly greater than those in LDH group (all P hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Estrada, Guillermo; Calderón-Salinas, Víctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar K d . However, averages of 9.45 × 10(5) and 6.65 × 10(6) binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  15. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ortíz-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  16. Analysis of Two Quantitative Ultrasound Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleki-Seya, Pauline; Han, Aiguo; Andre, Michael P; Erdman, John W; O'Brien, William D

    2017-09-01

    There are two well-known ultrasonic approaches to extract sets of quantitative parameters: Lizzi-Feleppa (LF) parameters: slope, intercept, and midband; and quantitative ultrasound (QUS)-derived parameters: effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC). In this study, the relation between the LF and QUS-derived parameters is studied theoretically and experimentally on ex vivo mouse livers. As expected from the theory, LF slope is correlated to ESD ([Formula: see text]), and from experimental data, LF midband is correlated to EAC ([Formula: see text]). However, LF intercept is not correlated to ESD ([Formula: see text]) nor EAC ([Formula: see text]). The unexpected correlation observed between LF slope and EAC ([Formula: see text]) results likely from the high correlation between ESD and EAC due to the inversion process. For a liver fat percentage estimation, an important potential medical application, the parameters presenting the better correlation are EAC ([Formula: see text]) and LF midband ([Formula: see text]).

  17. The effects of lactoferrin on myelopoiesis: can we resolve the controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2007-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding protein contained in the secretory fluids of mammals and secondary granules of neutrophils. LF is a key element in innate immunity and exhibits a wide spectrum of activity against pathogens. Although the effects of LF on the maturation and effector function of immune system cells are well recognized, its regulatory function on myelopoiesis has been a matter of controversy for a long time. The majority of early studies demonstrated the role of LF as a negative feedback regulator of myelopoiesis. There were also reports that revealed no significant involvement of LF in that process. However, a number of experimental data, together with clinical observations, indicate a stimulatory action of LF in myelopoiesis. The aim of this article is to review the available literature data regarding the effects of LF on myelopoiesis in mice and humans. Possible reasons for opposing views on this subject are presented.

  18. Short Segment Spinal Instrumentation With Index Vertebra Pedicle Screw Placement for Pathologies Involving the Anterior and Middle Vertebral Column Is as Effective as Long Segment Stabilization With Cage Reconstruction: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartanusz, Viktor; Harris, Jonathan; Moldavsky, Mark; Cai, Yiwei; Bucklen, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    An in vitro, cadaveric biomechanical study. The aim of the present study was to compare single-segment posterior instrumentation and fracture-level screws with single/multilevel posterior fixation and corpectomy in a simulated, unstable burst fracture model. The optimal extent of instrumentation for surgical cases of non-neoplastic vertebral body pathologies remains uncertain. Although several clinical studies demonstrate advantages of short segment instrumentation with index-level screws over more extensive corpectomy and anterior-posterior techniques, a comprehensive biomechanical comparison of these techniques is currently lacking. Six bovine spines (T11-L5) were tested in flexion, extension, lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) following simulated burst fracture at L2. Posterior instrumentation included 1 level above/below (1LF) and 2 levels above/below fracture level (2LF), intermediate or index screws at fracture level (FF), and cross-connectors above/below fracture level (CC). Anterior corpectomy devices included expandable corpectomy spacers with/without integrated screws, ACDi and ACD, respectively FORTIFY-Integrated/FORTIFY; Globus Medical, Inc., PA. Constructs were tested in the following order: (1) Intact; (2) 1LF; (3) 1LF and CC; (4) 1LF and FF; (5) 1LF, CC, and FF; (6) 2LF; (7) 2LF and CC; (8) 2LF and FF; (9) 2LF, CC, and FF; (10) 2LF and ACD; (11) 2LF, ACD, and CC; (12) 1LF and ACDi; (13) 1LF, ACDi, and CC. During flexion, all constructs except 1LF reduced motion relative to intact (P ≤ 0.05). Anterior support was most stable, but no differences were found between constructs (P ≥ 0.05). Every construct reduced motion in extension, though no differences were found between constructs and intact (P ≥ 0.05). During LB, all constructs reduced motion relative to intact (P ≤ 0.05); 2LF constructs further reduced motion (P ≤ 0.05). No construct returned AR motion to intact, with significant increases in 1LF and ACDi, 2

  19. Native and thermally modified protein-polyphenol coassemblies: lactoferrin-based nanoparticles and submicrometer particles as protective vehicles for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Chenqi; Liu, Fuguo; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-11-05

    The interactions between native, thermally modified lactoferrin (LF) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 were investigated. Turbidity, particle size, and charge of LF-EGCG complexes were mainly dominated by pH value and secondary structure of protein. At pH 3.5 and 5.0, LF-EGCG complexes were nanoparticles which had high ζ-potential, small size, and soluble state. At pH 6.5, they were submicrometer particles which exhibited low ζ-potential, large size, and insoluble state. The infrared spectra of freeze-dried LF-EGCG complexes showed that they were different from LF and EGCG alone. Far-UV CD results indicated that heat denaturation might irreversibly alter the secondary structure of LF and EGCG induced a progressive increase in the proportion of α-helix structure at the cost of β-sheet and unordered coil structure of LF at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5. EGCG exhibited a strong affinity for native LF but a weak affinity for thermally modified LF at pH 5.0 and 6.5. An inverse result was observed at pH 3.5. These results could have potential for the development of food formulations based on LF as a carrier of bioactive compounds.

  20. Role of lactoferrin in the tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, J L; Willcox, M D P

    2009-01-01

    The surface of the eye provides an inert barrier against infection. Through its unique combination of antimicrobial action and anti-inflammatory activities lactoferrin (Lf) in the tear film plays an important role in the maintenance of ocular health. In order to maintain clarity the eye must provide immunological defense without immunopathology. Along with physical barriers, soluble plasma factors and other proteins such as lysozyme, Lf produced by the acinar cells of the lacrimal gland serves a number of roles in defense for this purpose. Lf in tears provides antimicrobial efficacy by binding free iron thus reducing the availability of iron necessary for microbial growth and survival as well as pathogenesis. Lf has been shown to inhibit biofilm formation and thus may play a role in protecting contact lens surfaces from colonization. Virus particles' entry into epithelial cells is inhibited by Lf while an excess of Lf in tear film is thought to limit the opportunistic Lf-mediated bridging of adenovirus and host cell that occurs in other tissues. Lf dampens the classical complement activation pathway by binding to markers of inflammation and immune activation while pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are targeted by Lf for removal through tears and hydrodynamic flushing. This review focuses on the role of Lf in human tear film and its contribution to ocular health during contact lens wear.

  1. The effect of carbohydrate moiety structure on the immunoregulatory activity of lactoferrin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maja; Duk, Maria; Kruzel, Marian L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoregulatory effects of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) in two in vitro models: (1) the secondary humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC); and (2) the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We compared the non-sialylated glycoform of rhLF as expressed by glycoengineered Pichia pastoris with one that was further chemically sialylated. In an earlier study, we showed that sialylated rhLF could reverse methotrexate-induced suppression of the secondary immune response of mouse splenocytes to SRBC, and that the phenomenon is dependent on the interaction of lactoferrin (LF) with sialoadhesin (CD169). We found that the immunorestorative activity of sialylated rhLF is also dependent on its interaction with the CD22 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed by B lymphocytes. We also demonstrated that only sialylated rhLF was able to inhibit the MLR reaction. MLR was inhibited by bovine lactoferrin (bLF), a glycoform that has a more complex glycan structure. Desialylated bLF and lactoferricin, a bLF-derived peptide devoid of carbohydrates, did not express such inhibitory activity. We showed that the interaction of LF with sialic acid receptors is essential for at least some of the immunoregulatory activity of this glycoprotein.

  2. Recombinant human lactoferrin as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering: mechanism of antiapoptotic and osteogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ashley A; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2014-06-01

    Lactoferrin is a bioactive globular protein with unique properties towards musculo-skeletal cells and anabolic to bone in vivo. Even though the potent anti-apoptotic and osteogenic activity of lactoferrin has been reported, the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. The study demonstrates that the anti-apoptotic effect of rhLF towards MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells is mediated by Wnt5a/PKA pathway and the stabilization of β-catenin by rhLF is dependent on PKA/LRP6 signaling pathway. The study also investigates the feasibility of developing rhLF as a biomaterial for cell delivery. The injectable rhLF cell delivery vehicles are prepared by enzymatic crosslinking of tyramine-modified rhLF in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase. The modified rhLF shows bioactivity similar to unmodified rhLF. The rhLF gels support encapsulated MC3T3 cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as phosphorylation of signaling proteins. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the involvement of Wnt5a, LRP6, and PKA signaling in rhLF-mediated bioactivity towards MC3T3 cells and the feasibility of developing an injectable cell delivery vehicle from rhLF. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Autophagy-associated Cell Death in Lung Cancer through miR-486-mediated Inhibition of Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujun; Wang, Yizhong; Yao, Anran; Xu, Zhen; Dou, Huan; Shen, Sunan; Hou, Yayi; Wang, Tingting

    2017-09-18

    Low frequency magnetic fields (LF-MFs) can affect cell proliferation in a cell-type and intensity-dependent way. Previous study has reported the anti-tumor effect of LF-MFs in lung cancers. Our previous study also optimized the intensity and duration of LF-MFs to effectively inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer cells. However, the anti-tumor mechanism of LF-MFs remains unclear, which limit the clinical application of LF-MFs in anti-tumor therapy. Here, in a well-established Lewis Lung Cancer (LLC) mouse model, we found that LF-MFs inhibit tumor growth and induce an autophagic cell death in lung cancer. We also found that LF-MFs could up-regulate the expression level of miR-486, which was involved in LF-MFs activated cell autophagy. Furthermore, we found B-cell adaptor for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (BCAP) is a direct target of miR-486. miR-486 inhibit AKT/mTOR signaling through inhibiting expression of BCAP. Moreover, a decreased expression of miR-486 and an increased expression of BCAP were found in tumor tissues of lung cancer patients. Taken together, this study proved that LF-MFs can inhibit lung cancers through miR-486 induced autophagic cell death, which suggest a clinical application of LF-MFs in cancer treatment.

  4. Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton P Rivera

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT is initiated by binding of CT's B subunit (CTB to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01. We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea.

  5. Bovine Lactoferrin Decreases Cholera-Toxin-Induced Intestinal Fluid Accumulation in Mice by Ganglioside Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Medina, Anicia M.; Bezada, Sandra; Valencia, Roberto; Bernal, María; Meza, Rina; Maves, Ryan C.; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2013-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT) is initiated by binding of CT’s B subunit (CTB) to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF) on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01). We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea. PMID:23580005

  6. Physicochemical and antibacterial properties of lactoferrin and its hydrolysate produced by heat treatment at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H; Takase, M; Tamura, Y; Shimamura, S; Tomita, M

    1994-01-01

    In order to apply functionally active lactoferrin (Lf) to food products, the effect of pH on the heat stability of Lf was studied. Lf was easily denatured to an insoluble state by heat treatment under neutral or alkaline conditions, above pH 6. In contrast, it remained soluble after heat treatment under acidic conditions at pH 2 to 5, and the HPLC pattern of Lf heat-treated at pH 4 at 100 degrees C for 5 min was the same as that of native Lf. Lf was found to be very thermostable at pH 4, and could be pasteurized or sterilized without any significant loss of its physicochemical properties. Lf was hydrolyzed by heat treatment at pH 2 to 3 at above 100 degrees C, and its iron binding capacity and antigenicity were lost. But the antibacterial activity of the hydrolysate was found to be much stronger than that of native Lf. The antibacterial component of Lf hydrolysate produced by heat treatment at acidic pH was verified to be a peptide including the sequence of residues 1-54 from the N-terminal end of the bovine Lf molecule.

  7. Experimental Mouse Model of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeyuki; Yokota, Kazuya; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Hara, Masamitsu; Kubota, Kensuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Doi, Toshio; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in elderly people, with the number of LSCS patients increasing due to the aging of the population. The ligamentum flavum (LF) is a spinal ligament located in the interior of the vertebral canal, and hypertrophy of the LF, which causes the direct compression of the nerve roots and/or cauda equine, is a major cause of LSCS. Although there have been previous studies on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to establish a relevant mouse model of LF hypertrophy and to examine disease-related factors. First, we focused on mechanical stress and developed a loading device for applying consecutive mechanical flexion-extension stress to the mouse LF. After 12 weeks of mechanical stress loading, we found that the LF thickness in the stress group was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. In addition, there were significant increases in the area of collagen fibers, the number of LF cells, and the gene expression of several fibrosis-related factors. However, in this mecnanical stress model, there was no macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, or increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which are characteristic features of LF hypertrophy in LSCS patients. We therefore examined the influence of infiltrating macrophages on LF hypertrophy. After inducing macrophage infiltration by micro-injury to the mouse LF, we found excessive collagen synthesis in the injured site with the increased TGF-β1 expression at 2 weeks after injury, and further confirmed LF hypertrophy at 6 weeks after injury. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical stress is a causative factor for LF hypertrophy and strongly suggest the importance of macrophage infiltration in the progression of LF hypertrophy via the stimulation of collagen production.

  8. Mammary mechanisms for lactoferrin: interactions with IGFBP-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumrucker C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammary secretions but synthesized by many tissues. Bovine mammary tissue secretes microg/ml mass of Lf in milk, but during involution and prepartum periods, 20-80 mg per ml concentrations may be observed. While a number of functions have been ascribed to lactoterrin, only the antimicrobial and lymphocyte interactions have compelling experimental evidence of support. We report a new finding that lactoferrin binds to insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and not to other mammary secreted IGFBPs (IGFBP-2, -4. and -5. Furthermore, bovine Lf(bLf is found associated with membranes of mammary cells. We demonstrate that bovine Lf competes with IGF for binding to IGFBP-3 with ED50 competition of 3 microg per ml and displacement of 1 mg per ml to monomeric bLf. The tetrameric form that is favored by high concentrations of Lf and calcium, does not appear to bind IGFBP-3. Both IGFBP-3 and Lf have nuclear localization sequences that are reported to he key components of nuclear localization of proteins. We demonstrate that extracellular IGFBP-3 binds to membrane Lf and that Lf is the key to the entry of IGFBP-3 to mammary cellular nucleus. Additionally, we have shown that the internalization of Lf requires the presence of retinoids that also induces both IGFBP-3 and Lf synthesis in primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize a new role for Lf in the regulation and integration into the IGF System.

  9. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  10. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae de Uruguay. Se reconocen diez especies de un total de siete géneros: Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Condylocarpon isthmicum, Forsteronia glabrescens, Mandevilla coccinea, M. emarginata, M. longiflora, M. petraea, Rhabdadenia madida, Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Vinca major. Se incluyen descripciones, claves, datos de distribución y especimenes examinados. Se seleccionan lectotipos para Dipladenia xanthosoma var. major, Echites emarginatus, E. erectus, E. grandiflorus var. minor, E. pinifolius, Laseguea erecta var. guilleminia f. griseo-olivacea , L. erecta var. obliquinervia f. ovata subf. griseofusca y subf. griseo-olivacea, L. guilleminiana, Macrosiphonia verticillata var. intermedia, M. verticillata var. peduncularis, M. pinifolia f. glabrata y M. pinifolia f. setosa Se designa un neotipo para Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco.

  11. Bosques andinos del sur de Ecuador, clasificación, regeneración y uso

    OpenAIRE

    Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2013-01-01

    Few floristic inventories and even less syntaxonomical vegetation descriptions of tropical mountain forests exist. The author presents a syntaxonomical treatment of the vegetation of Reserva Biológica of San Francisco at the northern limit of Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador, together with notes on the corresponding soil types. The Lower Montane Forest (1800-2150 m), grouped in the new order Alzateetalia verticillatae, has a very diverse tree layer 20-35 m tall, and are a typical mosaic-clim...

  12. Culture Methodology for Experimental Investigations Involving Rooted Submersed Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Regrowth of hydrilla from axillary buds . J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 18:27-29. Langeland, K. A., Sutton, D. L. and Canfield, D. E., Jr. 1983. Growth response...Barko, Hardin, and Matthews 1982). Room temperatures (20 -25 C) are adequate for most species; however, some of the more subtropically occurring, exotic...species (e.g. H. verticillata) may benefit from higher temperatures (Van, Hailer, and Garrard 1978; Bowes, Holaday, and Hailer 1979; Barko and Smart

  13. Activité antifongique de quelques plantes de la flore ivoirienne | Tra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six espèces de plantes de la flore ivoirienne ont été utilisées pour la recherche de leur activité antifongique. Ce sont : Borreria latifolia, Borreria verticillata, Erigeron floribundus, Euphorbia hirta, Turraea heterophylla et Vernonia colorata. Les extraits dichlorométhane, méthanolique et aqueux, réalisés à partir des poudres ...

  14. Ocular signs correlate well with disease severity and genotype in Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Pitz

    Full Text Available Ocular signs in Fabry disease have generally been regarded to be primarily of diagnostic value. We explored whether ocular findings, alone or in particular in combination with the α-galactosidase A gene mutation, have predictive value for disease severity. Data from the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS, a large, global database sponsored by Shire, were selected for adult patients who had undergone ophthalmological examination. Three ocular signs were assessed: cornea verticillata, tortuous conjunctival and/or retinal vessels, and cataract. Fabry disease severity was measured using FOS Mainz Severity Score Index and modifications thereof. Ophthalmological data were available for 1203 (699 female, 504 male adult patients with eye findings characteristic of Fabry disease in 55.1%. Cornea verticillata had a similar distribution in women (51.1% and men (50.8%, whereas tortuous vessels and Fabry cataract were somewhat more frequent in men than in women. Patients with cornea verticillata, selected as the principal ocular sign for this study, had more severe disease (median score, 20.0 versus those without ocular signs (11.0; P<0.001. This finding could be confirmed by applying age adjusted severity scores. Moreover, the prevalence of cornea verticillata was significantly higher in patients with null (male, 76.9%; female, 64.5% and missense (male, 79.2%; female, 67.4% mutations versus mild missense (male, 17.1%; female, 23.1% and the p.N215S (male, 15.0%; female, 15.6% mutations (P<0.01. Our analyses show a correlation between the prevalence of ocular changes in Fabry disease and disease severity. Consequently, information on ocular findings and α-galactosidase A gene mutation may help assess the risk for more severe Fabry disease. These observed findings are of notable clinical importance, as Fabry disease is characterized by high clinical course variability and only weak genotype-phenotype correlation at the individual patient level. Further confirmatory

  15. Multivariate Numerical Taxonomy of Mentha Species, Hybrids, Varieties and Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ŠARIĆ-KUNDALIĆ, Broza; FIALOVÁ, Silvia; Dobeš, Christoph; ÖLZANT, Silvester; TEKEĽOVÁ, Daniela; GRANČAI, Daniel; Reznicek, Gottfried; Saukel, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Hercegovina and Slovakia is presented. Following a population-based approach and using hierarchical cluster analyses the following basic species and hybrids corresponding to exclusive branches, i.e. groups, in the constructed hierarchies were recognized: Mentha aquatica, M. spicata, M. arvensis, M. longifolia, M. rotundifolia, M. × piperita, M. × villosa, M. × verticillata, M. × gentillis, M. × gracilis and M. pulegium. These groups were independently found by separate analyses of the sampled...

  16. Posthurricane Survey of Experimental Dunes on Padre Island, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    bonariensis), coast brookweed (Samolus ebracteatus), sand rosegentian (Sabatia arenicola), * and longleaf flaveria (Fiaveria oppositifolia ) occurred...and green carpet weed ( Mollugo verticillata). From 152 to 229 meters away from the bare dunes, vegetation cover * increased to 42 percent, and 25... Mollugo verticellata 0 1 8 0 O enothera drwniondii 0 22 0 0 Poipremum procumbens 0 64 6 15 Phyla incisa 0 0 12 0 Sisyrinchiwn biforme 0 0 1 0 Vernonia

  17. Characterization of Essential Oils of Some Salvia Species and Their Antimycobacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    activities, Characterization of essential oils of so

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oils of 5 Turkish Salvia species, namely Salvia aucheri Bentham var. aucheri (endemic for Turkey), Salvia aramiensis Rech. fil., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia tomentosa Mill., and Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn & Bornm.) Bornm., were studied. Water distilled essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia species from Turkey were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Salvia aucheri var. aucheri, Salvia aramiensis, and Salvia fruticosa oils have t...

  18. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Siemann, Stefan, E-mail: ssiemann@laurentian.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  19. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  20. Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Enhances Extracellular Trap Formation by Human Neutrophils through the NADPH Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbach, Lieke A; Scheer, Marleen H; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are abundantly present in modern society, and the potential biological consequences of exposure to these fields are under intense debate. Immune cells are suggested as possible target cells, though a clear mechanism is lacking. Considering their crucial role in innate immune activation, we selected an ex vivo exposure set-up with human neutrophils to investigate a possible correlation between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and LF EMF exposure. Our study shows that formation of NETs is enhanced by LF EMF exposure. Enhanced NET formation leads to increased antimicrobial properties as well as damage to surrounding cells. We found that LF-EMF-induced NET formation is dependent on the NADPH oxidase pathway and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, LF EMF exposure does not influence autophagy and PAD4 activity. Our study provides a mechanism by which exposure to LF EMFs could influence the innate immune system. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Overview on acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Gao, Shan; Duan, Zhongping; Hu, Ke-Qin

    2016-03-01

    Liver failure (LF) is defined as severe dysfunction in hepatic synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism induced by various etiologies. Clinical presentation of LF typically includes severe jaundice, coagulation disorder, hepatic encephalopathy, and ascites. LF can be classified into acute LF, acute-on-chronic LF (ACLF), and chronic LF. ACLF has been demonstrated as a distinct syndrome with unique clinical presentation and outcomes. The severity, curability, and reversibility of ACLF have attracted considerable attention. Remarkable developments in ACLF-related conception, diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, and therapy have been achieved. However, this disease, especially its diagnostic criteria, remains controversial. In this paper, we systemically reviewed the current understanding of ACLF from its definition, etiology, pathophysiology, pathology, and clinical presentation to management by thoroughly comparing important findings between east and west countries, as well as those from other regions. We also discussed the controversies, challenges, and needs for future studies to promote the standardization and optimization of the diagnosis and treatment for ACLF.

  2. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Iglesias-Figueroa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf, an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly.

  3. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSB776 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1085 Drought Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF064C11DT 5', mRNA sequence. 90 5e-14 1 AW682908 |AW682908.2 NF001G03LF1F1023 Developing...430 |AW683430.2 NF011H04LF1F1043 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF011H04LF 5', mRNA sequence

  5. Mapping the epitopes of a neutralizing antibody fragment directed against the lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis and cross-reacting with the homologous edema factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Thullier

    Full Text Available The lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis, composed of the protective antigen (PA and the lethal factor (LF, plays an essential role in anthrax pathogenesis. PA also interacts with the edema factor (EF, 20% identity with LF to form the edema toxin (ET, which has a lesser role in anthrax pathogenesis. The first recombinant antibody fragment directed against LF was scFv 2LF; it neutralizes LT by blocking the interaction between PA and LF. Here, we report that scFv 2LF cross-reacts with EF and cross-neutralizes ET, and we present an in silico method taking advantage of this cross-reactivity to map the epitope of scFv 2LF on both LF and EF. This method identified five epitope candidates on LF, constituted of a total of 32 residues, which were tested experimentally by mutating the residues to alanine. This combined approach precisely identified the epitope of scFv 2LF on LF as five residues (H229, R230, Q234, L235 and Y236, of which three were missed by the consensus epitope candidate identified by pre-existing in silico methods. The homolog of this epitope on EF (H253, R254, E258, L259 and Y260 was experimentally confirmed to constitute the epitope of scFv 2LF on EF. Other inhibitors, including synthetic molecules, could be used to target these epitopes for therapeutic purposes. The in silico method presented here may be of more general interest.

  6. Dietary lactoferrin supplementation to gilts during gestation and lactation improves pig production and immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Marefa; Kracht, Susie; Ho, Yen; Haque, Ziaul; Bhattachatyya, Birendra N.; Wynn, Peter C.; Wang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF), a sialylated iron-binding glycoprotein, performs multiple beneficial functions including modulating immunity and improves neurodevelopment, health and growth performance. Maternal LF intervention for gilts (first parity sows) on the performance of gilts and their offspring remains unknown. In the current study gilts were fed with a commercial pig feed supplemented with 1g LF /day (treatment group) or 1g milk casein/day (control group) from day 1 post mating throughout pregna...

  7. Normalization of peripheral blood cell composition by lactoferrin in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał; Kruzel, Marian

    2004-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and leukemia. The compound induces severe leuko- and neutropenia. Lactoferrin (LF) is a protein which plays a role in the innate immunity. In this study we evaluated the usefulness of LF in reversing CP-induced lympho- and neutropenia in mice. CBA mice were treated with CP (350 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) and given LF as a 0.5% addition to drinking water. Alternatively, LF was administered orally (seven doses, 1 mg each) on alternate days following CP injection. Control groups received CP or LF only. Blood samples were taken before treatment and on days 4, 8, 15 and 22 following CP injection to determine leukocytosis and cell types in blood smears. Mice treated with CP showed severe leukopenia, strong eosinophilia (day 4), and an altered lymphocyte/neutrophil ratio (days 8-22). Treatment of mice with LF for 21 days partially normalized the cell composition in CP-treated mice (increased percentage of lymphocytes and decreased eosinophil content). The content of leukocytes increased upon LF treatment on days 4, 8, 15 and 22 (by 36.8, 39.5, 72 and 70.7%, respectively). More importantly, LF partly normalized the neutrophil and lymphocyte composition on day 22 (neutrophils: 29.2% in control mice, 50.6% in CP-treated, and 39.16% in CP/LF-treated; lymphocytes: 66.18% in control mice, 35% in CP-treated and 48.8% in CP/LF-treated). Administration of LF alone did not change the cell numbers or composition. LF given orally to CP-immunocompromised mice accelerates reconstitution of lymphopoiesis and myleopoiesis.

  8. Lymphatic filariasis in Nigeria; micro-stratification overlap mapping (MOM as a prerequisite for cost-effective resource utilization in control and surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N Okorie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nigeria has a significant burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. A major concern to the expansion of the LF elimination programme is the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs associated with the use of ivermectin in areas co-endemic with Loa filariasis. To better understand this, as well as other factors that may impact on LF elimination, we used Micro-stratification Overlap Mapping (MOM to highlight the distribution and potential impact of multiple disease interventions that geographically coincide in LF endemic areas and which will impact on LF and vice versa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LF data from the literature and Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH were collated into a database. LF prevalence distributions; predicted prevalence of loiasis; ongoing onchocerciasis community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi; and long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net (LLIN distributions for malaria were incorporated into overlay maps using geographical information system (GIS software. LF was prevalent across most regions of the country. The mean prevalence determined by circulating filarial antigen (CFA was 14.0% (n = 134 locations, and by microfilaria (Mf was 8.2% (n = 162 locations. Overall, LF endemic areas geographically coincided with CDTi priority areas, however, LLIN coverage was generally low (<50% in areas where LF prevalence was high or co-endemic with L. loa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extensive database and series of maps produced in this study provide an important overview for the LF Programme and will assist to maximize existing interventions, ensuring cost effective use of resources as the programme scales up. Such information is a prerequisite for the LF programme, and will allow for other factors to be included into planning, as well as monitoring and evaluation activities given the broad spectrum impact of the drugs used.

  9. Long-term effects of psychosocial factors of home and work on biomarkers of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Kristiansen, Jesper; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    LF/HF. In work, lack of control was associated with low LnTP, and lack of support was associated with an increased LnLF/HF ratio. For men, high social status was associated with low LnTP, low LnHF and high LnCortisol. Greater number of hours spent doing housework was associated with both low LnLF/HF and low Ln...

  10. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin content in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Arnould, Valérie; Soyeurt, Hélène; Gengler, Nicolas; Colinet, Frédéric; Georges, Marielle; Bertozzi, Carlo; Portetelle, Daniel; Renaville, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is mainly present in milk and shows important physiological and biological functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability and correlation values of LF content in bovine milk with different economic traits as milk yield (MY), fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score (SCS). Variance components of the studied traits were estimated by REML using a multiple-trait mixed model. The obtained heritability (0.22) for LF content predicted using mid-i...

  11. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  12. The multifaceted skyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2010-01-01

    This is a sequel to the World Scientific volume edited by Gerald E Brown in 1994 entitled ""Selected Papers"", with Commentary, of 'Tony Hilton Royle Skyrme'. There has been a series of impressive developments in the application of the skyrmion structure to wide-ranging physical phenomena. The first volume was mainly focused on the rediscovery of the skyrmion in 1983 in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and on its striking role in nuclear physics. Since 1994, skyrmions have been found to play an even greater role not only in various aspects of particle physics and astrophysics but al

  13. Formulation for Oral Delivery of Lactoferrin Based on Bovine Serum Albumin and Tannic Acid Multilayer Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ece; Novoselova, Marina V.; Lim, Su Hui; Pyataev, Nikolay A.; Pinyaev, Sergey I.; Kulikov, Oleg A.; Sindeeva, Olga A.; Mayorova, Oksana A.; Murney, Regan; Antipina, Maria N.; Haigh, Brendan; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Kiryukhin, Maxim V.

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) has considerable potential as a functional ingredient in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the bioavailability of Lf is limited as it is susceptible to digestive enzymes in gastrointestinal tract. The shells comprising alternate layers of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid (TA) were tested as Lf encapsulation system for oral administration. Lf absorption by freshly prepared porous 3 μm CaCO3 particles followed by Layer-by-Layer assembly of the BSA-TA shells and dissolution of the CaCO3 cores was suggested as the most efficient and harmless Lf loading method. The microcapsules showed high stability in gastric conditions and effectively protected encapsulated proteins from digestion. Protective efficiency was found to be 76 ± 6% and 85 ± 2%, for (BSA-TA)4 and (BSA-TA)8 shells, respectively. The transit of Lf along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mice was followed in vivo and ex vivo using NIR luminescence. We have demonstrated that microcapsules released Lf in small intestine allowing 6.5 times higher concentration than in control group dosed with the same amount of free Lf. Significant amounts of Lf released from microcapsules were then absorbed into bloodstream and accumulated in liver. Suggested encapsulation system has a great potential for functional foods providing lactoferrin.

  14. [Development and comparative evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfeng; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Chengbin; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA). Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system. The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only. The good performance

  15. Factors affecting lactoferrin concentration in human milk: how much do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Aasith; Rueda, Maria S; Turin, Christie G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a breast milk glycoprotein with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its beneficial properties in infants, especially in those born preterm, are currently being studied in clinical trials. However, the maternal and nursing infant factors that may affect LF concentration in breast milk are still not clear. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors that may affect the concentration of LF in breast milk. We used a 2-step approach to identify the eligible studies according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, and to determine which studies would be considered. We included 70 qualified articles from 29 countries with publication dates ranging from 1976 to 2015. We described the correlation between LF concentration in breast milk and lactation stage; 10 maternal factors, such as race, parity, among others; and 2 infant factors: infections and prematurity. Colostrum has the highest LF levels, but they decrease with days postpartum. No other factor has been consistently associated with LF concentration. A major limitation of the majority of the published studies is the small sample size and the different methods used to measure LF concentration. Therefore, there is a need for large, multicenter studies with standardized study design, sample collection, and LF measurement methods to identify clinically significant factors associated with LF expression in breast milk, which will help promote exclusive breastfeeding in preterm infants.

  16. GPU simulation of nonlinear propagation of dual band ultrasound pulse complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvam, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.kvam@ntnu.no; Angelsen, Bjørn A. J., E-mail: bjorn.angelsen@ntnu.no [NTNU, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Elster, Anne C., E-mail: elster@ntnu.no [NTNU, Department of Computer and Information Science, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-10-28

    In a new method of ultrasound imaging, called SURF imaging, dual band pulse complexes composed of overlapping low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) pulses are transmitted, where the frequency ratio LF:HF ∼ 1 : 20, and the relative bandwidth of both pulses are ∼ 50 − 70%. The LF pulse length is hence ∼ 20 times the HF pulse length. The LF pulse is used to nonlinearly manipulate the material elasticity observed by the co-propagating HF pulse. This produces nonlinear interaction effects that give more information on the propagation of the pulse complex. Due to the large difference in frequency and pulse length between the LF and the HF pulses, we have developed a dual level simulation where the LF pulse propagation is first simulated independent of the HF pulse, using a temporal sampling frequency matched to the LF pulse. A separate equation for the HF pulse is developed, where the the presimulated LF pulse modifies the propagation velocity. The equations are adapted to parallel processing in a GPU, where nonlinear simulations of a typical HF beam of 10 MHz down to 40 mm is done in ∼ 2 secs in a standard GPU. This simulation is hence very useful for studying the manipulation effect of the LF pulse on the HF pulse.

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSJ679 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pkkpnyfslnffyyffyyfffffklfhqfy lf*fvvnn*ftdfiqtnnenlltnfgkkkr*k Frame B: flfksykikqc**qksnmksirn*lynknnkar...stfiy*fiy*fiylfiflf--- ---kkkk*kkkkklaqi*qfkllfns*ttnnclklvfllf*lnklxlxxxfkkkilvnfy

  18. Effects of lactoferrin on IL-6 production by peritoneal and alveolar cells in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, J; Zimecki, M; Kruzel, M L

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that oral treatment with lactoferrin (LF) restores the immune response in cyclophosphamide (CP) immunocompromised mice. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the regulatory ability of LF on the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peritoneal and alveolar cells, derived from CP-treated mice. CBA mice were injected with a single, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of CP (350 mg/kg body weight) followed by LF administered in drinking water (0.5% solution) for 21 days. The control counterparts were given water. Peritoneal and alveolar cells were isolated from mice and the production of IL-6, both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced, was determined in 24h cell cultures using a bioassay. The results showed increased production of IL-6 in both CP-treated mice and in mice given, in addition, LF. The administration of LF alone led also to an increase in IL-6 production by the cell cultures. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in IL-6 serum levels in CP and CP/LF but not in LF-treated mice. Analysis of cell type composition in the peritoneal cavity revealed a strong increase in mastocyte and neutrophil content in CP and CP/LF-treated groups. Our findings suggest that enhanced IL-6 production in CP and CP/LF-treated mice may contribute to reconstitution of immune system function in immunocompromised mice.

  19. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Haitian immigrants and the risk of re-emergence of lymphatic filariasis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Fidelis da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon, were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4% tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants.

  20. Complexity control in statistical learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Complexity control in statistical learning. 157 a functional relationship between the inputs and outputs. For a function f : X → Y, the loss suffered with a data point z = (x,y) is lf (x,y) := (y − f (x))2. lf : X × Y → R is called a loss function. The expected value of the lf is called the error. E(f ) of f : E(f ) = ∫. Z lf (z)ρ(dz). Since ρ is not ...

  1. Comparison of Proliferative Effect of Human Lactoferrin and Its Proteolytic Peptide on Normal and Transformed Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae-Mi; Chung, Il Yup; Jo, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Tae-Joong; Lee, Hyune-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with a variety of functions. hLF undergoes proteolytic cleavage to smaller peptides in the stomach following ingestion. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of hLF and its proteolytic product, human lactoferrin peptide (hLFP), on the proliferation of two epithelial cells, HEK293 normal cells and KATO III gastric carcinoma cells, using an MTT assay and expression of proliferative nuclear cell antigen (PCNA), a notable proliferation marker. When the two epithelial cells were stimulated with hLF and hLFP in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), hLFP stimulated proliferation of both cell types at lower concentrations than hLF by two orders of magnitude. The cancer cells exhibited proliferative responses to both hLF and hLFP at lower concentrations by 2∼3 orders of magnitude than the normal cells. Either hLF or hLFP alone did not support appreciable proliferation of these cell lines in the absence or low concentrations of FBS. Bovine serum albumin or its proteolytic product failed to promote cellular proliferation even in the presence of 10 % FBS, indicating the specificity of the proliferative activity of hLF and hLFP. These data highlight feasibility of hLF and its peptide for adjuvants for tissue culture medium.

  2. Factors Affecting Lactoferrin Concentration in Human Milk: How Much Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Aasith; Rueda, Maria S.; Turin, Christie G.; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a breast milk glycoprotein with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its beneficial properties in infants, especially in those born preterm, are currently being studied in clinical trials. However, the maternal and nursing infant factors that may affect the concentration of LF in breast milk are still not clear. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors that may affect LF concentration. We used a 2-step approach to identify the eligible studies according to inclusion/exclusion criteria and to determine which studies would be considered. We included 70 qualified articles from 29 countries with publication dates ranging from 1976 to 2015. We described the correlation between LF concentration in breast milk and lactation stage; 10 maternal factors, such as race, parity, among others; and 2 infant factors, infections and prematurity. Colostrum has the highest LF levels, but they decrease with days postpartum. No other factor has been consistently associated with LF concentration. A major limitation of the majority of the published studies is the small sample size and the different methods used to measure LF concentration. Therefore, there is a need for large, multicenter studies with standardized study design, sample collection, and LF measurement methods to identify clinically significant factors associated with LF expression in breast milk, which will help promote exclusive breastfeeding in preterm infants. PMID:28075610

  3. In vitro reconstitution of antimicrobial pathogen activity by expressed recombinant bovine lactoferrin N-terminal peptide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxia; Chen, Shangwu; Ren, Fazheng; Guo, Huiyuan; Lin, Shaohua; Xu, Wentao

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant bovine lactoferrin N-terminal polypeptide (rbLF-N) Escherichia coli expression system was constructed and the rbLF-N antimicrobial activity was displayed by enzymatic proteolysis in this study. A 162 bp 5'-terminal fragment of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) gene from bovine liver gDNA was amplified by PCR. The DNA fragment containing exon-2 of the bLF gene was cloned into the expression vector pGEX-4T1 and the glutathione-S-transferase-rbLF-N (GST-rbLF-N) fusion protein was obtained by over-expression in Esch. coli BL21(DE3). After thrombin/pepsin digestion, the rbLF-N was released from the fusion protein. The recombinant peptide was separated and identified by SDS-PAGE, HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis. A very strong anti-food-born microbial pathogen activity of the rbLF-N peptides was displayed through bio- and kinetic-assays in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the rbLF-N peptide for bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Esch. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 11.7, 11.7, 11.7, 23.4 microg and 23.4, 11.7, 11.7, 46.4 microg, respectively. This study created a new route for exploring lactoferrin peptide application in food science.

  4. Quantum Field Theory in Two Dimensions: Light-front Versus Space-like Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic̆, L'ubomír

    2017-07-01

    A few non-perturbative topics of quantum field theory in D=1+1 are studied in both the conventional (SL) and light-front (LF) versions. First, we give a concise review of the recently proposed quantization of the two-dimensional massless LF fields. The LF version of bosonization follows in a simple and natural way including the bosonized form of the Thirring model. As a further application, we demonstrate the closeness of the 2D massless LF quantum fields to conformal field theory (CFT). We calculate several correlation functions including those between the components of the LF energy-momentum tensor and derive the LF version of the Virasoro algebra. Using the Euclidean time variable, we can immediately transform calculated quantities to the (anti)holomorphic form. The results found are in agreement with those from CFT. Finally, we show that the proposed framework provides us with the elements needed for an independent LF study of exactly solvable models. We compute the non-perturbative correlation functions from the exact operator solution of the LF Thirring model and compare it to the analogous results in the SL theory. While the vacuum effects are automatically taken into account in the LF case, the non-trivial vacuum structure has to be incorported by an explicit diagonalization of the SL Hamiltonians, to obtain the equivalently complete solution.

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFM182 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AATTATAAAAAAAAAAXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2009. 4. 3 Translated Amino Acid sequence kfcsisfniifstiyitltilyk...inskrknknkkk* stnknk*lkipnsfkfeffifififisi*knisi*lf*nylinnykkk--- Frame B: kfcsisfniifstiyitltilyk*elk*nkkks

  6. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced clearance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in mice treated with cyclophosphamide and lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michal; Kruzel, Marian L

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies on cyclophosphamide (CP)-immunocompromised mice showed accelerated reconstitution of immune system function following oral treatment with lactoferrin (LF). The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of mice, treated with a sublethal dose of CP and given LF, to combat bacterial infections. Mice were injected with a single, intraperitoneal dose of CP (350 mg/kg body weight). One group of CP-treated mice was also given LF in drinking water (0.5% solution) for 14 days. Untreated and LF-treated mice served as controls. On day 15 following CP administration, mice were infected intravenously with 10(8) Escherichia coli or 5 x 10(7) Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four hours later, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) in spleens and livers were determined. Phenotypic analysis of blood leukocytes was determined, as well as the ability of splenic and peritoneal cells to produce IL-6 spontaneously and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with CP, or with CP and LF, led to profound reduction of E. coli CFU in the liver and the spleen; treatment with LF alone had significant inhibitory effects on organ enumerated CFU. S. aureus CFUs were also significantly reduced in spleens of mice treated with CP or CP/LF and, to a lesser degree, after LF alone. These effects were also significantly reduced in the livers. Analysis of blood cellular phenotype revealed total number of peripheral leukocytes was lower in the CP-treated group (52.6%) but not significantly different from control values in CP/LF and LF-treated groups (90.7% and 104.6%, respectively). Conversely, percentage of blood neutrophils was markedly elevated in CP and CP/LF groups--62% and 42.5% vs. 18.4% in controls. These findings were accompanied by production of IL-6 by splenic and peritoneal cells which was significantly increased in CP- and CP/LF-treated groups. It was concluded that the increased clearance of bacteria in the organs of mice treated with CP and CP/LF

  8. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of recombinant lactoferrin during MRSA infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection remains a serious hazard to global health despite increases in public education and development of innovative treatment strategies. Use of immune modulatory therapy to combat infection is gaining interest as a novel treatment alternative. Lactoferrin (LF), an iron binding protein with multiple immune modulating properties, has the potential to modify the course of systemic MRSA infection. Specifically, LF is capable of limiting deleterious inflammatory responses while promoting development of antigen specific T-cell activity. The efficacy of a novel recombinant mouse LF (rmLF) to protect against MRSA infection was examined in a mouse peritonitis model. BALB/c mice were infected with a lethal dose of MRSA and treated at 2 hours post-infection with rmLF. The effects of rmLF on MRSA-infected primary monocytes and granulocytes were analyzed for inflammatory mediator production. The rmLF treated mice demonstrated only modest increase in survival by more than 24hrs, albeit with reduced bacteremia. Serum cytokines, IL-17 and IL-6, were significantly reduced post challenge in the rmLF treated mice. Treatment with rmLF led to a minor decrease in IL-1β, and a slight increase in TNF-α production. Preliminary investigation towards human clinical relevance was accomplished using human blood derived monocytes and granulocytes infected with MRSA and treated with a homologous recombinant human LF (rhLF). Treatment with (rhLF) led to increased production of IFN-γ and IL-2. The human cell studies also showed a concurrent decrease in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and IL-10. The study reports the first investigation into the efficacy of a novel recombinant mouse lactoferrin (LF) therapy in a mouse model of MRSA peritonitis. Overall, these results indicate the rmLF and rhLF have a high degree of overlap to modify inflammatory responses, although differences in activities were observed indicating existence of mechanisms

  10. Significant antibacterial activity and synergistic effects of camel lactoferrin with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Almehdar, Hussein A; Elsaway, Abdulrahman; Gomaa, Abu-Bakr M; Al-Masaudi, Saad Berki; Al-Fassi, Fahad A; AbuZeid, Isam Eldin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes major healthcare problems in many countries, as it is present as several hospital- and community-associated strains. Hospital-associated MRSA is one of the most prevalent nosocomial pathogens throughout the world and infections caused by community-acquired MRSA are rising. This emphasizes the need for new and efficient anti-MRSA agents. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of camel lactoferrin (cLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) alone and in combination with several antibiotics against MRSA. Antimicrobials were tested against MRSA and an S. aureus control strain by the agar disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for antimicrobials by the broth microdilution method. Synergy between cLf or hLf and antibiotics was examined by checkerboard and time-kill assays. The agar disc diffusion assay showed that MRSA growth was inhibited by cLf at 0.25-3 mg/ml and hLf at 1-3 mg/ml. cLf demonstrated 3 times higher inhibitory activity against MRSA than hLf in terms of MIC values (250 vs. 750 μg/ml, respectively). Biotinylated cLf was recognized by two membrane proteins of MRSA, 66-67 KDa. Combinations of cLf or hLf and oxacillin or vancomycin at sub-MIC levels enhanced in vitro antibacterial activity against MRSA compared with each agent alone. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bovine lactoferrin counteracts Toll-like receptor mediated activation signals in antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Puddu

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a key element in mammalian immune system, plays pivotal roles in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation. Its protective effects range from direct antimicrobial activities against a large panel of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, to antinflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we show that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs generated in the presence of bovine LF (bLF fail to undergo activation by up-modulating CD83, co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Moreover, these cells are weak activators of T cell proliferation and retain antigen uptake activity. Consistent with an impaired maturation, bLF-MD-DC primed T lymphocytes exhibit a functional unresponsiveness characterized by reduced expression of CD154 and impaired expression of IFN-γ and IL-2. The observed imunosuppressive effects correlate with an increased expression of molecules with negative regulatory functions (i.e. immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. Interestingly, bLF-MD-DCs produce IL-6 and exhibit constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Conversely, bLF exposure of already differentiated MD-DCs completely fails to induce IL-6, and partially inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR agonist-induced activation. Cell-specific differences in bLF internalization likely account for the distinct response elicited by bLF in monocytes versus immature DCs, providing a mechanistic base for its multiple effects. These results indicate that bLF exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by skewing monocyte differentiation into DCs with impaired capacity to undergo activation and to promote Th1 responses. Overall, these bLF-mediated effects may represent a strategy to block excessive DC activation upon TLR-induced inflammation, adding

  12. The effects of lactoferrin on the intestinal environment of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, M S; Torok, V A; Guo, P; Allison, G E; Boulianne, M; Janardhana, V; Bean, A G D; Hughes, R J

    2011-10-01

    The influence of in-feed lactoferrin (Lf) on bird production, intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune system and gut microarchitecture was assessed in male Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Birds were given one of four diets from day of hatch: Control (basal diet with no additives), ZnB (basal diet + 50 mg/kg zinc bacitracin), Lf 250 mg/kg (basal diet + 250 mg/kg Lf) and Lf 500 mg/kg (basal diet + 500 mg/kg Lf); n = 24 birds/treatment. An apparent metabolisable energy study was performed between d 25-32. Lf did not affect growth rate or feed conversion in the period 0-21 d of age, nor performance or energy metabolism during the 7 d metabolism experiment which commenced at 25 d of age.The profiles of caecal microbial communities were significantly different in birds given ZnB compared with birds given a diet with no additives, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg Lf. Birds given 250 mg/kg Lf also had a different microbial profile compared with birds given 500 mg/kg Lf. In comparison to control birds, Lf treated birds showed some differences in the T cell proportions in caecal tonsil and spleen. No differences in ileal villus height, crypt depth or goblet cell proportions were observed amongst dietary treatments. Whilst Lf had little effect on the measured parameters, the use of an integrated approach to study the influence of novel feed additives may facilitate a greater understanding of the relationships between nutrition, gut health and bird performance.

  13. Aftereffects of Intense Low-Frequency Sound on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions: Effect of Frequency and Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanson, Lena; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The presentation of intense, low-frequency (LF) sound to the human ear can cause very slow, sinusoidal oscillations of cochlear sensitivity after LF sound offset, coined the "Bounce" phenomenon. Changes in level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a sensitive measure of the Bounce. Here, we investigated the effect of LF sound level and frequency on the Bounce. Specifically, the level of SOAEs was tracked for minutes before and after a 90-s LF sound exposure. Trials were carried out with several LF sound levels (93 to 108 dB SPL corresponding to 47 to 75 phons at a fixed frequency of 30 Hz) and different LF sound frequencies (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 Hz at a fixed loudness level of 80 phons). At an LF sound frequency of 30 Hz, a minimal sound level of 102 dB SPL (64 phons) was sufficient to elicit a significant Bounce. In some subjects, however, 93 dB SPL (47 phons), the lowest level used, was sufficient to elicit the Bounce phenomenon and actual thresholds could have been even lower. Measurements with different LF sound frequencies showed a mild reduction of the Bounce phenomenon with increasing LF sound frequency. This indicates that the strength of the Bounce not only is a simple function of the spectral separation between SOAE and LF sound frequency but also depends on absolute LF sound frequency, possibly related to the magnitude of the AC component of the outer hair cell receptor potential.

  14. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  15. The effect of distance and tooth structure on laser fluorescence caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, K; Stenvall, R M; Graye, M

    2012-01-01

    The DIAGNOdent, a device used in caries detection, uses a laser to excite fluorescence from pigments in carious tooth structure. In clinical use assessing occlusal surfaces, distance and tooth structure may separate the instrument's tip from the fluorescent source.The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of distance and tooth structure on laser fluorescence (LF) readings.In one set of experiments, a porphyrin pigmentin oil suspension was used as a LF signal source. Thin slices of enamel and dentin were obtained from extracted molars. Pigment-induced LF readings were obtained when these slices were placed between the porphyrin pigment and the LF instrument's tip. The effect of either demineralized or intact tooth tissue on pigment-induced LF readings was assessed.In other experiments on extracted molars with small occlusal caries, LF readings were taken from pit/fissure sites before and after removal of the occlusal surface.LF readings are proportional to pigment con-centration and inversely proportional to the distance between the suspension and the instrument's tip. Enamel, demineralized enamel,dentin, and demineralized dentin all caused significant reductions in LF signal, all readings being taken with the same tip-pigment distance. Demineralized enamel (white with intact surface) caused the most reduction.After sectioning of carious teeth, there was a significant increase in LF readings.The results of this study indicate that distance and the presence of tooth structure between the carious lesion and the instrument's tip reduce LF readings. These results indicate that anatomic factors interfere with the LF device's ability to assess occlusal caries. DIAGNOdent readings should not be relied on when making diagnostic decisions.

  16. CRIOTOLERÂNCIA DE OÓCITOS E EMBRIÕES BOVINOS MATURADOS COM LÍQUIDO FOLICULAR E/OU -MERCAPTOETANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalyza Cadori Gonçalves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryotolerance of bovine oocytes and embryos maturated with addition of follicular fluid (LF and β-mercaptoethanol (BM was evaluated. After vitrification, oocytes were maturated in: TCM-199 (control; BM (24h TCM-199+100µM BM; LF (6h in LF+18h TCM-199, and LF+BM (6h LF+18h TCM-199+100µM BM. There was not difference (p>0.05 in blastocysts rate in TCM (6.4%, BM (4.0% and LF (3.4% treatments. The hatching rates and cell density of hatched embryos did not differ (p>0.05 among treatments. In Experiment 2, hatched blastocysts (Bx obtained in D7 or D8 were vitrified and evaluated according to its expanding and hatching rates. The expanding rate was similar (p>0.05, being observed a distinct pathway in hatching rate in D7 and D8 Bx. Higher hatching rate was observed in D7 Bx from control (TCM-54.2% compared to BM (40.32% and LF+BM (33.89% treatments. The D8 Bx showed lower hatching rate in control (TCM-199 compared with D7 Bx. In BM, LF and LF+BM treatments, the hatching rate was similar for D7 or D8 embryos. Maturation with addition of LF and/or BM does not increase the oocyte or IVP embryo cryotolerance. Expanded blastocysts (D7 have higher cryotolerance and show a distinct pathway when added with LF or BM, in comparison with D8 embryos.

  17. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  18. Protective effects of lactoferrin in Escherichia coli-induced bacteremia in mice: relationship to reduced serum TNF alpha level and increased turnover of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, M; Artym, J; Chodaczek, G; Kocieba, M; Kruzel, M L

    2004-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF), given intravenously (i.v.), 24 h before lethal Escherichia coli ( E. coli) infection, protects mice against mortality. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether downregulation of serum TNF alpha activity and increase of neutrophil number in the circulation and bone marrow by LF could contribute to the protective action of LF against E. coli-induced sepsis. CBA female mice, 10-12 week old, weight 20-22 g, were used. Mice were given 10 mg LF i.v. either 2 h or 24 h before i.v. administration of lethal dose of E. coli (5 x 10(8)). Serum activities of TNF alpha and IL-1 were determined by bioassays 2 h following E. coli or LF injection. The blood and bone marrow smears were stained with Giemsa and May-Grünwald reagents and reviewed histologically. LF given 24 h before E. coli caused a 60% reduction of TNF alpha released into circulation. However, pretreatment of mice with LF 2 h before bacterial challenge resulted in strong (15 fold) increase of TNF alpha serum level. Analysis of bone marrow cell composition revealed a significant increase in neutrophil lineage cell content (myelocytes, bands and mature neutrophils) following 24 h pretreatment with LF (51.8% of the total cell count), versus PBS control (32.7%) and 2 h LF pretreatment (35.8%). The percentage of neutrophils (bands and mature forms) in the peripheral blood rose to 47.4% versus 32% and 32%, respectively. Intravenous administration of LF increased also interleukin 1 (IL-1) concentration in the circulation of noninfected mice. This investigation has added more information regarding the mechanism of the protective action of LF in E. coli-induced bacteremia by revealing the phenomenon of accelerated neutrophil recruitment and down-regulation of E. coli-induced TNF alpha serum level.

  19. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  20. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Grant, Donald S; Schieffelin, John S; Boisen, Matt L; Goba, Augustine; Hartnett, Jessica N; Levy, Danielle C; Yenni, Rachael E; Moses, Lina M; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J; Jones, Abigail B; Illick, Megan M; Kulakosky, Peter C; Haislip, Allyson M; Bishop, Christopher M; Elliot, Deborah H; Brown, Bethany L; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M; Andersen, Kristian G; Gire, Stephen K; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B; Spence, Jennifer S; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Christian T; Pitts, Kelly R; Geske, F Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E; Wilson, Russell B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Henderson, Lee A; Khan, S Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for LF.

  1. Dependence of reactive oxygen species and FLICE inhibitory protein on lipofectamine-induced apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Sarisuta, Narong; Azad, Neelam; Lu, Yongju; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Wang, Liying; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2008-06-01

    Cationic liposomes such as lipofectamine (LF) are widely used as nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, their clinical application is limited by their cytotoxicity. These agents have been shown to induce apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. The present study investigated the mechanism of LF-induced apoptosis and examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process. We found that LF induced apoptosis of human epithelial H460 cells through a mechanism that involves caspase activation and ROS generation. Inhibition of caspase activity by pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) or by specific caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk) or caspase-9 inhibitor (z-LEHD-fmk) inhibited the apoptotic effect of LF. Overexpression of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) or B-cell lymphoma-2, which are known inhibitors of the extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways, respectively, similarly inhibited apoptosis by LF. Induction of apoptosis by LF was shown to require ROS generation because its inhibition by ROS scavengers or by ectopic expression of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase strongly inhibited the apoptotic effect of LF. Electron spin resonance studies showed that LF induced multiple ROS; however, superoxide was found to be the primary ROS responsible for LF-induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which ROS mediate the apoptotic effect of LF involves down-regulation of FLIP through the ubiquitination pathway. In demonstrating the role of FLIP and ROS in LF death signaling, we document a novel mechanism of apoptosis regulation that may be exploited to decrease cytotoxicity and increase gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes.

  2. A protein isolated from human oviductal tissue in vitro secretion, identified as human lactoferrin, interacts with spermatozoa and oocytes and modulates gamete interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumoffen, C M; Gil, R; Caille, A M; Morente, C; Munuce, M J; Ghersevich, S A

    2013-05-01

    Is lactoferrin (LF) (detected in oviductal secretion) able to bind to oocytes and sperm and modulate gamete interaction? LF binds to zona pellucida (ZP) and spermatozoa (depending upon the capacitation stage and acrosome status) and inhibits gamete interaction in vitro. Proteins from human oviductal tissue secretion modulate gamete interaction and parameters of sperm function in vitro and some of them bind to sperm, but they remain to be isolated and identified. Proteins were isolated from human oviductal tissue secretion using their sperm membrane binding ability. One of the isolated proteins was identified as human LF and immunolocalized in tubal tissues. LF expression was analyzed in native oviductal fluid and oviduct epithelial cells (at different phases of the menstrual cycle: proliferative, periovulatory and secretory). In addition, the LF binding sites on spermatozoa (at different capacitation and acrosome reaction stages) and on ZP and the dose-dependent effect of LF on gamete interaction were investigated. All experiments were performed at least three times. Tubal tissues obtained from premenopausal patients (scheduled for hysterectomy, n = 23) were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium and conditioned media (CM) were collected. Motile spermatozoa were obtained by swim-up from normozoospermic semen samples from healthy donors (n = 4). An affinity chromatography with sperm membrane extracts was used to isolate proteins from CM. Isolated proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis and further identified by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry peptide sequencing. The presence of LF in oviductal tissue was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and was detected in native oviductal fluid and oviduct epithelial cells homogenates by western blot. LF binding sites on gametes were investigated by incubating gametes with the protein coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The acrosome

  3. A broader definition of occupancy: A reply to Hayes and Monofils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatif, Quresh; Ellis, Martha M.; Amundson, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence–absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility. Animal mobility is an important consideration, not just for occupancy models, but for a variety of population and habitat models (Boyce 2006, Royle et al. 2009, Manning and Goldberg 2010, Dormann et al. 2013, Renner et al. 2015). Nevertheless, we believe the ultimate conclusions of Hayes and Monfils are shortsighted mainly due to a narrow interpretation of occupancy. Rather than turn away from the use of occupancy models, we believe they remain an appropriate method for analyzing many data sets collected from avian point count surveys. Further, we suggest that there is value in having a broader and more nuanced interpretation of occupancy that incorporates the potential for animal movement. 

  4. In vivo assessment of muscle fascicle length by extended field-of-view ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noorkoiv, M; Stavnsbo, A; Aagaard, Per

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability and validity of in vivo vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length (L(f)) assessment by extended field-of-view ultrasonography (EFOV US). Intraexperimenter and intersession reliability of EFOV US were tested. Further, L(f) measured from EFOV US images were co...

  5. Nanosyntax: A fresh approach to syntactic analysis | Pretorius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LF) is disfavoured by NS, which opts for a conception of the LF in which syntax precedes the lexicon. NS remains compatible with conventional MS in most other regards: that is, as far as binary branching trees, merge and move are concerned.

  6. The Effects of Levodopa and Deep Brain Stimulation on Subthalamic Local Field Low-Frequency Oscillations in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Giannicola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New adaptive systems for deep brain stimulation (DBS could in the near future optimize stimulation settings online so as to achieve better control over the clinical fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD. Local field potentials (LFPs recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN in PD patients show that levodopa and DBS modulate STN oscillations. Because previous research has shown that levodopa and DBS variably influence beta LFP activity (8-20 Hz, we designed this study to find out how they affect low-frequency (LF oscillations (2-7 Hz. STN LFPs were recorded in 19 patients with PD during DBS, after levodopa medication, and during DBS and levodopa intake combined. We investigated the relationship between LF modulations, DBS duration and levodopa intake. We also studied whether LF power depended on disease severity, the patient's clinical condition and whether LF modulations were related to electrode impedances. LF power increased during DBS, after levodopa intake and under both experimental conditions combined. The LF power increase correlated with the levodopa-induced clinical improvement and the higher the electrode impedance, the greater was the LF power change. These data suggest that the LF band could be useful as a control neurosignal for developing novel adaptive DBS systems for patients with PD.

  7. The utility of low frequency heart rate variability as an index of sympathetic cardiac tone : A review with emphasis on a reanalysis of previous studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes del Paso, Gustavo A.; Langewitz, Wolf; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Van Roon, Arie; Duschek, Stefan

    This article evaluates the suitability of low frequency (LF) heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of sympathetic cardiac control and the LF/high frequency (HF) ratio as an index of autonomic balance. It includes a comprehensive literature review and a reanalysis of some previous studies on

  8. Ratings of Perceived Exertion of ACSM Exercise Guidelines in Individuals Varying in Aerobic Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Christopher; Berg, Kris; Noble, John; Thomas, James

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of high (HF) and low fit (LF) individuals at given perceived exercise intensities were compared to ranges provided by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Participants were 7 LF and 8 HF men between the ages of 22 and 26 years. All participants performed a maximum oxygen uptake and lactate threshold test and…

  9. Sentinel surveillance of Lymphatic filariasis, Schistosomiasis, Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Baseline prevalence and knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) survey is a prerequisite for mass drug administration for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and other neglected tropical diseases. Methods: In preparation for the first mass drug administration for LF elimination, a baseline survey was ...

  10. Species-specific detection of Dickeya sp. (Pectobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... +, 171bp product amplified by primers LF/LR; -, no amplified products; CGMCC, China general microbiological culture collection; ATCC,. American type culture collection. Table 2. GeneBank accession numbers and sequences compared to develop species-specific primers LF/LR for Dickeya sp.

  11. Impact of insecticide treated mosquito nets and low dose monthly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the poverty related neglected tropical diseases earmarked for elimination using mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. Additional use of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) might enhance elimination of LF infection. Between August 1998 and July 1999, all individuals aged ≥ 8 ...

  12. Ceruloplasmin: Macromolecular Assemblies with Iron-Containing Acute Phase Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, Valeriya R.; Sokolov, Alexey V.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Pulina, Maria O.; Zakharova, Elena T.; Vasilyev, Vadim B.; Bartunik, Hans; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-containing ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) forms binary and ternary complexes with cationic proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and myeloperoxidase (Mpo) during inflammation. We present an X-ray crystal structure of a 2Cp-Mpo complex at 4.7 Å resolution. This structure allows one to identify major protein–protein interaction areas and provides an explanation for a competitive inhibition of Mpo by Cp and for the activation of p-phenylenediamine oxidation by Mpo. Small angle X-ray scattering was employed to construct low-resolution models of the Cp-Lf complex and, for the first time, of the ternary 2Cp-2Lf-Mpo complex in solution. The SAXS-based model of Cp-Lf supports the predicted 1∶1 stoichiometry of the complex and demonstrates that both lobes of Lf contact domains 1 and 6 of Cp. The 2Cp-2Lf-Mpo SAXS model reveals the absence of interaction between Mpo and Lf in the ternary complex, so Cp can serve as a mediator of protein interactions in complex architecture. Mpo protects antioxidant properties of Cp by isolating its sensitive loop from proteases. The latter is important for incorporation of Fe3+ into Lf, which activates ferroxidase activity of Cp and precludes oxidation of Cp substrates. Our models provide the structural basis for possible regulatory role of these complexes in preventing iron-induced oxidative damage. PMID:23843990

  13. Aerosolized bovine lactoferrin reduces neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Piera; Frioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; De Fino, Ida; Cutone, Antimo; Rosa, Luigi; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Berlutti, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-chelating glycoprotein of innate immunity, produced by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites, is one of the most abundant defence molecules in airway secretions. Lf, a pleiotropic molecule, exhibits antibacterial and anti-inflammatory functions. These properties may play a relevant role in airway infections characterized by exaggerated inflammatory response, as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. To verify the Lf role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, we evaluated the efficacy of aerosolized bovine Lf (bLf) in mouse models of P. aeruginosa acute and chronic lung infections. C57BL/6NCrl mice were challenged with 106 CFUs of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (acute infection) or MDR-RP73 strain (chronic infection) by intra-tracheal administration. In both acute and chronic infections, aerosolized bLf resulted in nonsignificant reduction of bacterial load but significant decrease of the neutrophil recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, in chronic infection the bLf-treated mice recovered body weight faster and to a higher extent than the control mice. These findings add new insights into the benefits of bLf as a mediator of general health and its potential therapeutic applications.

  14. Impact of hot-carrier degradation on the Low-Frequency Noise in MOSFETs under steady-state and periodic Large-Signal Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhatkar, J.S.; Hoekstra, E.; Hof, A.J.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Wallinga, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This letter reports the diagnostic power of the low-frequency noise analysis (steady-state and periodic large-signal excitation) in MOSFETs subjected to hot-carrier degradation. The LF noise under periodic large-signal excitation is shown to increase more rapidly than the LF noise in steady-state.

  15. Measurement of the Low Frequency Noise of MOSFETs under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A measurement technique [1] is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET low frequency (LF) noise under large signal RF (Radio Frequency) excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHB434 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iscoideum chromosome 2 map 4354771-4414991 strain AX4, complete sequence. 50 2e-08 2 BG453581 |BG453581.1 NF092A07LF1F1050 Developing... sequence. 48 0.26 1 BG453480 |BG453480.1 NF092C08LF1F1055 Developing leaf Medicago truncatula cDNA clone NF

  17. Final report Task Order Number B239641 between the Regents of the University of California and Institute of Experimental Physics task 1: Conceptual design. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galakhov, I.V.; Kirillov, G.A.; Murugov, V.M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

    1994-11-01

    The current worldwide developmental status of high power lasers and pumping systems for laser ignition facilities is presented. Design philosophies of pulsed power systems for laser fusion (LF) research facilities are discussed. A conceptual design of the facility pulsed power systems is discussed in detail. In conclusion, a thorough analysis of current worldwide LF research is given.

  18. Extending the Conceptualization of Listening Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.; O'Brien, Kelley; Hanson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    An exploration of variables potentially related to Listening Fidelity (LF) was conducted through two separate studies. Study 1 indicated that when the potential fidelity of the stimulus message was varied as a function of the number of words and time length, the message with lowest potential fidelity produced significantly lower LF than either the…

  19. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the city of Tanga, Tanzania, after seven rounds of mass drug administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.; Malecela, Mwele N.; Pedersen, Erling Møller

    2013-01-01

    of mosquito proofing measures including bed nets, environmental sanitation to prevent vector breeding) in order to reach successful LF control in the city. The high LF disease burden noted, despite the reduction in infection and transmission, moreover emphasizes the importance of allocating resources...

  20. Anthrax toxins cooperatively inhibit endocytic recycling by the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guichard, Annabel; McGillivray, Shauna M.; Cruz-Moreno, Beatriz; van Sorge, Nina M.; Nizet, Victor; Bier, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in humans and other mammals(1,2). In lethal systemic anthrax, proliferating bacilli secrete large quantities of the toxins lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF), leading to widespread vascular leakage and shock. Whereas host targets of LF

  1. Sentinel surveillance of lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis soil transmitted helminths and malaria in rural southern Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Msyamboza, Kelias; Ngwira, Bagrey; Banda, Richard; Mkwanda, Square; Brabin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Baseline prevalence and knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) survey is a prerequisite for mass drug administration for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and other neglected tropical diseases. In preparation for the first mass drug administration for LF elimination, a baseline survey was

  2. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  3. Quantifying filariasis and malaria control activities in relation to lymphatic filariasis elimination: a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michelle C; Mkwanda, Square; Mzilahowa, Themba; Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-02-01

    To quantify the geographical extent of filariasis and malaria control interventions impacting lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Malawi and to produce a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for prioritising surveillance and intervention strategies. Interventions included mass drug administration (MDA) for LF and onchocerciasis, and bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria. District and subdistrict-level data were obtained from the Ministry of Health in Malawi, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and President's Malaria Initiative reports. Single intervention scores were calculated for each variable based on population coverage thresholds, and these were combined in a weighted sum to form a multiple intervention score, which was then used to produce maps, that is MISMs. Districts were further classified into four groups based on the combination of their baseline LF prevalence and multiple intervention score. The district- and subdistrict-level MISMs highlighted specific areas that have received high and low coverage of LF-impacting interventions. High coverage areas included the LF-onchocerciasis endemic areas in the southern region of the country and areas along the shores of Lake Malawi, where malaria vector control had been prioritised. Three districts with high baseline LF prevalence measures but low coverage of multiple interventions were identified and considered to be most at risk of ongoing transmission or re-emergence. These maps and district classifications will be used by LF programme managers to identify and target high-risk areas that may not have received adequate LF-impacting interventions to interrupt the transmission of the disease.

  4. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  5. accurate solutions of colebrook- white's friction factor formulae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    flow friction coefficient using adaptive neuro- fuzzy computing technique. Advances in. Engineering Software Vol. 40, pp 281–287, 2009b. [9] Moody, L.F. Friction factors for pipe flow. Trans. ASME . Vol. 66, pp 671–684, 1944. [10] Moody, L.F. An approximate formula for pipe friction factors. Trans ASME Vol. 69, 1947, pp.

  6. Out-of-Class Anxiety in a Non-English Speaking Context and Its Effects on Intelligibility and Comprehensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Singhasiri, Wareesiri

    2017-01-01

    Using Englishes as a lingua franca ("EsLF") or international language among EFL learners in an out-of-class setting induces anxiety, then debilitates the intelligibility and comprehensibility of speakers. This research project reports the conceptualisation of EsLF anxiety and its effects on intelligibility and comprehensibility, with the…

  7. Interaction of low- and high-frequency oscillations in resonant systems with distributed interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, S. A.; Vavriv, D. M.

    1991-03-01

    The oscillation dynamics of synchronized resonant oscillators with distributed interaction in the presence of LF modulation of the beam is analyzed. It is shown that the interaction of LF and HF oscillations can lead to the excitation of stochastic oscillations. Conditions and scenarios of the generation of such oscillations are established for oscillators with soft and hard oscillation-excitation modes.

  8. Nutritional composition analysis of meat from human lactoferrin transgenic bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Jianxiang; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic technology has many potential advantages in food production. However, the transgenic technology process may influence the composition of food products derived from genetically engineered (GE) animals, which may be adverse to human health. Therefore, it is very important to research the compositions of GE animal products. Here, we analyzed the compositions of meat from the offspring of human lactoferrin (hLF) transgenic cows, which can express human lactoferrin proteins in their mammary gland. Six hLF transgenic bulls and three wide-type (WT) bulls, 10 months of age, were slaughtered for meat composition analysis. To determine the comparative health of hLF bulls for meat analysis, hematological analyses, organ/body weight analyses and pathology analyses were conducted. Results of the meat analysis show that there were no significant differences in the hematological parameters, organ/body weight ratios of hLF and WT bulls (P>0.05), and histopathological examination of the main organs of hLF bulls revealed no abnormalities. Nutrient parameters of meat compositions of hLF and WT bulls did not show any significant differences (P>0.05). All of these results suggest that the hLF transgene did not have an impact on the meat nutrient compositions of hLF bulls.

  9. Effect of bovine lactoferrin in a therapeutic hamster model of hepatic amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2012-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a disease that produces dysentery as a result of the perforation of the large intestine. This parasite often invades other organs, primarily the liver, leading to an amoebic liver abscess (ALA), which can cause death. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for the treatment of ALA; however, it produces toxic side effects in patients. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the innate immune response that sequesters iron in the mucosae. Lf possesses immune-regulatory properties, such as antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the microbicidal activity of apoLf, which lacks bound iron, has been shown. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of bovine Lf (bLf) against ALA in a model of hepatic amoebiasis in hamsters. Interestingly, hamsters treated intragastrically with Lf (2.5 mg/100 g mass) over a period of 8 days showed no clinical signs of disease and ALA was effectively decreased, with only 0.63% detectable lesion, compared with 63% in untreated animals. Furthermore, liver function and blood cells approached normal levels among those receiving bLf treatment. These results suggest that bLf may aid in the therapy of amoebiasis, likely without producing undesirable effects in patients.

  10. Lactoferrin, a Pleiotropic Protein in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeur, Sylvain; Spahis, Schohraya; Pouliot, Yves; Levy, Emile

    2016-05-10

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is a nonheme iron-binding glycoprotein strongly expressed in human and bovine milk and it plays many functions during infancy such as iron homeostasis and defense against microorganisms. In humans, Lf is mainly expressed in mucosal epithelial and immune cells. Growing evidence suggests multiple physiological roles for Lf after weaning. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent advances concerning multifunctional Lf activities. First, we will provide an overview of the mechanisms related to Lf intrinsic synthesis or intestinal absorption as well as its interaction with a wide spectrum of mammalian receptors and distribution in organs and cell types. Second, we will discuss the large variety of its physiological functions such as iron homeostasis, transportation, immune regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis while specifying the mechanisms of action. Third, we will focus on its recent physiopathology implication in metabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Additional efforts are necessary before suggesting the potential use of Lf as a diagnostic marker or as a therapeutic tool. The main sources of Lf in human cardiometabolic disorders should be clarified to identify new perspectives for future research and develop new strategies using Lf in therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 813-836.

  11. Epidemiological and clinical description of Lassa fever in Jos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory description, and treatment outcome of Lassa Fever (LF) in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study from January 2012 -February 2013. Data analyzed included patients' demographics and clinical features. Main laboratory variable of interest was LF polymerase ...

  12. The zCOSMOS survey : the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Mignoli, M.; Kovac, K.; Lilly, S.; Tresse, L.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Moresco, M.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. An unbiased and detailed characterization of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a basic requirement in many astrophysical issues: it is of particular interest in assessing the role of the environment in the evolution of the LF of different galaxy types. Methods. We studied the evolution in

  13. The zCOSMOS survey: the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Mignoli, M.; Kovač, K.; Lilly, S.; Tresse, L.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Moresco, M.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. An unbiased and detailed characterization of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a basic requirement in many astrophysical issues: it is of particular interest in assessing the role of the environment in the evolution of the LF of different galaxy types. Methods: We studied the evolution in

  14. Fungistatic activity of iron-free bovin lactoferrin against several fungal plant pathogens and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Ernesto; Pisacane, Anna; Iannaccone, Marco; Palumbo, Daniela; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2008-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glycoproteins. It is also a multifunctional protein of 80 kDa that is synthesized by glandular epithelial cells and secreted into mucosal fluid. High levels of LF are present in colostrom and milk and low levels in tears, saliva, and gastrointestinal and reproductive secretions. Data regarding the antifungal effects of LF are limited. Studies have been performed on Candida albicans, which demonstrated that LF inhibits the growth of this fungus. This study reports the results of experiments carried out in order to evaluate the effects of LF on the growth of 11 fungi, which were isolated from plants and soils. These experiments employed the methods of amended agar utilizing nine different concentration levels of LF (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 5000 mg L(-1)). The effects of LF on the growth of these fungi were based on measures of the radial growth of the fungal colonies expressed both as percentage of inhibition and as IC(50) values (the concentration at which the fungal growth was inhibited by 50% relative to controls). LF had no effects on Alternaria alternata, Gliocladium roseum, Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. It did, however, inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Phoma exigua to the point that their IC(50) values ranged from 31.1 mg L(-1) for S. sclerotiorum to 952 mg L(-1) for T. viride.

  15. Intelligent Approaches in Improving In-vehicle Network Architecture and Minimizing Power Consumption in Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    1345– 1361, November 2002. [30] L.F. P. Pollo , J. -Porto, ―A Network-oriented Power Management Architecture,‖ Proc. Integrated Network Management...208, Feb. 2007, doi: 10.1109/TCE.2007.339526. [47] L.F. Pollo and J-Porto, ―A Network-oriented Power Management Architecture,‖ Proc. Integrated

  16. Prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin against Streptococcus mutans bacteremia in lactoferrin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Senthil Kumar; Fine, Daniel H; Velliyagounder, Kabilan

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental caries, which is often detected in transient bacteremia. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein showing antibacterial activities against several Streptococcus species. We reported here the prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin (hLF) in a lactoferrin knockout mouse (LFKO-/-) bacteremic model. The hLF treatment significantly cleared S. mutans from the blood and organs of bacteremic mice when compared to the non-hLF treated mice. Further, analysis of serum cytokines, spleen and liver cytokine mRNA levels revealed that hLF prophylaxis modulates their release differently when compared to the non-hLF treated group. C-reactive protein level (P = 0.003) also decreased following hLF prophylaxis in S. mutans induced bacteremic mice. Additional quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that hLF prophylaxis significantly decreased the expression level of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MPO and iNOS in spleen and liver. These results suggested that the hLF protects the host against S. mutans-induced experimental bacteremia. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactoferrin attenuates fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity via Akt signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Satoru; Tomita, Keiko; Ono, Tomoji; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Saito, Kenji; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Kato, Hisanori

    2015-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a spectrum of lesions ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The excess influx of fatty acids (FAs) into the liver is recognized as a main cause of simple steatosis formation and progression to NASH. Recently, administration of lactoferrin (LF), a glycoprotein present in milk, was suggested to prevent NAFLD development. However, the effect of LF on the contribution of FA to NAFLD development remains unclear. In this study, the effects of LF on FA mixture (FAm)-induced lipotoxicity using human hepatocarcinoma G2 cells were assessed. FAm significantly decreased cell viability and increased intracellular lipid accumulation, whereas LF significantly recovered cell viability without affecting lipid accumulation. FAm-induced lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and caspase-3/7 activities were significantly decreased by LF and SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) specific inhibitor. We also found that LF added to FAm-treated cells induced Akt phosphorylation, which contributed to inhibition of JNK signaling pathway-dependent apoptosis. Akt inhibitor VIII, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, significantly attenuated the effect of LF on LDH activity and abrogated the ones on cell viability and caspase-3/7 activity. In summary, the present study has revealed that LF has a protective effect on FAm-induced lipotoxicity in a HepG2 model of NAFLD and identified the activation of the Akt signaling pathway as a possibly major mechanism.

  18. Comparative analysis of the site-specific N-glycosylation of human lactoferrin produced in maize and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn-Petit, Bénédicte; Wajda Dubos, Jean-Pierre; Chirat, Frédéric; Coddeville, Bernadette; Demaizieres, Grégory; Farrer, Sybille; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Theisen, Manfred; Delannoy, Philippe

    2003-08-01

    We have compared the site-by-site N-glycosylation status of human lactoferrin (Lf) produced in maize, a monocotyledon, and in tobacco, used as a model dicotyledon. Maize and tobacco plants were stably transformed and recombinant Lf was purified from both seeds and leaves. N-glycopeptides were generated by trypsin digestion of recombinant Lf and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. The N-glycosylation pattern of each site was determined by mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that the N-glycosylation patterns of recombinant Lf produced in maize and tobacco share common structural features. In particular, both N-glycosylation sites of each recombinant Lf are mainly substituted by typical plant paucimannose-type N-glycans, with beta1,2-xylose and alpha1,3-linked fucose at the proximal N-acetylglucosamine. However, tobacco Lf shows a significant amount of processed N-glycans with one or two beta1,2GlcNAc linked to the trimannose core, which are weakly expressed in maize Lf. Finally, no Lewisa epitope was observed on tobacco Lf.

  19. Res Nov 2017 Cover Page Tp 02.11.17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Pterocarpus sanitalinus L.f. (= Lingoum santalinum (L.f.) Kuntze) (Red sanders) of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree; barkis blackish-brown, deeplyfissured intorectangularplates, blaze is deep red. Leaves are compound, 10-18cm long; leaflets3, broadlyovate, thickwith arounded ...

  20. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 induced by mechanical stress accelerates degeneration and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum in lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Nakamura

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation and subsequent fibrosis induced by mechanical stress play an important role in ligamentum flavum (LF hypertrophy and degeneration in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2 is a chronic inflammatory mediator induced under various pathological conditions and increases the expression of TGF-β1, which is a well-characterized mediator in LF hypertrophy. We investigated whether Angptl2 is induced by mechanical stress, and whether it contributes to LF hypertrophy and degeneration by activating the TGF-β1 signaling cascade. In this study, we investigated human LF tissue and LF fibroblasts isolated from patients who underwent lumbar surgery. We found that Angptl2 was abundantly expressed in fibroblasts of hypertrophied LF tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels. This expression was not only positively correlated with LF thickness and degeneration but also positively correlated with lumbar segmental motion. Our in vitro experiments with fibroblasts from hypertrophied LF tissue revealed that mechanical stretching stress increases the expression and secretion of Angptl2 via activation of calcineurin/NFAT pathways. In hypertrophied LF tissue, expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was also increased and TGF-β1/Smad signaling was activated. Angptl2 expression in LF tissue was positively correlated with the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA, suggesting cooperation between Angptl2 and TGF-β1 in the pathogenesis of LF hypertrophy. In vitro experiments revealed that Angptl2 increased levels of TGF-β1 and its receptors, and also activated TGF-β1/Smad signaling. Mechanical stretching stress increased TGF-β1 mRNA expression, which was partially attenuated by treatment with a calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor or Angptl2 siRNA, indicating that induction of TGF-β1 expression by mechanical stretching stress is partially mediated by Angptl2. We conclude that expression of Angptl2 induced by mechanical stress in LF