WorldWideScience

Sample records for vertically transmitted infections

  1. Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Keller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae. Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B. constrictor clutches with offspring ranging in age from embryos over perinatal abortions to juveniles. The mother and/or father of each clutch were initially diagnosed with BIBD and/or reptarenavirus infection by detection of the pathognomonic inclusion bodies (IB and/or reptarenaviral RNA. By applying next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly we determined the "reptarenavirome" of each clutch, yielding several nearly complete L and S segments of multiple reptarenaviruses. We further confirmed vertical transmission of the co-infecting reptarenaviruses by species-specific RT-PCR from samples of parental animals and offspring. Curiously, not all offspring obtained the full parental "reptarenavirome". We extended our findings by an in vitro approach; cell cultures derived from embryonal samples rapidly developed IB and promoted replication of some or all parental viruses. In the tissues of embryos and perinatal abortions, viral antigen was sometimes detected, but IB were consistently seen only in the juvenile snakes from the age of 2 mo onwards. In addition to demonstrating vertical transmission of multiple species, our results also indicate that reptarenavirus infection induces BIBD over time in the offspring.

  2. [Psychosocial aspects in a cohort of vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Cristina; García, Isabel; Medín, Gabriela; Ramos-Amador, José Tomás; Navarro-Gómez, Marisa; Mellado-Peña, M José; Gómez, M I de José; Cortés, Marisol; Zamora Crespo, Berta; Muñoz-Fernandez, M Angeles; Gamero, Daniel Blázquez; González-Tomé, M Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Thanks to advances in antiretroviral treatment, children with HIV infections through vertical transmission have improved their life expectancy. However, new challenges have emerged. We propose this study in order to determine the psychosocial aspects and knowledge of infections in a cohort of adolescents with vertically transmitted HIV infections. Patients with vertically-acquired HIV infection between 12 and 19 years old were included. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews and a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for emotional and behavioral disorders screening. We evaluated 96 patients (58% females) with a median age of 15 years (11-19.1) and a median age at diagnosis of 1.70 years (0-12.2). The median CD4 count was 626cells/mm(3) (132-998), and the viral load was<50cp/ml in 72% of patients. Among them, 90% attended school and 60% repeated at least one course. Although 81% of them knew of their diagnosis, only 30% understood their disease, with 18.2% having discussed it with friends. Six unwanted pregnancies occurred during the study period. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire showed hyperactivity risk in 33%. A high percentage of adolescents show difficulties in several areas (disease knowledge, peer relationship, school failure...) that can have an impact on their adult lives. Further studies are needed to evaluate their origin and development in depth, as well as interventions to modify this situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  4. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  5. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  6. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodd Roger Y

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of the respondents or other identifying information were not included in the questionnaires. The knowledge section had 7 sexually transmitted infection symptoms for grading knowledge, namely lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, penile discharge, itching of the vagina, burning pain on urination, genital ulcers/sores ...

  8. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine profiles in children exposed to or infected with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, B. N.; Lu, J. G.; Kline, M.W.; Paul, M.; Doyle, M; Kozinetz, C; Shearer, W T; Reuben, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, cytokine production profiles switch from predominantly type 1 (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon [IFN-gamma]) to type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines with disease progression. To test this hypothesis in vertically HIV-infected children, we measured cytokine transcription and production in rapid progressors (RPs), seroreverters (SRs), and those children exposed to HIV in utero (P0s). Production of type 1 and type 2 cytokines was measu...

  9. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  10. The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Edward O.; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection...

  11. Is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transmitted vertically to early embryo development stages (morulae or blastocyst) via in vitro infected frozen semen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmad, M Z Ali; Chebloune, Y; Chatagnon, G; Pellerin, J L; Fieni, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether in vitro infected cryopreserved caprine sperm is capable of transmitting caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) vertically to early embryo development stages via artificial insemination with in vitro infected semen. Sperm was collected from CAEV-free bucks by electroejaculation. Half of each ejaculate was inoculated with CAEV-pBSCA at a viral concentration of 10(4) TCID(50)/mL. The second half of each ejaculate was used as a negative control. The semen was then frozen. On Day 13 of superovulation treatment, 14 CAEV-free does were inseminated directly into the uterus under endoscopic control with thawed infected semen. Six CAEV-free does, used as a negative control, were inseminated intrauterine with thawed CAEV-free sperm, and eight CAEV-free does were mated with naturally infected bucks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect CAEV proviral-DNA in the embryos at the D7 stage, in the embryo washing media, and in the uterine secretions of recipient does. At Day 7, all the harvested embryos were PCR-negative for CAEV proviral-DNA; however, CAEV proviral-DNA was detected in 8/14 uterine smears, and 9/14 flushing media taken from does inseminated with infected sperm, and in 1/8 uterine swabs taken from the does mated with infected bucks. The results of this study confirm that (i) artificial insemination with infected semen or mating with infected bucks may result in the transmission of CAEV to the does genital tack seven days after insemination, and (ii) irrespective of the medical status of the semen or the recipient doe, it is possible to obtain CAEV-free early embryos usable for embryo transfer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward O; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

    2011-03-22

    Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection is most likely to evolve in response to horizontally transmitted parasites that cause a significant reduction in host fecundity. The preponderance of sterilizing horizontally transmitted parasites found in arthropods may therefore explain the evolution of protection seen by their symbionts. We also find that protection is more likely to evolve in response to highly transmissible parasites that cause intermediate, rather than high, virulence (increased death rate when infected). Furthermore, intermediate levels of protection select for faster, more virulent horizontally transmitted parasites, suggesting that protective symbionts may lead to the evolution of more virulent parasites in nature. When we allow for coevolution between the symbiont and the parasite, more protection is likely to evolve in the vertically transmitted symbionts of longer lived hosts. Therefore, if protection is found to be common in nature, it has the potential to be a major selective force on host-parasite interactions.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections: challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unemo, Magnus; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Hocking, Jane S.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Francis, Suzanna C.; Mabey, David; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Hoornenborg, Elske; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Philip, Susan S.; Low, Nicola; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  15. Cannibalism amplifies the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Asaf; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    Cannibalism is a widespread behavior. Abundant empirical evidence demonstrates that cannibals incur a risk of contracting pathogenic infections when they consume infected conspecifics. However, current theory suggests that cannibalism generally impedes disease spread, because each victim is usually consumed by a single cannibal, such that cannibalism does not function as a spreading process. Consequently, cannibalism cannot be the only mode of transmission of most parasites. We develop simple, but general epidemiological models to analyze the interaction of cannibalism and vertical transmission. We show that cannibalism increases the prevalence of vertically transmitted pathogens whenever the host population density is not solely regulated by cannibalism. This mechanism, combined with additional, recently published, theoretical mechanisms, presents a strong case for the role of cannibalism in the spread of infectious diseases across a wide range of parasite-host systems. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  17. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections, Pregnancy, and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control and Prevention. (2015). Preterm Birth . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children . Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding > A-Z Health Topics ...

  19. TRANSFUSION- TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN HAEMOPHILIA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhubi, Bukurije; Mekaj, Ymer; Baruti, Zana; Bunjaku, Ilirijane; Belegu, Mazllum

    2009-01-01

    One of the largest therapeutic problem during the continuous treatment of the patients with Hemophilia A and B, are viral infections as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV, and the other infective diseases, which can be transmitted by the transfusion of blood products.

  20. sexually transmitted infections in obafemi awolowo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted infections (STls) remain cosmopolitan in all societies of the world and in some cases assume epidemic proportions. These infections are common infectious diseases nowadays, with an annual incidence of more than 200 million cases a year. Venereal pathogens continue to increase in number and the ...

  1. Soil transmitted helminths infections, malnutrition and anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major public health problem in many developing countries. Establishment of prevalence and intensity of infections is important in designing, implementating and evaluating control programs. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of STH infections, malnutrition ...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections and their diagnoses: Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    AIDS. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. Generally, diagnoses of STIs by the questioned traditional healers were primarily based on the symptomatic ... treatment. For instance prior diagnosis, Bapedi healers spend much time listening to their patients and discussing the causes of the infections, and other.

  3. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  4. Vertically transmitted symbionts as mechanisms of transgenerational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Pedro E; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Whitney, Kenneth D

    2017-05-01

    A transgenerational effect occurs when a biotic or abiotic environmental factor acts on a parental individual and thereby affects the phenotype of progeny. Due to the importance of transgenerational effects for understanding plant ecology and evolution, their underlying mechanisms are of general interest. Here, we introduce the concept that inherited symbiotic microorganisms could act as mechanisms of transgenerational effects in plants. We define the criteria required to demonstrate that transgenerational effects are microbially mediated and review evidence from the well-studied, vertically transmitted plant-fungal symbiosis (grass-Epichloë spp.) in support of such effects. We also propose a basic experimental design to test for the presence of adaptive transgenerational effects mediated by plant symbionts. An increasingly large body of literature shows that vertically transmitted microorganisms are common in plants, with potential to affect the phenotypes and fitness of progeny. Transgenerational effects could occur via parental modification of symbiont presence/absence, symbiont load, symbiont products, symbiont genotype or species composition, or symbiont priming. Several of these mechanisms appear likely in the grass-Epichloë endophytic symbiosis, as there is variation in the proportion of the progeny that carries the fungus, as well as variation in concentrations of mycelia and secondary compounds (alkaloids and osmolytes) in the seed. Symbiont-mediated transgenerational effects could be common in plants and could play large roles in plant adaptation to changing environments, but definitive tests are needed. We hope our contribution will spark new lines of research on the transgenerational effects of vertically transmitted symbionts in plants. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. [Sexually transmitted infections of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfer, H

    2012-09-01

    Various sexual practices like fellatio, cunnilingus, or anilingus (rimming) can cause both symptomatic and asymptomatic oral infections in both sexes. Clinically apparent lesions are found in primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis, in acute HIV infection and the subsequent stage of immunodeficiency (opportunistic infections), as well as in herpes and human papilloma virus infections. Genital candidiasis also can be transmitted to the oral cavity. Depending on the infective agent transmitted, ulcerative, inflammatory or papillomatous lesions of the lips, tongue, mucous membranes and pharynx occur. Oropharyngeal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis (Serovar D-K) can cause pharyngitis and tonsillitis with sore throat, but are completely asymptomatic in most cases. Asymptomatic infections are an important, but frequently overlooked reservoir for new infections. Systemic treatment of oral STI's usually is the same as that for anogenital infections. It can be accompanied by symptomatic topical therapy. When the tonsils and other difficult to reach tissues are infected, higher doses and an antibiotic with good tissue penetration are recommended.

  6. Tackling sexually transmitted infection burden in Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The socio-cultural understanding of STIs, sex, trust and relationships are symbolic in influencing consistent condom use among ... Keywords:sexually transmitted infection, Ugandan communities, socio-cultural interpretation, disease and condom use ...... cultural representations of Aotearoa in New Zealand.

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Health Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of women with STI symptoms. Data were collected by trained interviewers .... Sexually transmitted Infections and Health Seeking Behaviour among Ghanaian Women in Accra….. African Journal of ..... for management of STIs. World. Health Organization [ 2003 Available from:.

  8. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female ...

  9. syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Infectious Disease. Epidemiology Unit. School of Public Health and. Family Medicine. University of Cape Town. Lydia Altini's research inter- ests include STI and HIV ... and STIs. Infections by organisms other than HIV that are transmitted by sexual contact are ... ectopic pregnancy in women and premature birth and stillbirth,.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections among patients attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infectious diseases in the world today. There are few reliable statistics on the true prevalence of STIs in developing countries, especially in the general practice setting, hence the need to determine the prevalence in each locality. With the ...

  11. Digital media and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa; Chor, Julie; Hill, Brandon

    2014-10-01

    Digital media, including the Internet, social networking sites, text messaging, and mobile applications, are ubiquitous among adolescents and young adults. These platforms enable users to obtain important information on a multitude of health topics, they may facilitate risk-taking behaviors, and they can be key components of health interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature on digital media and sexually transmitted infections, discussing their role in potentiating and reducing risk. This review demonstrates adolescents' use of digital media to gather information on health topics and discusses significant privacy concerns regarding using media to explore sexual health information. Although several studies demonstrate an association between social media and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors, this relationship is not fully understood. Digital media-based interventions are increasingly being developed to either reduce risk or improve management of sexually transmitted infections. As greater numbers of adolescents use digital media, the potential for these platforms to influence sexual risk-taking behaviors is significant. Additional research is needed to better understand the impact of digital media on sexually transmitted infection risk and to develop social media-based interventions to improve sexually transmitted infection outcomes.

  12. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted. Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive. Age in Enugu, Nigeria. Ikeako LC, Ekwueme OC1, Ezegwui HU2, Okeke TOC2. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Awka, 2University of Nigeria Teaching ...

  13. Sexually transmitted infections in Obafemi Awolowo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarcoptes scabiei and Phthirus pubis causing scabies and pediculosis accounted for 1.8% and 0.3% respectively. As commonly established, the age bracket 19 to 39 years was clearly the age group in which sexually transmitted infections were mostly diagnosed. In a control programme, this age group should be targeted, ...

  14. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  15. Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Infections: Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans L. Zaaijer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To make blood components and blood products safe, many safety measures are applied to avoid transfusion-transmitted infections. Defining a balanced safety policy is not easy, we face several dilemmas: How safe should blood be? Should we opt for maximal or optimal safety? Are perceived threats real and relevant? Should blood be clean while food, air, or mosquitoes are not? Is vCJD still a threat? It seems wise to discuss these issues more in the open.

  16. Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

    2010-08-01

    In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants.

  17. Transfusion-transmitted infections in haemophilia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubi, Bukurije; Mekaj, Ymer; Baruti, Zana; Bunjaku, Ilirijane; Belegu, Mazllum

    2009-11-01

    One of the largest therapeutic problem during the continuous treatment of the patients with Hemophilia A and B, are viral infections as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV, and the other infective diseases, which can be transmitted by the transfusion of blood products. The aim of this study is to analyze the complications of the hemophiliacs in Kosovo which have been treated with fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and concentrated products of FVIII and FIX. We have tested 75 patients with hemophilia A or B and there were used enzyme immunoassay test-Elisa method for the following: anti-HCV, HBsAg, HIV and TPHA.The serological data showed that HCV infection was positive in 29 cases or 38,7%, whereas infection with HBV and HIV were present in a smaller percentage of the patients (2,7% HBV and 1,4% for HIV). HCV infection was present only in 9,5% of the cases of the age group under 18 years. Infected hemophiliacs with one or two infective agents were found in 34,7%, respectively 4%. Infection with T. pallidum was present at none of the examined patients with hemophilia. HCV infection was higher in severe forms of hemophilia B (44,4%), compared with severe form of hemophilia A (30%).Based on our results, despite the infrequent application of FVIII and FIX concentrates, and other anti hemophilic preparations used in treating hemophilia patients, the number of infected hemophiliacs with blood-transmittable infectious agents was substantially high, especially with hepatitis C virus.

  18. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  19. Travel-related sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. It is estimated that only 50% of travellers use condoms during casual sex abroad. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers is an exceptionally high-risk behaviour. The common risk factor is also young age. Adolescents and young adults constitute 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STIs. Many STIs are asymptomatic and therefore can be difficult to identify and control. The clinical manifestation of STIs can be grouped into a number of syndromes, such as genital ulcer or erosion, urethral or vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease. STIs are divided into curable infections caused by bacteria (gonorrhoea, chlamydiasis, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale) or protozoa (trichomoniasis) and incurable viral infections (genital herpes, genital warts, HIV). STIs are not only a cause of acute morbidity, but may result in complications including male and female infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, premature mortality or miscarriage. Monogamous sex with a stable, uninfected partner or sexual abstinence remains the only way to avoid the risk of becoming infected with STIs.

  20. Schistosoma haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmitted helminthes afflict most-at-risk populations in endemic communities in the developing world. Aim: This study investigated S. haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted helminthes, and host risk factors in two communities in the ...

  1. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  2. Effects of cyproterone acetate and vertically transmitted microsporidia parasite on Gammarus pulex sperm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Eric; Fivet, Adeline; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) and parasitism can both interfere with the reproduction process of organisms. The amphipod Gammarus pulex is the host of the vertically transmitted microsporidia Dictyocoela duebenum, and this work was devoted to the investigation of the effect of an exposure to the anti-androgen compound, cyproterone acetate (CPA), and/or of the presence of D. duebenum on the spermatozoa production and length. Significant reduction of the spermatozoa production was observed when G. pulex males were uninfected and exposed to CPA. There also appeared a lower number of spermatozoa when D. duebenum infects G. pulex, whatever the exposure condition. Moreover, we highlighted that CPA has no effect on spermatozoa production when males are infected by D. duebenum, and no treatment has impacted the spermatozoa length. Our results suggest CPA and D. duebenum could impact the endocrine system of G. pulex and especially processes close to the spermatozoa production (e.g., androgenic gland, androgen gland hormone released, gonad-inhibiting hormone synthesized by X-organ). However, as no mechanism of action was highlighted, further testing need to be performed to improve the understanding of their impacts. Finally, results confirm that vertically transmitted microsporidia could be a confounding factor in the endocrine disruption assessments in Gammaridae.

  3. sexually transmitted infections in obafemi awolowo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approaches. Genitourinary Medicine. 1997; 73(3): 188-193. Barberis IL, Pajaro MC, Godino S, et al. Survey of sexually transmitted diseases in the region of Rio Cuarto. Medicina. 1998; 58 (5 pt 1): 469-473. F onck K, Kidula N, Kirui P, et al. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk factors among women attending.

  4. Prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infection (sti) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infection (sti) and associated factors among symptomatic patients attending Gondar Town hospitals and health cCenters. Rozina Ambachew Geremew, Beyene Moges Agizie, Abate Assefa Bashaw, Mengistu Endris Seid, Addisu Gize Yeshanew ...

  5. Sexually transmitted infections and their diagnoses: Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Introduction. Annually, millions of people are exposed to and possibly infected by a variety of STIs such as Candida albicans, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV/AIDS, herpes simplex virus and syphilis35. These infections can have a detrimental effect on the sexual health status of the individual if left untreated36. Fortunately some.

  6. Criminal liability for spreading sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2017-09-02

    Last month's article considered capacity to consent to sexual activity. This month's article reviews the case of a man from Nottingham who was jailed for 7 years for infecting two former lovers with HIV and considers whether those who act recklessly put others at risk of infection during sexual activity should be held criminally liable and prosecuted for their actions.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A

    2013-04-22

    Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ≤25 years. During October 2004-September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods. Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or "CT or GC", respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ≤25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively. STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered.

  8. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL JOURNAL. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually. Transmitted Disease. Dr. K. J. Pallangyo,. Consultant Physician and Senior Lecturer,. Muhimbili Meciol Centre. How can the spread of HIV infection and AIDS be most effectively prevented at the primary health care level? Dr Pollongyo from Tanzania argues that ...

  9. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. ... infections among women of reproductive age living in Katanga slum, Kampala, Uganda. Afri Health Sci. ... diseases that are spread through sexual intercourse and mainly affect the ...

  10. Sexually transmitted infections and acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était de collecter des informations pertinentes pour l'élaboration d'un programme d'éducation sanitaire en matière d'infections sexuellement transmissibles – SIDA (IST/ SIDA) pour les adolescents. 497 adolescents sélectionnés dans trois écoles secondaires ont eu une interview face à face. A partir d'un ...

  11. Interaction specificity between leaf-cutting ants and vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.

    2015-01-01

    against the fungal parasite Escovopsis and possibly other pathogens. Panamanian Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants primarily associate with actinomycetes of the genus Pseudonocardia. Colonies are inoculated with one of two vertically transmitted phylotypes (Ps1 or Ps2), and maintain the same...

  12. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  13. Interaction specificity between leaf-cutting ants and vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sandra B; Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-02-25

    The obligate mutualism between fungus-growing ants and microbial symbionts offers excellent opportunities to study the specificity and stability of multi-species interactions. In addition to cultivating fungus gardens, these ants have domesticated actinomycete bacteria to defend gardens against the fungal parasite Escovopsis and possibly other pathogens. Panamanian Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants primarily associate with actinomycetes of the genus Pseudonocardia. Colonies are inoculated with one of two vertically transmitted phylotypes (Ps1 or Ps2), and maintain the same phylotype over their lifetime. We performed a cross-fostering experiment to test whether co-adaptations between ants and bacterial phylotypes have evolved, and how this affects bacterial growth and ant prophylactic behavior after infection with Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia readily colonized ants irrespective of their colony of origin, but that the Ps2 phylotype, which was previously shown to be better able to maintain its monocultural integrity after workers became foragers than Ps1, reached a higher final cover when grown on its native host than on alternative hosts. The frequencies of major grooming and weeding behaviors co-varied with symbiont/host combinations, showing that ant behavior also was affected when cuticular actinomycete phylotypes were swapped. These results show that the interactions between leaf-cutting ants and Pseudonocardia bear signatures of mutual co-adaptation within a single ant population.

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessian L. Munoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT, more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Doxycycline, the first-line antibiotic for urethritis, is largely ineffective in the treatment of M. genitalium and furthermore, resistance to macrolide has also emerged. The most effective drug is Moxifloxacin although there are emerging reports of resistance to it in various parts of the world. This paper not only highlights the current research and knowledge, but also reviews the diversity of health implications on the health of men and women infected with M. genitalium. Alternate antibiotics and the impact of M. genitalium on infertility are areas that require more studies as we continue to research into this microorganism.

  15. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brciin, and may eventually be fatal. Unfortunately, it has been difficult or impossible to implement ... tion, since their sexual behaviour has already led to rhem get- ting a sexually transmitted dieseose. The disease ... Since some STDs could oeluolly facilitate the spread of HIV infection [see below), developing more extensive ...

  16. Soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in school age children in sub-Saharan Africa: Efficacy of chemotherapeutic intervention since World Health ... for regular treatment of school children, development of alternative antihelminthic drugs and vaccines, environmental control measures and health education.

  17. Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Reproductive Health Status among Prisoners Aged Between 18-49 Years in. Tabor Prison, Hawassa ... Keywords: Sexual and reproductive health, Sexually transmitted infections, Prisoners,. Hawassa, Ethiopia. 1. ... prisoners engage in sexual activities right inside prisons during incarceration, although one would think this ...

  18. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People under the age of twenty five make up forty three percent of the world population; most young people do not have access to appropriate information about sexuality and do not know how to protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, or unintended pregnancy. Universal access to ...

  19. Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was to measure the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms among women in Accra, Ghana, to identify characteristics that predispose to STI symptoms and to identify factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of women with STI symptoms. Data were collected by trained interviewers ...

  20. Skin as an indicator for sexually transmitted infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often

  1. Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) screening, case and contact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a longitudinal cohort study in rural Malawi in 2000, 469 men and 758 women were asked to respond to a series of surveys, were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia, and received their results and treatment, if applicable, for themselves and up to 2 partners if positive for either sexually transmitted infection (STI).

  2. Sexual exposure and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual exposure and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among senior secondary school students in an urban local government area of Edo state. ... Knowledge of the features and complications as well as prevention among this age group is needed to empower them to make informed choices. Aim: The study is ...

  3. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  4. Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-18

    Apr 18, 2006 ... reason for this high disease rate is the elevated prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs),5 which facilitates the transmission of HIV, coupled with poor diagnostic capacity leading to lower rates of STI diagnosis and treatment, exacerbated by low condom use.6-8. In South Africa it is common ...

  5. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar MJW van de; Op de Coul ELM; CIE

    2004-01-01

    The increasing trend of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), as observed in the last few years, seemed to have stabilised in 2003. The continuous increase of syphilis diagnoses and the outbreak of Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), indicate an increase of sexual

  6. The Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among post –primary and tertiary school students in Imo state was carried out from January to December 2002. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents to collect vital information before urine sample, vaginal or urethral swab and ...

  7. Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual and Reproductive Health Status among Prisoners Aged Between 18-49 Years in Tabor Prison, Hawassa, Ethiopia. ... The magnitude of STIs was found as 5.1% among the respondents and 30 (14.5%) respondents were HIV positive. Keywords: Sexual ...

  8. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods: The study ...

  9. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  10. Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease, and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety.

  11. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  12. Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Jameel

    Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

  13. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  14. Management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleece, Yvonne; Sullivan, Ann

    2005-02-01

    This review aims to summarize recent developments in the epidemiology and management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals. It will also discuss briefly the legal aspects of disclosure in relation to HIV transmission. There has been a dramatic increase in the reported number of cases of syphilis globally in recent years. In the United Kingdom this has mainly been observed among HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Since 2003 there have been a series of outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum reported in several European cities occurring mostly in HIV positive MSM. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C is increasing and appears to be more common in HIV positive MSM. Legal issues regarding HIV transmission have also come to the fore, becoming an important part of the discussion of sexual health with an HIV positive patient. Increases in sexually transmitted infection among HIV positive individuals suggest a worrying lack of adherence to safe sex guidelines and needs to be addressed urgently. The transmission of HIV is facilitated by the presence of certain sexually transmitted infections. Management of sexual health is an essential part of HIV care.

  15. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  16. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Farman, Mark L.; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed. PMID:23744053

  17. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Schardl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae. Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes, and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens, which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS, indole-diterpenes (IDT, and lolines (LOL in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  18. Engineering immunity in the mucosal niche against sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Renuka; Woodrow, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the genital tract are the site of entry to over 30 different bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that are the cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Women and adolescent girls are more severely impacted by STIs than men due in part to a greater biological susceptibility for acquiring infections and differences in disease sequelae. While it is widely accepted that preventative vaccines against the most commonly transmitted STIs would have a major impact on decreasing the global health burden of STIs for women worldwide, several challenges preclude their development. The female genital tract is a complex niche of microflora, hormonal influences, and immune tissues and cells that result in a mucosal immune system that is distinct from other mucosal sites and from our systemic immune system. An appreciation of these differences and their effect on shaping mucosal immunity to sexually transmitted pathogens is an important determinant for the design of effective STI vaccines. Here we describe the anatomy and mucosal immune system of the female reproductive tract, and discuss bioengineering strategies to design mucosal vaccines that overcome delivery challenges and coordinate the presentation kinetics and compartmentalization of antigens and adjuvants to relevant mucosal immune cell subsets. In particular, we describe recent progress in understanding the role of specific mucosal dendritic cell subsets in facilitating immune responses to pathogenic microbes in the genital mucosa. We also discuss the development of pathogen-mimicking materials that may be useful for engineering protective immunity in this mucosal niche. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Interaction specificity between leaf-cutting ants and vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The obligate mutualism between fungus-growing ants and microbial symbionts offers excellent opportunities to study the specificity and stability of multi-species interactions. In addition to cultivating fungus gardens, these ants have domesticated actinomycete bacteria to defend gardens...... against the fungal parasite Escovopsis and possibly other pathogens. Panamanian Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants primarily associate with actinomycetes of the genus Pseudonocardia. Colonies are inoculated with one of two vertically transmitted phylotypes (Ps1 or Ps2), and maintain the same...

  20. Vertically transmitted HIV-l infection in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-09

    Aug 9, 1990 ... Rogers MF, Thomas PA, Starcher ET, Noa MC, Bush TJ, Jaffe HW. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children: report of tbe Centers for. Disease Control national surveillance, 1982-1985. Pediaerics 1987; 79: 1008-1014. 16. Ryder RW, Nsa, W, Hassig SE ec al. Perinatal transmission of the human.

  1. HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexuality in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Hawkes, Gail; Pitts, Marian

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we review recent evidence indicating that people over the age of 50 years are increasingly at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, and that-thanks to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapies-those infected with HIV are now living into older age. We show that health professionals and society in general have been reluctant to acknowledge sexuality in older adults. Sexuality until recently has been regarded as merely a matter of male potency and sexual function, whereas older women's sexuality and desires have been ignored. Changing patterns of sexual practices, including high rates of divorce and partner change in the older age groups, indicate that focus and concern with sex and sexuality in later life will become part of routine prevention and maintenance of sexual health.

  2. Sexually transmitted infections: old foes on the rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didac Carmona-Gutierrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are commonly spread via sexual contact. It is estimated that one million STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Besides their impact on sexual, reproductive and neonatal health, they can cause disastrous and life-threatening complications if left untreated. In addition to this personal burden, STIs also represent a socioeconomic problem, deriving in treatment costs of tremendous proportions. Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis, treatment and prevention, the incidence of many common STIs is increasing, and STIs continue to represent a global public health problem and a major cause for morbidity and mortality. With this Special Issue, Microbial Cell provides an in-depth overview of the eight major STIs, covering all relevant features of each infection.

  3. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees in the Netherlands, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coul, E L M Op; Warning, T D; Koedijk, F D H

    2014-01-01

    High annual figures of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed in the Netherlands despite significant efforts to control them. Herein, we analyse trends and determinants of STI diagnoses, co-infections, and sexual risks among visitors of 26 STI clinics between 2007 and 2011. We recorded increased positivity rates of STIs (chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and/or HIV) in women and heterosexual men up to 12.6% and 13.4%, respectively, in 2011, while rates in men having sex with men (MSM) were stable but high (18.8%) through the documented years. Younger age, origin from Surinam/Antilles, history of previous STI, multiple partners, or a previous notification are the identified risk factors for an STI in this population. Known HIV-infected men (MSM and heterosexuals) were at highest risk for co-infections (relative rate heterosexual men: 15.6; MSM: 11.6). STI positivity rates remained high (MSM) or increased over time (women and heterosexual men), a fact that highlights the importance of continuing STI prevention. Most importantly, the very high STI co-infection rates among HIV-positive men requires intensified STI reduction strategies to put an end to the vicious circle of re-infection and spread of HIV and other STIs.

  4. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

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    Brandon L Guthrie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  5. Heritability of the Symbiodinium community in vertically- and horizontally-transmitting broadcast spawning corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kate M; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2017-08-15

    The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals. After one month of uptake in the field, Symbiodinium communities associated with A. tenuis juveniles were dominated by A3, C1, D1, A-type CCMP828, and D1a in proportional abundances conserved between experiments in two years. M. digitata eggs were predominantly characterized by C15, D1, and A3. In contrast to current paradigms, host genetic influences accounted for a surprising 29% of phenotypic variation in Symbiodinium communities in the horizontally-transmitting A. tenuis, but only 62% in the vertically-transmitting M. digitata. Our results reveal hitherto unknown flexibility in the acquisition of Symbiodinium communities and substantial heritability in both species, providing material for selection to produce partnerships that are locally adapted to changing environmental conditions.

  6. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

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    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  8. Papanicolaou smears induce partial immunity against sexually transmitted viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Samuel; Hoffman, Margaret; Constant, Deborah; Rosenberg, Lynn; Carrara, Henri; Allan, Bruce Rider; Marais, Dianne Jean; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2007-11-01

    In a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and invasive cervical cancer, an unexpected finding was a substantial decline in the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received. Here we assess the risk of 3 sexually transmitted viral infections -- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), HPV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2 -- in relation to the lifetime receipt of Pap smears. Stored sera taken from 1540 controls were tested for HSV2 and HIV; cervical scrapings were tested for HPV. Confounder-adjusted odds ratios for the lifetime receipt of Pap smears were estimated, relative to never having had a Papanicolau test. For ever-receipt of a Papanicolau test, the odds ratios for HSV2 and HPV were 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.9) and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively, and there were dose-response trends according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received (test for trend P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). For HSV2 the odds ratios according to last receipt declined from 0.8 for 10 or more years previously to 0.4 for <1 year previously (trend P = 0.002). For HPV the ORs were 0.4 (0.3-0.7) for last receipt 5-9 years previously and 0.5 (0.4-0.8) for less than 5 years previously; for HIV the odds ratio for last receipt less than 5 years previously was 0.4 (0.3-0.9). For HSV2 and HIV the crude odds ratio estimates were systematically lower than the adjusted estimates, and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. In particular, the true number of sexual partners may have been under-reported, and there was no information on the sexual activity of the male partners, or on other health behaviors of the women or their partners. We hypothesize that Pap smears may provoke a short-term immune response against sexually transmitted viral infections.

  9. Lifetime Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vinita; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Syrop, Craig H; Sadler, Anne G

    2017-07-01

    Women veterans report a high prevalence of sexual assault. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the reproductive health sequelae faced by these women. Our objective was to evaluate the association between completed lifetime sexual assault (LSA) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among a cohort of women veterans, adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a retrospective study among women veterans aged 51 years or younger who enrolled for care at two Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare sites between 2000 and 2008. Participants completed a telephone interview assessing reproductive health and sexual violence history. We compared the frequencies of past STI diagnoses among those who had and had not experienced LSA. We used logistic regression to assess the effect of sexual assault with history of an STI diagnosis after adjusting for age, sexual risk behaviors, and substance abuse treatment. Among 996 women veterans, a history of STIs was reported by 32%, including a lifetime history of gonorrhea (5%), chlamydia (15%), genital herpes infection (8%), and human papillomavirus infection (15%), not mutually exclusive; 51% reported LSA. Women with a history of LSA were significantly more likely to report a history of STIs (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-2.50; adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08). Women veterans who have experienced LSA are at increased risk for lifetime STI diagnoses. To adequately address the reproductive health needs of the growing population of women veterans, STI risk assessments should include queries of military service and LSA histories.

  10. Distribution and seasonality of vertically transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes in arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Bennet; Joshi, Vinod

    2008-03-01

    Transovarial transmission of dengue virus is a crucial etiological phenomenon responsible for persistence of virus during inter-epidemic period of the disease. Distribution and seasonality of this phenomenon in disease endemic areas may contribute to explain emergence of dengue and its subsequent prevention. The study on seasonal and area distribution of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. vittatus has been made in desert and non-desert districts of Rajasthan, India from 2006 to 2007. The observations revealed role of different Aedes species in transmission and retention of dengue virus. The larvae of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. vittatus were collected during each of the study seasons from rural and urban areas of three districts-Jodhpur, Jaipur and Kota. The larvae were collected from domestic and peri-domestic containers and from tree holes of peri-urban foci such as gardens and parks and were reared into adults in the laboratory at room temperature. The laboratory reared adults were subjected to Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The laboratory-reared adult mosquitoes showing positive IFA were treated as the sample showing vertically transmitted dengue virus. Pooled data for all the four seasons revealed maximum (15.7%) mosquito infectivity in Ae. albopictus followed by Ae. aegypti (12.6%) in Jodhpur district. In Jaipur district, Ae. vittatus showed highest infection (20%) of vertically transmitted virus followed by Ae. albopictus (18.7%) and least in Ae. aegypti (13.3%). In Kota district, pooled data for all the four seasons showed maximum vertical infection of mosquitoes in Ae. albopictus (14.2%). Transovarial transmission of dengue virus by available vector species in a dengue endemic setting could be the key etiological phenomenon responsible for re-emergence of the disease from inter-epidemic to epidemic phase of disease onset. The observations in the present study suggest that during winter

  11. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  12. Childhood lead exposure and sexually transmitted infections: New evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Shacham, Enbal; Boutwell, Brian B; Rosenfeld, Richard; Schootman, Mario; Vaughn, Michael; Lewis, Roger

    2015-11-01

    The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children are well documented and include intellectual and behavioral maladies. Childhood lead exposure has also been linked to impulsive behaviors, which, in turn, are associated with a host of negative health outcomes including an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The purpose of this study was to assess the association of lead exposure with STI rates across census tracts in St. Louis City, Missouri. Incident cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia (GC) during 2011 were identified from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services and aggregated by census tract. We also geocoded the home address of 59,645 children >72 months in age who had blood lead level tests performed in St. Louis City from 1996 to 2007. Traditional regression and Bayesian spatial models were used to determine the relationship between GC and lead exposure while accounting for confounders (condom and alcohol availability, crime, and an index of concentrated disadvantage). Incident GC rates were found to cluster across census tracts (Moran's I=0.13, p=0.006). After accounting for confounders and their spatial dependence, a linear relationship existed between lead exposure and GC incidence across census tracts, with higher GC rates occurring in the northern part of St. Louis City At the census-tract level, higher lead exposure is associated with higher STI rates. Visualizing these patterns through maps may help deliver targeted interventions to reduce geographic disparities in GC rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Martin P; Hayes, Kevin; Horgan, Mary; Shiely, Frances

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland. Routine diagnostic, demographic and behavioural data from first-time visits to three screening centres in the southwest of Ireland were obtained. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents. A total of 2784 first-time patients, aged 13-19 years, received 3475 diagnoses between January 1999 and September 2009; 1168 (42%) of adolescents had notifiable STIs. The incidence rate of STIs is 225/100 000 person-years. Univariate analysis identified eligible risk factors (pIreland. The proportion of notifications among those aged under 20 years is increasing. These data illustrate the significance of age, condom use and number of sexual partners as risk factors for STI diagnosis. Furthermore, providing data for the first time, we report on the high incidence rate of STIs among adolescents in Ireland. The high levels of risk-taking behaviour and STI acquisition are highlighted and suggest that there is a need for an integrated public health approach to combat this phenomenon in the adolescent population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The role of fear in predicting sexually transmitted infection screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lee; Smith, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed the extent to which social-cognitive factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and the fear of a positive test result predict sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening intentions and subsequent behaviour. Study 1 (N = 85) used a longitudinal design to assess the factors that predict STI screening intention and future screening behaviour measured one month later at Time 2. Study 2 (N = 102) used an experimental design to determine whether the relationship between fear and screening varied depending on whether STI or HIV screening was being assessed both before and after controlling for social-cognitive factors. Across the studies the outcome measures were sexual health screening. In both studies, the fear of having an STI positively predicted STI screening intention. In Study 1, fear, but not the social-cognitive factors, also predicted subsequent STI screening behaviour. In Study 2, the fear of having HIV did not predict HIV screening intention, but attitude negatively and response efficacy positively predicted screening intention. This study highlights the importance of considering the nature of the health condition when assessing the role of fear on health promotion.

  15. Sex Work Regulation and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Gonzalez, Fidel

    2017-05-01

    While reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections is a common argument for regulating sex work, relatively little empirical evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of these policies. We investigate the effects of highly publicized sex work regulations introduced in 2005 in Tijuana, Mexico on the incidence of trichomoniasis. State-level, annual data for the 1995-2012 period are employed that include the incidence rates of trichomoniasis by age group and predictor variables. We find that the regulations led to a decrease in the incidence rate of trichomoniasis. Specifically, while our estimates are somewhat noisy, the all-ages incidence rate in the 2005-2012 period is roughly 37% lower than what is predicted by our synthetic control estimates and corresponds to approximately 800 fewer reported cases of trichomoniasis per year. We find that the decreases are especially pronounced for 15-24 and 25-44 age cohorts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Multiplex PCR testing for nine different sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar S; Barrus, Cammie; Vaughn, Mike; Gardner, Jordan; Crisp, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Current sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is not optimal due to delays in reporting or missed diagnoses due to a lack of comprehensive testing. The FilmArray® (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah) is a user-friendly, fully automated, multiplex PCR system that is being developed for rapid point-of-care use. A research-use-only STI panel including multiple PCR primer sets for each organism was designed to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Standard clinical testing included Gram stain, nucleic acid amplification, wet mount examination, herpes simplex virus culture, and syphilis IgG. Standard clinical tests were not available for all the organisms tested by the FilmArray STI panel. Two hundred and ninety-five clinical specimens from 190 subjects were directly compared to standard testing. Urine (n = 146), urethral/cervical swabs (31), oral swabs (60), rectal swabs (43), and ulcer swabs (15) were tested. Among the tested samples, FilmArray detected C. trachomatis in 39 (13%), N. gonorrhoeae in 20 (7%), T. vaginalis in nine (3%), HSV 1 in five (2%), HSV 2 in five (2%), U. urealyticum in 36 (12%), M. genitalium in eight (3%), and T. pallidum in 11 (4%). Concordance between the FilmArray STI panel and standard nucleic acid amplification testing for C. trachomatis was 98% and for N. gonorrhoeae was 97%. Multiplex PCR STI testing has the potential to improve public health by providing rapid, sensitive, and reliable results within the clinic or nearby laboratory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Identifying outbreaks of sexually transmitted infection: who cares?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Meirion R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current routine surveillance schemes for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the United Kingdom (UK are not designed for outbreak identification. Recognising STI outbreaks, therefore, depends almost entirely on the alertness of health professionals. The objective of this study was to explore health professionals' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, identification and investigation of STI outbreaks in Wales. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Wales in June 2005, and sent a questionnaire to consultants of genitourinary medicine (GUM, n = 11, a consultant microbiologist from each laboratory (n = 14, all consultants in communicable disease control (n = 5, and to epidemiologists of the National Public Health Service (n = 4. Results 26 (76% of 34 survey recipients responded. Of these, 17 (65% ranked the investigation of STI outbreaks as important or very important, and 19 (73% perceived participation in the investigation of an STI outbreak as part of their responsibility. Only six (25% respondents had actively searched their computer system or patient records for a possible STI outbreak in the previous twelve months, and 15 (63% had never looked for an outbreak. Of seven GUM physicians who said they had identified at least one STI outbreak, three had never informed public health authorities. Conclusion Prompt identification and coordinated investigation of outbreaks, usually through a multidisciplinary outbreak control team, is central to the control of many infectious diseases. This does not appear to be the case for STIs, which we believe represents a lost opportunity to reduce transmission. Besides improved surveillance methods, a change in culture towards STI outbreaks is needed among health professionals in Wales.

  18. Genome erosion in a nitrogen-fixing vertically transmitted endosymbiotic multicellular cyanobacterium.

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    Liang Ran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An ancient cyanobacterial incorporation into a eukaryotic organism led to the evolution of plastids (chloroplasts and subsequently to the origin of the plant kingdom. The underlying mechanism and the identities of the partners in this monophyletic event remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To shed light on this evolutionary process, we sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium residing extracellularly in an endosymbiosis with a plant, the water-fern Azolla filiculoides Lam. This symbiosis was selected as it has characters which make it unique among extant cyanobacterial plant symbioses: the cyanobacterium lacks autonomous growth and is vertically transmitted between plant generations. Our results reveal features of evolutionary significance. The genome is in an eroding state, evidenced by a large proportion of pseudogenes (31.2% and a high frequency of transposable elements (approximately 600 scattered throughout the genome. Pseudogenization is found in genes such as the replication initiator dnaA and DNA repair genes, considered essential to free-living cyanobacteria. For some functional categories of genes pseudogenes are more prevalent than functional genes. Loss of function is apparent even within the 'core' gene categories of bacteria, such as genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient uptake. In contrast, serving as a critical source of nitrogen for the host, genes related to metabolic processes such as cell differentiation and nitrogen-fixation are well preserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first finding of genome degradation in a plant symbiont and phenotypically complex cyanobacterium and one of only a few extracellular endosymbionts described showing signs of reductive genome evolution. Our findings suggest an ongoing selective streamlining of this cyanobacterial genome which has resulted in an organism devoted to nitrogen fixation and devoid of autonomous growth. The cyanobacterial symbiont of Azolla

  19. Knowledge of adolescents regarding sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rebeca Aranha Arrais Santos; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Rolim, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira; Hora, Jessica Marques da; Linard, Andrea Gomes; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Oliveira, Priscila da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge of adolescents related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, and pregnancy, and understand the role of school in sex education. A qualitative descriptive study, developed through a semi-structured interview and a form for participant characterization, with 22 high school students from a public school aged 16 to 19 years. Data were submitted to content analysis. After analysis, four thematic categories were developed: sexuality and sex education; understanding of risk behaviors; knowledge of STI/AIDS; and knowledge of and practices for prevention. This study showed the need for preventive educational actions for adolescents, because the lack of information contributes to their vulnerability. The adolescents recognize the importance of sex education; therefore it is important to implement strategies to promote and protect health in the school environment to encourage and strengthen self-care in health. investigar o conhecimento de adolescentes relacionado às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST), AIDS e gravidez, além de conhecer a compreensão sobre o papel da escola na educação sexual. estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e formulário para caracterização dos participantes, com 22 adolescentes entre 16 e 19 anos de idade, estudantes do Ensino Médio em uma escola pública. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. da análise emergiram quatro categorias temáticas: Sexualidade e educação sexual; Compreensão de comportamentos de risco; Conhecimento de IST/AIDS; Conhecimento e práticas de prevenção. revelou-se a necessidade de ações educativas de prevenção para os adolescentes, pois a falta de informações contribui para a sua vulnerabilidade. Os adolescentes reconhecem a importância da educação sexual; consequentemente, é importante a implementação de estratégias de promoção e de proteção à saúde no ambiente escolar para contribuir e

  20. Prevalence and predictors of sexually transmitted infections in hazardously-drinking incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Incarcerated women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Left untreated, these infections can have severe adverse health effects. In this study the authors present prevalence rates of trichomonas, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and factors related to having a sexually transmitted infection in a sample of 245 hazardously-drinking incarcerated women who reported heterosexual intercourse in the previous 3 months. Vaginal swabs were collected following the self-report baseline assessment. Participants averaged 34.0 (±8.8) years of age; 174 (71.3%) were non-Hispanic Caucasian, 47 (19.3%) were African-American, 17 (7.0%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.5%) were of other racial or ethnic origins. Twenty-three percent of participants tested positive for chlamydia, trichomonas, or gonorrhea. Being African-American, more frequent sex with a casual partner, and reporting more than one male partner were significantly positively related to sexually transmitted infection, while more frequent sex with a main partner was inversely related. Due to the high rates of infection in this population, jail admission provides a public health opportunity to access a concentrated group of sexually transmitted infectious women. Sexually transmitted infection testing targeted at specific demographic factors, for instance younger age, will miss infected women. Risky sexual partnerships, as well as the benefit of maintaining stable main partnerships may be important topics during sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions.

  1. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  2. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  3. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections for HIV prevention: end of the road or new beginning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized

  4. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  5. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  6. When should a trophically and vertically transmitted parasite manipulate its intermediate host? The case of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lélu, Maud; Langlais, Michel; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Gandon, Sylvain

    2013-08-22

    Parasites with complex life cycles are expected to manipulate the behaviour of their intermediate hosts (IHs), which increase their predation rate and facilitate the transmission to definitive hosts (DHs). This ability, however, is a double-edged sword when the parasite can also be transmitted vertically in the IH. In this situation, as the manipulation of the IH behaviour increases the IH death rate, it conflicts with vertical transmission, which requires healthy and reproducing IHs. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a widespread pathogen, combines both trophic and vertical transmission strategies. Is parasite manipulation of host behaviour still adaptive in this situation? We model the evolution of the IH manipulation by T. gondii to study the conflict between these two routes of transmission under different epidemiological situations. Model outputs show that manipulation is particularly advantageous for virulent strains and in epidemic situations, and that different levels of manipulation may evolve depending on the sex of the IH and the transmission routes considered. These results may help to understand the variability of strain characteristics encountered for T. gondii and may extend to other trophically transmitted parasites.

  7. Pattern Of Sexually Transmitted Infections In A Reference Clinic Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonorrhea and scabies made up 3 (3.33%) each of the cases while genital herpes including infective Herpes zoster and Molluscum contagiosum associated infections accounted for 2.22% each of the cases. Conclusion: The patients presented with significant range of STIs with some showing similar prevalence rate.

  8. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela S.; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Zida, Elisabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old ...

  9. Congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted by human immunodeficiency-virus infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Martins Lopes de Azevedo

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in three infants born to HIV infected women who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM during pregnancy. We briefly reviewed available literature and discussed the possible transmission mechanisms of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women. Serum samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies using commercial enzyme immunoassay and IgG-avidity tests. In the first case, fetal death occurred at 28th week of gestation. In the second case, congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosis at 6th month of life; and in the third case, an HIV-infected newborn, congenital toxoplasmosis was asymptomatic. These cases point out to the possibility of enhanced maternal-fetal transmission of T. gondii infection by HIV-infected women chronically infected, which may have important public health consequences, considering that increasing frequency of HIV-infection has been observed among women of childbearing age around the world.

  10. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  11. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  13. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and may lead to severe consequences. We assessed the extent of co-infection between Schistosoma haematobium and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... interval =1.58–2.93; plumbricoides and T. trichiura infection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...... schistosomiasis and A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. We cautiously suggest that all S. haematobium endemic areas should be treated for STH infections....

  14. Schistosoma haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-18

    Aug 18, 2016 ... Key words: Haematuria, proteinuria, Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, helminthes,. Bulinus globosus ... Annually, 150, 000 deaths attributable to chronic S. ..... 100. * 1 - 50 eggs/10 ml urine; a tested the null hypothesis that proteinuria and haematuria are not predictive of S. haematobium infection ...

  15. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening test for syphilis was positive in 106(34.2%) subjects, while 5(50.0%) of the 10 serum samples screened for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies were reactive. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated in 2(4.1%) of males and 7(3.0%) of infected females. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only in 33(14.1%) females.

  16. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schistosomes and geohelminths are highly prevalent causing serious health problem in the tropics. School children carry the heaviest burden of morbidity due to intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of the major intestinal ...

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Background: Schistosomes and geohelminths are highly prevalent causing serious health problem in the tropics. School children carry the heaviest burden of morbidity due to intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of the major.

  18. Seroprevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The objective is to establish the relationship between STD'S/ HIV infection and vaginal douching with lime/lemon juice among commercial sex workers. Method: 194 CSW's consented for this population base study in-depth interviews were conducted Pelvic examination was carried OUI, vaginal swabs were taken and ...

  19. The treatment of sexually transmitted infections | Eyk | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main curable STIs consist of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis, most of which occur in the developing world. The inability to adequately treat the infections leads to morbidity and has wide-ranging consequences on reproductive health and the health of infants. Due to the inefficient treatment of STIs, the ...

  20. Eliminating vertically-transmitted HIV/AIDS while improving access to treatment and care for women, children and adolescents in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, C D C; Pierre, R B

    2012-07-01

    To celebrate Jamaica's 50th birthday after receiving independence from Great Britain, we summarize our collaborative published research in the prevention, treatment and care of paediatric, perinatal and adolescent HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. Public access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Jamaica has shown that a "test and treat" strategy associated with "treatment for prevention" works for HIV-infected pregnant women by reducing their HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality and reducing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates to ART and improved collaborative capacity in ART management. Successful transition of HIV-infected children through adolescence into adulthood requires a strong multidisciplinary team approach, including long-term ART management addressing non-adherence, drug resistance and toxicity, treatment failure and limited options for second line and salvage therapy, while attending to their sexual and reproductive health, psychosocial, educational and vocational issues and palliative care. Over the past nine years, Jamaica has made excellent strides to eliminate vertically transmitted HIV/AIDS, while reducing the HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and in HIV-infected children. Continued successful transition of HIV-infected children through adolescence into adulthood will require a strong multidisciplinary team approach.

  1. Invasive North American bullfrogs transmit lethal fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infections to native amphibian host species

    OpenAIRE

    Miaud, C.; Dejean, T.; Savard, K.; Millery, A.; Valentini, A.; Gaudin, N. C. G.; Garner, T. W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species can be a threat to native species in several ways, including transmitting lethal infections caused by the parasites they carry. However, invasive species may also be plagued by novel and lethal infections they acquire when invading, making inferences regarding the ability of an invasive host to vector disease difficult from field observations of infection and disease. This is the case for the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Europe and one invasive hos...

  2. Risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Margarita Villafañe-Ferrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are an epidemiologic and clinical problem of first order in all the world by effect that can produce and their economic consequences. Adolescents and young are in most risk to have these diseases by facts such as premature sexual relationships and promiscuity. The objective of this investigation was to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in students’ community. Correlational cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was applied to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections to 128 students’ community. In this study was found 78.1% of students had sexual relationships. 55% of students drink alcohol before a sexual relationship. By means of statistical analysis was found association between sexually transmitted infections and drug use (p=0.042. Students had a regular level of knowledge. It not was found association between risk behaviors and level of knowledge (p>0.05. Results found in this investigation demonstrate the necessity of making activities for prevention of these infections and motivating changes of behaviors for reducing risk of contagion of these infections

  3. Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde-Jurado, Elizabeth; Estrada-Reyes, Elizabeth; Eraña-Guerra, Luis; Raya-Rivera, Atlántida; Velázquez-Armenta, E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2003-01-01

    To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital). Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed p sexually transmitted microorganism and 52 of them denied ever having sexual activity. Age, education and socioeconomic level, development of sexual characters, and presence of menstruation did not differ between patients with and without sexually transmitted infections. The presence of sexually transmitted infections was associated with lower abdominal pain, abnormally colored vaginal discharge, a positive urine culture, and an abdominal ultrasonographic evidence, compatible with pelvic inflammatory disease (ultrasonographic odds ratio 144.8; 95% CI 51.0 to 411.3). There is an association between sexually transmitted infections in young women with vulvovaginitis and lower abdominal pain, abnormally colored vaginal discharge, a positive urine culture, and an abdominal ultrasonographic evidence compatible with pelvic inflammatory disease. The English version of this paper is available too at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  4. Expedited partner treatment for sexually transmitted infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Hogben, Matthew

    2011-04-01

    To date, seven randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of expedited partner treatment (EPT). These trials have included heterosexual men and women and examine EPT for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis. These studies demonstrated either superiority for percentage of partners being treated, for a reduction in repeat infections, or cost benefit for EPT compared to the standard partner referral method and reported no adverse events. In the United States, although the number of states where EPT is legal continues to grow, adoption of EPT remains low. Provider concerns about liability and payment issues continue to be a barrier to implementation of EPT. More translational research is needed to improve adoption by the players involved: index patients, partners, providers, and payers.

  5. Nef gene evolution from a single transmitted strain in acute SIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimber Benjamin N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acute phase of immunodeficiency virus infection plays a crucial role in determining steady-state virus load and subsequent progression of disease in both humans and nonhuman primates. The acute period is also the time when vaccine-mediated effects on host immunity are likely to exert their major effects on virus infection. Recently we developed a Monte-Carlo (MC simulation with mathematical analysis of viral evolution during primary HIV-1 infection that enables classification of new HIV-1 infections originating from multiple versus single transmitted viral strains and the estimation of time elapsed following infection. Results A total of 322 SIV nef SIV sequences, collected during the first 3 weeks following experimental infection of two rhesus macaques with the SIVmac239 clone, were analyzed and found to display a comparable level of genetic diversity, 0.015% to 0.052%, with that of env sequences from acute HIV-1 infection, 0.005% to 0.127%. We confirmed that the acute HIV-1 infection model correctly identified the experimental SIV infections in rhesus macaques as "homogenous" infections, initiated by a single founder strain. The consensus sequence of the sampled strains corresponded to the transmitted sequence as the model predicted. However, measured sequential decrease in diversity at day 7, 11, and 18 post infection violated the model assumption, neutral evolution without any selection. Conclusion While nef gene evolution over the first 3 weeks of SIV infection originating from a single transmitted strain showed a comparable rate of sequence evolution to that observed during acute HIV-1 infection, a purifying selection for the founder nef gene was observed during the early phase of experimental infection of a nonhuman primate.

  6. Semen from scrapie-infected rams does not transmit prion infection to transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradin, Pierre; Melo, Sandrine; Barc, Céline; Lecomte, Céline; Andréoletti, Olivier; Lantier, Frédéric; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Gatti, Jean-Luc

    2008-03-01

    Scrapie is the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in livestock. Natural contamination in sheep flocks is presumed to occur by maternal transmission to offspring. However, horizontal prion transmission from animal to animal exists and may be significant in sustaining and spreading contagion in the field. Artificial insemination is widely used in modern farming, and as large amounts of prion protein have been found in sheep sperm membrane, epididymal fluid and seminal plasma, horizontal transmission by this route was hypothesized since no clear information has been obtained on possible sexual transmission of TSE. We therefore tested the contamination levels of semen from scrapie-infected rams at different stages of incubation, including the clinical phase of the disease. We report here that under our experimental conditions ram semen did not transmit infectivity to scrapie-susceptible transgenic mice overexpressing the V(136)R(154)Q(171) allele of the sheep prion (PRNP) gene. These results suggest that artificial insemination and natural mating have a very low or negligible potential for the transmission of scrapie in sheep flocks.

  7. The Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests should receive method- and use-effectiveness evaluations. Method-effectiveness evaluations determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for new tests. Use-effectiveness evaluations determine how practical or convenient a new test will be in a specific setting and may not be performed in a formal way in North American laboratories. To perform a clinical method evaluation of diagnostic tests, a good relationship between laboratory and clinical personnel is essential. Studies are usually conducted separately on populations of men and women, and should include sampling from different prevalence groups. Test performance comparisons may be made on a single specimen type or on more than one specimen from the same patient, which allows for the expansion of a reference standard and includes the ability of a particular assay, performed on a specimen type to diagnose an infected individual. The following components of the evaluation should be standardized and carefully followed: specimen identification; collection; transportation; processing; quality control; reading; proficiency testing; confirmatory testing; discordant analysis -- sensitivity, specificity and predictive value calculations; and record keeping. Methods are available to determine whether sample results are true or false positives or negatives. Use-effectiveness evaluations might determine the stability or durability of supplies and equipment; the logistics of shipping, receiving and storing supplies; the clarity and completeness of test instructions; the time and effort required to process and read results; the subjectivity factors in interpretation and reporting; and the costs. These determinations are usually more apparent for commercial assays than for homemade tests.

  8. Enhanced Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening for Mycoplasma genitalium in Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Infected US Air Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakre, Shilpa; Casimier, Rosemary O; Danboise, Brooke A; Peel, Sheila A; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F

    2017-10-16

    Three-site genital and extragenital screening for Mycoplasma genitalium in 102 asymptomatic Air Force members with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection revealed 19 (18.6%) cases of M. genitalium, commonly (58%) in rectal samples. Because M. genitalium is associated with both HIV acquisition and transmission, these findings suggest that it should be included in routine screening of HIV-infected individuals for sexually transmitted infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Vertical transmission of sublethal granulovirus infection in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, J P; Griffiths, C M; Cory, J S; Smith, P; Sait, S M

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of pathogen persistence in relation to fluctuations in host density is crucial to our understanding of disease dynamics. In the case of insect baculoviruses, which are typically transmitted horizontally via a lifestage that can persist outside the host, a key issue that remains to be elucidated is whether the virus can also be transmitted vertically as a sublethal infection. We show that RNA transcripts for the Plodia interpunctella GV granulin gene are present in a high proportion of P. interpunctella insects that survive virus challenge. Granulin is a late-expressed gene that is only transcribed after viral genome replication, its presence thus strongly indicates that viral genome replication has occurred. Almost all insects surviving the virus challenge tested positive for viral RNA in the larval and pupal stage. However, this proportion declined in the emerging adults. Granulin mRNA was also detected in both the ovaries and testes, which may represent a putative mechanism by which reduced fecundity in sublethally affected hosts might be manifested. RNA transcripts were also detected in 60-80% of second-generation larvae that were derived from mating surviving adults, but there was no difference between the sexes, with both males and females capable of transmitting a sublethal infection to their offspring. The data indicate that low-level persistent infection, with at least limited gene expression, can occur in P. interpunctella following survival of a granulovirus challenge. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a persistent, sublethal infection by a baculovirus to be initiated by a sublethal virus dose. We hypothesize that the 'latent' baculovirus infections frequently referred to in the literature may also be low level persistent, sublethal infections resulting from survival from initial baculovirus exposure.

  10. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87 were collected for HPV-DNA testing. METHODS: A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. RESULTS: The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318 balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405 urethral (p35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104 of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy, and in 22.8% (61/267 without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56 men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109 of men with positive peniscopy. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  12. Medical and Legal Implications of Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillén, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possib...

  13. The risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route | Matee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparently, the risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route is small. This information should serve to alleviate fears and concerns of the rapidly growing number of household members and other close. contacts of patients with AIDS, professionals attending these patients, as well as the population at large.

  14. Paradoxical associations between soil-transmitted helminths and Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Guerra, Ángela P; Moncada, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Barrera, Sandra M; Cortés, Liliana J; Olivera, Mario; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-11-01

    Evidence on the comorbidity between soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria is scarce and divergent. This study explored the interactions between soil-transmitted helminth infections and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of Colombia. A paired case-control study matched by sex, age and location in Tierralta, Cordoba, was done between January and September 2010. The incident cases were 68 patients with falciparum malaria and 178 asymptomatic controls. A questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables. Additionally physical examinations were carried out, stool samples were analysed for intestinal parasites and blood samples for Ig E concentrations. We found associations between infection with hookworm (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.68-11.31) and Ascaris lumbricoides (OR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.18-1.04) and the occurrence of falciparum malaria. The effects of soil-transmitted helminths on the occurrence of malaria were found to be paradoxical. While hookworm is a risk factor, A. lumbricoides has a protective effect. The findings suggest that, in addition to the comorbidity, the presence of common determinants of soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria could also exist. While the biological mechanisms involved are not clear, public health policies aimed at the control of their common social and environmental determinants are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  16. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth

  17. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance.

  18. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  19. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2004 An update: November 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar MJW van de; Boer IM de; Koedijk FDH; Op de Coul ELM; HIV Monitoring Foundation and; STI sentinel surveillance network; ISIS laboratory surveillance; ISIS/Osiris - Inspectorate of Health; Healthcare Insurance Board; CIE

    2005-01-01

    The increasing trend of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) has continued further in 2004, despite a slight levelling off in 2003. The rise was observed both in the number of consultations and STI among heterosexuals and men having sex with men (MSM). In 2004, the number of new HIV diagnoses in

  20. Bacterial etiology of sexually transmitted infections at a STI clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial etiology of sexually transmitted infections at a STI clinic in Ghana; use of multiplex real time PCR. Augustina A Sylverken, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Denis D Yar, Samson P Salifu, Nana Yaa Awua-Boateng, John H Amuasi, Portia B Okyere, Thomas Agyarko-Poku ...

  1. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  2. Sociodemographic profile of blind people: associations with knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Kaline Ferreira Araújo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze associations among sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and practice ofblind people about sexually transmitted infections. Methods: descriptive transversal study with a quantitative approach.Participants were 36 blind individuals. The questionnaire Knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmittedinfections was used. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. There were Chi-square test and chi-square Exact.Results: most participants are elderly, unmarried, with elementary school and not working. Knowledge, attitude andpractice about sexually transmitted infections are inadequate (p<0.05. Religion (p<0.001, work (p<0.001, not workingreason (p<0.001 and education (p=0.003 had associations with the attitude about sexually transmitted infections. Gender(p<0.001, marital status (p=0.019 and education (p=0.020 had associations with practice. There was no associationbetween sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge. Conclusion: sociodemographic characteristics may interferewith the attitude and practice of blind people about sexually transmitted infections, and the nurse should consider thesecharacteristics in professional practice with those subjects.

  3. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Melón, Santiago; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Boga, Jose Antonio; Villa, Laura; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; de Oña, María

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87) were collected for HPV-DNA testing. A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318) balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405) urethral (pmen. Co-infections were present in 5.4% (80/1469) of cases. HPV was found in 43.9% (373/850) of men younger than 35 vs. 31.7% (187/589) of men aged >35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104) of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy), and in 22.8% (61/267) without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56) men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109) of men with positive peniscopy. HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Nigerian pregnant women and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p < 0.05). The frequency of STIs was lowest (18.2%) and highest (71.4%) in age groups ≥ 39 and 15-20 years, respectively. Low levels of education, multiple sexual partners, lack of knowledge on partners' STI history, and having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs were risk factors of for STIs (p < 0.05). We found a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Bacterial sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected patients in the United States: estimates from the Medical Monitoring Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg, Elaine W; Weinstock, Hillard S; Frazier, Emma L; Valverde, Eduardo E; Heffelfinger, James D; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial sexually transmitted infections may facilitate HIV transmission. Bacterial sexually transmitted infection testing is recommended for sexually active HIV-infected patients annually and more frequently for those at elevated sexual risk. We estimated percentages of HIV-infected patients in the United States receiving at least one syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia test, and repeat (≥2 tests, ≥3 months apart) tests for any of these sexually transmitted infections from mid-2008 through mid-2010. The Medical Monitoring Project collects behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States using nationally representative sampling. Sexual activity included self-reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex in the past 12 months. Participants reporting more than 1 sexual partner or illicit drug use before/during sex in the past year were classified as having elevated sexual risk. Among participants with only 1 sex partner and no drug use before/during sex, those reporting consistent condom use were classified as low risk; those reporting sex without a condom (or for whom this was unknown) were classified as at elevated sexual risk only if they considered their sex partner to be a casual partner, or if their partner was HIV-negative or partner HIV status was unknown. Bacterial sexually transmitted infection testing was ascertained through medical record abstraction. Among sexually active patients, 55% were tested at least once in 12 months for syphilis, whereas 23% and 24% received at least one gonorrhea and chlamydia test, respectively. Syphilis testing did not vary by sex/sexual orientation. Receipt of at least 3 CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts and/or HIV viral load tests in 12 months was associated with syphilis testing in men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with women only, and women. Chlamydia testing was significantly higher in sexually active women (30%) compared with men who have sex with women only

  6. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naucke Torsten J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L. infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72. The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78. Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany.

  8. Systematic review of interventions to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, among young people in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....

  9. Sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women attending inner city public sexually transmitted diseases clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hope L; Ghanem, Khalil G; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Erbelding, Emily J

    2011-03-01

    Studies in antenatal care clinics suggest that lower genital tract infections (LGTI) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). We sought to characterize antenatal care patterns and determine whether LGTI are independently associated with preterm birth and/or low-birth weight among a high-risk public sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic population. Electronic STD clinic medical records and state birth records were matched for 730 pregnant women age 13 to 49 tested for 5 treatable LGTI (bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis, and trichomoniasis) in a case-control analysis. Cases were women with preterm and/or low-birth weight newborns; controls were women without APO. The association between LGTI and APO was assessed using logistic regression. Although pregnant women attending STD clinics reported high risk behaviors and were found to have high rates of LGTI (55%), most of these women were engaged in antenatal care (85%). Of the pregnant women, 22% experienced an APO (7% preterm birth, 4% low birth weight, and 12% preterm birth and low birth weight). In multivariate analyses, chlamydia was associated with low-birth weight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-4.24), and gonorrhea was associated with preterm birth (aOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.02-3.97), particularly when diagnosed during the first trimester (aOR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.30-6.70). Our findings confirm the association of some LGTI with APO and suggest that timing of LGTI screening may affect outcomes. STD clinic visits represent a critical opportunity to target interventions aimed at improving pregnancy outcomes.

  10. [Validation of an HIV and other sexually transmitted infections knowledge scale in an adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A

    2016-05-01

    Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections as measured by prostate-specific antigen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, S; Nevin, R L; Pakpahan, R; Elliott, D J; Cole, S R; De Marzo, A M; Gaydos, C A; Isaacs, W B; Nelson, W G; Sokoll, L J; Zenilman, J M; Cersovsky, S B; Platz, E A

    2011-08-23

    We investigated prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate infection, inflammation, and/or cell damage in young, male US military members. We measured PSA before and during infection for 299 chlamydia, 112 gonorrhoea, and 59 non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) cases, and 256 controls. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea, but not NCNGU, cases were more likely to have a large rise (40%) in PSA than controls (33.6%, 19.1%, and 8.2% vs 8.8%, P<0.0001, 0.021, and 0.92, respectively). Chlamydia and gonorrhoea may infect the prostate of some infected men.

  13. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Durbete Town, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Alelign

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying determinants of soil transmitted helminth infection is vital to design control strategy for the disease. This study assessed the prevalence of STH infections and associated factors among schoolchildren in Durbete town, northwestern Ethiopia. Data about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic status of the children were collected using a questionnaire and stool samples were diagnosed using thick Kato-Katz smear. STH infection was more common among school-age children in Durbete town. Hookworm was the most frequent helminth species detected. The prevalence of STH infection was more in children who did not practice wearing shoes and washing hands before eating and in those who were older in age. Deworming of school-age children in the study area would be important. In addition, provision of health education about helminths and the importance of wearing shoes and washing hands before eating would be important to reduce the burden of STH infection in the study area.

  14. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI-related morb......Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI...... as patient referral, provider referral, and contract or conditional referral. Lack of consensus about the most effective methods of partner notification is another reason for the diversity of practice across countries and also represents a challenge to improving partner efforts....

  15. Sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia: a biosocial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Kaufman, Joan; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Kleinman, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    The Harvard University Asia Center hosted a symposium in October 2010 focused on sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia, engaging a biosocial approach to promote sexual health in this region. Asia has an estimated 151 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; eg, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) each year, with commercial sex interactions playing a large role in ongoing transmission. Substantial human movement and migration, gender inequalities, and incipient medical and legal systems in many states stymie effective STI control in Asia. The articles in this supplement provide theoretical and empirical pathways to improving the sexual health of those who sell and purchase commercial sex in Asia. The unintended health consequences of various forms of regulating commercial sex are also reviewed, emphasizing the need to carefully consider the medical and public health consequences of new and existing policies and laws.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Sexually Transmitted Infections in the U.S. Military: How Gender Influences Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stahlman, Shauna Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the U.S. military have historically been higher than those of civilians. One likely contributor to high military STI rates is the high prevalence of behaviors that correspond with transmission of STIs, including binge drinking, lack of condom use, and multiple sexual partnerships. Other potential contributors include the high prevalence of mental health conditions as well as unwanted sexual contact (i.e., sexual assault). In particular, women...

  18. Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain Abortion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Minors.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Dee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Report evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  19. The Effect of Premarital Sex on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and High Risk Behaviors in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebremichael, Musie S; Finkelman, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to study the effect of premarital sex on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high risk behaviors among women in sub-Saharan Africa. It included 1393 women randomly selected from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participants’ demographic and socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, condom use, number of partners, symptoms of STIs and age at first sex and marriage were obtained. Moreover, blood and urine samples were tested for HIV-1, HSV-2, syphi...

  20. Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Livingston, Melvin D; Christou, Alana M; Jernigan, David H; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol taxes reduce population-level excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, yet little is known about the distribution of the effects of alcohol taxation across race/ethnicity and age subgroups. We examined the race/ethnicity- and age group-specific effects of an excise alcohol tax increase on a common and routinely collected alcohol-related morbidity indicator, sexually transmitted infections. We used an interrupted time series design to examine the effect of a 2009 alcohol tax increase in Illinois, USA on new cases of two common sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia and gonorrhea) reported to the US National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System from January 2003 to December 2011 (n = 108 repeated monthly observations). We estimated the effects of the tax increase on infection rates in the general population and within specific race/ethnicity and age subgroups using mixed models accounting for temporal trends and median income. Following the Illinois alcohol tax increase, state-wide rates of gonorrhea decreased 21% [95% confidence Interval (CI) = -25.7, -16.7] and chlamydia decreased 11% [95% CI = -17.8, -4.4], resulting in an estimated 3506 fewer gonorrhea infections and 5844 fewer chlamydia infections annually. The null hypothesis of homogenous effects by race/ethnicity and age was rejected (P < 0.0001). Significant reductions were observed among non-Hispanic blacks: gonorrhea rates decreased 25.6% (95% CI = -30.0, -21.0) and chlamydia rates decreased 14.7% (95% CI = -20.9, -8.0). Among non-Hispanics, point estimates suggest decreases were highest among 25-29-year-olds. Increased alcohol taxes appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burdens, such as non-Hispanic blacks. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Brian E; Butler, Lisa M; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George W

    2011-03-16

    The transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is closely related to the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar risk behaviours, such as frequent unprotected intercourse with different partners, place people at high risk of HIV and STIs, and there is clear evidence that many STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. STI control, especially at the population or community level, may have the potential to contribute substantially to HIV prevention.This is an update of an existing Cochrane review. The review's search methods were updated and its inclusion and exclusion criteria modified so that the focus would be on one well-defined outcome. This review now focuses explicitly on population-based biomedical interventions for STI control, with change in HIV incidence being an outcome necessary for a study's inclusion. To determine the impact of population-based biomedical STI interventions on the incidence of HIV infection. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science/Social Science, PsycINFO, and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), for the period of 1 January1980 - 16 August 2010. We initially identified 6003 articles and abstracts. After removing 776 duplicates, one author (TH) removed an additional 3268 citations that were clearly irrelevant. Rigorously applying the inclusion criteria, three authors then independently screened the remaining 1959 citations and abstracts. Forty-six articles were chosen for full-text scrutiny by two authors. Ultimately, four studies were included in the review.We also searched the Aegis database of conference abstracts, which includes the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), the International AIDS Conference (IAC), and International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS) meetings from their inception dates (1993, 1985 and

  2. [Is the Papanicolaou smear useful as aid for diagnosing some sexually transmitted infections?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pedraza Avilés, A; Ortiz Zaragoza, C; Topete Barrera, L; Mota Vázquez, R; Ponce Rosas, R

    2001-03-15

    We undertook this study to assess the validity of cytologic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections like: bacterial vaginosis (BV), tricomoniasis and candidiasis using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Prospective, descriptive transverse study. The present study was carried out in the Health Center Dr. José Castro Villagrana in Tlalpan, México, D.F. from January 1997, to February 2000. Routine Pap smears and vaginal secretion smears were collected from two hundred and seventy one patients ranged from age 16-66 years, with cervicovaginitis diagnosis. Of the 271 patients, 92 (33.9%) had bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Amsel criteria, 47 (17.3%) had candidiasis by culture and 5 (1.8%) had tricomoniasis by wet smear. The Bethesda system for diagnosing BV on Pap smear had 66% sensitivity and a specificity of 86%. The respective positive predictive and negative predictive value were 79% and 84%. Therefore, compared to the Candida culture, cervical cytologic test results had a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 99%. The predictive positive predictive and negative predictive values were 90% and 85%. Specificity tended to be higher than sensitivity, in other words cytology tended to be more efficient in identifying women without sexually transmitted infection than in identifying those with infection. In summary, the Pap smear should not be used in lieu of more effective diagnostic test for sexually transmitted disease, and treatment should not be based on cytologic findings alone.

  3. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...... collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had...... significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P women. There were no statistically significant...

  5. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  6. Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hazardously-Drinking Women Following Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and background At the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In the months following community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously-drinking women following incarceration. Methods Self-reported behavioral data were collected from 245 incarcerated women. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-month time-points and tested for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis. Treatment was provided for all positive tests. Results Participants’ mean age was 34.1 years of age, 175 (71.4%) (n=175) were Caucasian, 47 (19.2%) were African-American, 17 (6.9%) were Hispanic and 6 (2.4%) were of other ethnic origins. The STI incidence rate was estimated to be 30.5 (95%CI 21.3 – 43.5) new infections per 100 person-years. Number of male sex partners reported during follow-up was a significant (z = 2.16, p = .03) predictor of STI; each additional male sex partner increased the estimated hazard of STI by 1.26. Conclusions and discussion Incarcerated women who are hazardous drinkers are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection in the months following their return to the community. In addition to testing and treatment during incarceration, post-release rescreening, education, partner treatment, and follow-up are recommended. PMID:21835632

  7. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections at the Gabonese National Blood Transfusion Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerambiah, Leonard Kounegnigan; Rerambiah, Laurence Essola; Bengone, Calixte; Djoba Siawaya, Joel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. In contrast to the situation in the developed world, there is a limited number of studies examining this problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we aimed to calculate the risks of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from units of blood issued by the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre between 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods All the donations were tested for infectious diseases and the seroconversion incidence rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were calculated. The residual risk of transfusion-associated transmission for each virus was calculated by multiplying the seroconversion rates by the window period expressed in fractions of a year. Results The risks of becoming infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV in subjects receiving units of blood from the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre were 64.7, 207.94 and 534.53 per million donations, respectively. Conclusions This study, which is the first to quantify the true risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in Gabon, reveals and confirms the need to reinforce preventative and screening strategies to improve transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24333085

  8. [Level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in the population of female students at the University of Novi Sad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Svetlana; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The reason for extremely high incidence of sexually transmitted inflections is the lack of necessary knowledge about the mode of transmission and protection measures. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in the population of female students of the University of Novi Sad. The study included 397 female students at the University of Novi Sad from different faculties. A questionnaire was designed for the purpose of this research. Students from all faculties (55.7-66.7%), with the exception of the medical students, believe that the use of condoms is the safest way of protection from sexually transmitted infections. The medical students showed a different attitude and opinion on the use of condoms and avoidance of multiple sexual partners, which are important measures in the prevention of these diseases (38.8%). The fact that some sexually transmitted infections caused by viruses are associated with the malignancy of the cervix was recognized by 74.81% of students. The fact that the main therapeutic approach for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases is the simultaneous treatment of both partners was known by 81.86% of female students. As it is known, sexually transmitted infections may not always be symptomatic, which is an opinion held by 73.55% of students. Results obtained in this study indicate the need for implementation of educational activities about sexually transmitted infections, which would enable the preservation and promotion of reproductive health of young people.

  9. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

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    Aprilianto E Wiria

    Full Text Available Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects.We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections.From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L, insulin (pmol/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance.424 (66% participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03 and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05. In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01. This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07.STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  10. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiria, Aprilianto E; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J; Prasetyani, Margaretta A; Dekkers, Olaf M; May, Linda; Kaisar, Maria M M; Verweij, Jaco J; Guigas, Bruno; Partono, Felix; Sartono, Erliyani; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smit, Johannes W A

    2015-01-01

    Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects. We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections. From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L), insulin (pmol/L), high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml) and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml). The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance. 424 (66%) participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03) and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05). In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01). This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07). STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  11. Occupational Hazards, Public Health Risks: Sex Work and Sexually Transmitted Infections, their Epidemiological Liaisons and Disease Control Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Steen (Richard)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a large and diverse category within communicable diseases, comprising more than thirty-five pathogens transmissible through sexual contact. [1] Common, curable bacterial and protozoal STIs manifest with

  12. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Kaňková, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics

  13. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  14. Mapping the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections in the Philippines.

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    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães

    Full Text Available In order to increase the efficient allocation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH disease control resources in the Philippines, we aimed to describe for the first time the spatial variation in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm across the country, quantify the association between the physical environment and spatial variation of STH infection and develop predictive risk maps for each infection.Data on STH infection from 35,573 individuals across the country were geolocated at the barangay level and included in the analysis. The analysis was stratified geographically in two major regions: 1 Luzon and the Visayas and 2 Mindanao. Bayesian geostatistical models of STH prevalence were developed, including age and sex of individuals and environmental variables (rainfall, land surface temperature and distance to inland water bodies as predictors, and diagnostic uncertainty was incorporated. The role of environmental variables was different between regions of the Philippines. This analysis revealed that while A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections were widespread and highly endemic, hookworm infections were more circumscribed to smaller foci in the Visayas and Mindanao.This analysis revealed significant spatial variation in STH infection prevalence within provinces of the Philippines. This suggests that a spatially targeted approach to STH interventions, including mass drug administration, is warranted. When financially possible, additional STH surveys should be prioritized to high-risk areas identified by our study in Luzon.

  15. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

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    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  16. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  17. [Up to date in sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando; Otero, Luis; Ordás, José; Junquera, María Luisa; Varela, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, there have been important advances in sexually transmitted infections such as genome sequencing of Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium; the new taxonomic position of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis; commercial diagnostic systems based on nucleic acid amplification; the emergence of quinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae; new therapeutic approaches in vulvovaginal candidiasis that include boric acid; the demonstration that valacyclovir reduces the risk of transmission of genital herpes or the availability of immune-response modifier in the treatment of genital warts, and that are questions in the goal of this review. Viral hepatitis and HIV were no reviewed by space reasons.

  18. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; Hearst, Norman

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status.

  19. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Teenage Pregnancy in Rajavithi Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Chaovarindr, Udom; Kaoien, Surasak; Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Kovavisarach, Ekachai

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy. To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors. One hundred and twenty-one teenage pregnancies were recruited at the ANC in Rajavithi Hospital from October 2006 to May 2007. After signing informed consent forms, they were asked to answer questionnaires about baseline data, sexual information and risk factors, after which urine specimens were collected for screening for GC and CT using the PCR technique (AMPLICOR by Roche). Later, pelvic examination was per formed by the gynecologist at the STD (sexually transmitted disease) clinic. All the data and LAB results were recorded and analyzed by the SPSS program. Numbers, percentages, means with SD, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were used. Potential risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of STI in pregnant teenagers was 28.1% (CT = 19.8%, GC = 1.7%, hepatitis B = 3.3%, trichomoniasis 1.7%, Herpes simplex = 0.8% and condyloma acuminata = 0.8%). No Syphilis, chancroid or HIV were found in the present study Other non-STI like candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis were found in 45.5% of participants (candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis at 19.0% and 24.8%, respectively). The risk of CT infection was significantly related (6.9 times higher) to having previous sexual contact before the current partner (95% CI, 1.8-27.0). STI, especially Chlamydial infection, was found in a significant number of teenage pregnancies. Measures should be taken to prevent this resulting in complicated outcomes in the future.

  20. Sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections in symptomatic clients of pharmacies in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P J; Cárcamo, C P; Chiappe, M; Holmes, K K

    2007-04-01

    To determine prevalences and predictors of sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections among men and women seeking care at pharmacies. Men and women with urethral discharge or dysuria and vaginal discharge were enrolled at 12 central and 52 smaller pharmacies in Lima, Peru. All participants answered a questionnaire. Men provided urine for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and for leucocyte esterase testing. Women provided self-obtained vaginal swabs for PCR testing for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis culture and bacterial vaginosis and Candida. Among 106 symptomatic men, N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 34% and were associated with urethral discharge compared with dysuria only (odds ratio (OR) 4.3, p = 0.003), positive urine leucocyte esterase testing (OR 7.4, p = 0.009), less education (OR 5.5, p = 0.03), and with symptoms for <5 days (OR 2.5, p = 0.03). Among 121 symptomatic women, 39% had bacterial vaginosis or T vaginalis, and 7.7% had candidiasis. N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 12.4% of the women. Overall, 48.8% had one or more of these infections. No factors were associated with vaginal infection, and only symptoms of vaginal discharge for <5 days were associated with N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis (OR 4.0, p = 0.02). The main reason reported for seeking advice at pharmacies by both men and women was trust in pharmacy workers. Among men and women presenting to pharmacies with urethral and vaginal symptoms, rates of urethral and vaginal infections were comparable to those found in other clinical settings. Pharmacies can contribute to the care and prevention of sexually transmitted infection in developing countries.

  1. Recreational drug use during sex and sexually transmitted infections among clients of a city sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Urbanus, Anouk T; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim

    2012-07-01

    Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009, attendees of an STI clinic in Amsterdam were interviewed about sexual behavior and drug use during sex and tested for STI. Associations between sex-related drug use and STI were assessed separately for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. We examined whether drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior. Nine hundred sixty-one heterosexual men, 673 MSM, and 1188 women participated in this study. Of these, 11.9% had chlamydia, 3.4% gonorrhea, and 1.2% syphilis. Sex-related drug use in the previous 6 months was reported by 22.6% of heterosexual men, 51.6% of MSM, and 16.0% of women. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for demographics (and high-risk sexual behavior in MSM), sex-related drug use was associated with STI in MSM (any drugs and poppers) and women (GHB and XTC) but not in heterosexual men. Stratified analysis in MSM showed that sex-related use of poppers was associated with STI in HIV-negative MSM but not in HIV-infected MSM. Clients reported frequent sex-related drug use, which was associated with STI in MSM and women. In MSM, sex-related drug use was associated with STI after adjusting for high-risk sexual behavior but only in HIV-negative MSM. Prevention measures targeted at decreasing sex-related drug use could reduce the incidence of STI.

  2. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Strunz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.60. Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39-0.41 and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28-3.11. Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76, T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74, and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88, but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.06. Wearing shoes was associated with reduced odds

  4. A Scoping Review and Prevalence Analysis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Background Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Objectives Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Results Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. Conclusions This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical

  5. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari

    2012-06-15

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  6. Effect of Sanitation on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR  =  0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60–1.00) were determined for T. trichiura

  7. ALThe incidence of sexually transmitted infections and contagious skin diseases in the Saratov region

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    Schnaider D.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and epidemiological analysis of the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI and the most frequently reported infectious skin diseases in the Saratov region. To estimate the contribution of immigrants to the formation and number of episodes of infections with sexually transmission in the region. Materials and methods. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and manifestations of the epidemiological process conducted by evaluating data obtained from the forms of state statistical reporting (№ 9 and № 34, annual report of Saratov regional dermatovenerologic dispensary (2009-2013. Results. We carried out a comparative analysis of the incidence of STI and the most common infectious skin diseases of the population of Saratov region and noted resistant dynamics to decrease. Conclusion. Population displacement within the country and the influx of immigrants from the former CIS countries, have a significant impact on the epidemiological situation in the Saratov region

  8. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

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    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pHymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66%) than females (20

  9. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, Maysa A I; Salem, Lobna M A

    2015-08-01

    This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pspp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara

  10. Contextual Factors Surrounding Anal Intercourse in Women: Implications for Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention.

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    Stahlman, Shauna; Hirz, Alanna E; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M; Javanbakht, Marjan

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to describe women's reasons for engaging in anal intercourse (AI), contextual factors surrounding AI, and how these vary by current rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) status, and to assess women's knowledge and concerns about rectal infections. Between January 2011 and June 2013, we conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews among 40 women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California. Women were eligible if they were at least 18 years of age, reported AI in the past 90 days, and were tested for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Interviews, which were guided by the theory of gender and power, were transcribed and coded to explore contextual factors surrounding AI. On average, participants reported having 3 AI partners in their lifetime and most (n = 30) reported being in a serious relationship with a main/regular sex partner at the time of the interview. Motivations for engaging in AI and feelings about AI varied by rectal STI status. Women with a rectal STI more prominently conveyed the idea that AI was intended to please their sexual partner, whereas those who did not have a rectal STI reported AI more as a way to increase intimacy and personal sexual gratification. Almost all women (regardless of rectal STI status) reported limited to no knowledge about the risk of rectal STIs. Among women, risk of acquiring rectal STIs may vary by reason for engaging in unprotected AI as well as other contextual factors. Providers should consider addressing these contextual factors to reduce risk.

  11. Examining the scope of public health nursing practice in sexually transmitted infection prevention and management: what do nurses do?

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    Bungay, Vicky; Masaro, Cindy L; Gilbert, Mark

    2014-11-01

    To develop a more comprehensive understanding of the scope of public health nursing practice in the prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections and also to examine the public health nursing workforce in sexually transmitted infection care and the range of patient populations served. Sexually transmitted infections are increasing, widespread and remain a significant public health problem throughout the world. Although nurses are taking on expanded roles in sexually transmitted infection care, little is known about the scope of this practice. A cross-sectional descriptive study took place over 18 months (2009-2010). Three hundred and fourteen eligible nurses completed a 62-item questionnaire. 93·6% of participants were women; 77·5% were baccalaureate prepared and 87·9% underwent continuing education in sexually transmitted infection care. Most spent 50% of their time in direct patient care. Women were the main care recipients (72·9%). Sexually transmitted infection care was one aspect of nurses' multifaceted public health roles accounting for 28% of overall work activities. Not all nurses were working to the full scope of their practice; 77·9% undertook health history assessment, and 79% conducted testing. This study is a comprehensive description of the scope of sexually transmitted infection nursing practice activities. It expands our understanding of sexually transmitted infection nursing practice among nurses working within an expanded scope and provides a baseline for future investigations. This description is situated within nursing competencies and best practices that may be used to develop, implement and evaluate models of sexually transmitted infection service delivery in other locales. Sexually transmitted infection nursing practice needs to be understood and investigated beyond health education and testing practices. The scope of practice is comprehensive and incorporates a full spectrum of care. Public health nurses are a critical

  12. Epidemiology of transfusion-transmitted infections among multi-transfused patients in seven hospitals in Peru.

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    Laguna-Torres, V A; Pérez-Bao, J; Chauca, G; Sovero, M; Blichtein, D; Chunga, A; Flores, W; Retamal, A; Mendoza, S; Cruz, M; Monge, Z; Lavalle, M; Gutiérrez, J; Málaga, J; Soto, E; Loayza, N; Bolívar, D; Reyna, R; Mendoza, C; Oré, M; González, J; Suárez, M; Montano, S M; Sánchez, J L; Sateren, W; Bautista, C T; Olson, J G; Xueref, S

    2005-12-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) constitute a major health problem worldwide where routine screening of blood or blood products is improperly done, and where non-medical injecting medications and/or drug use are prevalent. Prevalence and risk factors vary by geographic location and by the specific TTI (including HIV-1, HBV, HCV and HTLV-I). To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with TTIs among a sample of multi-transfused adult patients in Peru. A cross-sectional multi-center study was conducted across seven major hospitals in Peru from February 2003 to September 2004. Self-reported behavior information (medical procedures, number of sexual partners, and drug use history) was analyzed, along with a review of exposure history from hospital medical records. Prevalences were calculated by TTI for different exposures, along with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for infection risk. Overall, 192 (54.7%) of 351 multi-transfused patients were found infected with one or more TTIs. Number of transfusion units, years of transfusion history (6 or more), and number of treatment facilities (2 or more) were associated with HCV infection. Hemodialysis history was a common risk factor associated with HBV, HCV and HTLV-I infection. HIV infection was associated only with total number of transfusion units received. High prevalences of HBV and HCV infection were found among Peruvian multi-transfused patients and were associated with a past history and number of blood transfusions, as well as with past hemodialysis procedures. TTIs continue to represent a significant public health problem in Peru. Continued vigilant attention to blood safety procedures, including universal screening and health care provider education, is recommended.

  13. Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH infection in elementary school children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar  belakang:  Infeksi  cacing  usus  yang  ditularkan melalui tanah  (Soil  Transmitted  Helminth-STH merupakan infeksi tersering dan terbanyak di antara infeksi-infeksi parasit. Kunci pemberantasan kecacingan adalah memperbaiki higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mengidentifikasi faktor risiko yang meningkatkan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar (SD.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan sampel purposif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di  suatu SD di  wilayah kerja  Puskesmas  di Yogyakarta  pada  bulan Oktober  sampai Desember 2009. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan survei tinja dan wawancara. Pemeriksaan tinja menggunakan metode Kato Katz dan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Hasil:  Di antara  211  subjek,  52  (24,6%  murid  mengidap cacingan dan  yang  terbanyak  adalah  Trichusis trihiura, sedangkan cacingan  Ascaris  lumbricoides,  sedangkan infeksi campuran Trichuris  trichiura  dan Hookworm sangat jarang. Risiko tertinggi (2,8 kali lipat terjadi di antara murid yang mempuyai kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari dibandngkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai kebiasan ini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 2,80; 95% interval kepercayaan  (CI = 1,22-4,04]. Subjek yang tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan atau tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun setelah buang air besar mempunyai risiko 2,2 kali terhadap terinfeksi cacingan.Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari, tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan dan tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun  setelah buang  air  besar mempertinggi  risiko infeksi cacingan.  (Health Science Indones 2011;2:81-6.AbstractBackground: Intestinal worm infections transmitted through the soil are the most common infection among parasitic infections. The key to worm eradication is to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation. This study aimed to identify several risk factors related to occurrence of Soil

  14. [Utility of molecular biology techniques in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and genital infections].

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    Otero Guerra, Luis; Lepe Jiménez, José Antonio; Blanco Galán, María Antonia; Aznar Martín, Javier; Vázquez Valdés, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has been difficult. The introduction of molecular biology techniques in microbiological diagnosis and their application to non-invasive samples has produced significant advances in the diagnosis of these diseases. Overall, detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by molecular biology techniques provides a presumptive diagnosis and requires confirmation by culture in areas with a low prevalence. For Chlamydia trachomatis infections, these techniques are considered to be the most sensitive and specific procedures for mass screening studies, as well as for the diagnosis of symptomatic patients. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium infection by culture is very slow and consequently molecular techniques are the only procedures that can provide relevant diagnostic information. For Treponema pallidum, molecular techniques can provide direct benefits in the diagnosis of infection. Molecular techniques are not established for the routine diagnosis of donovanosis, but can be recommended when performed by experts. Molecular methods are advisable in Haemophilus ducreyi, because of the difficulties of culture and its low sensitivity. In genital herpes, molecular techniques have begun to be recommended for routine diagnosis and could soon become the technique of choice. For other genital infections, bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidosis and trichomoniasis, diagnosis by molecular methods is poorly established. With genital warts, techniques available for screening and genotyping of endocervical samples could be used for certain populations, but are not validated for this purpose.

  15. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

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    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  16. Reducing the risk of hepatitis B virus transfusion-transmitted infection

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    Niederhauser C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Christoph NiederhauserBlood Transfusion Service SRC, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Before 1970, approximately 6% of multi-transfused recipients acquired a transfusion-transmitted Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The safety improvements since then have been tremendous. From a level of a few infections per 1000 donations, the risk today, depending on the screening algorithm and additional measurements performed, has decreased to around 1:500,000 to 1:1,000,000, an improvement greater than 1000-fold compared to 50 years ago. This enormous gain in safety has been achieved through many factors, including development of increasingly more sensitive Hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg assays; the adoption in some countries of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc screening; an improved donor selection procedure; HBV vaccination programs; and finally the introduction of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT. Because there is a tendency in transfusion medicine to add one safety measure on top of another to approach the ultimate goal of zero risks, costs become increasingly a matter of debate. It is obvious that any new measure in addition to existing methods or measures will have very poor cost effectiveness. Therefore each country needs to perform its own calculation based on the country's own epidemiology, resources, political and public awareness of the risks, in order to choose the correct and most cost-efficient measures. Ideally, each country would make decisions regarding implementation of additional blood safety measures in the context of both the perceived benefit and the allocation of overall health care resources.Keywords: hepatitis B virus, transfusion-transmitted infection, HBsAg, anti-HBc, NAT

  17. PREVALENCE OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG THE VICTIMS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE

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    V. V. Voloshin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We analyzed the results of forensic medical examination performed within the investigation of sexual crimes occurred in the Krasnoyarsk region. Objective: to assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in different age groups among the victims of sexual violence.Materials and methods. We performed sorting and grouping of the data collected, calculated absolute and relative characteristics of the sample.The Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of the differences.Results. The prevalence of syphilis was significantly higher (p <0.005 in the viktims of sexual crime under 14 years old (13/87; 14.9 % than in individuals between 14 and 18 years old (10/164; 6.1 % and over 18 years old (42/426; 9.9 %. Gonococcal infection was significantly more frequent (p < 0.005 among the participants under 14 years old (12/87; 13.8 % and participants between 14 and 18 years (22/164; 13.4 % than in individuals over 18 years old (17/426; 4.0 %. We observed no significant differences in the prevalence of trichomoniasis and clamidiosis across the groups. Ureaplasmosis was diagnosed significantly more often (p < 0.005 among the patients of 14– 18 years old (25/164; 15.2 % compared to patients over 18 years old (25/426; 5.9 %.Conclusion. Our results will allow to develop preventive measures to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted infections in the Krasnoyarsk region. 

  18. High prevalence of rectal gonorrhea and Chlamydia infection in women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

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    Bazan, Jose A; Carr Reese, Patricia; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-03-01

    Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections.

  19. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

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    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there.

  20. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections among hazardously drinking women after incarceration.

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    Stein, Michael D; Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J

    2012-01-01

    At the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In the months after community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously drinking women after incarceration. Self-reported behavioral data were collected from 245 incarcerated women. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline, and 3- and 6-month time points and tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Treatment was provided for all positive tests. Participants' mean age was 34.1 years of age; 175 (71.4%) were Caucasian, 47 (19.2%) were African American, 17 (6.9%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.4%) were of other ethnic origins. The STI incidence rate was estimated to be 30.5 (95% confidence interval, 21.3-43.5) new infections per 100 person-years. Number of male sex partners reported during follow-up was a significant (z = 2.16; p = .03) predictor of STI; each additional male sex partner increased the estimated hazard of STI by 1.26. Incarcerated women who are hazardous drinkers are at high risk for STI in the months after their return to the community. In addition to testing and treatment during incarceration, post-release rescreening, education, partner treatment, and follow-up are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of Schistosoma and soil-transmitted helminth infection.

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    Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer; Stothard, J Russell; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of parasitic worm (helminth) infections requires specialized laboratory settings, but most affected individuals reside in locations without access to such facilities. We tested two portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of helminth infections in a cross-sectional survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. We examined 164 stool samples under a light microscope and then re-examined with a commercial portable light microscope and an experimental mobile phone microscope for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Additionally, 180 filtered urine samples were examined by standard microscopy and compared with the portable light microscope for detection of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Conventional microscopy was considered the diagnostic reference standard. For S. mansoni, S. haematobium and Trichuris trichiura, the portable light microscope showed sensitivities of 84.8%, 78.6% and 81.5%, respectively, and specificities of 85.7%, 91.0% and 93.0%, respectively. For S. mansoni and T. trichiura, we found sensitivities for the mobile phone microscope of 68.2% and 30.8%, respectively, and specificities of 64.3% and 71.0%, respectively. We conclude that the portable light microscope has sufficient diagnostic yield for Schistosoma and T. trichiura infections, while the mobile phone microscope has only modest sensitivity in its current experimental set-up. Development of portable diagnostic technologies that can be used at point-of-sample collection will enhance diagnostic coverage in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  2. Sexually transmitted infections in India: Current status (except human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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    Thappa Devinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are more dynamic than other infections prevailing in the community. It is important that such dynamic epidemiological changes in STIs are acknowledged and kept track of in a vast and populous developing country like India, particularly in this HIV era. It is with this aim that the authors have reviewed the relevant literature in STI epidemiology in India during the past 25 years. Admittedly, there has been heterogeneity of data to account for the subcontinental dimension of this country. But a basic pattern in the changing epidemiology is discernible. Like the developed countries, in India too the bacterial STIs like chancroid and gonorrhea are declining, while viral STIs like HPV and herpes genitalis are on an upswing. The overall decline in the prevalence of STIs has to be interpreted with caution, however. This may partially reflect the improved facilities of treatment in the peripheral centres that obviates the need of many patients in attending the STD clinics in the tertiary centres. Also, the improved pharmacotherapy of many of the bacterial STIs may result in partial clearance and non-reporting of many of these infections.

  3. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men

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    Patrick Philibert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT, neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116, with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine. Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM.

  4. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra T

    2009-12-01

    We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls of age 15 to 19 years, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women of age 20 to 41 years, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone, a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (P sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was "really important" for the teen to have their baby (P = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (P = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.

  5. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    Erin Burnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97. After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78. Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB.

  6. Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraschewski, H.

    1984-03-01

    Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

  7. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  8. Transformation of sexually transmitted infection-causing serovars of chlamydia trachomatis using Blasticidin for selection.

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    Honglei Ding

    Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

  9. Sex-specific immunization for sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus: insights from mathematical models.

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    Johannes A Bogaards

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex-specific differences regarding the transmissibility and the course of infection are the rule rather than the exception in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Human papillomavirus (HPV provides an example: disease outcomes differ between men and women, as does the potential for transmission to the opposite sex. HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls was recently introduced in many countries, and inclusion of boys in the vaccination programs is being discussed. Here, we address the question of whether vaccinating females only, males only, or both sexes is the most effective strategy to reduce the population prevalence of an STI like HPV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use a range of two-sex transmission models with varying detail to identify general criteria for allocating a prophylactic vaccine between both sexes. The most effective reduction in the population prevalence of infection is always achieved by single-sex vaccination; vaccinating the sex with the highest prevaccine prevalence is the preferred strategy in most circumstances. Exceptions arise only when the higher prevaccine prevalence is due to a substantially lower rate of natural immunity, or when natural immunity is lifelong, and a prolonged duration of infectiousness coincides with increased transmissibility. Predictions from simple models were confirmed in simulations based on an elaborate HPV transmission model. Our analysis suggests that relatively inefficient genital transmission from males to females might render male vaccination more effective in reducing overall infection levels. However, most existing HPV vaccination programs have achieved sufficient coverage to continue with female-only vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing vaccine uptake among preadolescent girls is more effective in reducing HPV infection than including boys in existing vaccination programs. As a rule, directing prophylactic immunization at the sex with the highest

  10. The Impact of Health Education Counseling on Rate of Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-Iw, Supinya; Braverman, Paula K; Bates, Justin R; Biro, Frank M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) intervention by a health educator that included partner notification, condom use, and retesting within 3 months. Retrospective chart review was conducted, and data were collected from 274 sexually active adolescent girls, aged 15 to 19 years, who were diagnosed with gonorrhea (GC), Chlamydia (CT), and Trichomonas (TV) infection, during a 9-month span in an urban hospital-based adolescent medicine clinic. Data regarding recurrent STIs (GC, CT, and TV) were collected for 12 months following the incident infection. There were 161 in the intervention group (health educator counseling), and 113 controls who received usual care. Differences between groups were analyzed using χ(2) and survival analyses. There were no significant differences in age, gender, or race between the intervention and control groups at baseline. The majority in both groups were diagnosed initially with CT infection (57% CT, 16% GC, and 5% TV in the intervention group; 46% CT, 21% GC, and 12% TV in the control group). There was a significantly lower rate of STI in the intervention group for those retested within 12 months of the initial diagnosis (P = .002). The median (SD) time to recurrence in the intervention group was greater: 134 (14.7) days versus 116 (12.1) days (P = .034). Health education counseling, initial diagnosis with TV, and duration of time from initial diagnosis to retest (interval to retest) were significant protective factors for recurrent STI. Health education counseling in an urban adolescent clinic is effective in reducing recurrent infection at 12-month follow-up and can serve as an important component in reducing STI recidivism. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sociodemographic dynamics and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers at the Mexican-Guatemalan border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Salas, Felipe; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Hernández-Castellanos, Albert

    2003-03-01

    If the predominant means of HIV transmission is heterosexual in the Soconusco region of Mexico, then the female sex workers (FSWs) from Central America who work in this region may be playing a significant role in the heterosexual transmission of HIV. The goal was to estimate the prevalence of several sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV infection, and to evaluate the population mobility of Mexican and Central American FSWs in the Soconusco region in Chiapas State, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted upon the construction of a sampling frame of sex work-related bars in the municipalities of the Soconusco region. Consenting participants answered a questionnaire that recorded sociodemographic characteristics, previous and current experience in commercial sex, and risk indicators for STI. Women also provided blood and endocervical swab specimens to be analyzed. A sample of 484 women were enrolled, who were characterized as follows: the average age was 25.6 years, and a high proportion had children, were single, had started sexual activity at an early age, and had a low level of education and low earnings. The global prevalences of infections with Treponema pallidum, HSV-2, HIV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were 9.4%, 85.7%, 0.6%, 11.6%, and 14.4%, respectively. Frequencies of HBcAb and HBsAg hepatitis B markers were 17.7% and 1.3%. The cumulative prevalence of treatable gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis was 27.4%. The data on women's mobility illustrate that the Soconusco region attracts Central American women to enter the commercial sex trade. The women's sociodemographic characteristics were consistent with high prevalences of STI, except HIV infection. The low frequency of HIV infection suggests that this population may have had little contact with HIV core groups in Central America and in the Soconusco and no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use.

  12. Contribution of Wastewater Irrigation to Soil Transmitted Helminths Infection among Vegetable Farmers in Kumasi, Ghana.

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    Isaac Dennis Amoah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Odds ratios were calculated for exposure and non-exposure to wastewater irrigation. The results obtained indicate positive correlation between STH concentrations in irrigation water/soil and STHs ova as measured in the stool of the exposed farmer population. The correlations are based on reinfection during a 3 months period after prior confirmed deworming. Farmers and family members exposed to irrigation water were three times more likely as compared to the control group of non-farmers to be infected with Ascaris (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.15-13.86 and hookworm (OR = 3.07, 95% CI, 0.87-10.82. This study therefore contributes to the evidence-based conclusion that wastewater irrigation contributes to a higher incidence of STHs infection for farmers exposed annually, with higher odds of infection in the wet season.

  13. Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM.

  14. Sexual relationship power as a mediator between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2009-08-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single, undergraduate women indicated that 85% experienced at least one form of dating violence victimization in the past year, 5.9% tested positive for an STI, and 5.2% received treatment for an STI. Results revealed that women with lower levels of sexual relationship power had higher rates of dating violence victimization and STIs; also, sexual relationship power partially mediated the relationship between dating violence victimization and STIs. Future dating violence and STI-prevention interventions targeting young women may want to use an empowerment approach to decrease their likelihood of dating violence victimization and STI risk.

  15. [Problems in diagnosing sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus in primary health care in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Fernández, Laura; Mascort, Juanjo; Carrillo, Ricard; Casabona, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical practice of the General Practitioner (GP) in HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the obstacles they face in diagnosing them. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed online to members of two Spanish GP Societies. A total of 1.308 GP took part in the survey, which showed that 39.3% had received training on HIV/STI in the last three years, and 21.2% felt uncomfortable talking about sex with the patient. We identified important deficiencies in the resources needed for diagnosis of HIV/STI and in the circuits for referral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Message Format and Content on Attitude Accessibility Regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Hoffman, Eric; Beam, Michael; Xu, Shan Susan

    2017-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in the United States among people ages 15-24 years and cost almost $16 billion yearly. It is therefore important to understand message design strategies that could help reduce these numbers. Guided by exemplification theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM), this study examines the influence of message format and the presence versus absence of a graphic image on recipients' accessibility of STI attitudes regarding safe sex. Results of the experiment indicate a significant effect from testimonial messages on increased attitude accessibility regarding STIs compared to statistical messages. Results also indicate a conditional indirect effect of testimonial messages on STI attitude accessibility, though threat is greater when a graphic image is included. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Sexually transmitted infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Oetting, Alexis A

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2007-2016. Chlamydia diagnoses were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by diagnoses associated with genital human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and syphilis. Compared to men, women had higher rates of all STIs except for syphilis. In general, compared to their respective counterparts, younger service members, non-Hispanic blacks, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of STIs. Rates of STIs among men were stable throughout the surveillance period except for rates of syphilis, which increased. Among women, the incidence rates for HSV, syphilis, and chlamydia were stable, but the rates of HPV and gonorrhea decreased considerably. Similarities to, and differences from, the last MSMR update on STIs are discussed.

  18. Contribution of the swine model in the study of human sexually transmitted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käser, Tobias; Renois, Fanny; Wilson, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    The pig has garnered more and more interest as a model animal to study various conditions in humans. The growing success of the pig as an experimental animal model is explained by its similarities with humans in terms of anatomy, genetics, immunology, and physiology, by their manageable behavior...... and size, and by the general public acceptance of using pigs for experimental purposes. In addition, the immunological toolbox of pigs has grown substantially in the last decade. This development led to a boost in the use of pigs as a preclinical model for various human infections including sexually...... transmitted diseases (STIs) like Chlamydia trachomatis. In the current review, we discuss the use of animal models for biomedical research on the major human STIs. We summarize results obtained in the most common animal models and focus on the contributions of the pig model towards the understanding...

  19. Combining Footwear with Public Health Iconography to Prevent Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Sarah B; Friant, Sagan; Clech, Lucie; Malavé, Carly; Kemigabo, Catherine; Obeti, Richard; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-01-11

    Shoes are effective for blocking soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that penetrate the skin. Unfortunately, shoe-wearing is uncommon in many areas where STHs are prevalent, in part because local populations are unaware of the health benefits of wearing shoes. This is especially true in low-literacy populations, where information dissemination through written messages is not possible. We launched a public health intervention that combines a public health image with sandals. The image is a "lenticular image" that combines two alternating pictures to depict the efficacy of shoes for preventing STH infection. This image is adhered to the shoe, such that the message is linked directly to the primary means of prevention. To create a culturally appropriate image, we conducted five focus group discussions, each with a different gender and age combination. Results of focus group discussions reinforced the importance of refining public health messages well in advance of distribution so that cultural acceptability is strong. After the image was finalized, we deployed shoes with the image in communities in western Uganda where hookworm is prevalent. We found that the frequency of shoe-wearing was 25% higher in communities receiving the shoes than in control communities. Microscopic analyses of fecal samples for parasites showed a sustained reduction in infection intensity for parasites transmitted directly through the feet when people received shoes with a public health image. Our results show that combining culturally appropriate images with public health interventions can be effective in low-literacy populations. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Knowledge and Practice of Gonorrhea and other Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, A E; Tayo, F; Aina, B A

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health issue. Adolescents and youth (15-24 years) are the age groups at the greater risk for acquiring them. Also a large percentage of new STIs occur in this age group with 7000 young people worldwide acquiring the infection every day. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are poorly recognized and inadequately treated in Nigeria despite the fact that they constitute a major risk factor for sexual transmission of HIV infection. The shortage of trained human resources is among the most important obstacles to strengthening health systems in low-income countries. This study is to document the knowledge and practice of undergraduate students about gonorrhoea and other STIs as a baseline survey for future intervention work. It was a questionnaire-based, cross sectional descriptive study of the knowledge and practice of STIs among students in the seven public tertiary academic institutions in Lagos State using list obtained from the Lagos State Ministry of Education. Thirty (30) students who agreed to be surveyed were conveniently selected from each school. Pre-tested, semi-structured, validated questionnaires were administered and collected back. Data was entered into Microsoft Excel and analysed using EPI Info, SPSS version 15 and Microsoft Excel. Results were considered to be statistically significant if p < 0.05. Majority of the respondents were of the 21 - 25 year age range (48%) and were mainly single (95%), Christian (61%) and Yoruba (81%). About 51% of the respondents had at least good knowledge of gonorrhoea and other STIs. Knowledge about symptoms and transmission was higher than knowledge of prevention, consequences and drugs. Among those that are sexually active 24% do not use condom while 10% reuse condom. Use of both modern and traditional medical practitioners (TMP) was documented among the students. Awareness programs with key messages about gonorrhoea and other STIs should be developed and

  1. Internet treatment of sexually transmitted infections – a public health hazard?

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    Schelenz Silke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, patients may prefer to keep their illness private, and choose instead to try self-treatment remedies from the internet. However, such remedies may prove hazardous if the sellers do not provide detailed advice on adverse effects, or on avoiding transmission and re-infection. We conducted an internet search to determine the availability of treatments for STIs and the nature of information provided by vendors of these treatments. Methods We conducted a systematic internet search using five different search engines in February 2007. The search term included the words "self treatment" and the name of six different common STIs. We visited the vendors' websites and recorded any information on the formulation, adverse effects, cautions, and prevention of infection. Results We identified a total of 77 treatments from 52 different companies, most of which were sold from the UK and US. The available remedies were predominantly for topical use and consisted mainly of homeopathic remedies. Only a small proportion of the web-listed products gave details on adverse effects, contraindications and interactions (22%, 25% and 9% respectively. Similarly, web vendors seldom provided advice on treatment of sexual contacts (20% of chlamydia and 25% of gonorrhea treatments or on preventive measures (13%. Conversely, evidence of effectiveness was claimed for approximately 50% of the products. Conclusion While treatments for certain STIs are widely available on the internet, purchasers of such products may potentially suffer harm because of the lack of information on adverse effects, interactions and contra-indications. Moreover, we consider the paucity of preventive health advice to be a serious omission, thereby leading to patients being needlessly exposed to, and potentially re-infected with the causative pathogens.

  2. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Suzanne D; Vereecken, Kim; van der Laan, Kim; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Núñez, Fidel A; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire. A significant reduction in the number of STH infections was obtained after three years with the highest reduction for T. trichiura (87.8%) and the lowest for hookworm (57.9%). After six months, cure rates (CRs) were 76.9% for A. lumbricoides, 67.4% for T. trichiura and 44.4% for hookworm. After two treatment rounds, more than 75% of all STH-positive children at baseline were cured, but with important differences between STH species (95.2% for A. lumbricoides, 80.5% for T. trichiura and 76.5% for hookworm). At the end of the study, these cumulative CRs were almost 100% for all three STHs. Risk factors for STHs were sex, sanitary disposal and habit of playing in the soil. Our results indicate that periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole is effective in reducing the number of STH infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Although important differences were found between helminth species, two rounds of treatment appeared sufficient to obtain substantial reductions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Community-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening and Increased Detection of Pharyngeal and Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Horas T.H. Wong; Lee, Krystal C.K.; Denise P.C. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio....

  4. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

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    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33% (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p˂0.000, followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40% (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003, domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33% (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025 and military dogs (2.5%. Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%, T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each, Heterophyes spp. (3.85%, Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%, Taenidae eggs (2.31%, Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54% and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each. Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p˂0.000, gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p˂0.014, housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75, p˂0.000 with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067 and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to

  5. Determining Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection Status and Physical Fitness of School-aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are common. Indeed, more than 1 billion people are affected, mainly in the developing world where poverty prevails and hygiene behavior, water supply, and sanitation are often deficient1,2. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, are the most prevalent STHs3. The estimated global burden due to hookworm disease, ascariasis, and trichuriasis is 22.1, 10.5, and 6.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), respectively4. Furthermore, an estimated 30-100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected STH species of global significance which arguably also causes a considerable public health impact5,6. Multiple-species infections (i.e., different STHs harbored in a single individual) are common, and infections have been linked to lowered productivity and thus economic outlook of developing countries1,3. For the diagnosis of common STHs, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the Kato-Katz technique7,8, which is a relatively straightforward method for determining the prevalence and intensity of such infections. It facilitates the detection of parasite eggs that infected subjects pass in their feces. With regard to the diagnosis of S.stercoralis, there is currently no simple and accurate tool available. The Baermann technique is the most widely employed method for its diagnosis. The principle behind the Baermann technique is that active S.stercoralis larvae migrate out of an illuminated fresh fecal sample as the larvae are phototactic9. It requires less sophisticated laboratory materials and is less time consuming than culture and immunological methods5. Morbidities associated with STH infections range from acute but common symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and pruritus, to chronic symptoms, such as anemia, under- and malnutrition, and cognitive impairment10. Since the symptoms are generally

  6. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  7. Benefit of adjunct universal rectal screening for Chlamydia genital infections in women attending Canadian sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen X; Akpinar, Ilke; Gratrix, Jennifer; Plitt, Sabrina; Smyczek, Petra; Read, Ron; Jacobs, Philip; Wong, Tom; Singh, Ameeta E

    2017-11-01

    Adding universal rectal screening to urogenital screening should positively impact rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence in affected populations. A dynamic Markov model was used to evaluate costs and outcomes of three rectal CT screening strategies among women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta, Canada: universal urogenital-only screening (UG-only), additional selected (exposure-based) rectal screening (UG+SR), and additional universal rectal screening (UG+UR). The model included two mutually exclusive health states: infected and susceptible. Additionally, the model included two rounds of transmission: male sex partners of women infected with rectal-only CT and female sex partners of those men. CT complications impacting patients' quality of life (QALY) were considered. Alberta and Canadian data were used to estimate model inputs. We used a health care perspective, a time period of 10 years, and a discount rate of 3% for analyses. Compared to UG-only screening, the incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were CA$34,000 and CA$49,000 per QALY gained for UG+SR and UG+UR screening strategies, respectively. Compared to UG+SR, the ICER was CA$62,000 per QALY gained for the UG+UR strategy. Both adjunct selected and universal rectal screening strategies are cost effective compared to UG-only screening, and UG+UR screening is cost effective when compared to UG+SR screening.

  8. CORRELATES OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION HISTORIES IN A COHORT OF AMERICAN MALE HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Alderete, John F.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Jenkins, Frank J.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Several epidemiologic studies have investigated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and later risk of genitourinary conditions with suggestive positive results. While these results may reflect causal associations, other possible explanations include confounding by factors possibly related to both STI acquisition and genitourinary condition risk, such as recognized STI risk factors/correlates, and other factors not typically considered in relation to STIs (e.g., general health-related behaviors or markers of such behaviors). Very few of these factors have been investigated in older populations in which STIs and genitourinary conditions are typically studied. Therefore, we investigated STI history correlates in one such population, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods We ascertained histories of potential correlates, and gonorrhea and syphilis by questionnaire (n=36,032), and performed serologic testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, human papillomavirus, and human herpesvirus type 8 infection in a subset (n=651). Results Positive correlations were observed for African-American race, foreign birth, southern residence, smoking, alcohol consumption, ejaculation frequency, vasectomy, and high cholesterol. Inverse correlations were observed for social integration and routine health-related examinations. Conclusions These findings provide useful information on potential confounders for epidemiologic investigations of STIs and chronic diseases, and interesting new hypotheses for STI prevention (e.g., STI counseling before vasectomy). PMID:19655261

  9. Paper-Based DNA Reader for Visualized Quantification of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alex Guan; Dong, Tianyu; Mansour, Hayam; Matamoros, Gabriela; Sanchez, Ana L; Li, Feng

    2018-01-16

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a global health issue affecting nearly one-third of the world's population. As most endemic areas of STH are impoverished countries or regions with limited healthcare resources, the accurate diagnosis of STH requires analytical tools that are not only quantitative, but also portable, inexpensive, and with no or minimal demand for external instrument. Herein, we introduce a novel paper-based diagnostic device, termed quantitative paper-based DNA reader (qPDR), capable of quantifying STH at the molecular level by measuring distance as readout, thus eliminating the need for external readers. On the basis of the unique interfacial interaction of a DNA intercalating dye, SYBR Green I, with native cellulose on a chromatographic paper, qPDR allows the distance-based quantification of minute amounts of double-stranded DNA as short as 6 min. By integrating qPDR with polymerase chain reactions that were performed using a smartphone-controlled portable thermal cycler, we were able to quantify minute amount of genetic markers from adult worms of an STH (Trichuris trichiura) that were expelled post-treatment by infected children living in the rural areas of Honduras.

  10. Condom deserts: geographical disparities in condom availability and their relationship with rates of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; Nelson, Erik J; Schulte, Lauren; Bloomfield, Mark; Murphy, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Identifying predictors that contribute to geographical disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is necessary. This study assesses the spatial relationship between condom availability to locations of STIs in order to better understand these geographical disparities. We conducted a condom availability audit among potential condom-selling establishments. New gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases in 2011 (n=6034) and HIV infection cases from 2006 to 2011 (n=565) were collected by census tract in St Louis, Missouri. 829 potential condom-selling establishments participated in the condom availability audit in St Louis City; 242 of which sold condoms. A negative linear relationship exists between condom vendors and cases of gonorrhoea and chlamydia, after adjusting for concentrated disadvantage and free condom locations. Higher concentrated disadvantage, higher proportions of convenience vendors and free locations were associated with higher rates of HIV. This study was conducted to provide evidence that lack of condom availability is associated with STI rates, and likely is an integral component to influencing the subjective norms surrounding condom use and STI rates. Condom distribution interventions may be addressing availability needs and social norms, yet are more likely to be effective when placed in locations with the highest STI rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Identification of Infantile Diarrhea Caused by Breast Milk-Transmitted Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Pan, Wei-Guang; Xian, Wei-Yi; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; Hu, Qing-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Jian; Deng, Qi-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known organism which is responsible for a variety of human infectious diseases including skin infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Few of the microorganisms can be transmitted from mother to the newborn or infant by milk breastfeeding. This study aims to identify transmission of S. aureus from healthy, lactating mothers to their infants by breastfeeding. Stool specimens of diarrheal infants and breast milk of their mother (totally three pairs) were collected and six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured positively. Homology and molecular characters of isolated strains were tested using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Furthermore, toxin genes detection was also performed. Each pair of isolates has the same PFGE type and spa type. Four Sequence types (STs) were found among all the isolates; they are ST15, ST188, and ST59, respectively. Among the strains, seb, sec, and tst genes were found, and all were negative for pvl gene. The homology of the S. aureus strains isolated from the infants' stool and the mothers' milk was genetically demonstrated, which indicated that breastfeeding may be important in the transmission of S. aureus infection, and the character of S. aureus needed to be further evaluated.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Novel Screening Strategy for Improving Women’s Health in Vulnerable Populations

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    Elena R. Frati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. Methods: Women (ages 18–65 were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012–2013 and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng-DNA. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior information were collected. All HPV/Ct+ women were offered Pap tests and/or were prescribed antibiotic treatment. Results: 537/757 women participated in the study (acceptability rate: 70.9%. Most of the women were from Latin America (45.6% and Eastern Europe (30.7%; >60% of them had stable partners, did not use contraception and had had at least one pregnancy. The prevalence rates of HPV, Ct, Tv and Ng infections were 24.2%, 7.8%, 4.8% and 0%, respectively. In all, 43.2% of the positive women agreed to undergo a gynecological examination and accepted suitable treatment. Conclusions: This study shows an overall high prevalence of STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan. The screening strategy based on counseling and urine testing contributed to the successfully high acceptability rate. More appropriate health services that adequately address all aspects of women’s health are required.

  13. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections among MSM from three cities in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakre, Shilpa; Arteaga, Griselda B; Núñez, Aurelio E; Arambu, Nelson; Aumakhan, Bulbulgul; Liu, Michelle; Peel, Sheila A; Pascale, Juan M; Scott, Paul T

    2014-08-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to conduct a biobehavioral survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three cities in the Republic of Panama. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors. Among 603 MSM recruited, RDS-adjusted seroprevalences (95 % confidence intervals) were: HIV-David 6.6 % (2.2-11.4 %), Panama 29.4 % (19.7-39.7 %), and Colon 32.6 % (18.0-47.8 %); active syphilis-David 16.0 % (8.9-24.2 %), Panama 24.7 % (16.7-32.9 %), Colon 31.6 % (14.8-47.5 %); resolved HBV infection-David 10.0 % (4.8-16.8 %), Panama 29.4 % (20.0-38.3 %), and Colon 40.6 % (21.9-54.4 %); herpes simplex virus type 2-David 38.4 % (27.9-48.9 %), Panama 62.6 % (52.8-71.0 %), and Colon 72.9 % (57.4-85.8 %). At least a third of MSM in each city self-identified as heterosexual or bisexual. HIV prevalence is concentrated among MSM. Preventive interventions should focus on increasing HIV and syphilis testing, and increasing promotion of condom awareness and use.

  14. Reflections on Using a Flash Card Activity for Studying Social Representations of Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    Fiona Mapp

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Image elicitation methods generating visual data are becoming more common in social science research to generate rich and detailed findings and access topics using nonverbal approaches. Current elicitation techniques using photos and drawing methods have limited application for studying sexually transmitted infections (STIs. To address this, I describe a novel elicitation method—the flash card activity—which involves ranking STI flash cards according to predetermined themed continua. The activity was embedded within semistructured interviews focusing on social representations of STIs and experiences and meanings of STI symptoms and care-seeking behavior with 27 participants. Participants were recruited from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles that took place in Britain 2010–2012. This article reports on the methodological findings of implementing the flash card activity. The activity generated linked verbal and visual data that were more fluent, cohesive, and diverse than other interview data and disrupted normative accounts of infections, enabling participants to reflect on the formation and influences on their social representations. Acceptability of the flash card activity was high, although there were feasibility issues when either language comprehension or time were limited. There is scope for further methodological innovation and adaptation for different topics.

  15. Multiple Abortions and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Migrant Women Working in Entertainment Venues in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (1) multiple abortions and (2) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4 percent) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3 percent had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0 percent) of the sample had had an STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7 percent) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5 percent) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues.

  16. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan

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    Rizwan Ahmed Kiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs continue to be a major risk in transfusions in many parts of the world. The transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients are particularly at risk of acquiring TTIs. The current study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1253 multitransfused thalassaemia major patients was conducted in five different centres of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi. The study subjects were screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV. The screening was performed at two centres: Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB Medical University, and Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from July to December 2015. The confirmatory screening was performed by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA. Results. Out of the 1253 multiple transfused patients, 317 (25.3% were infected with TTIs. HCV was positive in 273 cases (21.7%, HBV in 38 cases (3.0%, and HIV in 6 cases (0.5%. Conclusion. HCV was the leading TTI in multitransfused thalassaemia major patients in the study. Presence of HIV in thalassaemia patients is a recent disturbing development in Pakistan. Improved regulation of blood banks including use of internationally or nationally evaluated kits will bring down the incidence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. More stringent behavioral and serological pretransfusion screening of blood for TTIs must be implemented in blood banks.

  17. Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Bien, Cedric H; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2013-02-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation.

  18. The Effect of Premarital Sex on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and High Risk Behaviors in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Musie S; Finkelman, Matthew D

    2013-02-01

    This research aimed to study the effect of premarital sex on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high risk behaviors among women in sub-Saharan Africa. It included 1393 women randomly selected from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participants' demographic and socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, condom use, number of partners, symptoms of STIs and age at first sex and marriage were obtained. Moreover, blood and urine samples were tested for HIV-1, HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. The average duration of premarital sex in the study participants was 1.66 years (SD of 2.61 years). Women with longer duration of premarital sex had higher odds of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Moreover, women with longer duration of premarital sex were more likely to report multiple sexual partners. These findings highlight the importance of a lengthy period of premarital sex as a public health issue. STIs prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa should address factors leading to a longer period of premarital sex in women.

  19. Early detection of HIV infection and of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, J; Videla, S; Leon, A; Ornelas, A; García, F; Fernández, E; Blanco, J L; Carrillo, A; Bravo, I; Meulbroek, M; García-Cuyas, F; González, V; Casabona, J; Leal, L; Clotet, B; Brander, C

    2017-08-24

    To provide data on incidence of early diagnosis of HIV infections and define prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STI) in men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed a prospective cohort study of HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV infection. Participants were selected through a risk-assessment questionnaire, and they were screened for HIV infection (quarterly) and for other STI (yearly): syphilis, and hepatitis A, B and C (serology); Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in penis and rectum; and human papillomavirus in anus and mouth (PCR). Between November 2009 and October 2012, a total of 258 HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV infection were included and followed up for a median of 2 years (interquartile range 1.4, 2.5). Nineteen acute HIV infections were diagnosed (incidence, 3.9 per 100 person-years). Prevalence of STI at baseline was follows: syphilis 8.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-12.7); hepatitis C virus (HCV) 2.0% (95% CI 0.7-4.8); C. trachomatis in penis 3.2% (95% CI 1.5-6.5) and in rectum 6.5% (95% CI 3.9-10.5); N. gonorrhoeae in penis 2.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.0) and in rectum 6.1% (95% CI 3.6-10.1); human papillomavirus in anal canal 75.7% (95% CI 68.8-81.5) and in mouth 3.8% (95% CI 1.8-7.7). The implementation of the Check-Ear Project in a MSM community centre allowed for the identification of early HIV infections and asymptomatic STI among MSM. The high incidence of HIV infections and the high prevalence of STI strongly support the recommendation of periodic screenings among sexually active MSM. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Type-specific cervico-vaginal human papillomavirus infection increases risk of HIV acquisition independent of other sexually transmitted infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K Smith-McCune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 are associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. Human papillomavirus (HPV is a common STI, but little is know about its role in HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to determine whether cervico-vaginal HPV infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition in women independent of other common STIs.This prospective cohort study followed 2040 HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (average age 27 years, range 18-49 years for a median of 21 months. Participants were tested quarterly for 29 HPV types (with L1 PCR primers and HIV (antibody testing on blood samples with DNA or RNA PCR confirmation. HIV incidence was 2.7 per 100 woman-years. Baseline HPV prevalence was 24.5%, and the most prevalent HPV types were 58 (5.0%, 16 (4.7%, 70 (2.4%, and 18 (2.3%. In separate regression models adjusting for baseline variables (including age, high risk partner, positive test for STIs, positive HSV-2 serology and condom use, HIV acquisition was associated with having baseline prevalent infection with HPV 58 (aHR 2.13; 95% CI 1.09-4.15 or HPV 70 (aHR 2.68; 95% CI 1.08-6.66. In separate regression models adjusting for both baseline variables and time-dependent variables (including HSV-2 status, incident STIs, new sexual partner and condom use, HIV acquisition was associated with concurrent infection with any non-oncogenic HPV type (aHR 1.70; 95% CI 1.02-2.85, any oncogenic HPV type (aHR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16-3.30, HPV 31 (aHR 4.25; 95% CI 1.81-9.97 or HPV 70 (aHR 3.30; 95% CI 1.50-7.20. Detection of any oncogenic HPV type within the previous 6 months was an independent predictor of HIV acquisition, regardless of whether HPV status at the HIV acquisition visit was included (aHR 1.95; 95% CI 1.19-3.21 or excluded (aHR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02-2.85 from the analysis.Cervico-vaginal HPV infection was associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition in women, and specific HPV types were

  1. Disseminating sexually transmitted infections diagnostics information: the SDI web publication review series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, J; Tam, M R; Holmes, K K; Peeling, R W

    2006-12-01

    The World Health Organization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) website publication review seeks to provide health care providers in all geographic and economic settings with timely, critical, and concise information concerning new developments in laboratory and field diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Since 2003, the website (www.who.int/std_diagnostics/literature_reviews) has disseminated information in the form of annotated abstracts and commentaries on articles covering studies of STI laboratory-based and rapid assays that are commercially available or under development. Articles identified through searches of PubMed, specific journals, and by referrals from Editorial Board members are selected for inclusion if they meet pre-specified criteria. The objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for each article are summarised and board members are invited to prepare commentaries addressing study design and applicability of findings to end users. Currently, 91 STI diagnostics experts from 17 countries on six continents serve on the Editorial Board. Twelve quarterly issues have been posted that include summaries of 214 original and 17 review articles published from January 2002 through March 2005, with expert commentaries on 153 articles. Interest in the site has increased every year. In 2005, over 36 700 unique visitors from more than 100 countries viewed over 75,000 pages of information. The SDI Publication Review series has the potential to contribute to SDI's goal of improving care for patients with STI by increasing knowledge and awareness of STI diagnostics. Given the proliferation of internet-based STI testing services, this website may be broadened to meet the needs of a wider range of users.

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections - Prevalence, Knowledge and Behaviours among Professional Defence Forces in Estonia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. David; Rüütel, Kristi

    2017-03-01

    Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment. Protecting deployed forces from secondary infections is important as persons with chronic viral infections are living longer, healthier lives and are more frequently serving in military forces. A cross sectional study used convenient sampling among professional defence forces. Participation was both voluntary and anonymous. Of 186 participants accounting for 7.3% of all forces (86.6% male, mean age 30 years) at selected bases, there were four cases of chlamydia. No cases of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, or HIV were found. One person reported ever injecting drugs. These findings indicate a lower STI occurrence among professional defence forces in Estonia compared with the non-military population. While these rates were lower than expected, as a voluntary study, people suspicious of having an STI might opt not to participate, limiting generalizability to the remainder of the military. Militaries without regular screening programmes could consider regular scheduled testing for STIs, HIV and blood borne pathogens, even if voluntary, especially prior to foreign deployment. Consistent testing would align across many militaries who deploy international peace keepers.

  3. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a tertiary care centre at Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI varies widely from region to region in our country. Aims: To highlight the pattern of STIs and the profile of patients with HIV infection in STD patients as seen at our hospital. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of clients attending STI clinic, JIPMER, Puducherry, from June 2004 to June 2006 was done. Results: A total of 866 clients attended our STI clinic, out of whom 435 (50.2% had proven STI. STIs were more common in men, with a male (290: female (145 ratio of 2:1. Their age ranged from 1 year to 75 years (mean age = 32.38 years with the maximum number of patients in the age group of 21-30 years, while children constituted only 2.8%. Herpes genitalis (107 patients, 32.8% was the most common ulcerative STI, while genital wart was the most common nonulcerative STI (56 patients, 17.1%. Non-gonococcal urethritis (46 patients, 14.1% was more common than gonococcal urethritis. HIV infection was the most common STI in our study, at an alarmingly high rate of 34.5% (151/435. HIV seropositivity was more common in patients who presented with ulcerative STIs than with nonulcerative STIs. Conclusions: Herpes genitalis was the most common ulcerative STD, while genital wart was the most common nonulcerative STI in our study. The prevalence of HIV among STI clients in India has been on the rise, but has quite alarmingly become the most common STI in our study.

  4. Service delivery through public health care system to control sexually transmitted infections in Himachal pradesh

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    Sunite A Ganju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National AIDS Control Organization has designed multiple synergistic interventions to identify and control curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Objective: To assess the impact of services offered at designated STI clinics in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India and the profile of the attending clients. Materials and Methods: This was a two-year prospective study, conducted from April 2011 to March 2013. Training on delivering STI/RTI services was imparted to the staff of 16 designated STI clinics including recording of data. The staff in each STI clinic comprises of one doctor, one counselor, one nurse, and one laboratory technician. The clients attending these designated clinics were offered counseling, syndromic case management (SCM, and diagnostic services wherever possible. Monthly data of STI clinic attendees was collected, compiled, and analyzed. Results: A total of 65,760 clinic visits were reported, of which 32,385 (49% visits were for index STI/RTI complaint(s. The ratio of male to female attendees was 1:2. The commonest age group accessing the STI clinics was 25-44 years (n = 38,966; 59.3%. According to SCM, 52.9% clients were managed. The commonest presenting syndrome was urethral discharge (n = 4,500; 41% in males, and vaginal discharge (n = 13,305; 56% in females. Genital ulcer disease was treated in 2099 cases. Laboratory tests were performed only in 6466 patients, and 39,597 antenatal mothers were screened for syphilis. Counseling services were provided to 51,298 (f = 34,804; 68%: m = 16,494; 32% clients and of these, 48% (n = 25,056 of the clients were referred to integrated counseling and testing centers. Forty-three clients (m = 24: f = 19 were detected positive for HIV infection. Conclusion: Uniform and standardized services delivered to clients attending public health clinics can gather reliable data to monitor trends of STI infection.

  5. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods. We included 98 women

  6. Evidence of vertical transmission and tissue tropism of Streptococcosis from naturally infected red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.

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    Padmaja Jayaprasad Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcosis is a highly problematic disease in the aquaculture of freshwater fishes, especially for tilapia. The possibility of vertical transmission of streptococcosis and the pattern of tissue tropism of this pathogen in various organs was examined in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Healthy broodstock without any clinical signs of Streptococcus spp. were selected from a farm earlier reported to have the disease and a total of 10 pairs were forced spawned to provide samples of gametes and progeny for pathogen testing. A colorimetric LAMP assay was used to confirm whether the bacterial pathogens Streptococcus. agalactiae and Streptococcus. iniae was present in samples of milt, unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs, and offspring at various stages of development, as well as internal organs of broodstock (reproductive organs, gill, liver, spleen, kidney and brain as well as samples of water from culture systems. The majority of samples of milt (9/10 and unfertilized eggs (7/10 collected from the broodstock were infected with S. iniae at the time of spawning and was transmitted to all of their offspring. Nevertheless, when the same samples of gametes were analyzed for S. agalactiae, they were all found to be negative but the pathogen was found to be present in some 10-day-old larval offspring (4/10. However, when the pathogenic presence was analyzed from the reproductive organs of the parents, both S. agalactiae (11/20 and S. iniae (18/20 bacterium were common. Although, all broodstock were asymptomatic, almost all broodstock harboured the bacteria in many organs. Confirmation of vertical transmission of streptococcosis in tilapia means that intergenerational break cannot be used as a reliable and simple means of reducing or eliminating the prevalence of these difficult pathogens in aquaculture stock.

  7. Sero-epidemiological analysis of vertical transmission relative risk of Borna disease virus infection in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tatsuya; Takino, Tadashi; Makita, Kohei; Tajima, Motoshi; Koiwa, Masateru; Hagiwara, Katsuro

    2016-12-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a virus that causes a neurological disease in domestic animals, including a variety of animal species in Japan. Few studies have examined the mode of transmission of this virus in cattle, and the exact mechanisms underlying the transmission of the virus need to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the contribution of vertical transmission of the virus, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from the mother to offspring during gestation or birth. We used an epidemiological approach. The relative risk (RR) was calculated for cattle born to BDV sero-positive cows from farms with a higher within-herd prevalence of BDV (56.8%). We tested the sera of 1,122 dairy cattle from 24 dairy herds in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, for BDV infection using the ELISA and western blotting method. The overall level of BDV sero-prevalence was 22.1%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in closed-breeding herds that do not have buying in cows (39.7%) than in farms that restock cattle by buying in cows (4.4%, P<0.01). The overall RR of BDV vertical transmission from infected mothers to their daughters was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54-2.56). Our results show that vertical transmission contributes significantly to BDV transmission in the farms tested in this study.

  8. Knowledge of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Tarja; Heikkinen, Teppo; Pakarinen, Marja; Sepponen, Anne-Mari; Kylmä, Jari

    2017-02-06

    The purpose of this study was to describe what is known about HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, infection transmission routes, care, and sources of information, from the viewpoint of men having sex with men. National data (n = 2,072) was collected from June to August 2010 in Finland as part of a joint internet-based survey conducted in 38 countries (EMIS, European MSM Internet Sex Survey). The respondents' age, place of residence, highest education and employment status were statistically significantly related to how often the respondent sought information on HIV, testing and treatments, and what they knew about infection transmission routes. The respondents' information seeking behavior was not seen as active regarding HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. We should also consider the possibility of using internet-based interventions, especially in smaller and northern catchment areas, in order to improve the knowledge level of men having sex with men.

  9. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Shindel, Alan W

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Most of the medical literature regarding recreational urethral sounding pertains to foreign body retrieval. Very little is known about men who perform sounding and do not require medical attention. Of >2000 men, who responded to a urinary and sexual wellness survey, 10% had a history of recreational urethral sounding. Compared with men who did not sound, men who did reported higher risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners, sex with strangers and reported more sexually transmitted infections. Men who seek medical attention for complications resulting from sounding should be counselled regarding the hazards of the practice. Realistic strategies for risk reduction should be discussed with men who engage in recreational sounding. To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Newly Arrived Refugees: Is Routine Screening for Neisseria gonorrheae and Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William M.; Painter, John; Mamo, Blain; Kaiser, Robyn; Weinberg, Michelle; Berman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    More than 340 million cases of bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur annually. Approximately 70,000 refugees arrive in the United States on a yearly basis. Refugees are a particularly disenfranchised and vulnerable population. The prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea in refugee populations has not been described, and the utility of routine screening is unknown. We performed a descriptive evaluation of 25,779 refugees who completed a screening medical examination in Minnesota during 2003–2010. A total of 18,516 (72%) refugees were tested for at least one STI: 183 (1.1%) of 17,235 were seropositive for syphilis, 15 (0.6%) of 2,512 were positive for Chlamydia, 5 (0.2%) of 2,403 were positive for gonorrhea, 136 (2.0%) of 6,765 were positive for human immunodeficiency virus, and 6 (0.1%) of 5,873 were positive for multiple STIs. Overall prevalence of Chlamydia (0.6%) and gonorrhea (0.2%) infection was low, which indicated that routine screening may not be indicated. However, further research on this subject is encouraged. PMID:22302865

  11. Travel-associated sexually transmitted infections: an observational cross-sectional study of the GeoSentinel surveillance database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matteelli, Alberto; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Carvalho, Anna C. C.; Weld, Leisa; Davis, Xiaohong M.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; Parola, Philippe; Pandey, Prativa; Han, Pauline; Castelli, Francesco; Murphy, Holly; Weber, Rainer; Steffen, Robert; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Jenks, Nancy Piper; Kerr, Christine A.; Borwein, Sarah; Leder, Karin; Torresi, Joseph; Brown, Graham V.; Keystone, Jay S.; Kain, Kevin C.; Jensenius, Mogens; Wang, Andy; Eason, Jane; MacDonald, Susan; McCarthy, Anne E.; Anderson, Nicole L.; Batchelor, Trish; Meisch, Dominique; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Pérez-Molina, Jose A.; Field, Vanessa; Schwartz, Eli; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Loutan, Louis; Chappuis, François; Caumes, Eric; Pérignon, Alice; Lim, Poh Lian; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Libman, Michael D.; Ward, Brian J.; Maclean, J. Dick; Stauffer, William M.; Walker, Patricia F.; Hale, Devon C.; Anand, Rahul; Gelman, Stephanie S.; Connor, Bradley A.; Simon, Fabrice; Delmont, Jean; Valdez, Luis M.; Siu, Hugo; Coyle, Christina M.; Wittner, Murray; Gurtman, Alejandra C.; Haulman, N. Jean; Roesel, David; Jong, Elaine C.; Shaw, Marc T.; Hern, Annemarie; Cahill, John D.; McKinley, George; Licitra, Carmelo; Crespo, Antonio; Rapp, Christophe; Aoun, Olivier; Kass, Robert; Mendelson, Marc; Vincent, Peter; Hynes, Noreen A.; Sack, R. Bradley; McKenzie, Robin; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.; Hagmann, Stefan; Henry, Michael; Miller, Andy O.; Chen, Lin H.; Wilson, Mary E.; Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Mizunno, Yasutaka; de Vries, Peter J.; Gadroen, Kartini; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Fairley, Jessica; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Perret, Cecilia; Valdivieso, Francisca; Yates, Johnnie A.; Ansdell, Vernon E.; Muller, Robert; Benoit, Edward; Chen, Eunice; Holtom, Paul D.; Goad, Jeff A.; Anglim, Anne; Doyle, Patrick W.; Ghesquiere, Wayne G.; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Kurai, Hanako; Sagara, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Travel is thought to be a risk factor for the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but no multicentre analyses have been done. We aimed to describe the range of diseases and the demographic and geographical factors associated with the acquisition of travel-related STIs through

  12. Effectiveness of an individual, online e-learning program about sexually transmitted infections: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Bonnie, Linda H. A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; te Pas, Ellen; Kijser, Michael A.; van Dijk, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective

  13. Behavioural Interventions for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Young People Aged 13-19 Years: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Joanna; Shepherd, Jonathan; Kavanagh, Josephine; Cooper, Keith; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff K.

    2012-01-01

    We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…

  14. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  15. The impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in african sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verwijs, Marijn C.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Verhelst, Rita; Schuren, Frank H.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The observed association between Depo-Provera injectable use and increased HIV acquisition may be caused by hormone-induced increased susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or changes in the cervicovaginal microbiota (VMB), accompanied by genital immune activation and/or

  16. Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Consultations for sexually transmitted infections in the general practice in the Netherlands: an opportunity to improve STI/HIV testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, S.C.M.; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Donker, G.A.; Bergen, J.E.A.M. van; Sande, M.A.B. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In the Netherlands, sexually transmitted infection (STI) care is provided by general practitioners (GPs) as well as by specialised STI centres. Consultations at the STI centres are monitored extensively, but data from the general practice are limited. This study aimed to examine STI

  18. Using sexually transmitted infection biomarkers to validate reporting of sexual behavior within a randomized, experimental evaluation of interviewing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewett, Paul C.; Mensch, Barbara S.; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S. de A.; Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Montgomery, Mark R.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of sexual and other risk behaviors within a randomized experiment using a computerized versus face-to-face interview mode. Biomarkers for sexually transmitted infection (STI) were used to validate self-reported behavior by interview mode. As part of a parent study

  19. Correlates of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents Attending Public High Schools, Panama, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabster, Amanda; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Arteaga, Griselda B.; Castillero, Omar; Mojica, Nataly; Dyamond, José; Varela, Maria; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in adolescents worldwide. Vulnerability to STIs increases with risky sexual practices. This study described the sexual practices, estimated the prevalence of STIs, and identified correlates associated with STIs among participants, enrolled in public high schools, in the District of Panama, Panama. Methods A cross sectional study, using multistage cluster sampling, was conducted among participants, aged 14–18 years, enrolled in public high schools, in the District of Panama, Panama City, Panama, from August to November, 2015. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided biological samples. The samples of those reporting sexual activity (oral, vaginal, and/or anal intercourse) were tested for STIs. Odds ratios were used to identify correlates of STIs in this population. Results A total of 592 participants were included, of whom, 60.8% reported a history of sexual activity, and 24.4% tested positive for least one STI. STIs were more common in female participants, (33.5%). Compared to those without STIs, higher proportions of those with at least one STI reported ≥3 sexual partners in their lifetime (60.0%) and current sexual activity (76.3%). In the multivariable model, correlates of STI included female participants (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 5.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.3–14.6) and those who engaged in sexual intercourse with casual partners (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.5). Conclusions We report a high STI prevalence among adolescents attending public high schools, in the District of Panama. Reported risky sexual practices were common and correlated with STIs. Female participants and those reporting sexual intercourse with casual partners were more likely test positive for at least one STI. Our study identified a need for effective interventions to curb future infections in this population. PMID:27657700

  20. An examination of the path between recent sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sternberg, Kirk; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Jun, Jina; Learman, Joy; Velasquez, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infections in the United States and are particularly prevalent in survivors of sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to examine co-occurring risk factors for sexual violence and STIs including mental health, alcohol use, drug use, and multiple partners as intersecting pathways to STIs for women who experienced sexual abuse in the past year. Secondary analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data from women originally recruited as respondents for an epidemiologic survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Project CHOICES. The survey was administered to 2,672 women in six settings: A large, urban jail and residential alcohol and drug treatment facilities (Texas); a gynecology clinic (Virginia); two primary care clinics (Virginia and Florida); and media solicitation (Florida). Women were included in the current study if they were fertile, sexually active, and not pregnant or trying to get pregnant (n = 1,183). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual path model between sexual violence and STI occurrence. In the SEM, there were no significant paths from mental health, alcohol severity, or drug use to STI occurrence contrary to the results of the initial bivariate analyses. Multiple sexual partners significantly mediated the relationship between sexual violence and STIs and between mental health and drug use and STIs. This study highlights the importance of providing effective treatment to survivors of sexual violence, which includes addressing risky sexual behaviors to reduce STI occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse Experiences in Childhood and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk From Adolescence Into Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Stephanie; Quinn, Kelly; Scheidell, Joy D; Frueh, B Christopher; Khan, Maria R

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment, particularly sexual abuse, has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors later in life. We aimed to evaluate associations between a broad range of childhood traumas and sexual risk behaviors from adolescence into adulthood. Using data from Waves I, III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR) for associations between 9 childhood traumas and a cumulative trauma score and three sexual risk outcomes (multiple partnerships, sex trade involvement, and sexually transmitted infection [STI]) in adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. We also examined modification of these associations by gender. Associations between cumulative trauma score and sexual risk outcomes existed at all waves, though were strongest during adolescence. Dose-response-like relationships were observed during at least 1 wave of the study for each outcome. Violence exposures were strong independent correlates of adolescent sexual risk outcomes. Parental binge drinking was the only trauma associated with biologically confirmed infection in young adulthood (AOR, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.11), whereas parental incarceration was the trauma most strongly associated with self-reported STI in adulthood (AOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.11-2.58). A strong connection was also found between sexual abuse and sex trade in the young adulthood period (AOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.43-2.49). A broad range of traumas are independent correlates of sex risk behavior and STI, with increasing trauma level linked to increasing odds of sexual risk outcomes. The results underscore the need to consider trauma history in STI screening and prevention strategies.

  2. Trichomoniasis and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections: Results from the 2001–2004 NHANES Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Ratner, Jane Alyce; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the association between Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) and six sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2), syphilis and HIV in a nationally representative sample. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) combining the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 waves to estimate the association between TV and STIs among women in the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. The final sample included data from 3,648 women, which when weighted, represents the experience of 65,563,298 US women between the ages of 14 and 49. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using logistic regression for rare STIs (trichomoniasis was 3.2% with over 80% of cases asymptomatic in the past month. All STIs examined (chlamydia, gonorrhea, HSV-1, HSV-2, syphilis and HIV) were more common among women with a positive test for trichomoniasis. HSV-1 (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09, 1.34) and HSV-2 (RR= 1.51, 95% CI 2.32, 3.23) were significantly associated with trichomoniasis after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age and recent sexual partners. In crude analyses, a positive treponemal test was 6 times (95% CI 2.07, 18.8) more common and HIV was 13 times (95% 2.88, 59.1) more common among women with trichomoniasis, but these estimates were greatly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Trichomoniasis is significantly associated with concurrent STI. PMID:19734826

  3. Use of new technologies to notify possible contagion of sexually-transmitted infections among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Barbera-Gracia, María Jesús; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; García de Olalla, Patricia; Muñoz, Rafael; Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza; Saladié-Martí, María Pilar; Gosch-Elcoso, Mercè; Arellano Muñoz, Encarna; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the association between searching for sexual partners' on the Internet and increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV infection, together with current low levels of partner notification (PN), justifies a study to explore the intention to use new communication technologies for PN in Spain. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed: the first was administered online to visitors to web pages where the survey was advertised; the second was administered on paper to patients attending an STI Unit and centres similar to Community-Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing centres. The study population comprised 1578 Spanish residents (median age, 34 years [range: 18 to 74]); 84% lived in urban areas, and 69% reported searching for sexual partners on the Internet. Thirty-seven per cent would be willing to use a website for PN, 26% did not know if they would use one, and 37% would not want to use one. The main reasons for not intending to notify STI/HIV were "shame or fear" (stable partner) and "not knowing how to contact them" (casual partner). The preferred method of notification was face to face (73%) for both stable and casual partners, although using new technologies (Short Messaging System, e-mail, web page, phone applications) was widely accepted for notifying casual partners. Fighting stigma and promoting alternative methods of PN among MSM and health professionals through new technologies could increase the frequency of PN. This approach will improve early detection and reduce transmission in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergency contraceptive pill users' risk perceptions for sexually transmitted infections and future unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Mary T; Shedlin, Michele G

    2017-09-01

    The availability of emergency contraception pills (ECP) over the counter (OTC) has the potential to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy; however, the increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition, related to unprotected intercourse, has not been adequately addressed. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into risk perceptions for STIs and subsequent unintended pregnancy in women who have purchased ECP OTC. Twenty-one women, aged 18-24, attending a private university in an urban setting, who purchased and used ECP OTC participated in 1-h, individual interviews. Narrative, descriptive findings indicated that these women did not consider themselves at risk for STI or unintended pregnancy, despite having used ECP OTC. Pregnancy prevention was paramount for these women, which overshadowed concerns regarding STIs. Women at risk for unintended consequences of sexual activity are not fully cognizant of those potential outcomes and do not take measures to prevent their occurrence. The availability of ECP OTC offers protection against unintended pregnancy; however, opportunities for health promotion and prevention counseling may be lost. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  6. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Azithromycin plus chloroquine: combination therapy for protection against malaria and sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, R Matthew; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The first-line therapy for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). There is an urgent need to identify safe, well-tolerated and efficacious alternatives to SP due to widespread Plasmodium falciparum resistance. Combination therapy using azithromycin and chloroquine is one possibility that has demonstrated adequate parasitological response > 95% in clinical trials of non-pregnant adults in sub-Saharan Africa and where IPTp is a government policy in 33 countries. Areas covered: Key safety, tolerability and efficacy data are presented for azithromycin and chloroquine, alone and/or in combination, when used to prevent and/or treat P. falciparum, P. vivax, and several curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STI/RTI). Pharmacokinetic evidence from pregnant women is also summarized for both compounds. Expert opinion: The azithromycin-chloroquine regimen that has demonstrated consistent efficacy in non-pregnant adults has been a 3-day course containing daily doses of 1 g of azithromycin and 600 mg base of chloroquine. The pharmacokinetic evidence of these compounds individually suggests that dose adjustments may not be necessary when used in combination for treatment efficacy against P. falciparum, P. vivax, as well as several curable STI/ RTI among pregnant women, although clinical confirmation will be necessary. Mass trachoma-treatment campaigns have shown that azithromycin selects for macrolide resistance in the pneumococcus, which reverses following the completion of therapy. Most importantly, no evidence to date suggests that azithromycin induces pneumococcal resistance to penicillin. PMID:21736423

  8. Sexual Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Swingers: Results From an Online Survey in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Tom; van Lankveld, Jacques; Ooms, Lieselot; Florence, Eric

    2017-11-17

    Swingers are couples practicing consensual extradyadic heterosexual relations. This subculture is defined by venues and online communities. This study aimed to assess swingers' lifestyle, sexual health, and history of testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and to review risk factors for sexual risk behavior and STI transmission. An online survey was distributed through venues, chat websites, and dating websites. Most of 480 swingers starting the survey completed it (n = 392, 81.6%). Women (n = 146) reported more frequent swinging (p = 0.013), same-sex contacts (p < 0.001), and more sex under influence of alcohol (p < 0.001). Men (n = 334) reported more anal sex (p = 0.002) and condomless vaginal sex (p = 0.004). Of respondents tested, 25.7% ever received an STI diagnosis. Using logistical regression, being male, older, single, and party drug use were associated with sexual risk behavior (p = 0.009). Higher frequency of swinging was associated with an STI diagnosis (p = 0.036). Swingers were sexually active, reported factors associated with sexual risk behavior, and were more diagnosed with an STI compared to the general population. Many swingers were tested for STIs. Nonetheless, implementation of tailored testing strategies should be considered given their elevated risk for STI acquisition.

  9. Lifetime marijuana use and sexually transmitted infection history in a sample of Black college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Blanden, Gwenna; Rehmani, Nasreen

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and marijuana use are more prevalent in African Americans/Blacks (Blacks) than any other ethnicity in the United States. Given the significant health care costs and deleterious health correlates of using marijuana or contracting a STI, it is imperative to examine their association, especially in the vulnerable and underrepresented group of young adult Blacks. The current study examines the association between lifetime marijuana use on history of STI diagnosis in a sample of Black college students. Approximately 81% of the 213 participants were female, with approximately 81% also being 21years of age or younger. Alcohol (88%) led the prevalence of substances ever used, followed by marijuana (75%), and cigarettes (57%). When including demographic and substance use covariates, lifetime marijuana use (AOR=2.51; 95% CIs, 1.01, 6.21) and age (AOR=2.72; 95% CIs, 1.32, 5.64) were associated with history of STI. These findings will inform intervention and prevention methods used to reduce STI prevalence and marijuana use among Black young adults. Both epidemiological and biological foundations will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution of the swine model in the study of human sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Tobias; Renois, Fanny; Wilson, Heather L; Cnudde, Thomas; Gerdts, Volker; Dillon, Jo-Anne R; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Meurens, François

    2017-11-23

    The pig has garnered more and more interest as a model animal to study various conditions in humans. The growing success of the pig as an experimental animal model is explained by its similarities with humans in terms of anatomy, genetics, immunology, and physiology, by their manageable behavior and size, and by the general public acceptance of using pigs for experimental purposes. In addition, the immunological toolbox of pigs has grown substantially in the last decade. This development led to a boost in the use of pigs as a preclinical model for various human infections including sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) like Chlamydia trachomatis. In the current review, we discuss the use of animal models for biomedical research on the major human STIs. We summarize results obtained in the most common animal models and focus on the contributions of the pig model towards the understanding of pathogenesis and the host immune response. In addition, we present the main features of the porcine model that are particularly relevant for the study of pathogens affecting human female and male genital tracts. We also inform on the technological advancements in the porcine toolbox to facilitate new discoveries in this biologically important animal model. There is a continued need for improvements in animal modeling for biomedical research inclusive STI research. With all its advantages and the highly improved toolbox, the porcine model can play a crucial role in STI research and open the door to new exciting discoveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brief Messages to Promote Prevention and Detection of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of our research program investigating the effects of brief risk awareness interventions for sexually active young adults—the age group most at-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our review examines the influence of framed messages, individual differences, and visual aids on key attitudes, behavioral intentions, and health outcomes in three extensive longitudinal studies. Our first study showed that health messages can promote self-reported condom use (screening for STIs) when the messages were framed in positive (negative) terms. This study also showed that adding visual aids to the positive and negative framed messages made them equally and highly effective for promoting self-reported behavior. Visual aids increased self-reported behavior by eliminating the effect of framing on attitudes and behavioral intentions, which in turn influenced self-reported behavior. Our second study showed that visual aids were especially helpful for reducing the effect of message framing among young adults with low numeracy and high graph literacy. Our third study showed that visual aids influenced key attitudes, behavioral intentions, and self-reported behavior as much as a validated 8-hour educational program. Overall, our research suggests that well-constructed visual aids provide simple, effective ways of communicating quantitative information about STIs to at-risk young adults. Theoretical mechanisms, public policy implications, and open questions are discussed.

  12. Transfusion-Transmitted Bacterial Infections - Haemovigilance Data of German Blood Establishments (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Markus B; Lohmann, Annette; Guenay, Serife; Henseler, Olaf; Heiden, Margarethe; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY: METHODS: In order to evaluate the benefit of risk minimisation measures, reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (TTBI) were calculated on the basis of annual reports and distributed blood components. Following the implementation of risk minimisation measures in 2003 and 2008, a comparison of pre- and post-implementation periods was performed. RESULTS: During a period of 14 years, 90 cases of TTBI were confirmed, 34 were caused by red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, 5 by fresh frozen plasma, and 51 by platelet concentrates (PCs). The overall reporting frequency was 1 TTBI in 1.91 million RBC units; 1 TTBI in 0.094 million PC units, and 1 TTBI-associated fatality in 0.57 million PC units. From 2001-2004 the reporting rate was 13.7 per million PC units; 2005-2008, after the implementation of pre-donation sampling; it was 10.8 per million PC units (p > 0.5). After limitation of the shelf life (2008), the reporting rate decreased to 4.49 per million PC units (p = 0.12), and one case of related fatality was reported. Agents with low pathogenicity were reported in 14 of 41 immunosuppressed patients (34%) but only in 1 of 13 patients with non-haematological/oncological diseases. CONCLUSION: TTBI and associated fatalities could be gradually reduced by the risk minimisation measures, but further strategies such as implementation of sensitive screening tests or pathogen-reducing approaches should be discussed.

  13. Transfusion-Transmitted Bacterial Infections – Haemovigilance Data of German Blood Establishments (1997-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Markus B.; Lohmann, Annette; Guenay, Serife; Henseler, Olaf; Heiden, Margarethe; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Summary Methods In order to evaluate the benefit of risk minimisation measures, reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (TTBI) were calculated on the basis of annual reports and distributed blood components. Following the implementation of risk minimisation measures in 2003 and 2008, a comparison of pre- and post-implementation periods was performed. Results During a period of 14 years, 90 cases of TTBI were confirmed, 34 were caused by red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, 5 by fresh frozen plasma, and 51 by platelet concentrates (PCs). The overall reporting frequency was 1 TTBI in 1.91 million RBC units; 1 TTBI in 0.094 million PC units, and 1 TTBI-associated fatality in 0.57 million PC units. From 2001-2004 the reporting rate was 13.7 per million PC units; 2005-2008, after the implementation of pre-donation sampling; it was 10.8 per million PC units (p > 0.5). After limitation of the shelf life (2008), the reporting rate decreased to 4.49 per million PC units (p = 0.12), and one case of related fatality was reported. Agents with low pathogenicity were reported in 14 of 41 immunosuppressed patients (34%) but only in 1 of 13 patients with non-haematological/oncological diseases. Conclusion TTBI and associated fatalities could be gradually reduced by the risk minimisation measures, but further strategies such as implementation of sensitive screening tests or pathogen-reducing approaches should be discussed. PMID:22016698

  14. Transfusion transmitted infections - a retrospective analysis from the National Blood Transfusion Service in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaye, Nahom; Naik, Durgadas; Fessehaye, Tesfay

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. The study population included all donors who donated blood from January 2006 to November 2009. The data was collected from the National Blood Transfusion Services (NTBS) of Eritrea and includes category of donor and result for TTI markers. A total of 29,501 units of blood were collected from 23,385(79%) voluntary blood donors and the rest 6,116(21%) units were collected from family replacement donors. The over all prevalence of TTI's were 3.8% with 3.5% in voluntary blood donors and 5.1% in family replacement donors. The sero-prevalence for TTI markers were 0.18% HIV, 2.58% HBV, 0.57% HCV and 0.49% Syphilis. In conclusion, even if the TTI prevalence rate among Eritrean blood donors is low, ensuring blood safety has a long way to go.

  15. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the National Blood Transfusion Service in Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaye, Nahom; Naik, Durgadas; Fessehaye, Tesfay

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods The study population included all donors who donated blood from January 2006 to November 2009. The data was collected from the National Blood Transfusion Services (NTBS) of Eritrea and includes category of donor and result for TTI markers. Results A total of 29,501 units of blood were collected from 23,385(79%) voluntary blood donors and the rest 6,116(21%) units were collected from family replacement donors. The over all prevalence of TTI's were 3.8% with 3.5% in voluntary blood donors and 5.1% in family replacement donors. The sero-prevalence for TTI markers were 0.18% HIV, 2.58% HBV, 0.57% HCV and 0.49% Syphilis. Conclusion In conclusion, even if the TTI prevalence rate among Eritrean blood donors is low, ensuring blood safety has a long way to go. PMID:22145069

  16. MEDICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN ADOLESCENTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

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    L. I. Petrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop health-improving interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, a comprehensive socio-hygienic study of various groups of adolescents and young people was conducted. The questionnaires were analyzed on the following main parameters: social and personal characteristics, level of awareness about sexual relations and about STIs. In the study, two groups were identified: 1 group (main - adolescents with STIs, 2 group (comparisons - healthy adolescents. The first information on the existence of sexual relations, 48.7% of adolescents from the main group received from older friends and peers. Among the adolescents in the comparison group, 14% had sexual contact. Those who love their family and want their future family to be similar to their parents were significantly more (9 times in the comparison group than in the main group (20.0% vs. 2.2%, p <0.0001. Information on STIs, transmission routes, complications, prevention is available in 39.7% of STIs patients, and only 18.7% in the comparison group. The objective reasons for the formation of a low moral and cultural level are identified: education in incomplete and unfavorable families, lack of study and work, low level of awareness of STIs and questionable sources of knowledge on this issue.

  17. Sexually active older Australian's knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-06-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. [Sexually transmitted infections in male prison inmates: risk of development of new diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Recio, Raquel; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Santabárbara Serrano, Javier

    2016-01-01

    To measure incidence and main risk factors related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Daroca Prison (Zaragoza, Spain). A retrospective cohort study (2005-2013) to measure the incidence of STI and a cross-sectional study to measure risk factors. Of the 203 inmates, 79 developed an STI, 37 had a previous STI, 55.2% lacked knowledge on STI prevention, and 28.9% showed behaviours unfavourable for STI prevention. The incidence rate was 6.5 STIs per 1,000 inmates-year. The most frequent STIs were hepatitis B (39.7%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (19.1%), herpes simplex (16.2%) and HIV (8.8%). The risk (hazard ratio, HR) of acquiring a new STI was significantly higher in inmates with a history of previous STI (HR=2.61; 95%CI: 1.01 to 6.69), and was at the limit of significance for non-preventive behaviour (HR=2.10; 95%CI: 0.98 to 4.53), but not in knowledge related to STIs (HR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.58 to 3.07). The most important risk factors in prison are behaviours related to STIs and previous history of STIs. Other factors are being a repeat offender, injecting drug use, or being in a methadone programme. Health personnel and peer education can facilitate prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions and attitudes regarding sexually transmitted infection and family planning among adolescents in Northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Amanda; Asgary, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and early pregnancy are high among adolescents in Madagascar. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate perceptions, attitudes, and misconceptions regarding STIs and contraception among female and male adolescents ages 15-19 years (n = 43) in Northern Madagascar in 2014 using focus group discussions with open-ended questions. Data were coded and analyzed for major themes. Participants were in grades 6 to 12 in school; 53% were female. Despite high levels of awareness, significant stigma against and misconceptions about STIs, condom use, and sexual practices existed. Many participants did not know how to use condoms and felt uncomfortable suggesting condoms with regular partners, despite acknowledging infidelity as a frequent problem. Male participants were more willing to use condoms as contraception for unwanted pregnancy than for prevention of STIs. Most participants held misconceptions about side effects of contraceptives, including infertility, cancer, and preventing bad blood from leaving the woman's body. Systematic and community-wide health education and formal reproductive health curricula in schools may improve attitudes and stigma regarding STIs and family planning. These strategies need to be developed and employed via collaboration among faith-based, community, and non-governmental organizations, schools, and governmental health and social service agencies.

  20. Reported sexually transmitted infections in Swedish Internet-using men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Daneback, K; Mansson, S-A; Berglund, T; Tikkanen, R

    2008-06-01

    Although the Internet has become a forum for making sexual contacts, and has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, we have little information of history of STIs in Internet-based samples. The Internet behaviours that are associated with STI acquisition are poorly understood. We analysed STI histories reported by 904 Swedish men and 931 Swedish women who responded to an Internet-based survey on sexual behaviour in 2002: 16.6% of men and 22.5% of women reported a lifetime history of STIs, with Chlamydia being the most common for both genders. 3% of men and 5% of women who reported an STI, indicated that they had had more than one. Sources of the STI, where known, were Internet-acquired partners in only 3% of cases. There were no differences between men and women with or without an STI history regarding the kind of online sexual activities they engaged in, how they found sexual material online, and the reasons they engage in sexual activities. These rates are similar to those reported in a national random study of sexuality in Sweden. Contrary to prior research, these results suggest no relationship between STI and specific Internet characteristics usage patterns. These data suggest that the Internet is not yet a major source of STIs in Swedish men and women. Given these STI histories, the Internet may be a useful medium to include in STI prevention efforts.

  1. The Prevalence Of Sexually Transmitted Infections On Teen Pregnancies And Their Association To Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.

  2. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Dependency Traits, Relationship Power, and Health Risks in Women Receiving Sexually-Transmitted Infection Clinic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Sawyer, Ashlee N; Martin, Aaron M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Nettles, Christopher D; Richardson, Doug; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-01-01

    In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity. In addition, dependency traits may be associated with unhealthy coping (e.g., through substance use). To examine associations between dependent personality traits and these types of health-related behaviors, 198 women seeking sexually transmitted infection clinic services completed a computer-assisted assessment of dependent personality traits, substance use, unhealthy conditions in primary relationships, perceived sexual and relationship power, and sexual risk related to condom use. Dependency trait scores were correlated with the use of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Participants high in dependency traits reported low perceived power within their relationships and less say in sexual behaviors, including condom use. In a series of multivariate analyses, dependency traits significantly predicted having been hit by a partner, staying with a partner after he cheated, having sex because of threats, and fear of asking a partner to use a condom. Dependency traits were also associated with lower past condom use and lower future condom use intentions. Results suggest that dependent personality traits may place women at higher risk for physical abuse and harmful health behaviors.

  4. Trend and prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in rural teaching institute, south India

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    MS Leena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The magnitude of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI varies from country to country depending on TTI’s load in that particular population. The aim of the study was to study the trend and prevalence of sero-markers among blood donors in one of the tertiary health center in south India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed from 2004 to 2010 in a blood bank of teaching hospital in South India. All blood donors who presented to blood bank during the study period were included. Data regarding demography and serological tests were collected on predesigned proforma. Results: There were a total of 6939 blood donors during study period. Out of these, 94(1.35% were positive for sero-markers for TTIs. The number of blood donors as well as sero-positivity increased from year 2004 to 2010. Conclusions: Trend and sero-prevalence of TTIs increased over period of time. Sero-positivity for TTIs decreased from year 2004 to 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6022 JPN 2012; 2(3: 203-206

  5. [Evaluation of tools for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines on sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jaime Hernán Rodríguez; Romero Vergara, Antonio José; De Moya, Danilo De Jesús De Alba; Jaramillo Rojas, Hernán Javier; Díaz Rojas, Claudia Milena; Ciapponi, Agustín

    2017-05-25

    Determine the acceptability, perceived usefulness, and adoption of implementation tools and technical assistance provided by the Health Technology Assessment Institute (IETS) in hospitals in two regions of Colombia. Assistance was provided for implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in 24 hospitals (17 in Antioquia and seven in Cundinamarca) in areas with high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and for use of the implementation tools. Health professionals were given surveys and medical specialists were interviewed. Overall, 86% of respondents are familiar with the GPGs, 86% with the tracer recommendations, 79% with the interactive flow charts, and 82% with the evidence sheets, while 41% never used the implementation tools. Of the respondents who used the tools, 55% did so on their work computer, while 24% used their personal telephone. The most useful tools were the evidence sheets and flow charts (98%) and the tracer recommendations (92%). The least useful were the budgetary impact tools (81%). The implementation tools and technical assistance provided in hospitals in two regions of Colombia are perceived as useful and acceptable, although the degree of implementation is low. The findings of this research will help the different actors, such as the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the IETS, and the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Colciencias), among others, improve their programs for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines.

  6. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

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    Vermund Sten H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1 willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2 the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3 client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4 infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5 PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management.

  7. Factors Related to Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection on Primary School Children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infeksi Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH is the third ranks of the top 10 common infectious diseases in the world with an incidence rate of about 1.4 billion per year. The incidence of STH in Indonesia is still quite high. This figure occurs in primary school students of 60-80%, while for all ages of 40% -60%. The purpose of this study was to determine factors related to STH infection in elementary school children at primary school of Moyudan Sleman. The type of research used was analytic observational with the cross-sectional design. The population in this study were all students of class I, II, and III in Moyudan Sleman primary school with total sampling technique of 60 respondents. Data analysis used chi-square. The test results showed that the habit of hand washing before eating (sig= 0.010; RP= 3.850, the habit of hand washing  after defecating(sig= 0.007; RP= 4.571, nail hygiene (sig= 0.179; RP= 2.138, the habit of wearing footwear (sig= 0.008; RP= 3.714, and bowel habits (sig= 0.004; RP= 4.000. It can be concluded that there was a relationship between hand washing before eating, hand washing after defecating, the habit of wearing footwear, bowel habits and STH infection on the students of Moyudan Sleman primary school but there was no relationship between nail hygiene and STH infection. ABSTRAK Infeksi Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH adalah penyakit yang menempati urutan ketiga dari 10 penyakit menular di dunia dengan tingkat kejadian sekitar 1,4 miliar per tahun. Insiden STH di Indonesia masih cukup tinggi. Angka tersebut terjadi pada siswa di sekolah dasar mencapai 60-80%, sedangkan untuk semua usia berkisar antara 40%-60%. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor yang berhubungan dengan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar di SD Negeri Moyudan Sleman. Penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan rancangan cross sectional. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah semua siswa kelas I, II, dan III di SD Moyudan

  8. [Non-viral sexually transmitted infections - Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostics and therapy : Part 2: Chlamydia and mycoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Manos, A; Ehrhard, I; Krüger, C; Paasch, U; Helmbold, P; Handrick, W

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common pathogen of sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. Every year in Germany approximately 300,000 new infections are to be expected. Chlamydia infections occur nearly exclusively in the postpubertal period. The peak age group is 15-25 years. The infection usually runs an asymptomatic course and the diagnosis is made by nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) often after chlamydial screening or if complications occur. For treatment of chlamydial infections oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily over 7 days is initially used or alternatively oral azithromycin 1.5 g as a single dose is recommended. The sexual partner should also be investigated and treated. Genital Mycoplasma infections are caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum (pathogen of urethritis and vaginitis), Ureaplasma parvum (mostly saprophytic and rarely a cause of urethritis) and Mycoplasma hominis (facultative pathogenic). Mycoplasma genitalium represents a relatively new sexually transmitted Mycoplasma species. Doxycycline is effective in Ureaplasma infections or alternatively clarithromycin and azithromycin. Doxycycline can be ineffective in Mycoplasma hominis infections and an alternative is clindamycin. Non-gonococcal and non-chlamydial urethritis due to Mycoplasma genitalium can now be diagnosed by molecular biological techniques using PCR and should be treated by azithromycin.

  9. Is Spousal Violence Being "Vertically Transmitted" through Victims? Findings from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

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    Syeda Kanwal Aslam

    Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such

  10. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  11. Co-Infections and Sero-Prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B and C Infections in Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic Attendees of Tertiary Care Hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattar, Sonali; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Sahani, Satyendra Kumar; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-01-01

    HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C (HBV & HCV) infections modify the epidemiology and presentation of each other. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of these infections and their co-infections in sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic attendees in New Delhi, India. A retrospective study including 220 patients was conducted during May 2014 through December 2014. Serodiagnosis of HIV was performed as per Strategy III of NACO guidelines; syphilis by VDRL followed by TPHA; HBV and HCV by rapid immuno-chromatographic test followed by ELISA. Male subjects were slightly more in number as compared to females (56.36% vs. 43.63%). Twelve (5.45%), 14 (6.36%), three (1.36 %) and one (0.45%) were reactive for HIV, VDRL, HBV and HCV, respectively. Three were both HIV and syphilis positive and one was both HIV and HBV positive; no co-infections of HBV/HCV, HIV/HBV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV/syphilis coexisted. High prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in STI clinic attendees mandate routine screening to detect co-infections and follow prompt therapy in order to minimize their sequelae.

  12. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam

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    Lan Pham

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15–49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Results Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p Conclusion The low levels of STI knowledge found among women of reproductive age in a rural district of Vietnam indicate an urgent need of health education interventions, of which, young and unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  13. Laboratory-diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in former foster youth compared with peers.

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    Ahrens, Kym R; Richardson, Laura P; Courtney, Mark E; McCarty, Carolyn; Simoni, Jane; Katon, Wayne

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between having resided in foster care and risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) during young adulthood. Multiple regression analyses were performed by using Waves I to III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2002) to evaluate the association between foster care status and STI biomarkers and risk behaviors. Female (N = 7563) and male participants (N = 6759) were evaluated separately. Covariates in all models included baseline age, race, ethnicity, parental education level, parental income level, and average neighborhood household income level. Female participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have Trichomonas (odds ratio [OR]: 3.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-7.23) but not gonorrhea or chlamydia and reported increased sexual risk behaviors compared with nonfostered peers. Male participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have both gonorrhea (OR: 14.28 [95% CI: 2.07-98.28]) and chlamydia (OR: 3.07 [95% CI: 1.36-6.96]) but not Trichomonas and did not report a higher risk for most sexual risk behaviors than nonfostered peers. Results suggest that individuals who have been in foster care are at increased risk for STIs during young adulthood. The pattern of exposure may differ between male and female individuals. If findings are confirmed, they suggest that health care providers who work with these youth should adjust their STI screening practices. Child welfare agencies should also consider targeted interventions to reduce STI risk in this population.

  14. It takes 2: partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections among adolescents.

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    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Niccolai, Linda M; Kershaw, Trace S; Brown, Jennifer L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Sales, Jessica M

    2013-05-01

    The aims of this study were to identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and to summarize implications for research and prevention. The design of this study was systematic review. We identified peer-reviewed studies published in 1990 through 2010 that assessed 1 or more partner attributes in relation to a biologically confirmed STI among adolescents (15-24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies that included adolescents but more than 50% of the sample or with mean or median age of 25 years or greater were excluded. Sixty-four studies met the eligibility criteria; 61% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross sectional; and 91% enrolled females and 42% enrolled males. There was no standard "partner" definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included the following: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners, and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms seem to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for the following: other partner sociodemographics, sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel), and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard partner definition would facilitate the interpretation of findings in future studies.

  15. Intravaginal Cleansing among Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Kingston, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M; Gallo, M; Anderson, C; Snead, MC; Wiener, J; Bailey, A; Costenbader, E; Legardy-Williams, J; Hylton-Kong, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although common worldwide, intravaginal cleansing is associated with poor health outcomes. We sought to describe intravaginal cleansing among women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Jamaica. Methods We examined intravaginal cleansing (“washing up inside the vagina”, douching, and products or materials used) among 293 participants in a randomized trial of counselling messages at an STI clinic in Kingston. We focussed on information on intravaginal cleansing performed in the 30 days and three days preceding their baseline study visit. We describe reported cleansing behaviours and used logistic regression to identify correlates of intravaginal cleansing. Results Fifty-eight per cent of participants reported intravaginal cleansing in the previous 30 days, and 46% did so in the three days before baseline. Among those who cleansed in the previous 30 days, 88% reported doing so for hygiene unrelated to sex, and three-fourths reported generally doing so more than once per day. Soap (usually with water) and water alone were the most common products used for washing; commercial douches or detergents were reported infrequently. Intravaginal cleansing in the three days before the baseline visit was positively associated with having more than one sex partner in the previous three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.2), and negatively associated with experiencing itching in the genital area at baseline (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Conclusions A large proportion of women attending STI clinics in Jamaica engage in frequent intravaginal cleansing, indicating a need for clinicians to discuss this topic with them accordingly. PMID:24171329

  16. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infection associated with leucodepleted blood components.

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    Seed, C R; Wong, J; Polizzotto, M N; Faddy, H; Keller, A J; Pink, J

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus poses a risk to transfusion safety as its transmission to an immunocompromised recipient may lead to significant clinical sequelae. Once infection is established, it is lifelong and generally asymptomatic. Strategies to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted CMV (TT-CMV) include donor serological testing and blood component leucodepletion to deplete the transmissible reservoir. We estimate the residual risk for non-CMV antibody screened, leucodepleted (LD-only) fresh blood components. We established an approach to estimate the risk of TT-CMV under various scenarios. We estimated the probability of an infectious component, for both red cells and platelets, as a function of the observed WBC filter failure rate and the probability that such a unit was also contaminated with infectious virus. Using this model, the estimated combined residual risk of LD-only red cell and platelet units was very low, 1 in 13 575 000 (95%CI:1 in 1 344 167 000-1 in 1 730 000) as was the individual residual risk estimate for LD-only red cells, 1 in 7 790 000 (95%CI: 1 in 771 307 000-1 in 993 000) and LD-only platelets, where a zero risk was estimated (95%CI: 0-1 in 1 074 000). We describe a novel approach to assess the residual risk of LD-only components. This can be applied generally using local data. Our risk estimate for LD-only blood components in Australia is below the threshold of 1 in 1 million, generally considered negligible. This provides a useful indicator of the relative safety of LD-only components to assist clinical decisions when serologically screened inventory is unavailable. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections based on syndromic approach and associated factors among Iranian women

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    Fereshteh Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Reproductive and sexual health related problems constitute one third of health problems among women aged 15 to 44 years. Sexually transmitted infections are a significant challenge for human development. We aimed to assess the prevalence of STIs and identify factors associated with among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, 399 women aged 10-49 years were recruited. These were women who referred to urban and rural health centers in a city in Iran. Through a behavioral questionnaire, high-risk behaviors of the sample were asked about. Syndromic STIs were also assessed through clinical examination. T-test and multivariable Modified Poisson Regression was used to estimate the Prevalence Risk Ratios (PRRs in Stata 13. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: About 64.2% of the participants had at least one of the STIs. STI prevalence was significantly higher among women who self-reported not using condoms in their last sexual contact (75% vs. 39.8%, whose spouse/sexual partners (SSP had extramarital sex (87.7% vs. 59.6%, whose SSP had a past-year history of illicit substance use (72.9%vs. 60.9%, and whose SSP had a history of incarceration (91.5% vs. 59.1%. In multivariable analysis, it was shown that having first sexual intercourse before 20 years of age, history of abortion in the past year, low family income, not using condom in last sexual contact, and the partner’s incarceration history were identified as significant predictors. Conclusions: The knowledge produced from the current research can serve as evidence for the promotion of interventions and healthcare services related to sexual and reproductive health for Iranian women and their SSPs. The findings from the current study also support research on improving strategies for STI diagnosis and STI management.  

  18. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

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    Felipe Navarro-Cremades

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.

  19. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  20. Estimation of Prevalence and Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Iran; A model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Maryam; Baneshi, Mohammd Reza; Kamali, Kianoush; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Routine reporting of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Iran is one of the main information sources on STIs, endures some diminution under influence of several factors. We aimed to adjust registered STI data with a model-based approach and estimate the incidence and prevalence of STIs in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, we developed a stochastic compartmental model considering effects of influential factors on STI reporting process to adjust registered STI data. We reviewed literature and used Delphi method to collect data and estimate model parameters. We calibrated the model using Monte Carol simulation with 95% confidence interval (CI). Finally, we validated the models by comparing their output with investigational data. The estimated prevalence of male urethral discharge was 0.40% (95% CI: 0.26%, 0.65%); the prevalence of genital ulcers was 3.68% (95% CI: 2.31%, 6.43%) in women and 0.16% (95% CI: 0.10%, 0.27%) in men. The estimated incidence for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachoma and syphilis per 1000 women was 2.44 (95% CI: 1.17, 6.65), 5.02 (95% CI: 2.78, 10.16) and 0.04 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.05) respectively; the corresponding figures per 1000 men were 0.43 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.80), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.92) and 0.005 (95% CI: 0.003, 0.008). Various factors are responsible for the obvious underestimation in the number of STIs registered in Iran. Notwithstanding this underestimation, our models offer an indirect method of estimating the prevalence of STIs in the country. Providing policymakers and STI experts with more realistic estimates might prompt policymakers and STI experts to recognize the importance of STIs in Iran and help them to develop appropriate prevention and control programs.

  1. Etiology of genital ulcer disease in a sexually transmitted infection reference center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Sabidó, Meritxell; Amaral Pires de Almeida, Tatiana; Araújo Veras, Elaine; Contreras Mejía, Matilde Del Carmen; Galban, Enrique; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

  2. Knowledge and Attitude About Sexually Transmitted Infections Amongst Truck Drivers in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

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    Ishtiaq, Rizwan; Asif, Ammar; Jamil, Abdur Rehman; Irfan, Areba; Ishtiaq, Daniyal

    2017-03-26

    There is very limited knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) transmission and prevention present amongst high-risk groups such as truck drivers in Pakistan because of lack of awareness and understanding about barrier techniques. The aim of this study was to collect and access the data gathered from truck drivers about symptoms of STIs, their attitude towards hazards of multiple sexual partners, homosexuality, transmission and consequences of STIs, and their perception about preventing it using condoms and other barrier methods. This study was conducted at small roadside tea stalls and local rest areas on Karachi road, Lodhran near the city of Bahawalpur in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A structured questionnaire was designed, and 50 willing truck drivers of the city of Bahawalpur were included and interviewed. It was a cross-sectional study. Data was collected on knowledge about the STIs and use of barrier methods like condoms. Quantitative data was assessed and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Fifty truck drivers of Bahawalpur were interviewed via standardized questionnaire in this study. All of them provided answers about their knowledge of STIs. Twenty drivers (40%) reported burning micturition, and only two (four percent) knew the real cause of it. Thirty-two (64%) of them were well aware of the use of condoms. Thirty-eight (76%) truck drivers had the knowledge about the adverse effects of multiple sex partners. The truck drivers of Bahawalpur city are quite vulnerable to STIs and this demonstrates the importance of prevention programs that can target this particular group. A significant number of the respondents had serious gaps in their knowledge about STIs like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), especially its modes of transmission, signs, and symptoms. The knowledge of other routes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission like needle sharing and blood transfusion, and precautionary steps should be given due

  3. Sexual coercion and sexual violence at first intercourse associated with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L

    2013-10-01

    Violence against women has been associated with subsequent risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We explored whether sexual coercion or violence at first intercourse was associated with self-reported STIs. Using nationally representative data from the 2006 to 2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we analyzed female respondents aged 18 to 44 (n = 9466) who answered questions on coercion at first intercourse (wantedness, voluntariness, and types of force used) and STIs using logistic regression analyses. We explored degrees of coercion, which we label as neither, sexual coercion (unwanted or nonphysical force), or sexual violence (involuntary or physical force). Eighteen percent of US women reported sexual coercion, and 8.4% experienced sexual violence at first intercourse. Compared with women who experienced neither, the odds of reporting an STI was significantly greater for women who experienced sexual coercion (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.60), after controlling for all variables. The association between sexual violence at first intercourse and STIs (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.57) seemed to be attenuated by subsequent sexual violence. Understanding that women who reported a variety of coercive sexual experiences are more likely to have contracted an STI may indicate a need to focus on the broader continuum of sexual violence to fully understand the impact of even subtle forms of violence on women's health. In addition, focusing on subsequent sexual behaviors and other negative consequences remains important to improve the sexual health of women who have experienced coercive sexual intercourse.

  4. [Gender meanings of the risk of sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission among young people].

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    Saura, Sílvia; Jorquera, Víctor; Rodríguez, Dolors; Mascort, Carina; Castellà, Immaculada; García, Jordi

    2017-10-25

    To identify the links between social representations used by young people to construct their gender identity, sexuality, and the risk management for sexually transmitted infections. Different settings of Primary Health Care in Girona. Young people aged between 16 and 21 years (32 participants) living in Girona. A qualitative study with a social constructionist perspective. A theoretical sampling was carried out and the triangular group and individual interview techniques were used for data collection. The data was interpreted using discourse analysis. Among girls, the ideology of romantic love was associated with dependence on their partner, resulting in a loss of autonomy in the negotiation of condom use. Boys represented sexual desire as an irrepressible urge that causes a loss of self-control through hormonal impulses, which was used to justify their carelessness in relation to condom use. These perspectives explain why girls are subject to sexist prejudices when they have sex just for physical pleasure in the absence of a stable affective bond, whereas boys in the same situation experience enhanced prestige among their peers that reinforces their male identity. The discourse on trust among couples often results in the rejection of condom use, because condoms encapsulate various meanings that are not compatible with faithfulness. These results show the need for awareness among Primary Care professionals of the influence of psychosocial processes among young people, specifically those related to the construction of gender identity and of male and female sexuality in the management of risks associated with sexual activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Partner notification and treatment for sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offorjebe, Ogechukwu A; Wynn, Adriane; Moshashane, Neo; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Arena, Kaitlin; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego; Morroni, Chelsea; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with adverse birth outcomes. Untreated partners contribute to high rates of STI reinfection; thus, partner notification and treatment remain important components of STI care and control. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 300 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana who enrolled in an STI screening study. Following informed consent and sample collection for CT/NG/TV testing, participants were asked if they were willing to disclose their STI result and to deliver medications to their partner(s). Those who tested positive were asked at a follow-up appointment if they notified their partners. Among the 300 participants, 294 (98%) said they would be willing to tell their partner(s) about their test results if they tested positive, and 284 (95%) said they would be willing to give their partner(s) medication if the option was available. Of those who tested positive and returned for a test of cure, 27 of 32 (84%) reported that they told their partner about the results, and 20 of 32 (63%) reported that their partner received treatment. Almost all pregnant women reported willingness to tell their partner the STI test result and give their partner medications. At test of cure, most women reported informing their partner, although actual treatment receipt was lower. Our findings suggest that pregnant women are willing to utilize patient-based partner notification, but actual partner treatment might be lower than intended.

  6. Associations between Migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Rusch, Melanie L.A.; Fraga, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; De La Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Cornelius, Wayne; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW). Methods FSW aged ≥18 years in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI. Results Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and any STI was 6.6%, 13.2%, 7.8%, 16.3%, and 31.1% vs. 10.9%, 18.2%, 13.0%, 19.0%, and 42.4% among FSW born in BC. A greater proportion of migrant FSW were registered with local health services and were ever tested for HIV. Migrant status was protective for any STI in unadjusted models (Unadj. OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.97). In multivariate models controlling for confounders, migrant status was not associated with an elevated odds of STI acquisition and trended towards a protective association. Conclusions Unexpectedly, migrant status (vs. native-born status) appeared protective for any STI acquisition. It is unclear which social or economic conditions may protect against STI and whether these erode over time in migrants. Additional research is needed to inform our understanding of whether or how geography, variations in health capital, or social network composition and information sharing attributes can contribute to health protective behaviors in migrant FSW. By capitalizing on such mechanisms, efforts to preserve protective health behaviors in migrant FSW will help control STI in the population and may lead to the identification of strategies that are generalizable to other FSW. PMID:19188211

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women without Antenatal Care at Siriraj Hospital

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    Pathamaporn Tiengladdawong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and pregnancy outcomes in Thai pregnant women without antenatal care (ANC who delivered at Siriraj Hospital. Methods: Medical charts of pregnant women without ANC who delivered at Siriraj Hospital during 2010-2014 were reviewed. Data of all deliveries during the same time period were used for the comparison. Results: During 2010-2014, out of 46,486 deliveries, 1,057 had no ANC, ranging from 197 to 229 / year. The average age was 25.5 ± 6.5 years and 85% were married. Prevalence of HIV infection, hepatitis B and other STIs in patients without ANC were 5.9% (62/1,057, 3.3% (35/1,057 and 1.4% (15/1,057, respectively. One third had consumed recreational drugs and urine amphetamine was positive in 20.8% of patients. The frequency of current smokers and current alcohol consumers were 14.6% (154/1,057 and 3.8% (40/1,057. Compared with all deliveries, those without ANC had significantly higher adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (39.1% vs 14.0%, RR 2.29, 95%CI 2.10-2.49, birthweight < 2,500 gms (25.9% vs 12.6%, RR 1.84, 95%CI 1.65-2.05 and birthweight < 1,500 gms (4.1% vs 1.3%, RR 3.08, 95%CI 2.28-4.18. Teenage pregnancy significantly increased risk of preterm birth (aOR 1.86, 95%CI 1.36-2.55 and being separate doubled the risk of birthweight < 1,500 gms (aOR 2.13, 95%CI 1.02-4.46 after adjusting for history of recreational drug use, urine amphetamine, smoking, marital status, maternal age and concurrent STIs. Conclusion: STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes were highly prevalent among deliveries without ANC. Teenage pregnancy and lack of family support appears to increase the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.

  9. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and perception of notified partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Elani Graça Ferreira; Miranda, Mahara Coelho Crisostomo; Carvalho, Ana Zaiz Flores Hormain Teixeira de; Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira de; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2016-01-01

    Learn the perceptions of patients with sexually transmitted infections and sexual partners who are notified of the infection. A descriptive and qualitative study, based on the collective subject discourse technique, was conducted in four healthcare centers of reference in Fortaleza, Ceará, from March to July 2014. The sample comprised 21 subjects (11 index patients and 10 notified partners). The index patients reported complicity, concern about the partner's health and revelation of diagnosis aiming to preserve the relationship. The partners showed antagonistic perceptions: tranquility-betrayal, fear of death, of incurability and the diagnosis, especially of HIV. The reasons for coming to a healthcare center were: fear of being sick, attenuation of guilt of infection transmission, need for diagnosis, early start of treatment. Fear of losing trust, insecurities when dealing with a sexual infection and being responsible or co-responsible for the transmission were the predominant feelings. Various types of partner notification were reported (verbal, telephone, notification card), according to individual convenience. This study suggests the use of alternative methods of notification and an integrated system of notification. Conhecer as percepções dos pacientes com infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e parceiros sexuais sobre a notificação da infecção. Estudo descritivo e qualitativo, baseado na técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo, realizado em quatro Unidades de Saúde de referência em Fortaleza/CE, de março a julho de 2014. Amostra composta por 21 sujeitos (11 pacientes-índice e 10 parceiros notificados). Pacientes-índice relataram cumplicidade, preocupação com a saúde do parceiro e revelação do diagnóstico como forma de preservação do relacionamento. Para os parceiros, as percepções foram antagônicas: tranquilidade-traição, medo da morte, da incurabilidade e do diagnóstico, especialmente do HIV. Os motivos para o comparecimento foram

  10. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

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    Genrich Gillian L

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support

  11. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  12. Desire to father a child and condom use: a study of young black men at risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L; Salazar, Laura F; Terrell, Ivy; Pasternak, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether men's reported desire to father a child or their perception that someone wanted to have their child was associated with elevated rates of unprotected vaginal sex, we studied a sample of young Black men at high risk of sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmitted infections in three southern U.S. cities. Men 15-23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past two months) penile-vaginal sex were eligible (N = 578). Logistic regression was used to examine whether desire to conceive a child (self and perception of partners' desire) predicted condom use, adjusting for age and whether they had previously impregnated someone. Their own level of desire to conceive a child was not significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex or the proportion of times a condom was used. However, those who perceived higher level of someone wanting to conceive their child were 1.73 times more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex (P = .006) and 1.62 times more likely to report a lower proportion of times condoms were used (P = .019). Young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in the USA may forego condom use based on a perceived desire of their partners to become pregnant, putting themselves at risk for sexually transmitted infection acquisition and unplanned pregnancy. Findings provide initial support for the relevance of the idea that perceptions of women partners' desire to conceive may be a critical determinant of condomless sex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

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    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biological analyses confirming the presence of sexually transmitted infections, pathomorphological characteristics of tissue samples from leukoplakia foci typical for different types of infectious agents. In this study, 60 women with chronic cystitis, complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections were examined. Using PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia albicans were found to be the most frequently occurring agents, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The results of culture analyses demonstrated that M. hominis and U. urealyticum were prevalent in patients with chronic urinary tract inflammatory processes, followed by Tr. vaginalis. Candida fungi show practically the same frequency of occurrence. The pathomorphological examination of the foci of leukoplakia in the urinary bladder (in 30 subjects demonstrated metaplasia of the transitional epithelium to the stratified pavement squamous epithelium with inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lamina propria in all types of infections. The intensity of the urothelial transformation and stromal inflammatory processes were determined by the type of predominant infection. Pathomorphological characteristics of the foci of leukoplakia correlate with the etiology of chronic inflammation and are relevant for etiological diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Identification of full-length transmitted/founder viruses and their progeny in primary HIV-1 infection

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    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and their progeny by is a novel strategy for probing the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and for evaluating the genetic imprint of viral and host factors that act to constrain or facilitate virus replication. Here, we show in a cohort of twelve acutely infected subjects (9 clade B; 3 clade C), that complete genomic sequences of transmitted/founder viruses could be inferred using single genome amplification of plasma viral RNA, direct amplicon sequencing, and a model of random virus evolution. This allowed for the precise identification, chemical synthesis, molecular cloning, and biological analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection and for a comprehensive mapping of sequential viral genomes and proteomes for mutations that are necessary or incidental to the establishment of HIV-1 persistence. Transmitted/founder viruses were CD4 and CCR5 tropic, replicated preferentially in activated primary T-Iymphocytes but not monocyte-derived macrophages, and were effectively shielded from most heterologous or broadly neutralizing antibodies. By 3 months of infection, the evolving viral quasispecies in three subjects showed mutational fixation at only 2-5 discreet genomic loci. By 6-12 months, mutational fixation was evident at 18-27 genomic loci. Some, but not all, of these mutations were attributable to virus escape from cytotoxic Tlymphocytes or neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that other viral or host factors may influence early HIV -1 fitness.

  15. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married women in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India

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    Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population. 

  16. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  17. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  18. Effectiveness of blood donor questionnaire directed at risk factor for transfusion transmitted infections in Pakistani population

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    Nuzhat Salamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferring blood donors who admit to high-risk behavior on questioning are likely to eliminate those in window period for transfusion transmitted infections (TTI. However, many questions have been implemented in some countries as part of donor history questionnaire, based on precautionary principle and not on evidence, and can result in increased donor losses. This study aims to identify effective risk-directed questions having high predictive value, in local context which can form part of blood donor deferral policies. For this, a case control study in a hospital blood bank having donation services was carried out prospectively over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty donors, who were repeatedly reactive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV with EIA, and syphilis with TPHA, were the cases. Eight hundred and eighty four controls were the donors who tested negative for all TTI test. All donors answered seven hepatitis risk directed questions and their responses and reactivity status for TTI were used for statistical analysis with SPSS ver. 15. Results: Positive predictive value for history of jaundice at any age for HBsAg was 20%, while PPV for history of surgery in previous six months for both HBsAg and anti-HCVHCV was also around 20%, based on pretest probability of 7%. The post-test probability for these questions was around 30%. Odds ratios with 95% CI did not reveal any significant association of hepatitis with any of seven questions. Donor losses after deferring on basis of two questions were 5.3% per year, while deferral rate after all seven questions was 20%. Conclusions: Donors should be permanently deferred if there is history of jaundice at any age, while deferral period after surgery should be one year. Other risk-directed questions should not be used to defer donors. Donor deferral policies should be evidence based and questions with proven efficacy should be made part of donor history

  19. Perceived financial need and sexual risk behavior among urban, minority patients following sexually transmitted infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Bruno, Denise M; Augenbraun, Michael A; Hogben, Matthew; Joseph, Michael A; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M; Rubin, Steve R; Wilson, Tracey E

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that racial/ethnic and gender disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STI) may be due in part to factors such as poverty and income-inequality. Little has been published in the HIV/STI literature on the effect of the perception of having unmet basic needs on sexual risk behavior. Data on perceived financial need and sexual risk were collected as part of a behavioral intervention aimed at promoting STI partner notification and reducing sexual behavior among minority patients presenting for care at 1 of 2 STI treatment centers in Brooklyn, NY, between January 2002 and December 2004. Data from 528 participants collected at the 6-month follow-up visit were used for the current study. Forty-three percent of participants were categorized as having unmet needs. Those with unmet needs were more likely to report unprotected anal or vaginal sex (unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse [UAVI]; 62%) versus those who had met needs (53%). This association was significant (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% confidence interval=1.04-1.53), after controlling for age, sex, site of recruitment, intervention group membership, and country of origin. Stratified analyses indicated that, in the group that did not receive the intervention, there was a statistically significant interaction between sex and basic needs such that women with unmet needs were more likely to report any UAVI (78%) than those with met needs (54%) (adjusted odds ratio=1.18; 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.24). No such relationship was detected for men in this sample. The significant association between perceived unmet needs and UAVI appears to be particularly relevant for women. These findings provide preliminary evidence that HIV/STI intervention components that seek to directly deal with issues of reduction in partner conflict might be beneficial to women with high perceived unmet basic needs, and for whom a potential dissolution of a relationship

  20. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea II: sexually transmitted infections

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    Ekirapa Akaco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and

  1. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections using mobile devices and ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoain, Felipe; Perez-Navarro, Antoni; Caylà, Joan A; Aviñó, Constanza Jacques; de Olalla, Patricia García

    2015-05-03

    Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social interrelationships, but also sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures. In this paper, we will focus on situations in which people use applications to meet sexual partners nearby, which could increase their chance of exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI). How can we encourage users to adopt preventive measures without violating their privacy or infringing on the character of the application? To achieve the goal of preventing STI, we have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a prototype software package. This prototype follows the RESTful services principles and has two parts: an Android OS application with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and designed according to General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP), and a server with a web page. To choose the preventive messages, we performed a test in 17 men who have sex with men (MSM). Our software sends preventive notifications to users when it detects situations such as the activation of particular applications on their smartphones, or their proximity to areas with a high probability of intercourse (hot zones). The underlying idea is the same as that for warning messages on cigarette packets, since users read the message just when they are going to smoke. The messages used have been selected from a list that has been rated by the users themselves. The most popular message is "Enjoy sex and enjoy life. Do not expose yourself to HIV". The user is unaware of the software, which runs in the background. Ubiquitous computing may be useful for alerting users with preventive and educational messages. The proposed application is non-intrusive because: 1) the users themselves decide to install it and, therefore, users' privacy rights are preserved; 2) it sends a message that helps users think about taking appropriate preventive measures; and 3) it works in the

  2. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infections in Mice Lead to Tropism to the Reproductive Organs, and Horizontal and Vertical Transmission.

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    Nicolas Biteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, transmitted by the tsetse fly, is the main causative agent of Human African trypanosomosis in West Africa and poses a significant health risk to 70 million people. Disease progression varies depending on host immunity, but usually begins with a haemo-lymphatic phase, followed by parasite invasion of the central nervous system. In the current study, the tropism of T. b. gambiense 1135, causing a low level chronic 'silent' infection, was monitored in a murine model using bioluminescence imaging and PCR. A tropism to the reproductive organs, in addition to the central nervous system, after 12-18 months of infection was observed. Bioluminescent analysis of healthy females crossed with infected males showed that 50%, 62.5% and 37.5% of the female mice were subsequently positive for parasites in their ovaries, uteri and brain respectively. Although PCR confirmed the presence of parasites in the uterus of one of these mice, the blood of all mice was negative by PCR and LAMP. Subsequently, bioluminescent imaging of the offspring of infected female mice crossed with healthy males indicated parasites were present in the reproductive organs of both male (80% and female (60% offspring. These findings imply that transmission of T. b. gambiense 1135 occurs horizontally, most probably via sexual contact, and vertically in a murine model, which raises the possibility of a similar transmission in humans. This has wide reaching implications. Firstly, the observations made in this study are likely to be valid for wild animals acting as a reservoir for T. b. gambiense. Also, the reproductive organs may act as a refuge for parasites during drug treatment in a similar manner to the central nervous system. This could leave patients at risk of a relapse, ultimately allowing them to act as a reservoir for subsequent transmission by tsetse and possibly, horizontally and vertically.

  3. Learning from the past: young Indigenous people's accounts of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections as resilience narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney-Somers, Julie; Olsen, Anna; Erick, Wani; Scott, Robert; Akee, Angie; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    The Indigenous Resilience Project is an Australian community-based participatory research project using qualitative methods to explore young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's views of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections (BBV/STI) affecting their communities. In this paper we present an analysis of narratives from young people who had a previous BBV/STI diagnosis to explore how they actively negotiate the experience of BBV/STI infection to construct a classic resilience narrative. We examine two overarching themes: first, the context of infection and diagnosis, including ignorance of STI/BBV prior to infection/diagnosis and, second, turning points and transformations in the form of insights, behaviours, roles and agency. Responding to critical writing on resilience theory, we argue that providing situated accounts of adversity from the perspectives of young Indigenous people prioritises their subjective understandings and challenges normative definitions of resilience.

  4. A risk-based model for predicting the impact of using condoms on the spread of sexually transmitted infections

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    Asma Azizi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We create and analyze a mathematical model to understand the impact of condom-use and sexual behavior on the prevalence and spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. STIs remain significant public health challenges globally with a high burden of some Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs in both developed and undeveloped countries. Although condom-use is known to reduce the transmission of STIs, there are a few quantitative population-based studies on the protective role of condom-use in reducing the incidence of STIs. The number of concurrent partners is correlated with their risk of being infectious by an STI such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. We develop a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS model that stratifies the population based on the number of concurrent partners. The model captures the multi-level heterogeneous mixing through a combination of biased (preferential and random (proportional mixing processes between individuals with distinct risk levels, and accounts for differences in condom-use in the low- and high-risk populations. We use sensitivity analysis to assess the relative impact of high-risk people using condom as a prophylactic intervention to reduce their chance of being infectious, or infecting others. The model predicts the STI prevalence as a function of the number of partners of an individual, and quantifies how this distribution of effective partners changes as a function of condom-use. Our results show that when the mixing is random, then increasing the condom-use in the high-risk population is more effective in reducing the prevalence than when many of the partners of high-risk people have high risk. The model quantifies how the risk of being infected increases for people who have more partners, and the need for high-risk people to consistently use condoms to reduce their risk of infection. Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Sexually transmitted infection (STI, Biased (preferential mixing, Random

  5. Nutritional status of soil-transmitted helminthiasis-infected and uninfected children

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    Nelly Simarmata

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion We find significantly more STH infected children with mild to moderate malnutrition than the uninfected group. We also find significantly more mildly to moderately malnourished children with moderate infection intensity than mild infection intensity. Higher severity of infection is associated with lower nutritional status.

  6. Hepatitis E virus (HEV): seroprevalence and HEV RNA detection in subjects attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Brussels, Belgium.

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    Dauby, N; Suin, V; Jacques, M; Abady, M; VAN DEN Wijngaert, S; Delforge, M; DE Wit, S; Libois, A

    2017-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased incidence of pathogens transmitted by the oro-fecal route. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of acute hepatitis and fecal shedding is observed during primary infection. We investigated whether MSM are at increased risk of HEV infection. Subjects who attended a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Brussels and had an HIV test performed between 1 June 2014 and 15 January 2016 were identified. A total of 576 samples were retrospectively screened for both total HEV IgG and HEV RNA. Samples positive for IgG were tested for IgM. MSM proportion was 31·1% (179/576). Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 9·03% (52/576) and was identical in MSM and heterosexual subjects. Among the IgG positive samples, 2/52 (3·84%) samples (both women) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. No sample was positive for HEV RNA. Age over 35 was the only risk factor significantly associated with HEV seropositivity (OR 2·07; 95% CI 1·16-3·67). In conclusion, MSM were not found to have an increased prevalence of HEV as previously reported in other European countries suggesting distinct dynamics of HEV infection in this group across Europe and increased age was associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections associated with alcohol use and HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Evelyn J; Hladik, Wolfgang; Barker, Joseph; Lubwama, George; Sendagala, Samuel; Ssenkusu, John M; Opio, Alex; Serwadda, David

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Africa to assess prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM). We report findings from the first behavioural survey to include STI testing among MSM in Kampala, Uganda. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM for a biobehavioural survey. Eligible participants were men who reported anal sex with another man in the previous 3 months, were 18 years or older, and resided in Kampala. Information was collected on demographics, sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and STI symptoms. Blood, urine and rectal specimens were tested for syphilis, HIV, rectal and urethral gonorrhoea, and chlamydia. Analyses weighted for RDS were conducted to assess associations with STI diagnosis. A total of 295 MSM participated in the survey. Almost half (weighted percentage: 47.3%) reported STI symptoms in the last 6 months and 12.9% tested HIV-positive. Prevalence of non-HIV STI was 13.5%; syphilis prevalence was 9.0%. Adjusting for age and education, STI was associated with HIV (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.46, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.64), alcohol use before sex (AOR=4.99, 95% CI 1.86 to 13.38) and having sold sex in the last 3 months (AOR=3.17, 95% CI 1.25 to 8.07), and inversely associated with having anonymous sex partners (AOR=0.20, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.61). We observed high levels of self-reported STI symptoms and STI prevalence associated with alcohol use and HIV among MSM in Kampala. Public health interventions supporting MSM are needed to address STI risk and facilitate access to diagnosis and treatment services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  9. Recent anxiety symptoms and drug use associated with sexually transmitted infection diagnosis among an online US sample of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which mental health problems, including current anxiety and depressive symptoms, may co-occur, or are associated, with the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections other than HIV remains largely unexplored among men who have sex with men. In a cross-sectional survey of 8,381 US men who have sex with men recruited from a sexual networking website, 15 percent reported a past 60-day sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. Among HIV-negative men, increased odds of reporting a sexually transmitted infection were associated with current anxiety symptoms and past 60-day drug use. Findings underscore the need to better understand causal pathways among anxiety, drug use, and sexually transmitted infection acquisition and transmission among men who have sex with men. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Antenatal marijuana use is unrelated to sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, J M; Goodridge, C

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective review of clinic records over a 12-1/2 month period identified all women entering prenatal care. Eighty-six women using no illicit substance other than marijuana were compared to 441 drug-free women. The prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen, human papilloma virus, and herpes was as...

  11. Trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections: results from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E; Ratner, Jane Alyce; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2009-12-01

    To estimate the association between Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) and 6 sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2), syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a nationally representative sample. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey combining the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 waves to estimate the association between TV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women in the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. The final sample included data from 3648 women, which when weighted, represents the experience of 65,563,298 US women between the ages of 14 and 49. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using logistic regression for rare STIs (trichomoniasis was 3.2% with over 80% of cases asymptomatic in the past month. All STIs examined (chlamydia, gonorrhea, HSV-1, HSV-2, syphilis, and HIV) were more common among women with a positive test for trichomoniasis. HSV-1 (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34) and HSV-2 (RR = 1.51, 95% CI: 2.32, 3.23) were significantly associated with trichomoniasis after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, and recent sexual partners. In crude analyses, a positive treponemal test was 6 times (95% CI: 2.07, 18.8) more common and HIV was 13 times (95% CI: 2.88, 59.1) more common among women with trichomoniasis, but these estimates were greatly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. Trichomoniasis is significantly associated with concurrent STI.

  12. Plasmodium yoelii-infected A. stephensi inefficiently transmit malaria compared to intravenous route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Conteh

    Full Text Available It was recently reported that when mosquitoes infected with P. berghei sporozoites feed on mice, they deposit approximately 100-300 sporozoites in the dermis. When we inoculate P. yoelii (Py sporozoites intravenously (IV into BALB/c mice, the 50% infectious dose (ID(50 is often less than 3 sporozoites, indicating that essentially all Py sporozoites in salivary glands are infectious. Thus, it should only take the bite of one infected mosquito to infect 100% of mice. In human subjects, it takes the bite of at least 5 P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes to achieve 100% blood stage infection. Exposure to 1-2 infected mosquitoes only leads to blood stage infection in approximately 50% of subjects. If mosquitoes carrying Py sporozoites inoculate 100-300 sporozoites per bite, and 1 to 2 mosquito bites achieve 50% blood stage infection rates, then this would suggest that the majority of sporozoites inoculated by mosquitoes into the dermis are not responsible for a productive infection, or that a significant number of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes do not inoculate any sporozoites. The objective of this study was to determine if this is the case. We therefore studied the infectivity to mice of the bites of 1, 2, 4, or 5-8 Py-infected mosquitoes. The bite of one Py sporozoite-infected mosquito caused blood stage infection in 41.4% (12/29 of mice, two bites infected 66.7% (22/33, four bites infected 75% (18/24, and five to eight bites infected 100% (21/21. These findings demonstrate that inoculation of sporozoites by mosquito bite is much less efficient than IV inoculation of Py sporozoites by needle and syringe. Such data may have implications for determining the best route and dose of administration to humans of our attenuated P. falciparum sporozoite vaccine, the scientific basis of which is immunity by bites from irradiated infected mosquitoes, and suggest that the challenge is to develop a method of administration that approximates IV inoculation, not

  13. An epidemiological Study of Domestic Violence Against Women and its Association with Sexually Transmitted Infections in Bangalore Rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Gaikwad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.

  14. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  15. [Prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths and prevalence of malaria among schoolchildren in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorto, Óscar René; Portillo, Alexandra Manoella; Aragón, Miguel Ángel; Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Ade, María Paz; Minero, Miguel Ángel; Hernández, Marta Alicia; Mena, Amada Gloria; Peña, Rodolfo; Mejía, Victor Manuel; Carter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.

  16. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and nutritional status in school-age children from rural communities in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7-14 years, mean 9.76 ± 1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7-10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (punderweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children's nutritional status warrants more research.

  17. Hepatitis B virus and its sexually transmitted infection – an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Inoue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: About 5% of the world’s population has chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, and nearly 25% of carriers develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals is 5%-15%; HIV/HBV coinfected individuals have a higher level of HBV replication, with higher rates of chronicity, reactivation, occult infection, and HCC than individuals with HBV only. The prevalence of HBV genotype A is significantly higher among men who have sex with men (MSM, compared with the rest of the population. Molecular mechanisms of infection, pathology, and symptomatology: HBV replication begins with entry into the hepatocyte. Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide was identified in 2012 as the entry receptor of HBV. Although chronic hepatitis B develops slowly, HIV/HBV coinfected individuals show more rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Transmission and protection: The most common sources of HBV infection are body fluids. Hepatitis B (HB vaccination is recommended for all children and adolescents, and all unvaccinated adults at risk for HBV infection (sexually active individuals such as MSM, individuals with occupational risk, and immunosuppressed individuals. Although HB vaccination can prevent clinical infections (hepatitis, it cannot prevent 100% of subclinical infections. Treatment and curability: The goal of treatment is reducing the risk of complications (cirrhosis and HCC. Pegylated interferon alfa and nucleos(tide analogues (NAs are the current treatments for chronic HBV infection. NAs have improved the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, and decreased the incidence of acute liver failure.

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Aschalew Afework Bitew

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method.The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 82.1-89%. STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7-70.2%. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3-36.6%, 29.4% (25-31% and 3.1% (1.8-5.4%, respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1-18.1%. Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5-5.5. Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13% and 18 (4.9% of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively.The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place.

  19. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  20. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernsen Roos MD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.

  1. Deformed wing virus can be transmitted during natural mating in honey bees and infect the queens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina D; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    .... The last drone's endophallus (n = 29), if present, was removed from the mated queens for deformed wing virus quantification, leading to the detection of high-level infection in 3 endophalli...

  2. Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Keele, Brandon F.; Giorgi, Elena E.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Decker, Julie M.; Pham, Kimmy T.; Salazar, Maria G.; Sun, Chuanxi; Grayson, Truman; Wang, Shuyi; Li, Hui; Wei, Xiping; Jiang, Chunlai; Kirchherr, Jennifer L; Gao, Feng; Anderson, Jeffery A.

    2008-01-01

    The precise identification of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) responsible for productive clinical infection could be instrumental in elucidating the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and in designing effective vaccines. Here, we developed a mathematical model of random viral evolution and, together with phylogenetic tree construction, used it to analyze 3,449 complete env sequences derived by single genome amplification from 102 subjects with acute HIV-1 (clade B) infection. Viral e...

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

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    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  4. "Hidden" sexually transmitted infections among women in primary care health services, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Danielle Albuquerque Pires; Filho, Roberto Alexandre Alves Barbosa; Mariño, Josiane Montanho; dos Santos, Cristina Maria Borborema

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in a female population in Amazonas, Brazil. We collected cervical samples from 361 women examined at 10 primary care health services in the city of Coari, Amazonas, Brazil. The women were interviewed about socio-economic data, clinical history and sexual behaviour. Pelvic examinations were performed and cervical specimens were collected for detection of pathogens by PCR. The prevalence of infection was: 12.7% for Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.4% for Chlamydia trachomatis and 1.4% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. There were no statistically significant associations between infections by any of the pathogens nor by any pathogen alone with any clinical variable, socio-demographic data or sexual behaviour. This study draws attention to the need for surveillance and possible need for screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, which often progresses asymptomatically. For the significant prevalence found, attention should also be given to asymptomatic infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, since this pathogen has recently been implicated as a risk factor for HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-06-01

    Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.

  6. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in patients presenting in special treatment clinic in Ibadan south western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Olusanya, Olawale; Anaedobe, Gloria Chinenye; Kalu, Iche; Ojide, Kingsley Chiedozie

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are often transferred from one person to another during sexual activity. In developing countries, an increase in the incidence of STIs is attributed to increasing urbanization, modernization, travel, education and exposure to Western media which has led to increased sexual activity, especially among young people. This is a retrospective study carried out in the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria. The records of a total of 506 patients who attended the clinic between Jan 2010-Dec 2011 were retrieved. The records of the patients' complaints were taken. Detailed demographic data and history of genital symptoms was taken. The records of 506 patients were used 43.7% (221) were males and 56.3% (285) were females. The patient's age ranged from one to eighty, the 1-10 age groups and the 71-80 ages were the least represented age group. Age, sex, level of education, presenting complaints, presence of yeast cells, VDRL positivity were variables that were looked at. Of these only sex and occupation were risk factors for transmission of STI. Good clinical care for patients with STIs should extend beyond therapy and include help to avoid future infections. Control activities should focus on the primary prevention of infection through safer sexual practices. Strategies for improving secondary prevention (health care-seeking behavior and case management) should include identification of people at risk and targeting them for intervention.

  7. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and risk factor for sexual health of adolescents, Medellín, Colombia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas-Castaño, Aracelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.

  8. Observing and Quantifying Airflows in the Infection Control of Aerosol- and Airborne-Transmitted Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, J. W.; Noakes, C. J.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    techniques have been applied to examine the temporalespatial information about the airflow patterns and the movement of related, suspended material within this air in a hospital setting. Closer collaboration with engineers has allowed clinical microbiologists, virologists and infection control teams......With concerns about the potential for the aerosol and airborne transmission of infectious agents, particularly influenza, more attention is being focused on the effectiveness of infection control procedures to prevent hospital-acquired infections by this route. More recently a number of different...... to assess the effectiveness of hospital isolation and ventilation facilities. The characteristics of human respiratory activities have also been investigated using some familiar engineering techniques. Such studies aim to enhance the effectiveness of such preventive measures and have included experiments...

  9. Echinocandin treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in rodent models depletes cysts leaving trophic burdens that cannot transmit the infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie T Cushion

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Pneumocystis cause pneumonia (PCP in hosts with debilitated immune systems and are emerging as co-morbidity factors associated with chronic diseases such as COPD. Limited therapeutic choices and poor understanding of the life cycle are a result of the inability of these fungi to grow outside the mammalian lung. Within the alveolar lumen, Pneumocystis spp., appear to have a bi-phasic life cycle consisting of an asexual phase characterized by binary fission of trophic forms and a sexual cycle resulting in formation of cysts, but the life cycle stage that transmits the infection is not known. The cysts, but not the trophic forms, express beta -1,3-D-glucan synthetase and contain abundant beta -1,3-D-glucan. Here we show that therapeutic and prophylactic treatment of PCP with echinocandins, compounds which inhibit the synthesis of beta -1,3-D-glucan, depleted cysts in rodent models of PCP, while sparing the trophic forms which remained in significant numbers. Survival was enhanced in the echincandin treated mice, likely due to the decreased beta -1,3-D-glucan content in the lungs of treated mice and rats which coincided with reductions of cyst numbers, and dramatic remodeling of organism morphology. Strong evidence for the cyst as the agent of transmission was provided by the failure of anidulafungin-treated mice to transmit the infection. We show for the first time that withdrawal of anidulafungin treatment with continued immunosuppression permitted the repopulation of cyst forms. Treatment of PCP with an echinocandin alone will not likely result in eradication of infection and cessation of echinocandin treatment while the patient remains immunosuppressed could result in relapse. Importantly, the echinocandins provide novel and powerful chemical tools to probe the still poorly understood bi-phasic life cycle of this genus of fungal pathogens.

  10. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R.; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S.; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z.; Larraondo, Manuel A.; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Background.?An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)?biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection.

  11. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  12. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive women attending antenatal clinics in north-central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamat A Isiaka-Lawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are prevalent during pregnancy and may have adverse sequalae in both mother and fetus. Interactions between these infections and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV synergize and may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes and reverse the gains of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis, gonococcal infection, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis in HIV pregnant women and compare with HIV negative controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted during the period from April to December 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and three Primary Health Centers in Ilorin. A total of 160 HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were recruited, along with the same number of HIV negative matched controls. A structured proforma was used to collect information from patients, vaginal examination was performed and samples were taken from the endocervix and the posterior vaginal fornix with swab sticks. Results: STIs were recovered from 142 women, giving overall prevalence of 44.4%. HIV infected women had a higher prevalence (60% compared to uninfected (28.8%. The most prevalent STI was vaginal candidiasis (29.1%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (9.7%, and trichomoniasis (5.6%. The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis was higher among HIV positive pregnant women compared to HIV negative controls (P < 0.05. No woman had syphilis or gonorrhea. Conclusion: The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis was higher in HIV infected pregnant women compared to uninfected. Routine screening of HIV infected pregnant women for these organisms is advocated.

  13. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde M Vandenhoudt

    Full Text Available In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu.In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors.481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0-61.6. Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9-78.9. Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33-0.75 after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors.The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients.

  14. Impact of long-term treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Moncayo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6-16 years from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0-5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.03-0.14 and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.70, but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments.Annual and twice-annual treatments with ivermectin over a period

  15. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  16. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has long been known to spread via plant propagation materials including transplants. Global dissemination of TSWV has also been linked to transport of thrips-infested and virus-infected horticultural and floricultural products through trade and commerce. However, th...

  17. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  18. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among different blood group donors at Blood Bank LUMHS, Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Faheem Ahmed; Ujjan, Ikram Din; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Shaikh, Abdul Rehman; Rao, Ali Raza; Naz, Arshi

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence of HBsAg, Anti-HCV, HIV, Syphilis and Malaria in blood donors. This is a cross sectional descriptive study, conducted at Blood bank and Transfusion center at Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Hyderabad, during the period from January, 2014 to June, 2015. A total of 4683 blood donors were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV and HIV on Architect 20001 (manufactured by Abbott), employing chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). For Syphilis, VDRL ICT kits were used and Malaria parasite was screen through MP slides. Blood grouping was performed by both forward and reverse methods. This study showed a high frequency of HBsAg, VDRL and malaria positivity among the O-ve blood group donors, i.e. 3.70%, 9.25% and 0.61% respectively. Blood group B-ve individuals were commonly infected with HCV (12.5%) as compared with all other blood group donors. HIV is more commonly reported in A+ve blood group individuals. Blood group O+ve is more prevalent (37.41 %). High frequency of HCV infection in blood donors advocates implementation of strict screening policy for donors and public awareness campaigns about preventive measures to reduce the spread of this infection as well as other transfusion transmissible infections.

  19. Inflammasomes and Their Role in Innate Immunity of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Vivek; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Møller, Niels Frimodt

    2016-01-01

    's innate immune system in response to various pathogens. Components of specific pathogens activate different inflammasomes, which once activated in response to pathogen-induced infection, induce the activation of caspases, and the release of mature forms of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Identifying...

  20. Inhibition of infection spread by co-transmitted defective interfering particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Ashley; Akpinar, Fulya; Inankur, Bahar; Yin, John

    2017-01-01

    Although virus release from host cells and tissues propels the spread of many infectious diseases, most virus particles are not infectious; many are defective, lacking essential genetic information needed for replication. When defective and viable particles enter the same cell, the defective particles can multiply while interfering with viable particle production. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) occur in nature, but their role in disease pathogenesis and spread is not known. Here, we engineered an RNA virus and its DIPs to express different fluorescent reporters, and we observed how DIPs impact viral gene expression and infection spread. Across thousands of host cells, co-infected with infectious virus and DIPs, gene expression was highly variable, but average levels of viral reporter expression fell at higher DIP doses. In cell populations spatial patterns of infection spread provided the first direct evidence for the co-transmission of DIPs with infectious virus. Patterns of spread were highly sensitive to the behavior of initial or early co-infected cells, with slower overall spread stemming from higher early DIP doses. Under such conditions striking patterns of patchy gene expression reflected localized regions of DIP or virus enrichment. From a broader perspective, these results suggest DIPs contribute to the ecological and evolutionary persistence of viruses in nature.

  1. Risk of infections transmitted by arthropods and rodents in forestry workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Moll van Charante; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOne hundred and fifty-one forestry workers and 151 matched office clerks were compared as to the presence of antibodies against Borelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Puumalavirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Their occupational risks of being infected by Borrelia

  2. The risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human immunodeficiency virus infection among dental professionals. N Engl J Med. 1988;318: 86-90. Saviteer SM, White GC, Cohen. MS. H1T.V-U exposure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N. Engl J Med 1985;313: 1606-7. Van Palenstein Helderman WHo. Routes of transmission of diseases in dental practice. Tanz.

  3. Deformed wing virus can be transmitted during natural mating in honey bees and infect the queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina D.; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    Deformed wing virus is an important contributor to honey bee colony losses. Frequently queen failure is reported as a cause for colony loss. Here we examine whether sexual transmission during multiple matings of queens is a possible way of virus infection in queens. In an environment with high...

  4. HTLV-l and other viral sexually transmitted infections in antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gynaecological outpaizient clinics at Korledäu Teaching. Hospital (KBTH). Design: Prospective observational sur'vey° Serum from each of the 517 participants was analysed for infection with Hepatitis B surface antigen With au latex agglutination test kit (Biotech Laboratories Ltd,. Suffolk, United Kingdom), and tested for ...

  5. Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections in Medan: a cross-sectional study of the correlation between the infection and nutritional status among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Masyithah Darlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background . Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH infections are a major public health problem that affects more than two billion people around the world. These infections are the cause of children’s under nutrition, especially among school-aged children. Objectives. To assess the correlation between the presence of STH infections and nutritional status among elementary school children in Medan, Indonesia. Material and methods . We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study involving students from the public elementary school 060925 Medan in September 2015. The study participants were chosen by the total sampling technique and according to predetermined inclusion criteria (80 students from third and fourth grades. Univariate analysis was performed to determine STH infection prevalence, and bivariate analysis was used to find the correlation between STH infections and eosinophil levels through the chi-square (χ2 test. Results . We found that the prevalence of STH among study subjects was 40%, and 26 students (32.5% were underweight. The most common types of worm infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (25.0%, Trichuris trichiura (11.2% and mixed infections (3.8%. A significant correlation was found between the presence of STH infection and underweight nutritional status (C = 0.24; χ2 = 5.02; p = 0.025 and the risk of STH infection and nutritional status in children with a prevalence ratio (PR of 2.05 (CI 95%: 1.08–3.87. Conclusions . The presence of STH infection in children is strongly influenced by their hygiene practices. Small clinics and student healthcare units should play an active role in conducting periodic assessment of children’s nutritional status and in providing them with information on STH symptoms and prevention.

  6. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  7. Hepatitis B Infection and Association with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Javier R.; Agurto, Hellen S.; Guanira, Juan V.; Ganoza, Carmela; Casapia, Martin; Ojeda, Nora; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jose L.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002–2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions. PMID:20595501

  8. Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melak, Berhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessese, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Freeman, Matthew C; Flanders, W Dana; Clasen, Thomas F; Moe, Christine L

    2017-02-17

    Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs. Prevention of these infections typically relies on improved excreta containment and disposal. Most evidence of the relationship between sanitation and STH has focused on household-level access or usage, rather than community-level sanitation usage. We examined the association between the proportion of households in a community with latrines in use and prevalence of STH infections among school-aged children. Data on STH prevalence and household latrine usage were obtained during four population-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2011 and 2014 in Amhara, Ethiopia. Multilevel regression was used to estimate the association between the proportion of households in the community with latrines in use and presence of STH infection, indicated by > 0 eggs in stool samples from children 6-15 years old. Prevalence of STH infection was estimated as 22% (95% CI: 20-24%), 14% (95% CI: 13-16%), and 4% (95% CI: 4-5%) for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Adjusting for individual, household, and community characteristics, hookworm prevalence was not associated with community sanitation usage. Trichuris trichuria prevalence was higher in communities with sanitation usage ≥ 60% versus sanitation usage sanitation usage with A. lumbricoides prevalence depended on household sanitation. Community sanitation usage was not associated with A. lumbricoides prevalence among households with latrines in use. Among households without latrines in use, A. lumbricoides

  9. The effects of climate change on the risk of infection by water-transmitted pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sterk, A

    2016-01-01

    Climate scenarios and models predict an increase in temperatures on earth. Also in the Netherlands, changes in precipitation, extreme weather events, and rising sea level can be expected. Such changes have consequences for water availability, as well as water quality and may have important impacts on the risks of infection by pathogens through water that is used for drinking water production and recreation. To determine the consequences of these changes for human health, quantification of the...

  10. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O.; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A.; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). Conclusions Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should

  11. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  12. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  13. Infection of monkeys by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses with transmitted/founder clade C HIV-1 envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmal, Mohammed; Luedemann, Corinne; Lavine, Christy L; Mach, Linh V; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N; Lewis, Mark G; Anderson, Hanne; Pal, Ranajit; Sok, Devin; Le, Khoa; Pauthner, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Letvin, Norman L; Burton, Dennis R; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Santra, Sampa

    2015-01-15

    Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that mirror natural transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in man are needed for evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in nonhuman primates. Currently available SHIVs contain HIV-1 env genes from chronically-infected individuals and do not reflect the characteristics of biologically relevant HIV-1 strains that mediate human transmission. We chose to develop clade C SHIVs, as clade C is the major infecting subtype of HIV-1 in the world. We constructed 10 clade C SHIVs expressing Env proteins from T/F viruses. Three of these ten clade C SHIVs (SHIV KB9 C3, SHIV KB9 C4 and SHIV KB9 C5) replicated in naïve rhesus monkeys. These three SHIVs are mucosally transmissible and are neutralized by sCD4 and several HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, like natural T/F viruses, they exhibit low Env reactivity and a Tier 2 neutralization sensitivity. Of note, none of the clade C T/F SHIVs elicited detectable autologous neutralizing antibodies in the infected monkeys, even though antibodies that neutralized a heterologous Tier 1 HIV-1 were generated. Challenge with these three new clade C SHIVs will provide biologically relevant tests for vaccine protection in rhesus macaques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking on female sex workers' sexually transmitted infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Jung

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking (PST on sexually transmitted disease (STD infections among South Korean female sex workers (FSWs working at prostitution blocks. Research data were collected twice through the Korean government-sanctioned survey for female sex workers (1st wave = 1,083; 2nd wave = 926. We examined the associations among health behavior, working conditions, and the effect of PST act via hierarchical logistic regression analyses using propensity score matching. After adjusted covariates, the risk probability was 0.288 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act enforcement compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Similarly, the risk probability for a gonorrhea infection was 0.219 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Therefore, this study showed that, besides already known factors, the implementation and establishment of the PST Act was a strong factor that suppressed STD infections among FSWs.

  15. Effects of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking on female sex workers' sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking (PST) on sexually transmitted disease (STD) infections among South Korean female sex workers (FSWs) working at prostitution blocks. Research data were collected twice through the Korean government-sanctioned survey for female sex workers (1st wave = 1,083; 2nd wave = 926). We examined the associations among health behavior, working conditions, and the effect of PST act via hierarchical logistic regression analyses using propensity score matching. After adjusted covariates, the risk probability was 0.288 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act enforcement compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Similarly, the risk probability for a gonorrhea infection was 0.219 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Therefore, this study showed that, besides already known factors, the implementation and establishment of the PST Act was a strong factor that suppressed STD infections among FSWs.

  16. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-02-14

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (infection; consuming raw vegetables and eating contaminated fresh fruits.

  17. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Rejane LM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6% were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2 and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7. Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Other Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexual and Reproductive Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sarah M; Salas-Humara, Caroline; Dowshen, Nadia L

    2016-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and questioning youth represent a diverse population who are affected by many sexual health inequities, including increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To provide comprehensive sexual health care for LGBT youth, providers should set the stage with a nonjudgmental, respectful tone. Providers should be competent in recognizing symptoms of STIs and HIV and aware of the most up-to-date screening guidelines for LGBT youth. Sexual health visits should also focus on prevention, including safer sex practices, HIV pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis, family planning, and immunization for hepatitis and human papillomavirus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial/ethnic differences in patterns of sexual risk behavior and rates of sexually transmitted infections among female young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Jacqueline C; Cook, Emily C; Niccolai, Linda M; Connell, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    We examined patterns of sexual behavior and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young adulthood for Black, Hispanic, and White females. We used a nationally representative sample of 7015 female young adults from wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sexual risk items assessed behaviors occurring in the previous 6 years and past year to determine classes of sexual risk and links to STIs in young adulthood. Latent class analysis revealed 3 sexual risk classes for Black and Hispanic youths and 4 sexual risk classes for White youths. The moderate and high risk classes had the highest probabilities of risky sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, and early age of sexual initiation, which significantly increased odds for STIs compared with recent abstainers. We found different classes of sexual behavior by race/ethnicity, with Black and Hispanic young women most at risk for STIs in young adulthood. Preventive efforts should target younger adolescents and focus on sexual partner behavior.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections and use of contraceptives in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Storgaard, Merete

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No Danish guidelines for screening of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women living with HIV (WLWH) exist, except for annual syphilis testing. Drug-drug interaction between hormonal contraceptives and some types of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) occurs. We......, and herpes simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2). At follow-up, predictors of condom use were estimated in sexually active WLWH. RESULTS: In total, 334 of the 1,392 eligible WLWH in Denmark were included (median age and HIV duration: 42.5 and 11.3 years). Chlamydia trachomatis was present in four individuals (1...... %), and six (2 %) tested positive for HSV-2 by PCR. None were positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1 or had active syphilis. At follow-up, 252 (76 %) participated; 168 (70 %) were sexually active. Contraceptives were used by 124 (75 %); condoms were preferred (62 %). Having an HIV-negative partner...

  1. Water, sanitation and hygiene related risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth and Giardia duodenalis infections in rural communities in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Amaral, Salvador; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-11-01

    There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene, and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa amongst communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for soil transmitted helminth and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect water, sanitation and hygiene and socioeconomic data. Risk factors for infection were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression, stratified by age group (preschool, school-aged and adult). Overall, soil transmitted helminth prevalence was 69% (95% Confidence Interval 67-71%), with Necator americanus being most common (60%; 95% Confidence Interval 58-62%) followed by Ascaris spp. (24%; 95% Confidence Interval 23-26%). Ascaris-N. americanus co-infection was common (17%; 95% Confidence Interval 15%-18%). Giardia duodenalis was the main protozoan identified (13%; 95% Confidence Interval 11-14%). Baseline water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and behaviours were poor. Although risk factors varied by age of participants and parasite species, risk factors for N. americanus infection included, generally, age in years, male sex, and socioeconomic quintile. Risk factors for Ascaris included age in years for children, and piped water to the yard for adults. In this first known assessment of community-based prevalence and associated risk factors in Timor-Leste, soil transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent, indicating a need for soil transmitted helminth control. Few associations with water, sanitation and hygiene were evident, despite water, sanitation and hygiene being generally poor. In our water, sanitation and hygiene we will

  2. Interventions to Increase Male Attendance and Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections at Publicly-Funded Family Planning Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, David; Warner, Lee; Salomon, Sarah; Johnson, David M

    2017-07-01

    We assessed the impact of staff, clinic, and community interventions on male and female family planning client visit volume and sexually transmitted infection testing at a multisite community-based health care agency. Staff training, clinic environmental changes, in-reach/outreach, and efficiency assessments were implemented in two Family Health Center (San Diego, CA) family planning clinics during 2010-2012; five Family Health Center family planning programs were identified as comparison clinics. Client visit records were compared between preintervention (2007-2009) and postintervention (2010-2012) for both sets of clinics. Of 7,826 male client visits during the time before intervention, most were for clients who were aged clinics significantly increased the number of male visits (4,004 to 8,385; Δ = +109%); for comparison clinics, male visits increased modestly (3,822 to 4,500; Δ = +18%). The proportion of male clinic visits where chlamydia testing was performed increased in intervention clinics (35% to 42%; p clinics (37% to 33%; p analyses conducted among adolescent and young adult males yielded similar findings for male client volume and chlamydia testing. The number of female visits declined nearly 40% in both comparison (21,800 to 13,202; -39%) and intervention clinics (30,830 to 19,971; -35%) between preintervention and postintervention periods. Multilevel interventions designed to increase male client volume and sexually transmitted infection testing services in family planning clinics succeeded without affecting female client volume or services. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual partnership characteristics of African American women who have sex with women; impact on sexually transmitted infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Austin, Erika L; Harbison, Hanne S; Hook, Edward W

    2014-10-01

    African American women who have sex with women (WSW) are emerging as a population at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to explore partnership characteristics for a cohort of African American WSW and evaluate those characteristics as potential risk factors for STIs. In addition, we aimed to determine STI diagnoses and identify predictors of STI infection. Women who have sex with women presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, AL, completed a questionnaire and were tested for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, HIV, and herpes simplex virus type 2. A total of 163 women were enrolled: 78 WSW and 85 women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) (based on report of past year sexual behavior). Both WSW and WSWM reported similar numbers of female partners over the lifetime, past year, and past month; however, WSWM reported significantly more lifetime male partners, thus having a higher overall number of sexual partners. Women who have sex with women and men were more likely to report new or casual partner(s), group sex, history of STIs, and sex with partner(s) known to have STIs. Overall, WSWM were more likely to have a current diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, a current diagnosis of a curable STI, or a diagnosis of a noncurable STI (85% vs. 56%, P sexual health may be directly or indirectly influenced by male partners. A better understanding of the distinctions and differences between African American WSW and WSWM will enable health care providers to improve the quality of care provided.

  4. Vertically acquired hepatitis C virus infection: Correlates of transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, Pier-Angelo; Calitri, Carmelina; Scolfaro, Carlo; Gabiano, Clara; Garazzino, Silvia

    2016-01-28

    The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is 0.05%-0.4% in developed countries and 2%-5% in resource-limited settings, where inadequately tested blood products or un-sterile medical injections still remain important routes of infection. After the screening of blood donors, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HCV has become the leading cause of pediatric infection, at a rate of 5%. Maternal HIV co-infection is a significant risk factor for MTCT and anti-HIV therapy during pregnancy seemingly can reduce the transmission rate of both viruses. Conversely, a high maternal viral load is an important, but not preventable risk factor, because at present no anti-HCV treatment can be administered to pregnant women to block viral replication. Caution is needed in adopting obstetric procedures, such as amniocentesis or internal fetal monitoring, that can favor fetal exposure to HCV contaminated maternal blood, though evidence is lacking on the real risk of single obstetric practices. Mode of delivery and type of feeding do not represent significant risk factors for MTCT. Therefore, there is no reason to offer elective caesarean section or discourage breast-feeding to HCV infected parturients. Information on the natural history of vertical HCV infection is limited. The primary infection is asymptomatic in infants. At least one quarter of infected children shows a spontaneous viral clearance (SVC) that usually occurs within 6 years of life. IL-28B polymorphims and genotype 3 infection have been associated with greater chances of SVC. In general, HCV progression is mild or moderate in children with chronic infection who grow regularly, though cases with marked liver fibrosis or hepatic failure have been described. Non-organ specific autoantibodies and cryoglobulins are frequently found in children with chronic infection, but autoimmune diseases or HCV associated extrahepatic manifestations are rare.

  5. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  6. [Update on the subject of epidemiology of blood-transmitted occupational infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puro, Vincenzo; De Carli, Gabriella; Segata, Adrianne; Piccini, Giannina; Argentero, Pier Angelo; Signorini, Liana; Daglio, Marinella; Penna, Cleonice; Marchegiano, Patrizia; Miniero, Massimo; Cinti, Giovanni; Tavanti, Liviana; Maggiore, Adele; Sossai, Dimitri; Micheloni, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to many different pathogens, and cases of occupational infection have been reported involving the vast majority of known and emerging agents. The risk is present during all the phases of patient care and manipulation of biologic materials, and the implementation of Standard Precautions--and biosafety level 2 measures in the laboratory--and Transmission-Based Precautions in all health settings represents the necessary preventive intervention required by law. Percutaneous exposures represent an extremely frequent event in healthcare facilities; among the many pathogens acquired through this type of exposure, those of highest concern due to the frequency of exposure are HIV, HBV and HCV. Over the last 10 years, though the risk of exposure is still not negligible, occupational infection with HBV has become a rare event; conversely, the incidence of acute C hepatitis became significantly higher among HCW (1,6 per 100.000 inhabitants) with respect to the general population (0,6), with a seroconversion rate following an occupational exposure between 0,5% and 1,8%; finally, reports of occupational HIV infection have decreased, probably also as a secondary beneficial effect of antiretroviral treatment in patients and post-exposure prophylaxis in HCW. The Studio Italiano Rischio Occupazionale da HIV (SIROH) documented from 1986 to 2009 one occupational HBV case, 6 HIV cases (the last one in 2007) and 32 HCV cases. In Europe, the Directive 2010/32/EU approved on May 10 2010 requires Member State to implement within three years a global strategy to prevent occupational exposures in the healthcare setting, particularly with respect to needlestick and sharp injuries, including the adoption, based on risk assessment, of devices incorporating safety features. In Italy the introduction of these devices, according to data collected by the SIROH, showed the possibility to decrease percutaneous exposures by 75%, an effect sustained over time if

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in Guinea-Bissau: a sexually transmitted genotype 2 with parenteral amplification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Plamondon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged >or=50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066 among women and 5.0% (27/544 among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 50-59 y; 60-69 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.91-3.06; >or=70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.89-6.39, belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.32-4.53, originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.18-14.73 and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.88-6.89. Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally.

  8. Burden of non-sexually transmitted infections on adolescent growth and development in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pentima, Cecilia

    2009-12-01

    A vast majority of children living in developing countries face their teen years following a childhood of malnutrition and limited access to education and health care. In this environment of disadvantages, exposure to old and reemerging infections become a significant determinant of their likelihood to overcome poverty: tuberculosis and its rapid progression during adolescence may anticipate a premature death; malaria, as well as its debilitating recurrent febrile episodes and anemia, is responsible for most of their lost time at school or work. Furthermore, the burden of anemia and malnutrition is aggravated by infestation with common intestinal worms such as with hookworms, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. These parasites compete for iron and nutrients and produce mucosal damage and inflammation causing anorexia and worsening the intake and absorption of their marginal diets. Other infections among the many neglected tropical infectious diseases, many others common to adolescents in developed countries, and some that could be controlled by access to vaccines, add scores against the physical and intellectual fitness of millions of teens in tropical developing countries.

  9. Community-based sexually transmitted infection screening and increased detection of pharyngeal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Horas T H; Lee, Krystal C K; Chan, Denise P C

    2015-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio. A cross-sectional study was conduct on 340 FSWs attending a community organization for HIV/STI screening, and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was administered to all FSWs. The prevalence of syphilis infection was 2.1%, and none was tested positive for HIV. The positivity for pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas that for urogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infection was 10.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Of 313 FSWs offering fellatio, having unprotected fellatio with clients was significantly associated with the perceived low risk of contracting STI via fellatio (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88), working in clubs (adjusted OR, 11.14), working on streets (adjusted OR, 3.28), recently started working in the sex industry for 1 year or less (adjusted OR, 3.05), and reporting group sex in the previous year (adjusted OR, 11.03). The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection remains low. This study reveals a relatively high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae detected mostly in the pharynx. Offering pharyngeal screening for STI would facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infection in FSWs in Hong Kong.

  10. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  11. [Analysis of tongue figure features in 990 cases of sexually transmitted and intravenous drug use spread HIV infected population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jian-Ping; Ma, Xiu-Lan; Zeng, Lin; Abudureyimu, Aihemaiti; Li, Jing-Ru

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the tongue manifestation features of sexually transmitted and intravenous drug use spread HIV infected population in Xinjiang. Recruited were 990 HIV infected subjects in Xinjiang from May 2011 to March 2012, who were assigned to the intravenous drug use spread HIV infected (498 cases) and the sexually transmitted (492 cases). By using tongue figure shoot combined with analyses of experts, tongue manifestations were analyzed and compared between the sexually transmitted and the intravenous drug use spread from four aspects, i.e., the tongue color, the tongue shape, the fur color, and the fur property. Compared with the sexually transmitted population, red tongue, fissured tongue, yellow fur, thick fur, eroded fur, deficiency of fur fluid were more often seen, showing statistical difference (P spread population, pale tongue, white fur, and thin fur were more often seen, showing statistical difference (P spread HIV population reflected inner exuberance of evil toxin and heat impairing qi and yin. Compared with the intravenous drug use spread population, the attack of HIV infection was more hiding in the sexually transmitted population, with milder internal injury. Their Wei-qi was not damaged and no obvious change occurred in the tongue figure.

  12. Large Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens. PMID:24655474

  13. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  14. Causative Role of Ureaplasma Urealyticum and other Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Urethral Meatus Polyp Development in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana S. Taranina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of ureaplasmal infection on the development of urethral meatus polyps in women. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis and urethritis over a 0.5- to 5-year duration, complicated by the presence of urethral meatus polyps and associated with concomitant Ureaplasma urealyticum and other sexually transmitted infections (STI. This was based on the culture analysis of the cervical and urethral content, and PCR-diagnostics of STI, as well as a complex pathomorphologic study of the resected polyps, including electron microscopy. In this study, 98 women between 45 and 60 years (52.5±4.9 years were examined, who had undergone radiowave resection of the polyps: 52 women were infected by STI, including Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, while the remaining 46 women had been diagnosed as not having STI. According to the culture results in the women with STI, U. urealyticum was identified as a monoinfection in 69% of cases, while in the remaining 31% of cases it was evident in the form of mixed infections, mainly in association with Mycoplasma hominis (17.5% and Trichomonas vaginalis (13.5%. Pathomorphological examination of the urethral meatus polyps of the women with U. urealyticum and other STI demonstrated the proliferative character of the remodeling of the surface epithelium with hyperplasia, acanthosis, and keratinization of the stratified squamous epithelium and synchronous changes in the underlying connective tissue - impaired microcirculation and the diffuse inflammatory cell infiltrates with transepithelial leukopedesis. Using electron microscopy in the fibroblasts and plasma cells of the resected polyps the markers of U. urealyticum were detected in patients with negative results of the bacteriological diagnostic methods.

  15. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

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    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION: THE SYMPTOMATIC PRESENTATION AMONGST RURAL COMMUNITY OF LUCKNOW DISTRICT, UTTAR PRADESH

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    S P Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: India has a sudden rise in the incidence of STIs especially in the rural areas where it seemed hyper endemic. The reason is the inadequate health facilities for diagnosis and treatment of this infection. Objective: To appraise STIs based on syndromic approach corresponding socio-demographic characteristics in the rural community. Materials and Methods: The baseline study of adults 15 to 49 years of both sexes were enrolled through systematic random method for interviewing the STIs symptoms corresponding biosocial characteristic. Results: Out of the total 10.5% were diagnosed on the basis of symptoms (syndromic approach of STIs where the commonest symptom was pus discharge from genital organs (71.7%. The prevalence rate in female population was found to be higher (14.2% compared to prevalence in male (7.1%. In age composition the highest (15.3% prevalence of STIs was observed in the age group of 30-34 year adults. The prevalence of STIs was quite low (6.9% in adults educated up to high school. The occurrence of STIs in the study population was found to be steady increasing with lowering social class and maximum prevalence rate of STIs in the social class V was 13.6%. Conclusions: The 30-34 years age group of adults is sexually active and migrating in nature, these adults need counseling about use of condom. The lower social class adults are generally not taking proper treatment due to ignorance and poverty. Time to time a camp approach availably in rural area are good solution of high prevalence of these infections in villages.

  17. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  18. Investigation of the link between broodstock infection, vertical transmission, and prevalence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in eggs and progeny of Rainbow Trout and Coho Salmon.

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    Long, Amy; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

    2014-06-01

    The etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), Flavobacterium psychrophilum, can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Outbreaks of BCWD can result in significant losses in salmonid aquaculture. Reduction of outbreaks in fry may be possible through implementation of a management strategy in which progeny of heavily infected broodstock are culled from the general population. Diagnostic assays to quantify F. psychrophilum concentrations in tissue samples and confirm presence of the bacterium in ovarian fluid have been previously validated. In the current study, these assays were used to screen 60 female Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and 60 female Coho Salmon O. kisutch broodstock at two aquaculture facilities. Eyed eggs from 10 female broodstock (five fish from each facility) exhibiting graded levels of infection were transferred to the University of Idaho and monitored through early life stages for the presence of F. psychrophilum. Female Rainbow Trout broodstock were not positive for F. psychrophilum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and prevalence was low in these progeny. However, ELISA optical density values for kidney correlated to F. psychrophilum prevalence in progeny (r = 0.938, P vertical transmission in either species as broodstock ovarian fluid results did not correlate to F. psychrophilum prevalence in eyed eggs. Further research with these assays is necessary; however, results from this study indicate that broodstock screening may be a potential tool for evaluating F. psychrophilum infection levels, which could become an important component for disease management.

  19. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  20. Vaginal douching and association with sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in a prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

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    Luo, Li; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Vaginal douching is a common practice and has been hypothesised to increase a woman's risk for human of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of douching and its association with STIs, genital symptoms and HIV/STI knowledge among female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 837 FSWs with interviews and laboratory tests for HIV/STIs in a prefecture of Yunnan Province in southern China. Vaginal douching was reported by 84% of the women. We found a higher prevalence of vaginal douching practice among FSWs of Han ethnicity, and who were single or cohabitating. Douching was also significantly more common among more educated FSWs and those with greater knowledge of HIV/STIs, and as well as in FSWs who had experienced clinical symptoms in the previous 12 months. Douching was linked to higher risks of HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 2.29; 95% confidence interval 1.01-5.23) and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections (adjusted odds ratio = 2.18; 95% confidence interval 1.46-3.24) after adjusting for confounding factors. Medical professionals and public health workers should correct women's misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities. More prospective studies among FSWs are urgently required to identify the relationship between vaginal douching and HIV/STIs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Eating sweets without the wrapper: perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among street youth in western Kenya.

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    Embleton, Lonnie; Wachira, Juddy; Kamanda, Allan; Naanyu, Violet; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Street-connected youth in Kenya are a population potentially at risk of HIV transmission, yet little is known about their perceptions and experiences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), despite their living in an HIV endemic region. We sought to elucidate the language and sociocultural factors rooted in street life that impact on street-connected young people's knowledge of and perceptions about the prevention and transmission of STIs, and their diagnosis and treatment, using qualitative methods in western Kenya. We conducted a total of 25 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-group discussions with 65 participants aged 11-24 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Thematic analysis was conducted and data were coded according to themes and patterns emergent until saturation was reached. In general, street-connected young people knew of STIs and some of the common symptoms associated with these infections. However, there were many misconceptions regarding transmission and prevention. Gender inequities were prominent, as the majority of men described women as individuals who spread STIs due to unhygienic practices, urination and multiple partners. Due to misconceptions, gender inequity and lack of access to youth-friendly healthcare there is an urgent need for community-based organisations and healthcare facilities to introduce or augment their adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes for vulnerable young people.

  2. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

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    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  3. Men's preferences for sexually transmitted infection care services in a low-income community clinic setting in New York City.

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    Holloway, Ian W; Jones, Heidi E; Bell, David L; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2011-05-01

    A self-administered anonymous waiting room survey was used to evaluate men's preferences on testing, notification, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a community clinic in Upper Manhattan in 2007. Sixty-seven percent of eligible men (n = 199) participated. Most were willing to collect a urine sample at home (71%, n = 140) or at the clinic (87%, n = 171). Respondents preferred learning of a positive STI test result by phone (67%, n = 123). However, men were willing to receive results by text (65%, n = 127) or e-mail (61%, n = 121). Most (83%, n = 162) reported they would be (very) likely to take STI medication brought to them by a partner. Twenty-one percent reported previous gonorrhea or Chlamydia infection (n = 41). Of these, 39% (n = 16) had received medication to bring their partner, and almost all (n = 14/16) reported their partner took the medicine. Multiple options for STI testing, notification, and treatment are recommended to maximize service use among men, including providing patient-delivered partner therapy.

  4. Intimate partner violence, mental health disorders, and sexually transmitted infections: important screening opportunities for pediatric healthcare providers.

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    Pattishall, Amy E; Cruz, Mario; Spector, Nancy D

    2011-12-01

    This article addresses three critical areas where pediatric healthcare providers must employ effective screening techniques to ensure the best care for patients: intimate partner violence (IPV), mental health issues, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). IPV is now recognized as an important issue impacting the health of children. While long-term outcomes secondary to positive screening results are not known, routine, sensitive questioning can identify at-risk children and help connect families to resources in the community. Routine use of validated screening tools for mental health disorders (MHDs) in the office setting is now recommended. STIs disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults, yet timely diagnosis is often challenging because infections are frequently asymptomatic and adolescents may not be forthcoming about risk-taking behaviors. There is significant opportunity for pediatricians to improve screening rates of adolescents. Screening is an essential aspect of healthcare for pediatricians. An understanding of current screening recommendations for IPV, MHDs, and STIs will assist providers in earlier detection of medical problems in their patients and will likely improve patient outcomes.

  5. Usefulness of a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of sexually-transmitted infections.

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    Fernández, Gema; Martró, Elisa; González, Victoria; Saludes, Verónica; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Marcó, Clara; Rivaya, Belén; López, Evelin; Coll, Pep; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-10-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are currently on the increase worldwide. New molecular tools have been developed in the past few years in order to improve their diagnosis. An evaluation was carried out using a new commercially available real-time PCR assay, Anyplex™ II STI-7 (Seegene, Seoul, Korea), which detects seven major pathogens in a single reaction - Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum - and compared with conventional methods performed in our laboratory. Two different populations were included, and 267 specimens from different sites of infection (urines, endocervical swabs, rectal swabs, vaginal swabs, urethral swabs and one inguinal adenopathy) were processed for both methods. The parameters of clinical performance were calculated for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and the assay achieved sensitivities (SE) from 93.94% to 100%, and specificities (SP) from 96.55% to 100%, with negative predictive values (NPV) from 93.33% to 98.85%, and positive predictive values (PPV) from 96.88% to 100%, with a very good agreement (kappa index from 0.88 to 1). Anyplex™ II STI-7 is a good tool for the reliable diagnosis of STI. Its ease of use and processing allows it to be incorporated into the day to day laboratory work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related expansion of Tim-3 expressing T cells in vertically HIV-1 infected children.

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    Ravi Tandon

    Full Text Available As perinatally HIV-1-infected children grow into adolescents and young adults, they are increasingly burdened with the long-term consequences of chronic HIV-1 infection, with long-term morbidity due to inadequate immunity. In progressive HIV-1 infection in horizontally infected adults, inflammation, T cell activation, and perturbed T cell differentiation lead to an "immune exhaustion", with decline in T cell effector functions. T effector cells develop an increased expression of CD57 and loss of CD28, with an increase in co-inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and Tim-3. Very little is known about HIV-1 induced T cell dysfunction in vertical infection. In two perinatally antiretroviral drug treated HIV-1-infected groups with median ages of 11.2 yr and 18.5 yr, matched for viral load, we found no difference in the proportion of senescent CD28(-CD57(+CD8(+ T cells between the groups. However, the frequency of Tim-3(+CD8(+ and Tim-3(+CD4(+ exhausted T cells, but not PD-1(+ T cells, was significantly increased in the adolescents with longer duration of infection compared to the children with shorter duration of HIV-1 infection. PD-1(+CD8(+ T cells were directly associated with T cell immune activation in children. The frequency of Tim-3(+CD8(+ T cells positively correlated with HIV-1 plasma viral load in the adolescents but not in the children. These data suggest that Tim-3 upregulation was driven by both HIV-1 viral replication and increased age, whereas PD-1 expression is associated with immune activation. These findings also suggest that the Tim-3 immune exhaustion phenotype rather than PD-1 or senescent cells plays an important role in age-related T cell dysfunction in perinatal HIV-1 infection. Targeting Tim-3 may serve as a novel therapeutic approach to improve immune control of virus replication and mitigate age related T cell exhaustion.

  7. The role of sexually transmitted infections in male circumcision effectiveness against HIV – insights from clinical trial simulation

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    Moses Stephen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A landmark randomised trial of male circumcision (MC in Orange Farm, South Africa recently showed a large and significant reduction in risk of HIV infection, reporting MC effectiveness of 61% (95% CI: 34%–77%. Additionally, two further randomised trials of MC in Kisumu, Kenya and Rakai, Uganda were recently stopped early to report 53% and 48% effectiveness, respectively. Since MC may protect against both HIV and certain sexually transmitted infections (STI, which are themselves cofactors of HIV infection, an important question is the extent to which this estimated effectiveness against HIV is mediated by the protective effect of circumcision against STI. The answer lies in the trial data if the appropriate statistical analyses can be identified to estimate the separate efficacies against HIV and STI, which combine to determine overall effectiveness. Objectives and Methods Focusing on the MC trial in Kisumu, we used a stochastic prevention trial simulator (1 to determine whether statistical analyses can validly estimate efficacy, (2 to determine whether MC efficacy against STI alone can produce large effectiveness against HIV and (3 to estimate the fraction of all HIV infections prevented that are attributable to efficacy against STI when both efficacies combine. Results Valid estimation of separate efficacies against HIV and STI as well as MC effectiveness is feasible with available STI and HIV trial data, under Kisumu trial conditions. Under our parameter assumptions, high overall effectiveness of MC against HIV was observed only with a high MC efficacy against HIV and was not possible on the basis of MC efficacy against STI alone. The fraction of all HIV infections prevented which were attributable to MC efficacy against STI was small, except when efficacy of MC specifically against HIV was very low. In the three MC trials which reported between 48% and 61% effectiveness (combining STI and HIV efficacies, the fraction of

  8. Epitopes within recombinant α-actinin protein is serodiagnostic target for Trichomonas vaginalis sexually transmitted infections.

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    Alderete, J F

    2017-01-01

    To date there is no commercially-available serodiagnostic for women and men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. Thirteen epitopes of the immunogenic T. vaginalis α-actinin (106.2-kDa) are detected by sera of women patients, and 5 epitopes, a subset of the 13, are detected by sera of men. A truncated recombinant protein called ACT-P2 (63.5-kDa) encoding the 5 epitopes is used for screening by ELISA for antibody in sera of women and men. Because ACT-P2 is poorly expressed in E. coli, we wanted alternative recombinant α-actinin proteins as serodiagnostic targets. We, therefore, constructed plasmids encoding two novel, small recombinant proteins of ∼25-kDa comprised of 15-mer peptides, each peptide of which contains one of the 13 epitopes. We refer to these novel proteins as α-actinin::string-of-epitopes1 (ACT::SOE1) and ACT::SOE2. We found the proteins to be unrecoverable from insoluble inclusion bodies without denaturing conditions, which rendered the proteins unsuitable for antibody detection. Thus, we synthesized a third ACT::SOE3 protein (72.4-kDa) with 7 epitopes that was synthesized in high amounts and was readily purified. Monoclonal antibodies to α-actinin detected ACT::SOE3 and ACT-P2 by ELISA. Further, we show that ACT::SOE3 is equal to ACT-P2 as a target protein for detection of serum IgG in positive sera of women and men. Data indicate that ACT::SOE3 is a target for screening of populations at-risk for this STI. Finally, the paper discusses the findings with regard to Point-of-Care diagnostic targets and vaccine candidates.

  9. Neighborhood drug markets: a risk environment for bacterial sexually transmitted infections among urban youth.

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    Jennings, Jacky M; Taylor, Ralph B; Salhi, Rama A; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2012-04-01

    We hypothesized that neighborhoods with drug markets, as compared to those without, have a greater concentration of infected sex partners, i.e. core transmitters, and that in these areas, there is an increased risk environment for STIs. This study determined if neighborhood drug markets were associated with a high-risk sex partnership and, separately, with a current bacterial STI (chlamydia and/or gonorrhea) after controlling for individual demographic and sexual risk factors among a household sample of young people in Baltimore City, MD. Analyses also tested whether links were independent of neighborhood socioeconomic status. Data for this study were collected from a household study, systematic social observations and police arrest, public health STI surveillance and U.S. census data. Nonlinear multilevel models showed that living in neighborhoods with household survey-reported drug markets increased the likelihood of having a high-risk sex partnership after controlling for individual-level demographic factors and illicit drug use and neighborhood socioeconomic status. Further, living in neighborhoods with survey-reported drug markets increased the likelihood of having a current bacterial STI after controlling for individual-level demographic and sexual risk factors and neighborhood socioeconomic status. The results suggest that local conditions in neighborhoods with drug markets may play an important role in setting-up risk environments for high-risk sex partnerships and bacterial STIs. Patterns observed appeared dependent on the type of drug market indicator used. Future studies should explore how conditions in areas with local drug markets may alter sexual networks structures and whether specific types of drug markets are particularly important in determining STI risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

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    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  11. Genital HPV infection among heterosexual and homosexual male attendees of sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Beijing, China.

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    Xin, H N; Li, H J; Li, Z; Li, X W; Li, M F; Zhang, H R; Feng, B X; Lun, W H; Yan, H W; Long, J; Gao, L

    2017-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as etiologic agent of various cancers for both men and women. However, HPV vaccine has not been recommended for men in China by far. To provide more evidences to promote HPV vaccination among males at high-risk of infection, this study investigated genital HPV genotypes among male attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Male attendees (⩾18 years old) were recruited from STD clinic of Beijing Ditan Hospital. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported sexual behaviors were collected based on questionnaire. Genital swab specimens were collected for HPV genotypes. Finally, a total of 198 eligible participants were included in the study. Nearly half of them were infected with at least one type of HPV. The prevalence of genital infection among participants with only heterosexual behaviors (50·91%, 56/110) was significantly higher than those with only homosexual behaviors (36·36%, 32/88) (P HPV subtypes were found to be similar between these two subgroups. HPV31, HPV18, HPV16 and HPV58 were the most frequently identified high-risk types and HPV11, HPV6, HPV81 and HPV61 were the most frequently observed low-risk types. Our results, although need further verification by larger sample size, suggested that currently available HPV vaccines covered most prevalent HPV types observed in Chinese men. As HPV vaccine has been approved for application in females in China, molecular epidemiological studies and intervention studies among high-risk males should be promoted as well.

  12. High postpartum rates of sexually transmitted infections among teens: pregnancy as a window of opportunity for prevention.

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    Ickovics, J R; Niccolai, L M; Lewis, J B; Kershaw, T S; Ethier, K A

    2003-12-01

    To identify incidence and predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among postpartum adolescents. These estimates are compared to similar estimates among a cohort of non-pregnant, sexually active teens. 203 pregnant and 208 non-pregnant adolescents aged 14-19 years were recruited from 10 community based health clinics in Connecticut, United States. Structured interviews and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using ligase chain reaction (LCR) were conducted at a baseline visit (during the third trimester for the pregnant adolescents), and at 6 and 12 month follow up visits (3 and 9 months post partum, for those pregnant at baseline). Among pregnant teens, new infections of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae increased from 7.1% at the 6 month follow up interview to 14.3% at the 12 month follow up interview; among non-pregnant teens, new infections remained relatively stable over the 6 and 12 month follow up interviews (9.0% to 8.3%) (group by time interaction, p = 0.005). C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae prevalence was 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 0.97 to 3.89, p = 0.06) among teens in the late postpartum follow up compared to the non-pregnant teens, controlling for baseline STIs. Predictors of postpartum STIs included having a new partner and number of partners per year of sexual activity. Postpartum adolescents are vulnerable to STIs. Routine prenatal and postpartum care provide unique opportunities to promote condom use and other risk reduction interventions among adolescents. If sustained post partum, long term reproductive health can be promoted.

  13. The safety of intrauterine contraception initiation among women with current asymptomatic cervical infections or at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Simmons, Katharine B; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to assess risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among women with current asymptomatic undiagnosed cervical infection or who are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), comparing those who have a copper-bearing (Cu-) or levonorgestrel (LNG-) intrauterine device (IUD) placed with women who do not. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles from January 1984 through January 2016 addressing our objective. We assessed study quality using the United States Preventive Services Task Force evidence grading system. Our search strategy yielded 2220 articles, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. Two studies provided direct evidence of PID rates in women with undiagnosed gonococcal or chlamydial (GC/CT) infection or at high risk for STIs initiating IUDs versus other contraceptive methods (level II-2, fair to poor), and neither study found a difference. Eight studies provided indirect evidence (II-2 to II-3, fair to poor). One study found no difference in PID rates between initiators of Cu- versus LNG-IUDs. Five studies compared algorithms based on patient factors with laboratory GC/CT screening to predict cervical infection. Based on likelihood ratios, none of these algorithms adequately identified women at high risk of asymptomatic cervical infection who should not undergo IUD placement. Two studies compared IUD placement on the same day as STI screening with delayed placement after screening and found no difference in PID rates. Limited evidence suggests that IUD placement does not increase the risk of PID compared with no IUD placement among women with asymptomatic undiagnosed cervical infection or at high risk of STIs. Algorithms based on patient characteristics to identify women with asymptomatic GC/CT may be overly restrictive, leading to missed opportunities for IUD initiation. Historical concerns about higher PID risk among women at risk for STIs who use IUDs may not be relevant with modern devices and STI screening and

  14. Neisseria gonorrhoeae among suspects of sexually transmitted infection in Gambella hospital, Ethiopia: risk factors and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Seada; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Sahlemariam, Zewdineh; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-09-13

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterium responsible for one of the classic sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea. Antibiotic resistant strains are emerging at alarming rate. Multiple sexual partners, unsafe sex and substance use habits are the main host related risk factors for acquiring the infection. Thus, this study aimed at determining the magnitude, its determinants and antimicrobial resistance profile of N. gonorrhoeae in a place where there is risk related cultural practices and relatively high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 186 STI suspected patients seen in Gambella hospital from March to July 2015. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors was collected using pre-designed questionnaire. Urethral or endo-cervical swabs were collected aseptically by trained nurses. Then, samples were transported to laboratory and processed within 15 min following standard microbiological culture techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data entry, transforming and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. In this study 11.3 % of the STI suspected patients were confirmed to have N. gonorrhoeae. The rate of infection in males was four times higher than in females accounting 16.0 and 5.0 % respectively (p = 0.049). It was also higher (18.9 %) in 20-24 years age group (p = 0.439). Alcohol intake (p = 0.013), less frequent condom use (p = 0.031), and multiple sex partners (p = 0.024) were associated with increased odds of infection. All N. gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefoxitin but all were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Alarmingly, 28.6 % of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The proportion of urogenital symptoms attributable to N. gonorrhoeae was high (11 %), with highest prevalence among males and young adults. Hence, prevention efforts should consider behavioral risk reduction. Ceftriaxone

  15. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections: an analysis using the NHANES 1999-2000 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Bernsen, Roos M D; Sgaier, Sema K; Jha, Prabhat

    2006-08-02

    Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) files of 1999-2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2) antibodies to BMI and other variables. Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93) and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03) individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men: 2.00, women: 1.15) in the last year (p partners in men (mean 11.94, 18.80, and 22.08 for obese, overweight and normal BMI respectively (p obese and overweight vs normal respectively), but not in women (mean 7.96, 4.77, and 5.24 respectively). HSV-2 antibodies were significantly correlated with the number of lifetime partners in both men and women, with the odds of being HSV-2 positive increasing by 0.6% (p partners (p obese (HSV-2 prevalence 15.9 and 34.9% for men and women respectively) or overweight (HSV-2 prevalence 16.7 and 29.3 for men and women respectively) was not associated with HSV-2 antibodies (HSV-2 prevalence for normal BMI: 15.6 and 23.2% respectively), independent of whether the association was adjusted for life time sexual partners or not. There was evidence of substantial misreporting of sexual behaviour. Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV

  16. Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood

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    Patrick David M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others and internal stigma (self-judgement – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of

  17. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…

  18. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  19. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  20. The knowledge and attitudes of a female at-risk population towards the prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Knowledge towards sexually transmitted infections (STIs and condom use is still inadequate, especially regarding risky behaviors such as anal sex, and attitudes are mainly negative. Identifying at-risk populations, HIV-positive sex workers, education and campaigns to change the attitudes towards AIDS should be regarded a high priority in Iran.

  1. Home-based versus clinic-based self-sampling and testing for sexually transmitted infections in Gugulethu, South Africa: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, H. E.; Altini, L.; de Kock, A.; Young, T.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.

    2007-01-01

    To test whether more women are screened for sexually transmitted infections when offered home-based versus clinic-based testing and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of self-sampling and self-testing in home and clinic settings in a resource-poor community. Women aged 14-25 were

  2. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, genital symptoms and health-care seeking behaviour among HIV-negative female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen, N. J.; van Steijn, M.; Nyinawabega, J.; Kestelyn, E.; Uwineza, M.; Vyankandondera, J.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often hampered by the lack of symptoms, inadequate diagnostics and/or poor availability, accessibility and quality of treatment in resource-limited settings. Female sex workers (FSW) are highly vulnerable for HIV and key

  3. A comparison of two methods of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: patient-delivered partner medication and patient-based partner referral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, T.; de Kock, A.; Jones, H.; Altini, L.; Ferguson, T.; van de Wijgert, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine acceptability and feasibility of patient-based partner referral (PBPR) and patient-delivered partner medication (PDPM) among female sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in a community-based STI screening study. Women were randomized to STI

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  5. Is Group Sex a Higher-Risk Setting for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared With Dyadic Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2016-01-01

    Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex

  6. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van der Helm, Jannie J; de Vries, Henry J C; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

     Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  We included 98 women who were contact-traced by C. trachomatis-positive sex partners at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and analyzed their cervicovaginal samples and clinical data. CVMs were characterized by sequencing the V3/V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and by hierarchical clustering. Characteristics associating with C. trachomatis infection were examined using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis.  The CVM was characterized for 93 women, of whom 52 tested C. trachomatis positive and 41 C. trachomatis negative. We identified 3 major CVM clusters. Clustered CVM predominantly comprised either diverse anaerobic bacteria (n = 39 [42%]), Lactobacillus iners (n = 32 [34%]), or Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 22 [24%]). In multivariable analysis, we found that CVM was significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection (odds ratio [OR], 4.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-15.4] for women with diverse anaerobic CVM and OR, 4.4 [95% CI, 1.3-15.6], for women with L. iners-dominated CVM, compared with women with L. crispatus-dominated CVM), as was younger age (OR, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.1-8.7] for those ≤21 years old) and reporting a steady sex partner (OR, 3.6 [95% CI, 1.4-9.4]).  Women who tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection after having been contact-traced by a chlamydia-positive partner were more likely to have CVM dominated by L. iners or by diverse anaerobic bacteria, than by L. crispatus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) infection reduces fertility of Dutch dairy cattle and is vertically transmitted to offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A.; Hage, J.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Schaik, van G.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, BTV-8 re-emerged for the second year in the Netherlands and caused morbidity and increased mortality in cattle herds. In addition, cattle farmers reported reduced fertility in their cows. For this study, fifteen herds that were not vaccinated were selected. These were matched to 10

  8. High prevalence of curable sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in a rural county hospital in Kilifi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, Elizabeth; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Cools, Piet; Crucitti, Tania; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women attending antenatal care (ANC) in resource-limited countries are frequently screened for syphilis and HIV, but rarely for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of curable STIs, defined as infection with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis, from July to September 2015. Methods In a cross-sectional study, women attending ANC at the Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, had a urine sample tested for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae by GeneXpert® and a vaginal swab for T. vaginalis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was defined as a Nugent score of 7–10 of the Gram stain of a vaginal smear in combination with self-reported vaginal discharge. Genital ulcers were observed during collection of vaginal swabs. All women responded to questions on socio-demographics and sexual health and clinical symptoms of STIs. Predictors for curable STIs were assessed in multivariable logistic regression. Results A total of 42/202 (20.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI):15.4–27.0) women had a curable STI. The prevalence was 14.9% for C. trachomatis (95% CI:10.2–20.5), 1.0% for N. gonorrhoeae (95% CI: 0.1–3.5), 7.4% for T. vaginalis (95% CI:4.2–12.0), 19.3% for BV (95% CI: 14.1–25.4) and 2.5% for genital ulcers (95% CI: 0.8–5.7). Predictors for infection with curable STIs included women with a genital ulcer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 35.0, 95% CI: 2.7–461.6) compared to women without a genital ulcer, women who used water for cleaning after visiting the toilet compared to those who used toilet paper or other solid means (AOR = 4.1, 95% CI:1.5–11.3), women who reported having sexual debut ≤ 17 years compared to women having sexual debut ≥18 years (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1–6.6), and BV-positive women (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1–6.6) compared to BV-negative women. Conclusion One in five women attending ANC had a curable STI. These infections were associated with genital ulcers, hygiene

  9. Epidemiology of curable sexually transmitted infections among women at increased risk for HIV in northwestern Tanzania: inadequacy of syndromic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania.HIV-negative women aged 18-44 years (N = 966 were enrolled and followed for 12 months in a microbicides feasibility study. We collected sociodemographic and behavioural data, performed clinical examinations, and tested for STIs, at enrolment and 3-monthly. Risk factors for STIs were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of syndromic management were calculated.At enrolment, the prevalences of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and high-titre active syphilis were 111/956 (12%, 42/955 (4%, 184/945 (19% and 46/965 (5%, respectively. There were significant decreases over time for C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis (OR trend per month: 0.94 [95% CI 0.91, 0.97]; and 0.95 [0.93, 0.98], respectively; both p<0.001. The majority of these infections were not diagnosed by the corresponding syndrome; therefore, most participants were not treated at the diagnosis visit. Syndromic management was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed infections. We identified a number of risk factors for STIs, including low educational level, some sexual behaviours, and ever having been pregnant.This analysis demonstrates that the prevalences of curable STIs are high among women who work in food and recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania. Most of these infections are missed by syndromic management. Accurate and affordable rapid-point-of-care tests

  10. High prevalence of curable sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in a rural county hospital in Kilifi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chengo Masha

    Full Text Available Women attending antenatal care (ANC in resource-limited countries are frequently screened for syphilis and HIV, but rarely for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We assessed the prevalence of curable STIs, defined as infection with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis, from July to September 2015.In a cross-sectional study, women attending ANC at the Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, had a urine sample tested for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae by GeneXpert® and a vaginal swab for T. vaginalis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 of the Gram stain of a vaginal smear in combination with self-reported vaginal discharge. Genital ulcers were observed during collection of vaginal swabs. All women responded to questions on socio-demographics and sexual health and clinical symptoms of STIs. Predictors for curable STIs were assessed in multivariable logistic regression.A total of 42/202 (20.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI:15.4-27.0 women had a curable STI. The prevalence was 14.9% for C. trachomatis (95% CI:10.2-20.5, 1.0% for N. gonorrhoeae (95% CI: 0.1-3.5, 7.4% for T. vaginalis (95% CI:4.2-12.0, 19.3% for BV (95% CI: 14.1-25.4 and 2.5% for genital ulcers (95% CI: 0.8-5.7. Predictors for infection with curable STIs included women with a genital ulcer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 35.0, 95% CI: 2.7-461.6 compared to women without a genital ulcer, women who used water for cleaning after visiting the toilet compared to those who used toilet paper or other solid means (AOR = 4.1, 95% CI:1.5-11.3, women who reported having sexual debut ≤ 17 years compared to women having sexual debut ≥18 years (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.6, and BV-positive women (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.6 compared to BV-negative women.One in five women attending ANC had a curable STI. These infections were associated with genital ulcers, hygiene practices, early sexual debut and bacterial vaginosis.

  11. Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: Relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery

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    Park Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to consistent epidemiologic evidence of the role of sexual transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV in adults, various routes may be related to HPV infection in infants. We have assessed the extent of HPV infection during the perinatal period, and the relationship between mode of delivery and vertical transmission. Results A total of 291 pregnant women over 36 weeks of gestation were enrolled with informed consent. Exfoliative cells were collected from maternal cervix and neonatal buccal mucosa. HPV infection and genotypes were determined with an HPV DNA chip, which can recognise 24 types. The HPV-positive neonates were re-evaluated 6 months after birth to identify the presence of persistent infection. HPV DNA was detected in 18.9 % (55/291 of pregnant women and 3.4 % (10/291 of neonates. Maternal infection was associated with abnormal cytology (p = 0.007 and primiparity (p = 0.015. The infected neonates were all born to HPV-positive mothers. The rate of vertical transmission was estimated at 18.2 % (10/55 which was positively correlated with maternal multiple HPV infection (p = 0.003 and vaginal delivery (p = 0.050, but not with labour duration and premature rupture of membranes. The rate of concordance of genotype was 100 % in mother-neonate pairs with vertical transmission. The neonatal HPV DNAs found at birth were all cleared at 6 months after delivery. Conclusions Vertical transmission of HPV DNA from HPV infected mother to the neonate increased when the infant was delivered through an infected cervix. However, the absence of persistent infection in infants at 6 months after delivery may suggest temporary inoculation rather than true vertical infection.

  12. Negative perceptions of hepatitis B vaccination among attendees of an urban free testing center for sexually transmitted infections in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Lauranne; Hustache, Sarah; Goirand, Laurence; Hauzanneau, Marianne; Epaulard, Olivier

    2017-05-04

    Official French health care policy recommends vaccinations against hepatitis B for all infants and at-risk adults. Attendees at our free testing center for sexually transmitted infections (FTC-STI) routinely express hepatitis B vaccine hesitancy. We aimed in this exposed population to explore the extent of knowledge concerning HBV infection, to quantify HBV vaccine refusal, and to identify the reasons for this refusal. During a 3-month period in 2013, all attendees at the Grenoble FTC-STI were given an anonymous questionnaire exploring their knowledge of hepatitis B, perception of the hepatitis B vaccine, acceptance of free same-day hepatitis B vaccination, and reasons for refusing this offer (where applicable). The questionnaire was completed by 735 attendees (64.7% of those attending during the study period)(59.9% men; age 27.9 ± 9.2). Most respondents identified hepatitis B as a potentially severe, potentially lifelong illness existing in France. Concerning the hepatitis B vaccine, less than 50% totally or mostly agreed that it is safe; when asked whether the vaccine is dangerous, 44.2% answered "I don't know" and 14.0% agreed; when asked whether the vaccine is "not well characterized," 45.0%, answered "I don't know" and 26.5% agreed. When asked whether they mistrust the hepatitis B vaccine or all vaccines in general, 39.0% and 28.9% of those unvaccinated agreed, respectively. Two thirds refused to get vaccinated on the same day. When asked whether they were afraid of the adverse effects of this vaccine, only 18.7% disagreed. Negative perceptions of the hepatitis B vaccine are widespread in this at-risk population. Consequently, a successful communication strategy must reassure this at-risk population of the vaccine's innocuous nature.

  13. Progress toward prevention of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection--sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apata, Ibironke W; Averhoff, Francisco; Pitman, John; Bjork, Adam; Yu, Junping; Amin, Noryati Abu; Dhingra, Neelam; Kolwaite, Amy; Marfin, Anthony

    2014-07-25

    Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally, primarily because of sequelae of chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The risks for HBV and HCV transmission via blood transfusions have been described previously and are believed to be higher in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing the risk for transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV, and HCV infection is a priority for international aid organizations, such as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO). Over the last decade, PEPFAR and the Global Fund have supported blood safety programs in many sub-Saharan African countries with heavy burdens of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, malaria, and maternal mortality. This report summarizes HBV- and HCV-related surveillance data reported by the blood transfusion services of WHO member states to WHO's Global Database on Blood Safety (GDBS) (4). It also evaluates the performance of blood safety programs in screening for HBV and HCV in 38 sub-Saharan Africa countries. Selected GDBS indicators were compared for the years 2000 and 2004 (referred to as the 2000/2004 period) and 2010 and 2011 (referred to as the 2010/2011 period). From 2000/2004 to 2010/2011, the median of the annual number of units donated per country increased, the number of countries screening at least 95% of blood donations for HBV and HCV increased, and the median of the national prevalence of HBV and HCV marker-reactive blood donations decreased. These findings suggest that during the past decade, more blood has been donated and screened for HBV and HCV, resulting in a safer blood supply. Investments in blood safety should be continued to further increase the availability and safety of blood products in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Novel outreach settings to enhance sexually transmitted infection/HIV awareness, diagnosis and treatment in hard-to-reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampejo, T; Turner, R; Roberts, C; Allen, K; Watson, L; Caverley-Frost, L; Scott, P; Ostridge, E; Cooney, G; Hardy, J; Nulty, K; Day, S

    2018-03-01

    Despite recent rises in the number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as syphilis and gonorrhoea in England and increasing rates of HIV diagnosis among several men who have sex with men populations, many individuals are still not engaging with sexual health services. The John Hunter Clinic for Sexual Health, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London set up outreach clinics at the two world's largest adult lifestyle exhibitions in 2013 and 2015. This was the first time that a sexual health screening and promotion service was available at these large-scale (over 10,000 attendees at each) adult lifestyle events. A total of 381 individuals underwent STI screening across the two events. Nineteen (5.0%) patients were diagnosed with an infection. Twelve (3.1%) patients with Chlamydia trachomatis, three (0.8%) patients with syphilis, one (0.3%) patient with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, one (0.3%) patient with HIV, one (0.3%) patient with hepatitis B and one (0.3%) patient with hepatitis C. All 19 patients were promptly contacted with their results and had arrangements made for treatment or were referred for specialist follow up. Where possible, contact tracing was also performed. Implementing such outreach-based projects is challenged by lack of on-site laboratory support, high staffing demands and potentially high costs. However, we achieved a total HIV screening uptake rate of 94.5% amongst our outreach clinic attendees (versus 67% nationally in conventional sexual health clinic attendees) with an HIV positivity rate of 0.3% (versus 0.2% nationally in high HIV prevalence band populations). Additionally, 30.7% had never been tested for HIV previously (versus 20.7% nationally). Our work demonstrates that these strategies can help to address issues related to lack of STI/HIV screening in hard-to-reach populations and promote risk reduction behaviour.

  15. Alcohol abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections in women in Moshi urban district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla

    2009-02-01

    To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.

  16. Prevalence and knowledge of sexual transmitted infections, drug abuse, and AIDS among male inmates in a Taiwan prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Pi-Yen; Lu, Po-Liang

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), intravenous drug users (IDUs), and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%), IDUs without HIV (49.3%), and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%). A total of 115 (12.7%) inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Prevalence and knowledge of sexual transmitted infections, drug abuse, and AIDS among male inmates in a Taiwan prison

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    Ming-Chu Feng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, intravenous drug users (IDUs, and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%, IDUs without HIV (49.3%, and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%. A total of 115 (12.7% inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community.

  18. Sexual risk-taking mediates the association between impulsivity and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections among hazardously drinking incarcerated women.

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    Hayaki, Jumi; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-11-01

    A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. What do we need to learn for policy decision-making on sexually transmitted infections prevention and treatment in Israel?

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    Chemtob, D; Zenilman, J M; Gandacu, D

    2012-09-01

    The rising trend of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported in several western countries has also affected Israel. To review epidemiological trends and to address additional issues needed for a wider overview on STIs in Israel, we analysed notified data on infectious syphilis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis and HIV/AIDS during 1998-2007, by age groups, and each available publication on STIs in Israel. The trend of each disease had a unique pattern, probably influenced by different screening procedures, case definition, mix of populations and better access to care for high-risk populations. Higher rates were found among patients aged 25-34 years. Rates found in different peak years for gonorrhoea, HIV, chlamydia and infectious syphilis reached 43.6, 18.9, 10.8 and 8.1 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. We compare trends to those of countries from World Health Organization (WHO) European Region and discuss interventions for subpopulations on which additional data are needed for evidence-based policy-making. Incidence rates of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and HIV/AIDS are still low in Israel. We propose additional components needed for a more comprehensive evidence-based policy on STIs.

  20. Medicine Sellers for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Effect of a Quasi-Experimental Training Intervention in Bangladesh.

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    Alam, Nazmul; Alam, Anadil; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental pre-post design to test whether short training can improve medicine sellers' (MSs) practices and skills for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh. The training included lectures, printed materials, and identification of referral sites. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to determine the effects of intervention on key primary and secondary outcomes. Advice given by the MSs in intervention group for partner treatment and condoms use increased significantly by 11% and 9%, respectively, after adjusting for baseline differences in education, religion, age, duration of training, and study site. Referral of clients to qualified service providers increased by 5% in the intervention group compared to the comparison group, but this change was not found to be statistically significant. Significantly higher proportion of MSs in the intervention group recognized the recommended medications as per the national syndromic management guidelines in Bangladesh for treatment of urethral discharge and genital ulcer symptoms. Short training intervention was found to be effective in improving MSs' practice of promoting condom use and partner treatment to the clients. We anticipate the need for broad based training programs of MSs to improve their skills for the prevention and control of STI/HIV in Bangladesh.

  1. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

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    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Male circumcision: a globally relevant but under-utilized method for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

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    Tobian, Aaron A R; Kacker, Seema; Quinn, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Randomized trials have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces heterosexual acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital ulcer disease among men, and it reduces HPV, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis among female partners. The pathophysiology behind these effects is multifactorial, relying on anatomic and cellular changes. MC is cost effective and potentially cost saving in both the United States and Africa. The World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS proposed reaching 80% MC coverage in HIV endemic countries, but current rates fall far behind targets. Barriers to scale-up include supply-side and demand-side challenges. In the United States, neonatal MC rates are decreasing, but the American Academy of Pediatrics now recognizes the medical benefits of MC and supports insurance coverage. Although MC is a globally valuable tool to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is underutilized. Further research is needed to address barriers to MC uptake.

  3. Sexually transmitted infections among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China.Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36-1.28% for HIV, 2.91% (2.17-3.89% for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46-3.17% for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94-12.72% for chlamydia.The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients' sexual risk and disease prevalence in China's STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.

  4. Sexually transmitted infections among transgender people and men who have sex with men in Port Vila, Vanuatu

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    Vanessa Veronese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite high sexually transmitted infection (STI prevalence in the Pacific, there are limited data on STIs and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG. In 2011, an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey recruited self-identified MSM and TG in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Descriptive findings were stratified by sexuality. Among 28 (55% MSM and 23 (45% TG, recent anal sex with male partners was more common among MSM (94% vs 71%; P < 0.1, including with casual (47% vs 35%, regular (59% vs 29% and paying partners (28% vs 12%. MSM more commonly reported lifetime (P < 0.01 and recent sex with female partners (P < 0.01. Reported condom use with any partner type was low. More MSM (35% than TG (24% were diagnosed with an STI; previous treatment-seeking behaviour when symptomatic was lower among TG (P < 0.1. Tailored strategies acknowledging differences between MSM and TG are required to reduce STI vulnerability in Vanuatu.

  5. Successful research recruitment strategies in a study focused on abused rural women at risk for sexually transmitted infections.

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    Sutherland, Melissa A; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the successful recruitment methods of a study focused on a pilot intervention for rural women who were experiencing abuse and who also were at risk for sexually transmitted infections. Initial recruitment into the study was the primary challenge, and strategies to overcome recruitment difficulties are discussed. Eighty-seven women were screened, and 20 women were recruited from clinics into a 1-group pretest/posttest pilot study. The main inclusion criterion for the intervention was a past-year history of intimate partner violence (IPV). After 1 month of recruitment, only 10 women agreed to be screened for IPV. Several creative strategies were utilized in the revision of the recruitment plan, with the most successful being knitting by the research staff and incentives to participants for screening. An additional 77 women agreed to be screened for study participation within 3 months of implementing the recruitment changes. Personal involvement by the research staff and a nonthreatening and welcoming environment were necessary components for timely recruitment. Researcher flexibility and reevaluation allowed for changes to the recruitment plan that ultimately proved successful. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

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    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples.

  7. Prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents: the importance of a socio-ecological perspective--a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, R J; Salazar, L F; Crosby, R A; Rosenthal, S L

    2005-09-01

    The sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic among adolescents in the USA is inextricably tied to individual, psychosocial and cultural phenomena. Reconceptualizing the epidemic within an expanded socio-ecological framework may provide an opportunity to better confront its challenges. In this article, we use a socio-ecological framework to identify determinants of adolescents' sexual risk and protective behaviours as well as antecedents of their STI acquisition. The goal is to provide a synthesis of several discrete categories of research. Subsequently, we propose an integrated strategy that addresses the STI epidemic among adolescents by promoting a socio-ecological perspective in both basic research and intervention design. This approach may expand the knowledge base and facilitate the development of a broader array of intervention strategies, such as community-level interventions, policy initiatives, institutionally based programmes, and macro-level societal changes. Although there are inherent challenges associated with such an approach, the end result may have reciprocal and reinforcing effects designed to enhance the adoption and maintenance of STI-preventive practices among adolescents, and further reduce the rate of STIs.

  8. The consequences of juvenile detention reform for mental health and sexually transmitted infection screening among detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Gudonis, Lauren C; Jarjoura, G Roger; Blythe, Margaret J; Tong, Yan; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Rosenman, Marc B

    2012-04-01

    To understand how diversion of low-risk youth from juvenile detention affected screening practices for detained youth. In a 22-month cross-sectional study of 2,532 detainees (age, 13-18 years), mental health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening data were compared before and after the beginning of diversion efforts through implementation of a Risk Assessment Instrument (RAI). Detention diversion resulted in a 30% census reduction. In a logistic regression, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10 for a 1-year increase; confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.17), Hispanic versus white race/ethnicity (OR = .53; CI: .35, .82), and less severe crime (OR = .90 per 1 point; CI: .89, .91) predicted reduced likelihood of detention. Mental health and STI screening increased significantly after implementation of the RAI. Additionally, the rate of positive STI tests increased among detained males (9% pre-RAI to 14% after implementation of the RAI, p = .01). However, implementation of the RAI did not result in a significant increase in the number of positive mental health screens. Universal mental health and STI screening are increasingly common public health practices in detention centers. The results of this study indicate that juvenile justice diversion programming affects public health screening rates among detained youth in our population. Future study of the possible unintended consequences of criminal justice initiatives on public health outcomes is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

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    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  10. Bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection among women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic: a longitudinal analysis of possible causal links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio; Warner, Lee; Fleenor, Michael E; Hook, Edward W; Brill, Ilene; Weaver, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, are not well understood. Furthermore, evidence regarding the sexual transmission of BV is equivocal. We assessed associations between incident BV and incidences of gonorrhea and/or chlamydial infection ("gonorrhea/chlamydia"), as well as similarities in associations for the two processes, among 645 female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Alabama followed prospectively for 6 months from 1995 to 1998. We identified predictors of both incident BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia and used bivariate logistic regression to determine whether these predictors differed. Participants completed 3188 monthly, follow-up visits. Several factors associated with incident BV involved sexual intercourse: young age (sexual behavior in the acquisition of BV and confirm that BV facilitates acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia and vice versa independently from other risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh.

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    Jade Benjamin-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest

  12. Infecciones de transmisión sexual: epidemiología y control Sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology and control

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    M. Díez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS comprenden un grupo de patologías, de etiología infecciosa diversa, en las que la transmisión sexual es relevante desde el punto de vista de salud pública. La carga de enfermedad que suponen las ITS globalmente se desconoce, ya que las infecciones asintomáticas son frecuentes, las técnicas diagnósticas no siempre están disponibles y la vigilancia epidemiológica es inexistente o muy deficiente en muchos países. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó que en 1999 se produjeron en el mundo 340 millones de casos nuevos de sífilis, gonorrea, clamidiasis y tricomoniasis. En la Unión Europea, al igual que en España, ITS como la gonococia o la sífilis muestran en los últimos años una tendencia ascendente. La co-infección entre distintas ITS es muy frecuente. Por ello, en cualquier persona que presente una de ellas debe descartase la presencia de otras, en particular la infección por VIH y la infección por clamidia; esta última es la ITS más común en Europa y frecuentemente es asintomática. La prevención y el control de las ITS se basa en la educación sanitaria, el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz, la detección de las infecciones asintomáticas, el estudio de los contactos y la inmunización cuando se dispone de vacuna.Sexually transmitted infections (STI include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and

  13. Family-Based HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Reduction for Drug-Involved Young Offenders: 42-Month Outcomes.

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    Rowe, Cynthia L; Alberga, Linda; Dakof, Gayle A; Henderson, Craig E; Ungaro, Rocio; Liddle, Howard A

    2016-06-01

    This study tested a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention approach integrated within an empirically supported treatment for drug-involved young offenders, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). A randomized, controlled, two-site community-based trial was conducted with 154 youth and their parents. Drug-involved adolescents were recruited in detention, randomly assigned to either MDFT or Enhanced Services as Usual (ESAU), and assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24, 36, and 42-month follow-ups. Youth in both conditions received structured HIV/STI prevention in detention and those in MDFT also received family-based HIV/STI prevention as part of ongoing treatment following detention release. Youth in both conditions and sites significantly reduced rates of unprotected sex acts and STI incidence from intake to 9 months. They remained below baseline levels of STI incidence (10%) over the 42-month follow-up period. At Site A, adolescents who were sexually active at intake and received MDFT showed greater reduction in overall frequency of sexual acts and number of unprotected sexual acts than youth in ESAU between intake and 9-month follow-ups. These intervention differences were evident through the 42-month follow-up. Intervention effects were not found for STI incidence or unprotected sex acts at Site B. Intensive group-based and family intervention in detention and following release may reduce sexual risk among substance-involved young offenders, and a family-based approach may enhance effects among those at highest risk. Site differences in intervention effects, study limitations, clinical implications, and future research directions are discussed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

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    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  15. Investments in sexually transmitted infection research, 1997–2013: a systematic analysis of funding awarded to UK institutions

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    Michael G Head

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the first study that analyses public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for research related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We systematically searched award data from the major funders for information on all infectious disease research funding awarded in 1997–2013. The STI–related projects were identified and categorised by pathogen, disease and type of science along the research pipeline from preclinical to translational research. We identified 7393 infection–related awards with total investment of GBP 3.5 billion. Of these, 1238 awards (16.7% covering funding of GBP 719.1 million (20.5% were for STI research. HIV as an STI received GBP 465 million across 719 studies; non–HIV STIs received GBP 139 million across 378 studies. The Medical Research Council provided greatest investment (GBP 193 million for HIV, GBP 45 million for non–HIV STIs. Preclinical awards totalled GBP 233 million (37.1%, whilst translational research received GBP 286 million (39.7%. Substantial proportions of HIV investment addressed global health research (GBP 265 million, vaccinology (GBP 110 million and therapeutics (GBP 202 million. For other STIs, investments focused on diagnostics (GBP 45 million and global health (GBP 27 million. Human Papilloma Virus research received GBP 58 million and chlamydia GBP 24 million. Funding for non–HIV STIs has declined in the three most recent years of this data set. Conclusions The investment for HIV research awarded to UK institutions correlates with the high global burden, but other STIs are relatively neglected, including gonorrhoea and syphilis. Future STI funding should be better aligned with burden while addressing the emerging risk of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and outbreaks of other pathogens.

  16. Digital divide: variation in internet and cellular phone use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali

    2010-01-01

    We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations.

  17. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  18. Psychosocial pathways to sexually transmitted infection risk among youth transitioning out of foster care: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.

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    Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-10-01

    To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of an individual, online e-learning program about sexually transmitted infections: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos-Bonnie, Linda H A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Te Pas, Ellen; Kijser, Michael A; van Dijk, Nynke

    2017-04-24

    Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate if the individual and online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the Commitment-to-Change (CtC)-method, is able to improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of Dutch General Practitioners (GPs), concerning the STI-consultation. This e-learning program is an individual, accredited, online CME-program, which is freely available for all GPs and GP-trainees in the Netherlands. In total 2192 participants completed the questionnaire before completing the e-learning program and 249 participants completed the follow-up questionnaire after completing the e-learning program. The effect of the program on their knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning the STI-consultation was evaluated. In total 193 participants formulated 601 learning points that matched the learning objectives of the program. The knowledge and attitude of the participants improved, which persisted up to two years after completing the program. Another 179 participants formulated a total of 261 intended changes concerning the sexual history taking, additional investigation and treatment of STI, 97.2% of these changes was partially or fully implemented in daily practice. Also, 114 participants formulated a total of 180 "unintended" changes in daily practice. These changes concerned the attitude of participants towards STI and the working conditions concerning the STI-consultation. The individual, online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the CtC-method, has a small but lasting, positive effect on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of GPs concerning the STI-consultation.

  20. School-based sex education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Phillips-Howard, P; Hunter, P R

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the effectiveness of school-based sexual education on risky sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition in adulthood. Online survey of sexual attitudes and behaviours. Students at a British university were surveyed regarding where they learnt most about sex at 14 years of age, how easy they found talking about sexual issues with their parents and age at first intercourse. The effects of these factors were modelled on risk of recent unprotected intercourse and self-reported STIs in adulthood. Seventy-eight of 711 (11%) students reported unprotected intercourse in the 4 weeks before the survey, and 44 (6.2%) students had ever been diagnosed with an STI. Both age at first intercourse (risk reduced by 11% per year of delayed intercourse, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-19%) and learning about sex from lessons at school (66% reduction in risk compared with learning from one's mother, 95% CI 5-88%) were associated with reductions in risk of unprotected intercourse. Factors associated with fewer STIs were age at first intercourse (17% reduction per year of delayed intercourse, 95% CI 5-28%); and learning about sex from lessons at school (85% reduction, 95% CI 32-97%), from friends of the same age (54% reduction, CI 7-77%) and from first boy/girlfriend (85% reduction, 95% CI 35-97%) compared with learning from one's mother. School-based sexual education is effective at reducing the risk of unprotected intercourse and STIs in early adulthood. Influence from friends in adolescence may also have a positive effect on the risk of STIs in later life. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus counseling services received by teen males, 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Bell, David L; Lindberg, Laura D; Takruri, Adel

    2010-06-01

    To examine whether improvements have been made in the delivery of sexually transmitted infection and/or human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV) counseling services to teen males. Analysis was performed using the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males (N = 1,729, response rate = 75%) and the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (N = 1,121, response rate = 78%), which are two nationally representative surveys of 15-19-year-old males. Main outcome measure included discussion about STIs/HIV with a doctor/nurse. Weighted bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses examined the association of outcome measures and survey year among males engaging in various types of sexual behaviors (e.g., varying partner numbers, higher risk sex) unadjusted and adjusted for sociodemographic and health care access factors. In 2002, STI/HIV counseling receipt in the past year was reported by one-third of males who reported three or more female partners, anal sex with female partners, or oral/anal sex with male partners. Only 26% of males reporting high-risk sex (e.g., sex with prostitute, person with HIV or often/always high with sex) reported STI/HIV counseling receipt. Overall, no improvements were found between 1995 and 2002 in STI/HIV counseling, even after controlling for sociodemographic and health care access factors. Mechanisms are needed to raise the importance of STI/HIV counseling services among sexually active male teens as well as to improve health care providers' delivery of these services. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G

    2004-05-01

    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of condom distribution programmes for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Susannah; Tosh, Jon; Pennington, Rebekah; Rawdin, Andrew; Squires, Hazel; Romero, Carmen; Fischer, Alastair; Chilcott, James

    2017-09-01

    Prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence in England is a high priority, particularly among young people, men who have sex with men (MSM) and black ethnic minorities. An economic evaluation of condom distribution programmes (CDPs) to reduce STI transmission is presented. An economic model using a Bernoulli process estimated the number of people acquiring an STI as a function of its prevalence, transmission rate, condom use, condom failure rate and number of sexual contacts. Models were developed for young people (13-24 years), black ethnic minorities, MSM and the general English population. Effectiveness evidence came from a recent systematic review. For young people, a CDP was modelled (relative risk for condom use=1.23), along with an exploratory analysis of the impact on unintended pregnancies. For other populations, threshold analyses were used to identify the combination of costs and effect size required to make a programme cost-effective. The base case predicted that CDP for all young people in England could avert 5123 STI cases per annum, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £17 411. In addition, it could avert 118 pregnancies and 82 abortions and save £333 000 in associated costs. Schemes for black ethnic minorities and MSM could also be cost-effective even with relatively high costs and small effect sizes. CDPs for young people are likely to be cost-effective or cost-saving. CDPs for other high-risk populations may also be cost-effective if they can increase condom use, since high HIV prevalence in these groups imposes a considerable health and cost burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Babu Kokku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI services to female sex workers (FSWs in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. Results: The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. Interpretation & conclusions: The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas.

  5. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviors in the U.S. Military: how sex influences risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2014-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are prevalent in the U.S. military. However, there are limited data on risk-factor differences between sexes. We used data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among active duty military personnel to identify risk factors for self-reported STIs within the past 12 months and multiple sexual partners among sexually active unmarried service members. There were 10,250 active duty personnel, mostly white (59.3%) aged 21 to 25 years (42.6%). The prevalence of any reported STI in the past 12 months was 4.2% for men and 6.9% for women. One-fourth of men and 9.3% of women reported 5 or more sexual partners in the past 12 months. Binge drinking, illicit substance use, and unwanted sexual contact were associated with increased report of sexual partners among both sexes. Family/personal-life stress and psychological distress influenced number of partnerships more strongly for women than for men (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.58, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.18-2.12 and AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.14-1.76, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that the report of multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with the report of an STI among men (AOR, 5.87 [95% CI, 3.70-9.31], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.59-3.49], for 2-4 partners) and women (AOR, 4.78 [95% CI, 2.12-10.80], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.30-4.25], for 2-4 partners). Factors associated with the report of increasing sexual partnerships and report of an STI differed by sex. Sex-specific intervention strategies may be most effective in mitigating the factors that influence risky sexual behaviors among military personnel.

  6. Remoteness influences access to sexual partners and drives patterns of viral sexually transmitted infection prevalence among nomadic pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Ashley; Holland Jones, James

    2018-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprise a significant portion of the infectious-disease burden among rural people in the Global South. Particular characteristics of ruralness-low-density settlements and poor infrastructure-make healthcare provision difficult, and remoteness, typically a characteristic of ruralness, often compounds the difficultly. Remoteness may also accelerate STI transmission, particularly that of viral STIs, through formation of small, highly connected sexual networks through which pathogens can spread rapidly, especially when partner concurrency is broadly accepted. Herein, we explored the effect of remoteness on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) epidemiology among semi-nomadic pastoralists in northwestern (Kaokoveld) Namibia, where, in 2009 we collected HSV-2-specific antibody status, demographic, sexual network, and travel data from 446 subjects (women = 213, men = 233) in a cross-sectional study design. HSV-2 prevalence was high overall in Kaokoveld (>35%), but was heterogeneously distributed across locally defined residential regions: some regions had significantly higher HSV-2 prevalence (39-48%) than others (21-33%). Using log-linear models, we asked the following questions: 1) Are sexual contacts among people in high HSV-2-prevalence regions more likely to be homophilous (i.e., from the same region) than those among people from low-prevalence regions? 2) Are high-prevalence regions more "functionally" remote, in that people from those regions are more likely to travel within their own region than outside, compared to people from other regions? We found that high-prevalence regions were more sexually homophilous than low-prevalence regions and that those regions also had higher rates of within-region travel than the other regions. These findings indicate that remoteness can create contact structures for accelerated STI transmission among people who are already disproportionately vulnerable to consequences of untreated STIs.

  7. The impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in african sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verwijs, Marijn C; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Verhelst, Rita; Schuren, Frank H; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2015-03-01

    The observed association between Depo-Provera injectable use and increased HIV acquisition may be caused by hormone-induced increased susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or changes in the cervicovaginal microbiota (VMB), accompanied by genital immune activation and/or mucosal remodeling. Rwandan female sex workers (n = 800) were interviewed about contraceptive use and sexual behavior and were tested for STIs, bacterial vaginosis by Nugent score and pregnancy, at baseline. A subset of 397 HIV-negative, nonpregnant women were interviewed and tested again at regular intervals for 2 years. The VMB of a subset of 174 women was characterized by phylogenetic microarray. Outcomes of STI and VMB were compared between women with hormonal exposures (reporting oral contraceptive or injectable use, or testing positive for pregnancy) and controls (not reporting hormonal contraception and not pregnant). Oral contraceptive use was associated with increased human papillomavirus prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.10; 1.21-7.94) and Chlamydia trachomatis incidence (aOR, 6.13; 1.58-23.80), injectable use with increased herpes simplex virus-2 prevalence (aOR, 2.13; 1.26-3.59) and pregnancy with lower HIV prevalence (aOR, 0.45; 0.22-0.92) but higher candidiasis incidence (aOR, 2.14; 1.12-4.09). Hormonal status was not associated with Nugent score category or phylogenetic VMB clustering, but oral contraceptive users had lower semiquantitative vaginal abundance of Prevotella, Sneathia/Leptotrichia amnionii, and Mycoplasma species. Oral contraceptive and injectable use were associated with several STIs but not with VMB composition. The increased herpes simplex virus-2 prevalence among injectable users might explain the potentially higher HIV risk in these women, but more research is needed to confirm these results and elucidate biological mechanisms.

  8. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Papua New Guinea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Andrew; Page, Andrew; Dias, Shannon; Siba, Peter; Lupiwa, Tony; Law, Greg; Millan, John; Wilson, David P; Murray, John M; Toole, Michael; Kaldor, John M

    2010-12-23

    The potential for an expanded HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea (PNG) demands an effective, evidence-based and locally-appropriate national response. As sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be important co-factors in HIV transmission nationally, it is timely to conduct a systematic review of STI prevalences to inform national policy on sexual health and HIV/STI prevention. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of HIV and STI prevalences in PNG, reported in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications for the period 1950-2010. Prevalence estimates were stratified by study site (community or clinic-based), geographic area and socio-demographic characteristics. The search strategy identified 105 reports, of which 25 studies (10 community-based; 10 clinic-based; and 5 among self-identified female sex workers) reported STI prevalences and were included in the systematic review. High prevalences of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas were reported in all settings, particularly among female sex workers, where pooled estimates of 26.1%, 33.6%, 33.1% and 39.3% respectively were observed. Pooled HIV prevalence in community-based studies was 1.8% (95% CI:1.2-2.4) in men; 2.6% (95% CI:1.7-3.5) in women; and 11.8% (95% CI:5.8-17.7) among female sex workers. The epidemiology of STIs and HIV in PNG shows considerable heterogeneity by geographical setting and sexual risk group. Prevalences from community-based studies in PNG were higher than in many other countries in the Asia-Pacific. A renewed focus on national STI/HIV surveillance priorities and systems for routine and periodic data collection will be essential to building effective culturally-relevant behavioural and biomedical STI/HIV prevention programs in PNG.

  9. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Papua New Guinea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Vallely

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for an expanded HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea (PNG demands an effective, evidence-based and locally-appropriate national response. As sexually transmitted infections (STIs may be important co-factors in HIV transmission nationally, it is timely to conduct a systematic review of STI prevalences to inform national policy on sexual health and HIV/STI prevention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of HIV and STI prevalences in PNG, reported in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications for the period 1950-2010. Prevalence estimates were stratified by study site (community or clinic-based, geographic area and socio-demographic characteristics. The search strategy identified 105 reports, of which 25 studies (10 community-based; 10 clinic-based; and 5 among self-identified female sex workers reported STI prevalences and were included in the systematic review. High prevalences of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas were reported in all settings, particularly among female sex workers, where pooled estimates of 26.1%, 33.6%, 33.1% and 39.3% respectively were observed. Pooled HIV prevalence in community-based studies was 1.8% (95% CI:1.2-2.4 in men; 2.6% (95% CI:1.7-3.5 in women; and 11.8% (95% CI:5.8-17.7 among female sex workers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The epidemiology of STIs and HIV in PNG shows considerable heterogeneity by geographical setting and sexual risk group. Prevalences from community-based studies in PNG were higher than in many other countries in the Asia-Pacific. A renewed focus on national STI/HIV surveillance priorities and systems for routine and periodic data collection will be essential to building effective culturally-relevant behavioural and biomedical STI/HIV prevention programs in PNG.

  10. Brief sexuality communication--a behavioural intervention to advance sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B; Toskin, I; Kulier, R; Allen, T; Hawkes, S

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the last decade substantial research has been undertaken to develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions for sexual health promotion. Primary care could provide an opportunistic entry for brief sexual health communication. We conducted a systematic review to explore opportunistic sexual and reproductive health services for sexual health communication delivered at primary health care level. We searched for studies on PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Jstor, Scopus/Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EBSCO, CINAHL, PsychoInfo, and Web of Knowledge. Both published and unpublished articles were reviewed. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials were included. Participants of all ages, from adolescence onwards were included. Brief (10-60 minutes) interventions including some aspect of communication on sexual health issues were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised form. Interventions differed from each other, hence meta-analysis was not performed, and results are presented individually. A total of 247 articles were selected for full-text evaluation, 31 of which were included. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV were less often reported in the intervention group compared with the control group. Condom use was higher in most studies in the intervention group. Numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse were lower in the intervention groups. There is evidence that brief counselling interventions have some effect in the reduction and prevention of STIs/HIV. Some questions could not be answered, such as the effect over time and in different settings and population groups. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Mombasa, Kenya: Feasibility, Prevalence, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masese, Linnet N; Wanje, George; Kabare, Emmanuel; Budambula, Valentine; Mutuku, Francis; Omoni, Grace; Baghazal, Anisa; Richardson, Barbra A; McClelland, R Scott

    2017-06-28

    As adolescents and young women become sexually active, they are at risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed feasibility and acceptability of STI screening among 15- to 24-year-old women in Mombasa, Kenya. After sensitization activities, participants were recruited from 3 high schools and 1 university. Study staff conducted informational sessions. Students interested in participating were given consent forms to take home, and invited to visit our clinic for STI screening. During clinic visits, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided a urine specimen for STI testing using a nucleic acid amplification test. Between August 2014 and March 2015, 463 high school and 165 university students collected consent forms. Of these, 293 (63%) from high schools versus 158 (95%) from university attended clinic for STI screening (P < 0.001). Of the 150 (33%) who reported any history of insertive vaginal sex, 78 (52.0%) reported condom use at the last sex act, 31 (20.7%) reported using modern nonbarrier contraceptive methods, and 37 (24.7%) reported not using any contraception at the last sex act. Twenty-six (5.8%) participants were diagnosed with STIs (7 [1.6%] Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 16 [3.6%] Chlamydia trachomatis, 3 [0.7%] Trichomonas vaginalis). In multivariable analyses, reporting receptive vaginal sex without a condom was associated with having a laboratory confirmed STI (odds ratio, 6.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-22.28). These findings support the need for reproductive health interventions to reduce the risk of STIs in a population of adolescent girls and young women in East Africa.

  12. Patterns of HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing among men who have sex with men couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Petroll, Andrew E

    2012-11-01

    Most men who have sex with men (MSM) within the United States acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while in a same-sex relationship. Few studies have examined HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing rates among MSM couples. Interestingly, the patterns that MSM test for HIV while in their relationships remain largely unknown. The current study helps fill this gap in knowledge by assessing HIV testing patterns and HIV and STI testing rates from a large convenience sample of Internet-using MSM couples. The current study used a cross-sectional study design to collect dyadic data from 361 MSM couples who lived throughout the United States. A novel recruitment strategy that included placing paid targeted advertisements on Facebook enrolled both men in the couple to independently complete the confidential electronic survey. Nearly half of the HIV-negative men indicated either not having been tested for HIV since their relationship started or only testing if they believed they were at risk. Few men reported testing every 3 to 4 months. HIV/STI testing rates varied among the sample of couples. Few men reported having been diagnosed with a recent STI. Testing patterns and rates were mostly similar, irrespective of whether unprotected anal intercourse was practiced within and/or outside the relationship. HIV testing and prevention services must target men who are at risk for acquiring HIV within MSM couples. To help accomplish this goal, additional research is needed to examine the specific barriers and facilitators to HIV and STI testing among MSM in couples.

  13. Perceived risk of reinfection among individuals treated for sexually transmitted infections in Northern Ethiopia: implication for use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadik, Mache; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Terefe, Wondwossen

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of reinfection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highly dependent on the level of risk perception and the subsequent adoption of preventive behaviors. While perceived risk is assumed to be key to adoption of preventive measures, the evidence regarding the predictors of perceived risk to STI reinfection are limited. This paper is based on a cross sectional facility based survey conducted in North Ethiopia from January to June; 2015. Patients attending public health facilities for STI care responded to a structured questionnaire at clinic exist. Ordinal logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with risk perception. Of the 1082 STI patients who participated in the study, 843(77.91%) indicated a high perceived risk of STI reinfection. The major factor associated with low perceived risk of reinfection was willingness to notify partner; the odds of being willing to notify partner was greater among those who perceived low risk (AOR=3.01, 95% CI: 2.13-4.25). In addition, low perceived risk was associated with female index cases (AOR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.07-2.08), those who had high school education and above (AOR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.07-2.65), those aged 25 years and above (AOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.09-2.12), those who had a single partner (AOR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.20-2.74), and those who had low perceived stigma (AOR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.04-1.95). The perceived risk of STI reinfection is high and strongly associated with willing to notify partner. Efforts to prevent STI reinfection need to consider interventions that enhance partner notification.

  14. The costs of a sexually transmitted infection outreach and treatment programme targeting most at risk youth in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymova, Nisso; Johns, Benjamin; Sharipova, Benusrat

    2009-11-03

    Targeted outreach, counselling, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most cost-effective interventions aimed at ameliorating the burden of HIV/STIs. Since many new HIV infections occur in people under the age of 25, youth, and especially most at risk adolescents (MARA), need to be able to access HIV/STI services. Starting in 2006, a programme targeting MARA including outreach, confidential and voluntary counselling and testing, and STI diagnosis and treatment was piloted in three cities in Tajikistan. This study uses data from these pilot sites to estimate the costs of a national programme. Cost data were collected from the three pilot sites. Then, the target population and the number of patients receiving specific types of services are calculated for other areas. The unit costs from the pilot sites are multiplied by usage rates to determine the total costs of a national programme. Scenarios were developed to reflect data uncertainty. The government's ability to finance the programme was estimated using Ministry of Health budget data. Further analyses were done for one of the pilot cities where more detailed data were available. In total, costs were projected for eight programme sites, covering an estimated 8,020 MARA. Operational and variable cost for the programme are projected to be US$ 119,159 (range US$ 104,953 to 151,524) per year. Including annual equivalent cost for capital and start-up items raises this to US$ 137,082 (range: US$ 123,022 to 169,597) per year. The analyses of potential sources of financing for the programme remain inconclusive, but it may take multiple sources of financing to fund the programme. While the cost-effectiveness of similar programmes have been previously assessed using modelled data, more work needs to be done to assess the costs of new programmes in relation to financial resources available. Full costing should consider cost-savings as well as expenditures. If feasible, the impact of the

  15. The costs of a sexually transmitted infection outreach and treatment programme targeting most at risk youth in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted outreach, counselling, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs are among the most cost-effective interventions aimed at ameliorating the burden of HIV/STIs. Since many new HIV infections occur in people under the age of 25, youth, and especially most at risk adolescents (MARA, need to be able to access HIV/STI services. Starting in 2006, a programme targeting MARA including outreach, confidential and voluntary counselling and testing, and STI diagnosis and treatment was piloted in three cities in Tajikistan. This study uses data from these pilot sites to estimate the costs of a national programme. Methods Cost data were collected from the three pilot sites. Then, the target population and the number of patients receiving specific types of services are calculated for other areas. The unit costs from the pilot sites are multiplied by usage rates to determine the total costs of a national programme. Scenarios were developed to reflect data uncertainty. The government's ability to finance the programme was estimated using Ministry of Health budget data. Further analyses were done for one of the pilot cities where more detailed data were available. Results In total, costs were projected for eight programme sites, covering an estimated 8,020 MARA. Operational and variable cost for the programme are projected to be US$ 119,159 (range US$ 104,953 to 151,524 per year. Including annual equivalent cost for capital and start-up items raises this to US$ 137,082 (range: US$ 123,022 to 169,597 per year. The analyses of potential sources of financing for the programme remain inconclusive, but it may take multiple sources of financing to fund the programme. Conclusion While the cost-effectiveness of similar programmes have been previously assessed using modelled data, more work needs to be done to assess the costs of new programmes in relation to financial resources available. Full costing should consider cost

  16. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Hensel, Devon J.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Reilly, Meredith L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household s