Sample records for vertical zone samples

  1. Biogenic nitric oxide emission of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China. (United States)

    Yu, Junbao; Meixner, Franz X; Sun, Weidong; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Xia, Chuanhai; Xie, Wenjun


    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important component in nitrogen biogeochemical cycling produced through biological processes of nitrification and denitrification in soils, but the production and the consumption processes of NO in temperate mountain soil are less understood. Through laboratory experiments focusing on NO biogenic emissions from six kinds of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones, that is, coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest (CBF), fir forest (FF), spruce forest (SF), Erman's birch forest (EBF), alpine tundra (AT), and volcanic ash (VA), in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China, we found that the optimum water-filled pore space (WFPS) for NO production varies between 22.5% and 35% for a range of mountain soils. The optimum soil moisture for the maximum NO emission for a certain soil type, however, was constant and independent of soil temperature. The NO emission potential for forest soils was about 7-50-fold higher than tundra soil and volcanic ash, indicating that it is strongly influenced by nutrient contents in soils. On the basis of laboratory results and field monitoring data, the average NO fluxes from these mountain soils were estimated to be 0.14-29.56 ng N m(-2) s(-1) for an entire plant growth period. NO emissions mainly occur in wet season for CBF and FF, but in dry season for other soil types.

  2. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joy Choudhury


    Sep 6, 2017 ... direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied ... Vertical electrical sounding; groundwater; aquifer zones; borehole litholog; Niamey. 1. Introduction. Niger is a ..... Telford M, Geldart L P, Sheriff R E and Keys D A 1976. Applied ...

  3. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The delineation of potential aquifer zones is an important aspect for groundwater prospecting. Hence, the direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting that was used in the capital city, Niamey ...

  4. Vertical Electrical Sounding to delineate the potential Aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Vertical Electrical Sounding to delineate the potential Aquifer zones for drinking water in. Niamey city, Niger, Africa. Joy Choudhury*, LohithKumar K, E. Nagaiah, S Sonkamble, Shakeel Ahmed, Venay Kumar. Corresponding author email- CSIR - National Geophysical Research Institute,. Uppal Road ...

  5. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders...under the ice and in the marginal ice zone. The project specific goals are to develop biogeochemical and optical proxies for glider optics; to use the...water, in the marginal ice zone, and under the ice; to use glider optical measurements to compute fields of rates of photosynthetic carbon fixation

  6. Vertical hydrochemical profiles in the unsaturated zone of louga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable cation (EC) experiments, together with chemical analysis of the interstitial water carried out through the entire unsaturated zone profile have revealed that base exchange ... Major cations and silicium are released to the interstitial water above the calibrated rainwater

  7. simulation of vertical water flow through vadose zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hydrological cycle because it holds only a minute fraction of the earth's fresh water as investigated by. [1]. Vadose ... within this zone has applications in fields of hydrology, agriculture and soil engineering [2] and is critical to ... The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and.

  8. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter


    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both...... horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening......-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure...

  9. Numerical modeling of the productivity of vertical to shallowly dipping fractured zones in crystalline rocks (United States)

    Leray, S.; de Dreuzy, J.-R.; Bour, O.; Bresciani, E.


    SummaryGroundwater resources in crystalline rock are typically associated with the weathered zone and regional sub-vertical faults that are well connected to the surface. However, some sub-horizontal and shallowly dipping fractured zones can also be highly-productive aquifers. In this paper, numerical simulations of a conceptual hydrogeological model show that the flow to such strongly transmissive fractured zones is controlled by their transmissivity or by their deepening structure. While leakage through the overlying rock units is generally the limiting factor, recharge always occurs at least close to the outcrop of the fractured zone where the overlying rock is thinner and guarantees the availability of some groundwater. At small dip angles, recharge extends spatially and the flow within the fractured zone may even become the limiting factor when the hydraulic conductivity of the overlying rock is not less than two orders of magnitude smaller than the fractured zone transmissivity. This is precisely the case of the Plœmeur aquifer (Brittany, France) located in a crystalline rock geologic setting, where groundwater in a shallowly dipping fractured zone is used as the source of water supply for a nearby city of 20,000 people. Simulation results show that the fractured zones may represent potential aquifers under a large variety of hydrogeological conditions. Aquifers in shallowly dipping structures differ strongly from those located in regional sub-vertical fault zones in terms of flow patterns, and thus supposedly in terms of management of the groundwater resource. They are more local than regional in scale, and consequently do not require regional fracture connectivity. The leakage through the overlying rock unit enhances water quality. Finally, we argue that the potential widespread occurrence of these alternative and possibly less accessible resources should promote the development of appropriate identification methods.

  10. Vertical distribution of fish larvae in the Canaries-African coastal transition zone, in summer


    J. M. Rodríguez; Hernández León, Santiago; Barton, Eric D


    This study reports the vertical distribution of fish larvae during the 1999 summer upwelling season in the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone (the Canaries-ACTZ). The transition between the African coastal upwelling and the typical subtropical offshore conditions is a region of intense mesoscale activity that supports a larval fish population dominated by African neritic species. During the study, the thermal stratification extended almost to the surface everywhere, and the surface mixe...

  11. Influence of atmospheric parameters on vertical profiles and horizontal transport of aerosols generated in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Piazzolac, J.


    The vertical and horizontal transport of aerosols generated over the surf zone is discussed. Experimental data were collected during the second campaign of the Surf Zone Aerosol Experiment that took place in Duck NC (USA) in November 2007. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method was used to


    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  13. Control of biologically active degradation zones by vertical heterogeneity: Applications in fractured media. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F.S.; Smith, R.W.; McKinley, J.; Fredrickson, J.; Onstott, T.C.; Reysenbach, A.L.


    'The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between of biologically active contaminant degradation zones in a fractured, subsurface medium and vertical geological heterogeneities. The research is being performed on samples collected from the Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) where a dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) plume is migrating in the basalts and interbed sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Research results are leading to an enhanced understanding of the constraints that the geochemical and hydrological environment place on the activities and distribution of TCE-degrading organisms in this fractured subsurface medium. Enhanced understanding allows better decisions to be made regarding the use of remedial technologies such as natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation at geologically complex waste sites. Through this research, investigations conducted by the Subsurface Science Program (SSP) at TAN are being extended in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of the coupled geomicrobial and hydrogeochemical processes that are necessary to predict the field-scale intrinsic degradation rates of TCE. The research objective is being accomplished by characterizing paired cores and water samples from boreholes located in differing geochemical and flow environments within the plume. Analysis of these samples will allow the determination of the spatial correlation and microbial characterization. The results presented in this report consist primarily of TAN-33 data as many of those analyses have been completed. Nearly all of the TAN-37 data has yet to be acquired. It should be noted that most of the cores were collected from zones that consist of relatively competent, massive basalt. This was because the authors were doubtful about the quality of samples obtained from rubble zones due to potential alteration by the drilling fluids. Thus

  14. Measuring vertical oxygen profiles in the hyporheic zone using planar optodes (United States)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.


    On of the key parameters, controlling biogeochemical reactions in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the distribution of oxygen. A reliable measurement of the vertical oxygen distribution is an important tool to understand the dynamic fluctuations of the aerobic zone within the HZ. With repeated measurements of continuous profiles, mixing of surface water and groundwater as well as the consumption of oxygen can be evaluated. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurements of vertical oxygen distribution in the riverbed using a planar optode. The luminescence based optode measurement enables a non invasive measurement without consumption of oxygen, no creation of preferential flow paths and only minimal disturbance of the flow field. Possible atmospheric contamination by pumping pore water into a vessel can be avoided and the readings are independent of flow velocity. A self manufactured planar optode is wrapped around an acrylic tube and installed in the riverbed. The measurement is performed by vertically moving a profiler-piston inside the acrylic tube. The piston holds a robust polymer optical fibre which emits a modulated light signal through the acrylic glass to the optode-foil and transmits the induced luminescence signal back to a commercially available trace oxygen meter. Temperature compensation is accomplished using a depth-oriented temperature probe nearby and processing the raw data within a Matlab script. Robust and unbiased oxygen profiles are obtained by averaging multiple consecutive measurements. To ensure a constant velocity of the profiler for replicating the exact measuring depths, an electric motor device is used. First results at our test site show a variable oxygen profile down to 40 cm depth which is strongly influenced by stream level and upwelling groundwater conditions. The measured oxygen profiles will serve as input parameter for a 3D solute transport and chemical reaction subsurface model of the HZ.

  15. Ten kilometer vertical Moho offset and shallow velocity contrast along the Denali fault zone from double-difference tomography, receiver functions, and fault zone head waves (United States)

    Allam, A. A.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Tape, C.; Ruppert, N.; Ross, Z. E.


    We examine the structure of the Denali fault system in the crust and upper mantle using double-difference tomography, P-wave receiver functions, and analysis (spatial distribution and moveout) of fault zone head waves. The three methods have complementary sensitivity; tomography is sensitive to 3D seismic velocity structure but smooths sharp boundaries, receiver functions are sensitive to (quasi) horizontal interfaces, and fault zone head waves are sensitive to (quasi) vertical interfaces. The results indicate that the Mohorovičić discontinuity is vertically offset by 10 to 15 km along the central 600 km of the Denali fault in the imaged region, with the northern side having shallower Moho depths around 30 km. An automated phase picker algorithm is used to identify 1400 events that generate fault zone head waves only at near-fault stations. At shorter hypocentral distances head waves are observed at stations on the northern side of the fault, while longer propagation distances and deeper events produce head waves on the southern side. These results suggest a reversal of the velocity contrast polarity with depth, which we confirm by computing average 1D velocity models separately north and south of the fault. Using teleseismic events with M ≥ 5.1, we obtain 31,400 P receiver functions and apply common-conversion-point stacking. The results are migrated to depth using the derived 3D tomography model. The imaged interfaces agree with the tomography model, showing a Moho offset along the central Denali fault and also the sub-parallel Hines Creek fault, a suture zone boundary 30 km to the north. To the east, this offset follows the Totschunda fault, which ruptured during the M7.9 2002 earthquake, rather than the Denali fault itself. The combined results suggest that the Denali fault zone separates two distinct crustal blocks, and that the Totschunda and Hines Creeks segments are important components of the fault and Cretaceous-aged suture zone structure.

  16. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.


    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  17. Vertical distribution, transport, and exchange of carbon in the northeast Pacific Ocean: evidence for multiple zones of biological activity (United States)

    Karl, David M.; Knauer, George A.


    A sediment trap experiment was conducted to investigate the production, decomposition, and transport of organic matter from 0 to 2000 m at a station 100 km northeast of Point Sur, California. Parameters measured included (1) rates of autotrophic production of carbon, (2) vertical depth distributions of total carbon, nitrogen, and living biomass, and (3) downward flux of organic carbon, nitrogen, ATP, RNA, and fecal pellets. Metabolic activity and microbial growth rates (RNA and DNA synthesis) were also estimated in situ, for both the 'suspended' (i.e., samples captured in standard water bottles) and 'sinking' (i.e., samples captured in sediment traps) particles. Daily depth-integrated rates of primary production averaged 564 mg C m -2, of which 10 to 15% was removed from the euphotic zone by sinking, assuming steady-state conditions. The profiles of suspended carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratios, and ATP conformed to previously published concentration-depth profiles from the region. The vertical flux profiles of organic matter, however, revealed two important features that were not evident in the suspended particulate matter profiles. First, there was an obvious mid-water depth increase (i.e., an increase in organic carbon and nitrogen flux with increasing depth) between 700 and 900 m, suggesting horizontal advection or in situ production. Similar flux profiles were also observed for ATP, RNA, and total fecal pellets. Second, the C:N ratios for the sediment trap materials collected at mid-ocean depths (600 to 1200 m) were low compared to values measured for 'suspended' particulate organic materials collected from comparable depths, supporting the in situ production hypothesis. An observed maximum in the rate of RNA and DNA synthesis for microorganisms associated with particles collected at 700 m confirmed that the flux anomalies were the result of in situ microbiological processes rather than horizontal advection. We hypothesize that the in situ activity measured at 700 m

  18. Modeling Spatio-vertical Distribution of Sulfate and Total Sulfide along the Mangrove Intertidal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasicha Chaikaew,


    Full Text Available Given the complexity and heterogeneity of mangrove conservation landscape, research gaps still exists to quantify sulfate and total sulfide and their relationships with sediment properties and environmental covariates. Thirty-two sediment samples in the top layers (0-10 cm were analyzed to assess biochemical properties, sulfate and total sulfide contents. With an average±SD value of 0.62±0.36 mg/g, the total sulfide content from the study site was high compared to the southern part of Thailand. The distribution of sulfate content exhibited high values in nearby land area which gradually reduced in seaward discharges/runoff, whereas high concentrations of total sulfide were highlighted around the center of the study site and vertically accumulated in the top few centimeters of soil and decreased with depth. The most pronounced factor affecting the amount of sulfate and total sulfide content was organic matter, while pH, organic carbon, potassium, salinity, and sediment-mangrove conditions correlated with sulfate and sulfide at different levels. Total sulfides concentration can be considered as indicator of over nutrient-rich sediments for assessing environmental quality perhaps the die-back of mangroves. Concerns about high total sulfide concentrations across mangrove conservation areas should receive more attention, in particular the reduction of OM from the anthropogenic source.

  19. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones. (United States)

    Yang, Qiulong; Yang, Kunde; Cao, Ran; Duan, Shunli


    Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and Volunteer Observation System (VOS) were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line array deployed near

  20. The effect of vertical advection and diffusion on nutrient supply to the euphotic zone: a model study of the Iceland-Faeroes Front (United States)

    Popova, E.; Srokosz, M.


    This paper examines the effect of vertical advection and vertical diffusion on the supply of nutrients to the euphotic zone. This is done using a high resolution coupled biological-physical model, that has previously been used to reproduce in situ and satellite observations of physical and biological variability at the Iceland Faeroes Front (IFF). Oligotrophic conditions are imposed in the model in order to examine the vertical flux of nutrients.The results show that, while instantaneous vertical advective fluxes of nutrients can be much larger than vertical diffusive ones, over a period of days the latter act consistently to supply nutrients to the euphotic zone. In contrast, the spatially and temporally varying nature of the vertical velocity field means that there is no consistent vertical advective flux of nutrients. This suggests that for real "messy" complex flows, such as the one modelled here, ageostrophic vertical velocities induced by eddies and frontal meanders may not play as important a role in supplying nutrient to the euphotic zone, and in enhancing biological production there, as has previously been thought.

  1. Vertical gradients in species richness and community composition across the twilight zone in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. (United States)

    Sommer, Stephanie A; Van Woudenberg, Lauren; Lenz, Petra H; Cepeda, Georgina; Goetze, Erica


    Although metazoan animals in the mesopelagic zone play critical roles in deep pelagic food webs and in the attenuation of carbon in midwaters, the diversity of these assemblages is not fully known. A metabarcoding survey of mesozooplankton diversity across the epipelagic, mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic zones (0-1500 m) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre revealed far higher estimates of species richness than expected given prior morphology-based studies in the region (4,024 OTUs, 10-fold increase), despite conservative bioinformatic processing. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness of the full assemblage peaked at lower epipelagic-upper mesopelagic depths (100-300 m), with slight shoaling of maximal richness at night due to diel vertical migration, in contrast to expectations of a deep mesopelagic diversity maximum as reported for several plankton groups in early systematic and zoogeographic studies. Four distinct depth-stratified species assemblages were identified, with faunal transitions occurring at 100 m, 300 m and 500 m. Highest diversity occurred in the smallest zooplankton size fractions (0.2-0.5 mm), which had significantly lower % OTUs classified due to poor representation in reference databases, suggesting a deep reservoir of poorly understood diversity in the smallest metazoan animals. A diverse meroplankton assemblage also was detected (350 OTUs), including larvae of both shallow and deep living benthic species. Our results provide some of the first insights into the hidden diversity present in zooplankton assemblages in midwaters, and a molecular reappraisal of vertical gradients in species richness, depth distributions and community composition for the full zooplankton assemblage across the epipelagic, mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic zones. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones for drinking water in Niamey city, Niger, Africa (United States)

    Choudhury, Joy; Kumar, K. Lohith; Nagaiah, E.; Sonkamble, S.; Ahmed, Shakeel; Kumar, Venay


    Niger is a landlocked African country and the only source of surface water is the Niger River which flows in the western part of Niger and only few villages near to the river gets benefited from it, leaving most of the areas dependent on groundwater solely. The groundwater resources in Niger are mainly used for drinking, livestock and domestic needs. It can be observed that the water exploitation is minimal there due to several factors like undeveloped areas, less population, limited wells, rain-fed irrigation, etc. The delineation of potential aquifer zones is an important aspect for groundwater prospecting. Hence, the direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting that was used in the capital city, Niamey of Niger. Twelve VES surveys, each of AB spacing 400 m were carried out in lateritic and granitic rock formations with a view to study the layer response and to delineate the potential zones. Potential aquifer zones were at shallow depth ranging from 10 to 25 m for the drilled borehole depth of 80-85 m in every village. Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the acquired data and the lithologs.

  3. Vertical Sampling Scales for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Hemingway


    Full Text Available The lowest portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, plays an important role in the formation of weather events. Simple meteorological measurements collected from within the ABL, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity, are key to understanding the exchange of energy within this region, but conventional surveillance techniques such as towers, radar, weather balloons, and satellites do not provide adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage for monitoring weather events. Small unmanned aircraft, or aerial, systems (sUAS provide a versatile, dynamic platform for atmospheric sensing that can provide higher spatio-temporal sampling frequencies than available through most satellite sensing methods. They are also able to sense portions of the atmosphere that cannot be measured from ground-based radar, weather stations, or weather balloons and have the potential to fill gaps in atmospheric sampling. However, research on the vertical sampling scales for collecting atmospheric measurements from sUAS and the variabilities of these scales across atmospheric phenomena (e.g., temperature and humidity is needed. The objective of this study is to use variogram analysis, a common geostatistical technique, to determine optimal spatial sampling scales for two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity captured from sUAS. Results show that vertical sampling scales of approximately 3 m for temperature and 1.5–2 m for relative humidity were sufficient to capture the spatial structure of these phenomena under the conditions tested. Future work is needed to model these scales across the entire ABL as well as under variable conditions.

  4. Evolution of the Marginal Ice Zone: Adaptive Sampling with Autonomous Gliders (United States)


    access marginal ice zone . When operating in ice-covered waters, gliders navigate by trilateration from acoustic sound sources (or dead reckoning should...release; distribution is unlimited. Evolution of the Marginal Ice Zone : Adaptive Sampling with Autonomous Gliders Craig M. Lee, Luc Rainville and Jason I...edge after one week. All for gliders did several sections from the open ocean, through the marginal ice zone , to the fully ice-covered ocean (Fig. 1

  5. Clio: An Autonomous Vertical Sampling Vehicle for Global Ocean Biogeochemical Mapping (United States)

    Jakuba, M.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Saito, M. A.; Dick, G.; Breier, J. A., Jr.


    We report the preliminary design of a fast vertical profiling autonomous underwater vehicle, called Clio, designed to cost-effectively improve the understanding of marine microorganism ecosystem dynamics on a global scale. The insights into biogeochemical cycles to be gained from illuminating the relationships between ocean life and chemistry have led to establishment of the GEOTRACES program. The nutrient and trace element profiles generated by GEOTRACES will provide insight into what is happening biogeochemically, but not how it is happening, i.e., what biochemical pathways are active? Advances in sequencing technology and in situ preservation have made it possible to study the genomics (DNA), transcriptomics (RNA), proteomics (proteins and enzymes), metabolomics (lipids and other metabolites), and metallomics (metals), associated with marine microorganisms; however, these techniques require sample collection. To this end, Clio will carry two to four SUspended Particle Rosette (SUPR) multi-samplers to depths of 6000 m. Clio is being designed specifically to complement the GEOTRACES program—to operate simultaneously and independently of the wire-based sampling protocols developed for GEOTRACES. At each GEOTRACES ocean transect sampling station, Clio will be deployed from the ship, transit vertically to the seafloor, and then ascend to, and stop at up to 32 sampling depths, where it will filter up to 150 l of seawater per sample. Filtered samples for RNA will be administered a dose of preservative (RNALater) in situ. Clio must efficiently hold station at multiple depths between the surface and 6000 m, but also move rapidly between sampling depths. It must be chemically clean and avoid disturbing the water column while sampling. Clio must be operationally friendly, requiring few personnel to operate, and have minimal impact on shipboard operations. We have selected a positively-buoyant thruster-driven design with a quasi-isopycnal construction. Our simulations

  6. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni


    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels (United States)

    Selbig, William R.


    Collection of water-quality samples that accurately characterize average particle concentrations and distributions in channels can be complicated by large sources of variability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a fully automated Depth-Integrated Sample Arm (DISA) as a way to reduce bias and improve accuracy in water-quality concentration data. The DISA was designed to integrate with existing autosampler configurations commonly used for the collection of water-quality samples in vertical profile thereby providing a better representation of average suspended sediment and sediment-associated pollutant concentrations and distributions than traditional fixed-point samplers. In controlled laboratory experiments, known concentrations of suspended sediment ranging from 596 to 1,189 mg/L were injected into a 3 foot diameter closed channel (circular pipe) with regulated flows ranging from 1.4 to 27.8 ft3 /s. Median suspended sediment concentrations in water-quality samples collected using the DISA were within 7 percent of the known, injected value compared to 96 percent for traditional fixed-point samplers. Field evaluation of this technology in open channel fluvial systems showed median differences between paired DISA and fixed-point samples to be within 3 percent. The range of particle size measured in the open channel was generally that of clay and silt. Differences between the concentration and distribution measured between the two sampler configurations could potentially be much larger in open channels that transport larger particles, such as sand.

  8. Performance Analysis of Genetic Zone Routing Protocol Combined With Vertical Handover Algorithm for 3G-WiFi Offload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyo Budiyanto


    Full Text Available In the deployment scenario of multiple base stations there is usually a deficiency in the routing protocols for load balancing in the wireless network. In this study, we propose a routing algorithm that can be implemented inMobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs as well as third-generation (3G–Wireless Fidelity (WiFi offload networks. We combined the Genetic Zone Routing Protocol (GZRP with the Vertical Handover (VHO algorithm in a 3G–WiFioffload network with multiple base stations. Simulationresults show thatthe proposed algorithm yields improvement in the received signal strength(which is increased up to 25 dBm, user throughput (which is approximately 1 Mbps-2.5 Mbps, and data rate (which is increased up to 2.5 Mbps.

  9. Vertical structure and pH as factors for chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial community of soils and terrestrial ecosystems of different climatic zones (United States)

    Lukacheva, Evgeniya; Natalia, Manucharova


    Chitin is a naturally occurring fibre-forming polymer that plays a protective role in many lower animals similar to that of cellulose in plants. Also it's a compound of cell walls of fungi. Chemically it is a long-chain unbranched polysaccharide made of N-acetylglucosamine residues; it is the second most abundant organic compound in nature, after cellulose. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. Roots of the plants and root crops contain pectin. Chitin and pectin are widely distributed throughout the natural world. Structural and functional features of the complex microbial degradation of biopolymers one of the most important direction in microbial ecology. But there is no a lot of data concerns degradation in vertical structure of terrestrial ecosystems and detailed studies concerning certain abiotic features as pH. Microbial complexes of natural areas were analyzed only as humus horizons (A1) of the soil profile. Only small part of microbial community could be studied with this approach. It is known that ecosystems have their own structure. It is possible to allocate some vertical tiers: phylloplane, litter (soil covering), soil. We investigated chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial communities dedicated to different layers of the ecosystems. Also it was described depending on pH dominated in certain ecosystem with certain conditions. Quantity of eukaryote and procaryote organisms increased in the test samples with chitin and pectin. Increasing of eukaryote in samples with pectin was more then in samples with chitin. Also should be noted the significant increasing of actinomycet's quantity in the samples with chitin in comparison with samples with pectin. The variety and abundance of bacteria in the litter samples increased an order of magnitude as compared to other probes. Further prokaryote community was investigated by method FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). FISH is a cytogenetic

  10. Long-term and Short-term Vertical Deformation Rates across the Forearc in the Central Mexican Subduction Zone (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Gaidzik, K.; Forman, S. L.; Kostoglodov, V.; Burgmann, R.


    Spatial scales of the earthquake cycle, from rapid deformation associated with earthquake rupture to slow deformation associated with interseismic and transient slow-slip behavior, span from fractions of a meter to thousands of kilometers (plate boundaries). Similarly, temporal scales range from seconds during an earthquake rupture to thousands of years of strain accumulation between earthquakes. The complexity of the multiple physical processes operating over this vast range of scales and the limited coverage of observations leads most scientists to focus on a narrow space-time window to isolate just one or a few process. We discuss here preliminary results on the vertical crustal deformation associated with both slow and rapid crustal deformation along a profile across the forearc region of the central Mexican subduction zone on the Guerrero sector, where the Cocos plate underthrusts the North American plate. This sector of the subduction zone is characterized by a particular slab geometry (with zones of rapid bending-unbending of the slab), irregular distributed seismicity, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT). We used the river network and geomorphic features of the Papagayo River to assess Quaternary crustal deformation. The Papagayo drainage network is strongly controlled by Late Cenozoic tectonic, Holocene and recent earthquake cycle processes. This is particularly true for the southern section of the drainage basin; from the dam in La Venta to the river mouth, where W-E structures commonly offset the course of the main river. River terraces occur along the course of the river at different elevations. We measured the height of a series of terraces and obtained OSL ages on quartz extracts to determine long-term rates of deformation. Finally, we discuss associations of the topography and river characteristics with the Cocos slab geometry, slow earthquakes, crustal deformation, and interseismic deformation.

  11. Numerical modeling of the vertical hydrofluorination zone in the moving bed furnace for the production of UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourde, J.; Patisson, F.; Ablitzer, D. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques; Houzelot, J.L. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique


    Uranium tetrafluoride UF{sub 4} is produced in the moving bed furnace, a reactor in which solid- and gas counterflow. Due to the highly exothermic nature of the chemical reactions involved, the-reactor operation requires a careful temperature control. To provide operators with an appropriate tool for the predictive simulation, optimization and control of the process an overall numerical model of the furnace has been developed. This article describes the part of the model concerning the vertical hydrofluorination zone. The differential equations representing the mass, energy and momentum balances are solved using the finite volume method. The physicochemical parameters necessary for the calculation are detailed. The rate of the main reaction, the hydrofluorination of UO{sub 2}, has been determined with the aid of a specific kinetic model. The computed parameters, namely the temperature and solid and gas compositions, are visualized in the form of isovalue maps. The initial results reveal the influence of a thermodynamic limitation of the reaction at temperatures higher than 650 K. (author)

  12. Troglofauna in the vadose zone: comparison of scraping and trapping results and sampling adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Halse


    Full Text Available Most sampling of troglofauna occurs in caves but troglofauna species are widespread across the vadose zone in Western Australia in iron ore deposits and calcretes. Other than in karstic calcrete, the subterranean spaces in the Western Australian vadose zone are small and often of similar size to the troglofauna inhabiting them. Here we describe how troglofauna can be sampled in the vadose zone using a technique called scraping, in which a haul net is dropped down a hole drilled for geological exploration. We analysed of the results of 10,895 sampling events in which both the scraping and trapping techniques were used. In the Pilbara region of Western Australia, where most of the fieldwork occurred, scraping collected approximately three-quarters more troglofaunal animals than trapping and more than twice as many troglofauna species per sample. Most orders of troglofauna were collected in greater numbers by scraping than trapping. However, the yields from both troglofauna sampling techniques are low and, even when the results of both techniques are combined to constitute a single unit of sample effort, the currently prescribed effort for environmental impact assessment will document only about half the species present at a site. It is suggested that a larger number of samples should be collected.

  13. Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.


    Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations.

  14. Lead distribution and possible sources along vertical zone spectrum of typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; Sun, Shouqin; Yang, Dandan; She, Jia; Yang, Peijun


    A total of 383 samples from soil, plant, litterfall and precipitation in four typical ecosystems of Gongga Mountain were collected. Pb concentrations of samples were measured and analyzed. The results showed mean Pb concentrations in different soil layers were in the order of O > A > C, and mean Pb concentrations of the aboveground parts of plant was 3.60 ± 2.54 mg kg-1, with the minimum value of 0.77 mg kg-1 and the maximum value of 10.90 mg kg-1. Pb concentrations in soil's O-horizon and A-horizon showed a downward trend with increasing elevation (the determination coefficient R2 was 0.9478, 0.7918 and 0.9759 respectively). In contrast to other soil layers, the level of Pb concentrations in O-horizon (incomplete decomposition) was significantly high. Litterfall decomposition, atmospheric deposition and the unique climate could be main factors leading high Pb accumulation in soil's O-horizon. What's more, significant correlation (R2 = 0.8126, P mining activities and increasing anthropogenic activities (tourism development) could be main sources of Pb in this area. In order to better understand Pb sources and eco-risks of these typical ecosystems, litterfall decomposition characteristics, biomass of productivity of forest ecosystem, Pb isotopic tracing among air mass, twigs, leaves, litterfall and O-horizon soil in this vertical belt should also be taken into consideration.

  15. Vertical force and wrist deviation angle in a sample of elderly people using walkers. (United States)

    Leung, Cherng-Yee; Yeh, Po-Chan


    Walkers are frequently used by elderly people with weak lower limbs and limited balance, but the ergonomic relationship between the use of a walker and stress on the upper limbs is relatively unstudied. The current study assessed wrist deviation and vertical force among elderly individuals using a walker for assistance in walking. 60 elderly volunteers (M age = 81.0 yr., SD = 8.8) participated, 30 of whom frequently used a walker, and 30 who had no such prior experience. Data were obtained from four load cells and a twin-axis wrist goniometer during assisted ambulation using the walker. No significant group difference was found in gait cycle. Significant wrist deviation occurred, with ulnar deviation/dorsiflexion of the right hand, which was greater than that of the left. Non-experienced participants had larger dorsiflexion than experienced participants. Experienced participants produced larger vertical force than non-experienced participants. The greaterthe wrist deviation, the greater was the vertical force. The horizontal handles of most marketed walkers cause wrist deviations. This is a concern for users, clinicians, and related industries. Improvements in walker design should be considered.

  16. Pinpoint core sampling at active faults in the Nankai subduction zone by new ROV "NSS" (United States)

    Ashi, J.; Shirai, M.; Tokuyama, H.; Soh, W.; Kinoshita, M.; Machiyama, H.; Kanamatsu, T.; Hirono, T.; Ikehara, K.; Arai, K.; Omura, A.


    Piston coring across active faults in shallow water depth, as well as drilling or trenching of fault zone on land, provides us with information about earthquake timing, recurrence of fault activity and fault displacement. In contrast, it is not easy to take samples from deep-sea with pinpoint accuracy. In order to identify the position of the core sampler and approach the target for sampling, a transponder is recently installed on the cable just above the sampler. The pilot vehicle of new ROV "NSS" (Navigable Sampling System) can move by four thrusters, observe seafloor by video cameras, release samplers and measurement tools by command from a mother ship, and real time geophysical or geochemical monitoring through an armored cable. The whole system including winches is removal. The ship with large deck can be equipped with NSS system. Depth capability of the pilot vehicle is 4000m and maximum payload weight is 1.5 Tons. First cruise using NSS was conducted in the Nankai Trough and the Sagami Trough using JAMSTEC R/V "Kaiyo" in 2003. Piston cores were taken from active faults off the Central Japan in the Nankai Trough, and the cold seep sites along the blind fault off Hatsushima, Sagami Bay. NSS using seafloor video camera and thrusters has accuracy of pinpoint sampling within 2m, and allows us to take samples from narrow fault zone or small clam colony. Core samples derived from active fault zones show different sedimentation histories; lack of strata and differences of layer thickness across dip-slip faults and lithological changes with time across strike-slip faults near submarine canyon, and provide information about recurrence time and fault displacement. NSS is one of tools that break through difficulties of pinpoint sampling in deep-sea and will proceed studies of active submarine faults.

  17. Vertical fluxes of particulate biogenic material through the euphotic and twilight zones in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela (United States)

    Montes, Enrique; Muller-Karger, Frank; Thunell, Robert; Hollander, David; Astor, Yrene; Varela, Ramón; Soto, Inia; Lorenzoni, Laura


    Surface-tethered particle interceptor traps (PITs) were deployed at 50 and 100 m (1-3 days) on ten occasions in the Cariaco Basin between March 2007 and November 2009 to measure the settling fluxes of biogenic particles at 50 m (the base of the euphotic zone—Ez) and 100 m. Fluxes at these two depths were compared to concurrent fluxes estimated with moored sediment traps at 150, 225 and 410 m from the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series program. We measured particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), calcium carbonate, biogenic silica and terrigenous material concentrations in samples collected with both the drifting and moored traps. We also estimated the fluxes of foraminifera shells and coccolithophore cells at 50 and 100 m using drifting traps samples. Surface chlorophyll a and primary production observations during each sampling period were examined to quantify the relationship between the magnitude and geochemical composition of the vertical flux and overlying production. Surface chlorophyll a concentrations and primary production rates were highest during months of upwelling (2.58-1.35 mg m-3 and 3.6-1.4 g C m-2 d-1, respectively). The fluxes of POC, PON, calcite and silica measured during the upwelling season (December-May) were typically higher than during the period of non-upwelling (August-November), when surface waters are more strongly stratified. POC fluxes measured with the drifting traps (50 and 100 m) varied between 0.95 (upwelling) and 0.14 g m-2 d-1 (non-upwelling), compared with those from the moored traps (150, 225 and 410 m) which ranged from 0.21 to 0.01 g m-2 d-1. Similarly, the fluxes of biogenic opal in the upper 100 m ranged from 1.12 and 0.18 g m-2 d-1, and those at greater depths varied from 0.27 g m-2 d-1 during upwelling to values near zero during stratification periods. The fluxes of POC, PON, calcite and silica in the upper 100 m decreased by an order of magnitude at the depth of the oxic-anoxic interface (>200 m

  18. Large volume sample stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis for the monitoring of the degradation products of metribuzin in environmental samples. (United States)

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Laura; Del Olmo, Monsalud


    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with UV-vis detection has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of the major degradation products of metribuzin, i.e. deaminometribuzin (DA), deaminodiketometribuzin (DADK) and diketometribuzin (DK). The dissociation acid constants have also been estimated by CE and no significant differences have been observed with the values obtained by applying other techniques. Optimum separation has been achieved in less than 9 min in 40 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.5 by applying a voltage of 15kV at 25 degrees C and using p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard. In order to increase sensitivity, large volume sample stacking (LVSS) with polarity switching has been applied as on-line pre-concentration methodology. Detection limits of 10, 10 and 20 ng/mL for DA, DADK and DK, respectively were obtained. The method has been applied to soil samples, after pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Samples were extracted at high temperature (103 degrees C and 1500 psi) using methanol as extraction solvent and sodium sulphate as drying agent. This PLE procedure was followed by an off-line pre-concentration and sample clean-up procedure by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a LiChrolut EN sorbent column. These last two procedures were also suitable for the direct treatment of groundwater samples before CE analysis. The combination of both off-line and on-line pre-concentration procedures provided a significant improvement in sensitivity. LVSS provided pre-concentration factors of 4, 36 and 28 for DK, DA and DADK, respectively and with SPE a pre-concentration of 500-fold for the case of water samples and of 2.5-fold in the case of soil samples was obtained. The method is suitable for the monitoring of these residues in environmental samples with high sensitivity, precision and satisfactory recoveries.

  19. An improved technique for soil solution sampling in the vadose zone utilizing real-time data (United States)

    Singer, J. H.; Seaman, J. C.; Aburime, S. A.; Harris, J.; Karapatakis, D.


    The vadose zone is an area of ongoing concern because of its role in the fate and transport of chemicals resulting from waste disposal and agricultural practices. The degree of contamination and movement of solutes in soil solution are often difficult to assess due to temporal variability in precipitation or irrigation events and spatial variability in soil physical properties. For this reason, modeling groundwater and contaminant flow in unsaturated soil is crucial in determining the extent of the contamination. Unfortunately, manual methods used to sample soil solutions and validate model results are often difficult due to the variable nature of unsaturated soil systems. Manual techniques are traditionally performed without specific knowledge of the conditions in the soil at the time of sampling. This hit or miss approach can lead to missed samples, unsuccessful sampling, and samples that are not representative of the event of interest. In an effort to target specific soil conditions at the point of sampling that are conducive to successful sample acquisition, an automated lysimeter sampling and fraction collector system was developed. We demonstrate an innovative technique coupling real-time data with soil solution sampling methods which will improve the efficiency and accuracy of contaminant sampling in the field. The infrastructure of this system can also be implemented in a laboratory setting which adds to its practicality in model development.

  20. Vertical variation in the amplitude of the seasonal isotopic content of rainfall as a tool to jointly estimate the groundwater recharge zone and transit times in the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park aquifer system, north-eastern Spain. (United States)

    Jódar, Jorge; Custodio, Emilio; Lambán, Luis Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Herrera-Lameli, Christian; Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo


    The time series of stable water isotope composition relative to meteorological stations and springs located in the high mountainous zone of the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park are analyzed in order to study how the seasonal isotopic content of precipitation propagates through the hydrogeological system in terms of the aquifer recharge zone elevation and transit time. The amplitude of the seasonal isotopic composition of precipitation and the mean isotopic content in rainfall vary along a vertical transect, with altitudinal slopes for δ 18 O of 0.9‰/km for seasonal amplitude and -2.2‰/km for isotopic content. The main recharge zone elevation for the sampled springs is between 1950 and 2600m·a.s.l. The water transit time for the sampled springs ranges from 1.1 to 4.5yr, with an average value of 1.85yr and a standard deviation of 0.8yr. The hydrological system tends to behave as a mixing reservoir. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Unexpected biodiversity of ciliates in marine samples from below the photic zone. (United States)

    Grattepanche, J. D.; Katz, L. A.; Tucker, S. J.; McManus, G. B.; Santoferrara, L. F.


    Marine microbial eukaryotes play critical roles in planktonic food webs and have been described as most diverse in the photic zone where productivity is high. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to analyze the spatial distribution of planktonic ciliate diversity from shallow waters (800m depth) along a 163Km transect off the coast of New England, USA. Using HTS and specific primers, we observed that the most abundant OTUs correspond to those previously-reported elsewhere. However, we did not find the expected decrease of diversity below the photic zone and instead saw an increase of diversity with depth. This highly diversity within samples taken below the photic zone also reveals the prevalence of two `new' clades (i.e. lacking sequenced morphospecies) defined by two deletions within the region of the SSU-rDNA analyzed here. Further, the ciliate communities cluster by layer (e.g. surface, pycnocline) and degree of water column stratification, suggesting that community assembly is driven by environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, phytoplankton and mesozooplankton. Together, these data reinforce that we still have much to learn about microbial diversity in marine ecosystems, especially in deeper waters that may be a reservoir for rare species.

  2. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)


    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  3. Application of a new vertical profiling tool (ESASS) for sampling groundwater quality during hollow-stem auger drilling (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Flanagan, Sarah M.


    A new tool called ESASS (Enhanced Screen Auger Sampling System) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The use of ESASS, because of its unique U.S. patent design (U.S. patent no. 7,631,705 B1), allows for the collection of representative, depth-specific groundwater samples (vertical profiling) in a quick and efficient manner using a 0.305-m long screen auger during hollow-stem auger drilling. With ESASS, the water column in the flights above the screen auger is separated from the water in the screen auger by a specially designed removable plug and collar. The tool fits inside an auger of standard inner diameter (82.55 mm). The novel design of the system constituted by the plug, collar, and A-rod allows the plug to be retrieved using conventional drilling A-rods. After retrieval, standard-diameter (50.8 mm) observation wells can be installed within the hollow-stem augers. Testing of ESASS was conducted at one waste-disposal site with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination and at two reference sites with no known waste-disposal history. All three sites have similar geology and are underlain by glacial, stratified-drift deposits. For the applications tested, ESASS proved to be a useful tool in vertical profiling of groundwater quality. At the waste site, PCE concentrations measured with ESASS profiling at several depths were comparable (relative percent difference nitrate and nitrite) over short (0.61 m) distances.

  4. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier Membrive; Cyril Crevoisier; Colm Sweeney; François Danis; Albert Hertzog; Andreas Engel; Harald Bönisch; Laurence Picon


    .... The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the objectives...

  5. Seismic Measurement of the Locations of the Base of Convection Zone and Helium Ionization Zone for Stars in the Kepler Seismic LEGACY Sample (United States)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Raodeo, Keyuri; Antia, H. M.; Mazumdar, Anwesh; Basu, Sarbani; Lund, Mikkel N.; Silva Aguirre, Víctor


    Acoustic glitches are regions inside a star where the sound speed or its derivatives change abruptly. These leave a small characteristic oscillatory signature in the stellar oscillation frequencies. With the precision achieved by Kepler seismic data, it is now possible to extract these small amplitude oscillatory signatures, and infer the locations of the glitches. We perform glitch analysis for all the 66 stars in the Kepler seismic LEGACY sample to derive the locations of the base of the envelope convection zone (CZ) and the helium ionization zone. The signature from helium ionization zone is found to be robust for all stars in the sample, whereas the CZ signature is found to be weak and problematic, particularly for relatively massive stars with large errorbars on the oscillation frequencies. We demonstrate that the helium glitch signature can be used to constrain the properties of the helium ionization layers and the helium abundance.

  6. Boiling and vertical mineralization zoning: a case study from the Apacheta low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, southern Peru (United States)

    André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Leroy, Jacques; Bailly, Laurent; Chauvet, Alain; Marcoux, Eric; Grancea, Luminita; Llosa, Fernando; Rosas, Juan


    The Au-Ag (±Pb-Zn) Apacheta deposit is located in the Shila district, 600 km southeast of Lima in the Cordillera Occidental of Arequipa Province, southern Peru. The vein mineralization is found in Early to Middle Miocene calc-alkaline lava flows and volcanic breccias. Both gangue and sulfide mineralization express a typical low-sulfidation system; assay data show element zoning with base metals enriched at depth and higher concentrations of precious metals in the upper part of the veins. Three main deposition stages are observed: (1) early pyrite and base-metal sulfides with minor electrum 1 and acanthite; (2) brecciation of this mineral assemblage and cross-cutting veinlets with subhedral quartz crystals, Mn-bearing calcite and rhombic adularia crystals; and finally (3) veinlets and geodal filling of an assemblage of tennantite/tetrahedrite + colorless sphalerite 2 + galena + chalcopyrite + electrum 2. Fluid inclusions in the mineralized veins display two distinct types: aqueous-carbonic liquid-rich Lw-c inclusions, and aqueous-carbonic vapor-rich Vw-c inclusions. Microthermometric data indicate that the ore minerals were deposited between 300 and 225 °C from relatively dilute hydrothermal fluids (0.6-3.4 wt% NaCl). The physical and chemical characteristics of the hydrothermal fluids show a vertical evolution, with in particular a drop in temperature and a loss of H2S. The presence of adularia and platy calcite and of co-existing liquid-rich and vapor-rich inclusions in the ore-stage indicates a boiling event. Strong H2S enrichment in the Vw-c inclusions observed at -200 m, the abundance of platy calcite, and the occurrence of hydrothermal breccia at this level may indicate a zone of intense boiling. The vertical element zoning observed in the Apacheta deposit thus seems to be directly related to the vertical evolution of hydrothermal-fluid characteristics. Precious-metal deposition mainly occurred above the 200-m level below the present-day surface, in response

  7. Fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth: Analysis of the floating zone and vertical Bridgman processes (United States)

    Brown, R. A.


    This research program focuses on analysis of the transport mechanisms in solidification processes, especially one of interest to the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Program of NASA. Research during the last year has focused on analysis of the dynamics of the floating zone process for growth of small-scale crystals, on studies of the effect of applied magnetic fields on convection and solute segregation in directional solidification, and on the dynamics of microscopic cell formation in two-dimensional solidification of binary alloys. Significant findings are given.

  8. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth. (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran


    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, S.G.


    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

  10. Passive Fluidic Chip Composed of Integrated Vertical Capillary Tubes Developed for On-Site SPR Immunoassay Analysis Targeting Real Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneyuki Haga


    Full Text Available We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W x 160 mm(D x 120 mm(H and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W x 16 mm(D x 4 mm(H that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 μL passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmentaland medical testing.

  11. Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea) (United States)

    Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere


    The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

  12. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  13. The Potential Impact of Vertical Sampling Uncertainty on ICESat-2/ATLAS Terrain and Canopy Height Retrievals for Multiple Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Neuenschwander


    Full Text Available With a planned launch no later than September 2018, the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2 will provide a global distribution of geodetic elevation measurements for both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights. The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS instrument on-board ICESat-2 is a LiDAR system sensitive to the photon level. The photon-counting technology has many advantages for space-based altimetry, but also has challenges, particularly with delineating the signal from background noise. As such, a current unknown facing the ecosystem community is the performance of ICESat-2 for terrain and canopy height retrievals. This paper aims to provide the science user community of ICESat-2 land/vegetation data products with a realistic understanding of the performance characteristics and potential uncertainties related to the vertical sampling error, which includes the error in the perceived height value and the measurement precision. Terrain and canopy heights from simulated ICESat-2 data are evaluated against the airborne LiDAR ground truth values to provide a baseline performance uncertainty for multiple ecosystems. Simulation results for wooded savanna and boreal forest result in a mean bias error and error uncertainty (precision for terrain height retrievals at 0.06 m (0.24 m RMSE and −0.13 m (0.77 m RMSE. In contrast, results over ecosystems with dense vegetation show terrain errors of 1.93 m (1.66 m RMSE and 2.52 m (3.18 m RMSE, indicating problems extracting terrain height due to diminished ground returns. Simulated top of canopy heights from ICESat-2 underestimated true top of canopy returns for all types analyzed with errors ranging from 0.28 m (1.39 m RMSE to 1.25 m (2.63 m RMSE. These results comprise a first step in a comprehensive evaluation of ICESat-2 anticipated performance. Future steps will include solar noise impact analysis and investigation into performance discrepancy between visible and

  14. Automated CBED processing: sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klinger, Miloslav; Němec, Martin; Polívka, Leoš; Gärtnerová, Viera; Jäger, Aleš


    Roč. 150, Mar (2015), s. 88-95 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : TEM * CBED * thickness estimation * zone axis * computer vision * automatization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2015

  15. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2 (United States)

    Membrive, Olivier; Crevoisier, Cyril; Sweeney, Colm; Danis, François; Hertzog, Albert; Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald; Picon, Laurence


    An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented by NOAA in 2010 Karion et al.(2010). It consists of a long ( > 100 m) and narrow ( forecasts of CO2 and CH4 profiles) and captured the decrease of CO2 and CH4 in the stratosphere. The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields an excellent match between both sets of CH4 profiles and shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores. Concerning CO2 although a good agreement is found in terms of vertical structure, the comparison between the various AirCores yields a large and variable bias (up to almost 3 ppm in some parts of the profiles). The reasons of this bias, possibly related to the drying agent used to dry the air, are still being investigated. Finally, the uncertainties associated with the measurements are assessed, yielding an average uncertainty below 3 ppb for CH4 and 0.25 ppm for CO2 with the major source of uncertainty coming from the potential loss of air sample on the ground and the choice of the starting and ending point of the collected air sample inside the tube. In an ideal case where the sample would be fully retained, it would be possible to know precisely the pressure at which air was sampled last and thus to improve the overall uncertainty to about 0.1 ppm for CO2 and 2 ppb for CH4.

  16. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Membrive


    Full Text Available An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented by NOAA in 2010 (Karion et al., 2010. It consists of a long (>  100 m and narrow (<  1 cm stainless steel tube that can retain a profile of atmospheric air. The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the objectives to (i better capture the vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4, (ii provide a tool to compare AirCores and validate the estimated vertical resolution achieved by AirCores. This (high-resolution AirCore-HR consists of a 300 m tube, combining 200 m of 0.125 in. (3.175 mm tube and a 100 m of 0.25 in. (6.35 mm tube. This new configuration allows us to achieve a vertical resolution of 300 m up to 15 km and better than 500 m up to 22 km (if analysis of the retained sample is performed within 3 h. The AirCore-HR was flown for the first time during the annual StratoScience campaign from CNES in August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada. High-resolution vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 up to 25 km were successfully retrieved. These profiles revealed well-defined transport structures in the troposphere (also seen in CAMS-ECMWF high-resolution forecasts of CO2 and CH4 profiles and captured the decrease of CO2 and CH4 in the stratosphere. The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields an excellent match between both sets of CH4 profiles and shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores. Concerning CO2 although a

  17. Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Millán


    Full Text Available This study investigates the representativeness of two types of orbital sampling applied to stratospheric temperature and trace gas fields. Model fields are sampled using real sampling patterns from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. The MLS sampling acts as a proxy for a dense uniform sampling pattern typical of limb emission sounders, while HALOE and ACE-FTS represent coarse nonuniform sampling patterns characteristic of solar occultation instruments. First, this study revisits the impact of sampling patterns in terms of the sampling bias, as previous studies have done. Then, it quantifies the impact of different sampling patterns on the estimation of trends and their associated detectability. In general, we find that coarse nonuniform sampling patterns may introduce non-negligible errors in the inferred magnitude of temperature and trace gas trends and necessitate considerably longer records for their definitive detection. Lastly, we explore the impact of these sampling patterns on tropical vertical velocities derived from stratospheric water vapor measurements. We find that coarse nonuniform sampling may lead to a biased depiction of the tropical vertical velocities and, hence, to a biased estimation of the impact of the mechanisms that modulate these velocities. These case studies suggest that dense uniform sampling such as that available from limb emission sounders provides much greater fidelity in detecting signals of stratospheric change (for example, fingerprints of greenhouse gas warming and stratospheric ozone recovery than coarse nonuniform sampling such as that of solar occultation instruments.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  3. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  4. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  7. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  8. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  12. Spatial sampling to detect an invasive pathogen outside of an eradication zone. (United States)

    Demon, I; Cunniffe, N J; Marchant, B P; Gilligan, C A; van den Bosch, F


    Invasive pathogens are known to cause major damage to the environments they invade. Effective control of such invasive pathogens depends on early detection. In this paper we focus on sampling with the aim of detecting an invasive pathogen. To that end, we introduce the concept of optimized spatial sampling, using spatial simulated annealing, to plant pathology. It has been mathematically proven (15) that this optimization method converges to the optimum allocation of sampling points that give the largest detection probability. We show the benefits of the method to plant pathology by (i) first illustrating that optimized spatial sampling can easily be applied for disease detection, and then we show that (ii) combining it with a spatially explicit epidemic model, we can develop optimum sample schemes, i.e., optimum locations to sample that maximize the probability of detecting an invasive pathogen. This method is then used as baseline against which other sampling methods can be tested for their accuracy. For the specific example case of this paper, we test (i) random sampling, (ii) stratified sampling as well as (iii) sampling based on the output of the simulation model (using the most frequently infected hosts as sample points), and (iv) sampling the hosts closest to the outbreak point.

  13. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches. (United States)

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining


    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Techniques of Ozone Monitoring in a Mountain Forest Region: Passive and Continuous Sampling, Vertical and Canopy Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa


    Full Text Available Ozone is the most harmful air pollutant for plant ecosystems in the Mediterranean and Alpine areas due to its biological and economic damage to crops and forests. In order to evaluate the relation between ozone exposure and vegetation injury under on-field conditions, suitable ozone monitoring techniques were investi-gated. In the framework of a 5-year research project aimed at ozone risk assessment on forests, both continuous analysers and passive samplers were employed during the summer seasons (1994�1998 in different sites of a wide mountain region (80 x 40 km2 on the southern slope of the European Alps. Continuous analysers allowed the recording of ozone hourly concentration means necessary both to calculate specific exposure indexes (such as AOT, SUM, W126 and to record daily time-courses. Passive samplers, even though supplied only weekly mean concentration values, made it possible to estimate the altitude concentration gradient useful to correct the altitude dependence of ozone concentrations to be inserted into exposure indexes. In-canopy ozone profiles were also determined by placing passive samplers at different heights inside the forest canopy. Vertical ozone soundings by means of tethered balloons (kytoons allowed the measurement of the vertical concentration gradient above the forest canopy. They also revealed ozone reservoirs aloft and were useful to explain the ozone advection dynamic in mountain slopes where ground measurement proved to be inadequate. An intercomparison between passive (PASSAM, CH and continuous measurements highlighted the necessity to accurately standardize all the exposure operations, particularly the pre- and postexposure conservation at cold temperature to avoid dye (DPE activity. Advantages and disadvantages from each mentioned technique are discussed.

  15. Implicit sampling combined with reduced order modeling for the inversion of vadose zone hydrological data (United States)

    Liu, Yaning; Pau, George Shu Heng; Finsterle, Stefan


    Bayesian inverse modeling techniques are computationally expensive because many forward simulations are needed when sampling the posterior distribution of the parameters. In this paper, we combine the implicit sampling method and generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) to significantly reduce the computational cost of performing Bayesian inverse modeling. There are three steps in this approach: (1) find the maximizer of the likelihood function using deterministic approaches; (2) construct a gPCE-based surrogate model using the results from a limited number of forward simulations; and (3) efficiently sample the posterior distribution of the parameters using implicit sampling method. The cost of constructing the gPCE-based surrogate model is further decreased by using sparse Bayesian learning to reduce the number of gPCE coefficients that have to be determined. We demonstrate the approach for a synthetic ponded infiltration experiment simulated with TOUGH2. The surrogate model is highly accurate with mean relative error that is method or a Markov chain Monte Carlo method utilizing the full model.

  16. Hot Zone Identification: Analyzing Effects of Data Sampling on Spam Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasib Khan


    Full Text Available Email is the most common and comparatively the most efficient means of exchanging information in today's world. However, given the widespread use of emails in all sectors, they have been the target of spammers since the beginning. Filtering spam emails has now led to critical actions such as forensic activities based on mining spam email. The data mine for spam emails at the University of Alabama at Birmingham is considered to be one of the most prominent resources for mining and identifying spam sources. It is a widely researched repository used by researchers from different global organizations. The usual process of mining the spam data involves going through every email in the data mine and clustering them based on their different attributes. However, given the size of the data mine, it takes an exceptionally long time to execute the clustering mechanism each time. In this paper, we have illustrated sampling as an efficient tool for data reduction, while preserving the information within the clusters, which would thus allow the spam forensic experts to quickly and effectively identify the ‘hot zone’ from the spam campaigns. We have provided detailed comparative analysis of the quality of the clusters after sampling, the overall distribution of clusters on the spam data, and timing measurements for our sampling approach. Additionally, we present different strategies which allowed us to optimize the sampling process using data-preprocessing and using the database engine's computational resources, and thus improving the performance of the clustering process.

  17. Efficient Bayesian parameter estimation with implicit sampling and surrogate modeling for a vadose zone hydrological problem (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Pau, G. S. H.; Finsterle, S.


    Parameter inversion involves inferring the model parameter values based on sparse observations of some observables. To infer the posterior probability distributions of the parameters, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are typically used. However, the large number of forward simulations needed and limited computational resources limit the complexity of the hydrological model we can use in these methods. In view of this, we studied the implicit sampling (IS) method, an efficient importance sampling technique that generates samples in the high-probability region of the posterior distribution and thus reduces the number of forward simulations that we need to run. For a pilot-point inversion of a heterogeneous permeability field based on a synthetic ponded infiltration experiment simu­lated with TOUGH2 (a subsurface modeling code), we showed that IS with linear map provides an accurate Bayesian description of the parameterized permeability field at the pilot points with just approximately 500 forward simulations. We further studied the use of surrogate models to improve the computational efficiency of parameter inversion. We implemented two reduced-order models (ROMs) for the TOUGH2 forward model. One is based on polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), of which the coefficients are obtained using the sparse Bayesian learning technique to mitigate the "curse of dimensionality" of the PCE terms. The other model is Gaussian process regression (GPR) for which different covariance, likelihood and inference models are considered. Preliminary results indicate that ROMs constructed based on the prior parameter space perform poorly. It is thus impractical to replace this hydrological model by a ROM directly in a MCMC method. However, the IS method can work with a ROM constructed for parameters in the close vicinity of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate. We will discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of using ROMs in the implicit sampling procedure

  18. Frictional properties of JFAST core samples and implications for slow earthquakes at the Tohoku subduction zone (United States)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Niemeijer, André R.; Hirose, Takehiro; Spiers, Christopher J.


    Slow earthquakes occur in the shallow (Drilling Program Expedition 343 (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)). The plate boundary fault material exhibits a transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behavior at temperatures between 50 and 150°C, which, in the framework of rate-and-state friction laws, is a necessary condition for the generation of slow earthquakes, whereas the footwall sample mainly shows velocity-strengthening behavior except at temperatures of <50°C. The downdip temperature limit of slow earthquakes in the Japan Trench also lies between 100 and 150°C. Our results suggest that the frictional properties of the plate boundary fault may play a key role in controlling the locations of observed slow earthquakes.

  19. The COSC-1 drill core - a geological sample through a hot allochthon and the underlying thrust zone (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Klonowska, Iwona


    The ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) supported Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project has the aim to study mountain building processes in a major Paleozoic orogen. COSC-1, drilled in 2014 near Åre (Sweden), was planned to sample a section from the hot allochthon of the Lower Seve Nappe through the thrust zone and into the underlying less metamorphic rocks of the Särv and/or Jämtlandian nappes. Diamond core drilling operations resulted in 2396.0 m of drill core with only about 2.5 m documented core loss (technical failure of the core catcher). Down to about 1800 m, the COSC-1 drill hole penetrated a succession that is dominated by gneisses of varying compositions (felsic, amphibole, calc-silicate gneisses, and more), often garnet and diopside bearing. Meta-gabbros and amphibolites are common and apparently correlate well with seismic reflectors between 500 and 1000 m depth. Also marbles, pegmatite dykes and minor mylonites occur. These rocks are highly strained. Small scale structures (e.g. isoclinal folding) are occasionally discernible in the narrow section provided by the drill cores. (Young) Fractures are sparse. Only a set of very steep fractures results in fluid conduction zones at several levels throughout the drill hole. At 175 m and between 1200 and 1300 m, this results in the dissolution of calcite-rich bands in the gneisses to form "micro-karst". First signs of the thrust zone below the Seve Nappe appear just below 1700 m in form of narrow deformation bands and thin mylonites. The mylonites increase in thickness and reach a thickness of around 1 m between 1900 and 2000 m. Below c. 2100 m, mylonites are dominating and garnets become common (but are not present in all mylonites). The deepest rock of mafic origin (possibly amphibolite in the Seve Nappe) was identified at 2314 m, a transition from gneiss into lower grade metasedimentary rocks occurs between 2345 and 2360 m. The

  20. Representation and Management of the Knowledge of Brittle Deformation in Shear Zones Using Microstructural Data From the SAFOD Core Samples (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.; Broda, C. M.; Kumar, A.; Hadizadeh, J.


    Web access to data that represent knowledge acquired by investigators studying the microstructures in the core samples of the SAFOD (San Andreas Observatory at Depth) project can help scientists efficiently integrate and share knowledge, query the data, and update the knowledge base on the Web. To achieve this, we have used OWL (Web Ontology Language) to build the brittle deformation ontology for the microstructures observed in the SAFOD core samples, by explicitly formalizing the knowledge about deformational processes, geological objects undergoing deformation, and the underlying mechanical and environmental conditions in brittle shear zones. The developed Web-based ‘SAFOD Brittle Microstructure and Mechanics Knowledge base’ (SAFOD BM2KB), which instantiates this ontology and is available at, will host and serve data that pertains to spatial objects, such as microstructure, gouge, fault, and SEM image, acquired by the SAFOD investigators through the studies of the SAFOD core samples. Deformation in shear zones involves complex brittle and ductile processes that alter, create, and/or destroy a wide variety of one- to three-dimensional, multi-scale spatial entities such as rocks and their constituent minerals and structure. These processes occur through a series of sub-processes that happen in different time intervals, and affect the spatial objects at granular to regional scales within shear zones. The processes bring about qualitative change to the spatial entities over time intervals that start and end with events. Processes, such as mylonitization and cataclastic flow, change the spatial location, distribution, dimension, size, shape, and orientation of some objects through translation, rotation and strain. These processes may also result in newly formed entities, such as a new mineral, gouge, vein, or fault, during one or more phases of deformation. Deformation processes may also destroy entities, such as a

  1. Dynamics of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus at Station ALOHA Revealed through Flow Cytometry and High-Resolution Vertical Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ger J. van den Engh


    Full Text Available The fluorescence and scattering properties of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus at Station ALOHA as measured by flow cytometry (termed the FCM phenotype vary with depth and over a variety of time scales. The variation in FCM phenotypes may reflect population selection or physiological acclimation to local conditions. Observations before, during, and after a storm with deep water mixing show a short-term homogenization of the FCM phenotypes with depth, followed by a return to the stable pattern over the time span of a few days. These dynamics indicate that, within the upper mixed-layer, the FCM phenotype distribution represents acclimation to ambient light. The populations in the pycnocline (around 100 m and below, remain stable and are invariant with light conditions. In samples where both cyanobacteria coexist, fluorescence properties of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are tightly correlated providing further evidence that FCM phenotype variability is caused by a common environmental factor or factors. Measurements of the dynamics of FCM phenotypes provide insights into phytoplankton physiology and adaptation. Alternatively, FCM phenotype census of a water mass may provide information about its origin and illumination history.

  2. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi


    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  3. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)


    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  4. Development and deployment of a passive sampling system in groundwater to characterize the critical zone through isotope tracing (United States)

    Gal, Frédérick; Négrel, Philippe; Chagué, Bryan


    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the evolving boundary layer where rock, soil, water, air, and living organisms interact, zone controlling the transfer and storage of water and chemical elements. For investigating the CZ, we have developed an integrative sampling system to concentrate the chemical elements in groundwater (CRITEX project). Aims are to measure concentrations and isotopic ratios in groundwater through integrative sampling. In the frame of the groundwater analysis, particularly those located in the critical zone (0-100 m depth), this system makes it possible to create a water flow in a support of passive samplers using Diffusive Gradient in Thin type (DGT) and thus to pre-concentrate the chemical species on a chelating resin by diffusion through a membrane and over a given period in order to facilitate subsequent laboratory measurements. Because DGTs are generally used in surface waters with a high flow rate, the current objective is to create a sufficient flow of water in the sampler to optimize the trapping of elements. Different options and geometries have been modelled by simulation of the flow (agitation of water supplied by a motor and a propeller, pumping ...). The economic model of the device is based on an assembly of commercially available equipment, the novation is based on the support, fully designed in house (patent pending). The device aims to recreate sufficient water flow to avoid the creation of a too large Diffusion Boundary Layer (DBL) on the DGT surface and then to mimic the uptake conditions that prevail in surface waters. The simulations made it possible to optimize the position of the DGT and the velocity of the fluid in order to obtain the maximum flow at its surface and avoid the creation of the DBL. Conditions equivalent to those of a circulation of weakly agitated surface water are thus recreated. The first tests were carried out at lab, in a column simulating a piezometer, including pump, DGT holder and flow meter. Initial

  5. A study of O3 and NO2 vertical structure in a coastal wooded zone near a metropolitan area, by means of DOAS measurements (United States)

    Premuda, Margherita; Petritoli, Andrea; Masieri, Samuele; Palazzi, Elisa; Kostadinov, Ivan; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio


    The possible influence on the Castel Porziano Presidential Estate pine forest (Italy) of pollutant-rich air masses from the neighboring metropolitan area of Rome is analyzed. This study aims to highlight the consequences which this natural reserve located along the coast may suffer due to the vicinity of the metropolitan area. Two case studies, one representative of synoptic and the other of breeze patterns, are presented and analyzed to evaluate how the local wind circulation can influence these processes of mutual interaction between the wooded and the urban area nearby. This is a common situation in many other places around the world. To this end an up-to-date version of a method for gas profile retrieval in the lower troposphere, developed by the authors, is exploited to study the time evolution of the vertical structure of O3 and NO2 concentrations on the Estate. The method consists of applying an inversion technique, based on the weighted Chahine algorithm, to DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) remote-sensing measurements. The analysis of the retrieved vertical profiles shows that the degradation process associated with the arrival of air masses rich in photo-chemical pollutants, due to breeze circulation modified by the Coriolis Effect, is more apparent at upper levels than near the surface, affecting to a greater degree the higher branches of the trees. The paper also examines the impact of O3 on the wooded part of the Castel Porziano Estate. The incidence of this effect is evaluated with the analysis of the so-called AOT40 parameter.

  6. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei


    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  7. The flow of nitrogen into the euphotic zone of the Baltic Proper as a result of the vertical migration of phytoplankton: An analysis of the long-term observations and ecohydrodynamic model simulation (United States)

    Kowalewski, Marek


    The effect of the vertical migration (VM) of phytoplankton on the depletion of mineral nitrogen in the water layer intermediate between the thermocline and halocline during the summer thermal stratification of the Baltic Proper was investigated. The flux of nitrogen transported to the mixed layer from the intermediate layer beneath it was estimated on the basis of long-term observations (1970-2000) made in spring and summer at station BY15 in the Gotland Deep (central part of the Baltic Proper). The total nitrogen flux was estimated at ca 60 mmol m- 2 month- 1 in spring and at ca 4.7 mmol m- 2 month- 1 in summer. The total transport of nitrogen to the euphotic zone from April to August was estimated at 129 mmol m- 2 which, assuming the Redfield ratio to hold, corresponds to a new primary production of ca 10.3 gC m- 2. The deep chlorophyll maxima linked to the VM of phytoplankton may not be remotely sensed, which causes the level of primary production calculated on their basis to be somewhat underestimated. The ProDeMo ecohydrodynamic model was modified in such a way as to take account of the VM of dinoflagellates. Comparison of the model results with measured vertical distributions of mineral nitrogen enabled the choice of an appropriate numerical algorithm and confirmed the hypothesis that dinoflagellate VM may be responsible for the depletion of mineral nitrogen beneath the thermocline.

  8. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano J. C.


    Full Text Available Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™ were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra. Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  9. Estimates of site response based on spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations in the source zone of 2001 Bhuj earthquake (United States)

    Natarajan, Thulasiraman; Rajendran, Kusala


    We investigated the site response characteristics of Kachchh rift basin over the meizoseismal area of the 2001, Mw 7.6, Bhuj (NW India) earthquake using the spectral ratio of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations. Using the available knowledge on the regional geology of Kachchh and well documented ground responses from the earthquake, we evaluated the H/V curves pattern across sediment filled valleys and uplifted areas generally characterized by weathered sandstones. Although our H/V curves showed a largely fuzzy nature, we found that the hierarchical clustering method was useful for comparing large numbers of response curves and identifying the areas with similar responses. Broad and plateau shaped peaks of a cluster of curves within the valley region suggests the possibility of basin effects within valley. Fundamental resonance frequencies (f0) are found in the narrow range of 0.1-2.3 Hz and their spatial distribution demarcated the uplifted regions from the valleys. In contrary, low H/V peak amplitudes (A0 = 2-4) were observed on the uplifted areas and varying values (2-9) were found within valleys. Compared to the amplification factors, the liquefaction indices (kg) were able to effectively indicate the areas which experienced severe liquefaction. The amplification ranges obtained in the current study were found to be comparable to those obtained from earthquake data for a limited number of seismic stations located on uplifted areas; however the values on the valley region may not reflect their true amplification potential due to basin effects. Our study highlights the practical usefulness as well as limitations of the H/V method to study complex geological settings as Kachchh.

  10. Kinematic Analysis of Cell Division and Expansion: Quantifying the Cellular Basis of Growth and Sampling Developmental Zones in Zea mays Leaves. (United States)

    Sprangers, Katrien; Avramova, Viktoriya; Beemster, Gerrit T S


    Growth analyses are often used in plant science to investigate contrasting genotypes and the effect of environmental conditions. The cellular aspect of these analyses is of crucial importance, because growth is driven by cell division and cell elongation. Kinematic analysis represents a methodology to quantify these two processes. Moreover, this technique is easy to use in non-specialized laboratories. Here, we present a protocol for performing a kinematic analysis in monocotyledonous maize (Zea mays) leaves. Two aspects are presented: (1) the quantification of cell division and expansion parameters, and (2) the determination of the location of the developmental zones. This could serve as a basis for sampling design and/or could be useful for data interpretation of biochemical and molecular measurements with high spatial resolution in the leaf growth zone. The growth zone of maize leaves is harvested during steady-state growth. Individual leaves are used for meristem length determination using a DAPI stain and cell-length profiles using DIC microscopy. The protocol is suited for emerged monocotyledonous leaves harvested during steady-state growth, with growth zones spanning at least several centimeters. To improve the understanding of plant growth regulation, data on growth and molecular studies must be combined. Therefore, an important advantage of kinematic analysis is the possibility to correlate changes at the molecular level to well-defined stages of cellular development. Furthermore, it allows for a more focused sampling of specified developmental stages, which is useful in case of limited budget or time.

  11. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K


    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  12. Vertical zonality of septal nectaries of Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnastasiya Odintsova


    Full Text Available Considering the septal nectary as a system of exogenous cavities inside the ovary and taking account of possibilities of various ways of the formation of nectary walls we propose to apply the concept of vertical zonality to the analysis of the septal nectary structure. The comparative analysis of the gynoecium with septal nectaries must include data about the nectary vertical zones and its location in the structural zones of the gynoecium.

  13. Geospatial database of the study boundary, sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Button, Daniel T.; Baker, Nancy T.; Burley, Thomas E.; Van Metre, Peter C.


    In 2013, the first of several Regional Stream Quality Assessments (RSQA) was done in the Midwest United States. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) was a collaborative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA), the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). One of the objectives of the RSQA, and thus the MSQA, is to characterize the relationships between water-quality stressors and stream ecology and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic biota within the streams (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). To meet this objective, a framework of fundamental geospatial data was required to develop physical and anthropogenic characteristics of the study region, sampled sites and corresponding watersheds, and riparian zones. This dataset is composed of the four fundamental geospatial data layers that were developed for the Midwest study: 1) study boundary, 2) sampled sites, 3) watershed boundaries, and 4) riparian-zone boundaries.References cited:Nakagaki, N., Qi, S.L., and Baker, N.T., 2016, Selected environmental characteristics of sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment: U.S. Geological Survey data release, Geological Survey, 2012, The Midwest stream quality assessment: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3124, 2 p.

  14. Preliminary results of high resolution subbottom survey and surface sediment sampling by ROV "NSS" in the Nankai subduction zone off Kumano (United States)

    Ashi, J.; Kh-10-3 Science Party


    The Nankai subduction zone off Kumano has been extensively investigated for site surveys of IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) by bathymetirc survey, 2D and 3D seismic reflection survey, dive observation and sidescan sonar survey. However, subbottom profiling and surface sediment sampling were limited due to steep and complex topography under strong Kuroshio Current. We carried out deep-tow subbottom survey and pinpoint core sampling by ROV "NSS (Navigable Sampling System)" of Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the Univ. Tokyo during Hakuho-maru KH-10-3 cruise. A pilot vehicle of NSS is equipped with four thrusters, observation cameras and a hock for a heavy payload. Depth capability of the pilot vehicle is 4000 m and maximum payload weight is 1.5 tons. We introduced a chirp subbottom profiling system of EdgeTech DW-106 for high resolution mapping of shallow structures and determination of a sampling point on this year's survey. Three survey lines crossed the splay fault area around IODP drilling sites. Subbottom profiles show that seafloor is completely covered by stratified sediments and any fault displacement cannot be identified although maximum penetration of chirp signal is only 15 meters in prism slope regions. In contrast, landward progressive tilting of slope basin sediments and talus deposits on it are well imaged along the steep scarp 30 km southwest of the drilling sites. Dense chemosynthetic biological community revealed by camera observations also suggests existence of active fault in this area. The scarp more gentle slope than the above is located 4 kilometers trenchward of it. Subbottom profiles show well-stratified sediment cover without fault deformation. Seismic reflection profiles and existence of dense traces of bivalves, however, suggest existence of a splay fault beneath it. A long-term heat flow meter of ERI, Univ. Tokyo was installed at each fault scarp for monitoring of cold seep activity. We also present

  15. Identification and verification of ultrafine particle affinity zones in urban neighbourhoods: sample design and data pre-processing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harris, Paul


    A methodology is presented and validated through which long-term fixed site air quality measurements are used to characterise and remove temporal signals in sample-based measurements which have good spatial coverage but poor temporal resolution. The work has been carried out specifically to provide a spatial dataset of atmospheric ultrafine particle (UFP < 100 nm) data for ongoing epidemiologic cohort analysis but the method is readily transferable to wider epidemiologic investigations and research into the health effects of other pollutant species.

  16. Determination of total sulfite in wine. Zone electrophoresis-isotachophoresis quantitation of sulfate on a chip after an in-sample oxidation of total sulfite. (United States)

    Masár, Marián; Danková, Mariana; Olvecká, Eva; Stachurová, Adela; Kaniansky, Dusan; Stanislawski, Bernd


    This work deals with the determination of total sulfite in wine. The determination combines an in-sample hydrogen peroxide oxidation of total sulfite in alkalized wine to sulfate with the separation and quantitation of the latter anion by zone electrophoresis (ZE) on-line coupled with isotachophoresis (ITP) on a column-coupling chip. Sample clean up, integrated into the ITP-ZE separation, eliminated wine matrix in an extent comparable to that provided by a highly selective distillation isolation of sulfite. At the same time, conductivity detection, employed to the detection of sulfate in the ZE stage of the ITP-ZE combination, provided for sulfate the concentration limit of detection corresponding to a 90 microg/l concentration of sulfite in the loaded sample (0.9 microl). Such a detectability allowed a reproducible quantitation of total sulfite when its concentration in wine was 15 mg/l. Formaldehyde binding of free sulfite in wine, included into the pre-column sample preparation, prevented an uncontrolled oxidation of this sulfite form. This step contributed to an unbiased determination of sulfate present in the original wine sample (this determination corrected for the concentration of sulfate determined in the sample after the peroxide oxidation of sulfite to the value equivalent to the total sulfite). The 99-101% recoveries of sulfite, determined for appropriately spiked wine samples, indicate a very good accuracy of the present method. Such a statement also supports excellent agreements of the results of quantitation based on the in-sample peroxide oxidation of the total sulfite (bound sulfite released at a high pH) with those in which this analyte was isolated from wine by distillation (bound sulfite released at a very low pH).

  17. Characterizing fallout material using Cs and Pu atom ratios in environmental samples from the FDNPP fallout zone (United States)

    Richards, David; Dunne, James; Martin, Peter; Scott, Tom; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Coath, Chris; Chen, Hart


    Here we report the use of combined of Cs and Pu isotope measurements to investigate the extensive plumes of radioactive fallout from the disaster at Fukishima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNDPP) in March 2011. Among the aims of our study are improved assessment of the physico-chemical nature and changing distribution of land-based fallout. 135Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs atom ratios are indicative of conditions that relate to the nuclear fission reactions responsible for producing the respective radiocaesium isotopes, and offer much more in terms of forensic and chronological analysis than monitoring 137Cs alone. We briefly present methods to quantify the atom ratios of Cs and Pu isotopes in soil, lichen and moss samples from FDNPP catchment using mass spectrometry (ThermoTRITON for Cs and ThermoNEPTUNE for Pu). High precision data from Fukushima are presented (e.g decay corrected 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio = 0.384 ± 0.001 (n = 5) for roadside dust from Iitate region), and these are in agreement with prelimary estimates by others. We also confirm results for IAEA-330, a spinach sample collected from Polesskoe, Ukraine and subject to contamination from the Chernobyl accident. In addition to Cs isotopes, we adopt Pu isotopes to add a further dimension to the forensic analysis. We discuss the corrections required for background levels prior to the disaster, possibility for multiple components of fallout and complicating factors associated with remobilisation during the clean-up operation. In parallel with this work on digests and leaches from bulk environmental samples, we are refining methods for particle identification, isolation and characterisation using a complementary sequence of cutting-edge materials and manipulation techniques, including combined electron microscopy, focused ion beam techniques (Dualbeam), nano/micro manipulators and nano-scale imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NanoESCA) and microCT.

  18. The postnatal development of cerebellar Purkinje cells in the Gottingen minipig estimated with a new stereological sampling technique--the vertical bar fractionator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Nielsen, Rune


    The postnatal development of total number and perikaryon volume of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated in the Gottingen minipig cerebellar cortex using a new stereological approach, the vertical bar fractionator. Data were obtained from the brains of five neonate and five adult female Gottingen...... minipigs. The total number of Purkinje cells ranged from 1.83 x 10(6) in the neonate to 2.82 x 10(6) in the adult Gottingen minipig. The number-weighted mean perikaryon volume of Purkinje cells increased concurrently from around 6,800 microm(3) in the neonate to 17,600 microm(3) in the adult. The study...... demonstrates that a pronounced postnatal neurogenesis in Purkinje cell number and perikaryon volume is part of the growth and development of the cerebellum in the Gottingen minipig. The Purkinje cells of the Gottingen minipig were found to be substantially large compared with human and represents the largest...

  19. Influence of management of variables, sampling zones and land units on LR analysis for landslide spatial prevision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco


    Full Text Available Several authors, according to different methodological approaches, have employed logistic Regression (LR, a multivariate statistical analysis adopted to assess the spatial probability of landslide, even though its fundamental principles have remained unaltered. This study aims at assessing the influence of some of these methodological approaches on the performance of LR, through a series of sensitivity analyses developed over a test area of about 300 km2 in Calabria (southern Italy. In particular, four types of sampling (1 – the whole study area; 2 – transects running parallel to the general slope direction of the study area with a total surface of about 1/3 of the whole study area; 3 – buffers surrounding the phenomena with a 1/1 ratio between the stable and the unstable area; 4 – buffers surrounding the phenomena with a 1/2 ratio between the stable and the unstable area, two variable coding modes (1 – grouped variables; 2 – binary variables, and two types of elementary land (1 – cells units; 2 – slope units units have been tested. The obtained results must be considered as statistically relevant in all cases (Aroc values > 70%, thus confirming the soundness of the LR analysis which maintains high predictive capacities notwithstanding the features of input data. As for the area under investigation, the best performing methodological choices are the following: (i transects produced the best results (0 P(y ≤ 93.4%; Aroc = 79.5%; (ii as for sampling modalities, binary variables (0 P(y ≤ 98.3%; Aroc = 80.7% provide better performance than ordinated variables; (iii as for the choice of elementary land units, slope units (0 P(y ≤ 100%; Aroc = 84.2% have obtained better results than cells matrix.

  20. Influence of management of variables, sampling zones and land units on LR analysis for landslide spatial prevision (United States)

    Greco, R.; Sorriso-Valvo, M.


    Several authors, according to different methodological approaches, have employed logistic Regression (LR), a multivariate statistical analysis adopted to assess the spatial probability of landslide, even though its fundamental principles have remained unaltered. This study aims at assessing the influence of some of these methodological approaches on the performance of LR, through a series of sensitivity analyses developed over a test area of about 300 km2 in Calabria (southern Italy). In particular, four types of sampling (1 - the whole study area; 2 - transects running parallel to the general slope direction of the study area with a total surface of about 1/3 of the whole study area; 3 - buffers surrounding the phenomena with a 1/1 ratio between the stable and the unstable area; 4 - buffers surrounding the phenomena with a 1/2 ratio between the stable and the unstable area), two variable coding modes (1 - grouped variables; 2 - binary variables), and two types of elementary land (1 - cells units; 2 - slope units) units have been tested. The obtained results must be considered as statistically relevant in all cases (Aroc values > 70%), thus confirming the soundness of the LR analysis which maintains high predictive capacities notwithstanding the features of input data. As for the area under investigation, the best performing methodological choices are the following: (i) transects produced the best results (0 < P(y) ≤ 93.4%; Aroc = 79.5%); (ii) as for sampling modalities, binary variables (0 < P(y) ≤ 98.3%; Aroc = 80.7%) provide better performance than ordinated variables; (iii) as for the choice of elementary land units, slope units (0 < P(y) ≤ 100%; Aroc = 84.2%) have obtained better results than cells matrix.

  1. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)


    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  2. Determination of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in human serum with capillary zone electrophoresis. Sample preparation strategies for the removal of interferences caused by increased levels of immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Lanz, Christian; Falmagne, Jean-Bernard; de l'Escaille, François; Marti, Ulrich; Thormann, Wolfgang


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in fused-silica capillaries is an effective analytical approach for the separation and determination of the transferrin (Tf) isoforms and thus carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in human serum. Sera of patients with progressed liver cirrhosis are prone to interferences in the beta region which prevent the proper determination of CDT by CZE without additional sample preparation. Efforts to identify, reduce or even eliminate these interferences have been undertaken. Data obtained by ultrafiltration, affinity subtraction procedures using protein A, protein L and antibodies against immunoglobulins or Tf, and immunopurification of Tf suggest that the interferences in the patient sera are caused by increased levels of IgA and IgM and are best eliminated by immunopurification. Avian IgY antibody spin column immunocapture of serum Tf followed by CZE analysis of the stripped and concentrated fraction is shown to provide an attractive approach for CDT monitoring in sera with beta region interferences.

  3. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone. (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota


    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark


    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results...

  5. Vertical Distribution and Estimated Doses from Artificial Radionuclides in Soil Samples around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site


    Yasuyuki Taira; Naomi Hayashida; Rimi Tsuchiya; Hitoshi Yamaguchi; Jumpei Takahashi; Alexander Kazlovsky; Marat Urazalin; Tolebay Rakhypbekov; Shunichi Yamashita; Noboru Takamura


    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radi...

  6. Transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity and ultraviolet detection for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel samples. (United States)

    Abdul Keyon, Aemi S; Guijt, Rosanne M; Bolch, Christopher J S; Breadmore, Michael C


    The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early, on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C(4)D and 141 to 461 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an 8-97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n=3) of tITP-CZE-C(4)D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82-11% and 0.76-10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  8. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site. (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru


    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  9. Safety Zones (United States)

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  10. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China): MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory-derived NO emission from soil samples (United States)

    Mamtimin, B.; Behrendt, T.; Badawy, M. M.; Wagner, T.; Qi, Y.; Wu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.


    We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis centre, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature of Milan oasis (iii) different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert) were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport) was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three-dimensional (3-D) NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution) have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modelled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration) of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical) NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory-derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2) to the size of an entire agricultural

  11. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China): MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory derived NO emission from soil samples (United States)

    Mamtimin, B.; Behrendt, T.; Badawy, M. M.; Wagner, T.; Qi, Y.; Wu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.


    We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW-China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis center, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature of Milan oasis' (iii) different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert) were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol-Transport) was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three dimensional NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution) have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modeled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration) of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical) NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2) to the size of an entire agricultural

  12. Time-lapse resistivity measurements combined with soil water sampling to characterize solute movement in the unsaturated zone at Oslo airport, Gardermoen (United States)

    Bloem, E.; French, H. K.; Binley, A.; Schotanus, D.; Eggen, G.


    Pollution of soils is a widespread problem and is an important part of the still to be implemented Soil Directive (EU). To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies for natural attenuation, we require a better understanding of the effect of soil heterogeneity on contaminant movement and methods for monitoring the effects of this heterogeneity at contaminated sites. Geophysical methods provide indirect measurements of subsurface properties over larger volumes than tradition techniques, and are potentially cost-efficient. However, the usefulness of any individual set of geophysical measurements (akin to a snapshot at one point in time) is severely limited by the problem of non-uniqueness or ambiguity when used to study contaminated sites, where the attendant processes vary in space and time. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate quasi field-scale, extensively instrumented tools, such as the multi-compartment sampler, with non-invasive (geophysical) and invasive (soil sampling, soil water sampling) methods. We illustrate this approach in an application to solute transport at Oslo airport, Norway. The impact of annual infiltration of large quantities of de-icing chemicals at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, represents common challenge for all airports with winter frost. It is also similar to the challenge posed by de-icing salt application along roads. At the research field station at Gardermoen, a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer were added to the snow cover prior to snowmelt and to the surface during an irrigation experiment performed after the snowmelt. In order to link geophysical measurements to solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone, time-lapse cross borehole resistivity as well as surface resistivity measurements were conducted at the same time as soil water samples were extracted. Measurements of soil temperature, and tension were also carried

  13. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence. (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A


    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  14. Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Density in Relation to Land Use/Cover, Altitude and Slope Aspect in the Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Dorji


    Full Text Available In-depth understanding about the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC density is crucial for carbon (C accounting, C budgeting and designing appropriate C sequestration strategies. We examined the vertical distribution of SOC density under different land use/land cover (LULC types, altitudinal zones and aspect directions in a montane ecosystem of Bhutan. Sampling sites were located using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS scheme. Soils were sampled based on genetic horizons. An equal-area spline function was fitted to interpolate the target values to predetermined depths. Linear mixed model was fitted followed by mean separation tests. The results show some significant effects of LULC, altitudinal zone and slope aspect on the vertical distribution of SOC density in the profiles. Based on the proportion of mean SOC density in the first 20 cm relative to the cumulative mean SOC density in the top meter, the SOC density under agricultural lands (34% was more homogeneously distributed down the profiles than forests (39%, grasslands (59% and shrublands (43%. Similarly, the SOC density under 3500–4000 m zone (35% was more uniformly distributed compared to 3000–3500 m zone (43% and 1769–2500 m and 2500–3000 m zones (41% each. Under different aspect directions, the north and east-facing slopes (38% each had more uniform distribution of SOC density than south (40% and west-facing slopes (49%.

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU


    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Vertical distribution of epiphytic bryophytes in Atlantic Forest fragments in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The microclimatic gradient established from the forest understory to the canopy provides a range of different conditions for the establishment of bryophytes along the height of a tree. We investigated epiphytic bryophyte communities of four fragments of Atlantic Forest with the aim of describing their vertical zonation and assessing differentiation among the communities of the different fragments. In each fragment, five host trees were selected from which bryophyte samples were collected in four height zones from the base to the canopy. Furthermore, 10 plots were demarcated in each fragment where bryophytes were collected from the understory. In total, 114 bryophyte species were found on the 20 sampled phorophytes, plus an additional 51 species in the understory, for a total of 165 species. Species composition of height zones differed significantly between communities of the trunk base and the canopy. The samples from the understory included 77% of all species. Among all species found, 10 showed a significant preference for a specific height. Around 70% of the bryophyte species grew as mats; this life form occurred in all trees and height zones. The results showed a weak, yet significant, vertical gradient, which differs from what is usually found in the Atlantic Forest.

  17. Hydraulic Features of the Excavation Disturbed Zone - Laboratory investigations of samples taken from the Q- and S-tunnels at Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Brinkhoff, Petra; Gustafson, Gunnar; Kvartsberg, Sara (Div. of GeoEngineering, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    The general aim of the project has been to contribute to the SKB safety and assessment analysis with realistic figures of hydraulic properties in an excavation disturbed zone. The project had the following more detailed objectives: - Develop a laboratory method to determine fracture transmissivity under water-saturated conditions. - Provide magnitudes for realistic values for fracture transmissivity in the disturbed or damaged zone due to excavation. - Map micro cracks radially from the tunnel wall. - Map the spread of matrix porosity radially from the tunnel wall. - Develop single-hole hydraulic testing methodology in tunnel wall for saturated conditions. - Integration of fracture geometries and transmissivity investigations for conceptual hydraulic modelling of the bedrock along a tunnel wall


    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  19. On the significance of nitrification within the euphotic zone of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland basin) during summer 2007 (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C.


    The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite was investigated within surface waters (< 125 m) of the sub-polar North Atlantic (~ 60°N, 20°W) during late summer 2007. Sampling occurred within a mesoscale eddy dipole system and a definite bias towards waters beneath the euphotic zone as the focus for nitrification was evident. The patchy occurrence of significant nitrification rates within the euphotic zone is interpreted as providing minimal indication for widespread nitrification within surface waters of the sub-polar gyre. However, isolated occurrences of significant nitrification rates within the euphotic zone above the cyclonic eddy were sufficient to account for observed in-situ NO 3-concentrations. It is proposed that the deeper mixed layer associated with the cyclonic eddy enhanced the likelihood of nitrification within the euphotic zone through the vertical displacement of sub-euphotic zone bacterial communities.

  20. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson


    The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

  1. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation


    Ramaré, S.; Lazennec, J. Y.; Camelot, C.; Saillant, G.; Hansen, S.; Trabelsi, R.


    An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.

  2. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan


    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  3. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper


    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  4. Composition of vertical gardens


    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina


    Vertical gardens are fully functional gardens in areas where there is less oxygen and space, ideal for residential and urban cities where there is no vegetation; occupy a special place in interiors furniture. The gardens occupy an important aesthetic problem. Aesthetic task in vertical gardens can be achieved by forming sectors of identification in the urban landscape through the choice of a particular plant spatial composition and composition, to create comfort and representation in commu...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hb"'/ H“ —_'~. Fig. l: Schematic plan showing the incident wave and subsequent breaking in the nearshore zone. The still-water line indicates the mean water level and .... obtained by taking the square of the high frequency velocity components.

  6. Sampling and analysis of marine particles with PEBENOCO (Pelagic-Benthic Coupling in the Norwegian Coastal Zone), University of Tromsø,Norway (United States)

    Wassmann, Paul

    The sampling and analysis of bioelements at the University of Tromsø are more or less carried out according to standard methods. These can be studied in the literature cited in this contribution and are discussed in the workshop report of this chapter. Below, more emphasis will be given to deviations from these standard methods. Water column sampling is done with PVC-Niskin bottles (singular or on rosette) at fixed depths throughout the water column or at depths which have been chosen following the examination of water column structure such as density and in vivo fluorescence.

  7. The vertical distribution and abundance of gastropods and bivalves from rocky beaches of Cuastecomate Bay, Jalisco, México. (United States)

    Esqueda, M C; Ríos-Jara, E; Michel-Morfín, J E; Landa-Jaime, V


    The vertical distribution and abundance of conspicuous gastropod and bivalve species were studied at five rocky beaches in Cuastecomate Bay, Jalisco. Sampling was done from September, 1993 through March, 1994 with 0.75 m2 quadrants placed along replicate transect lines (10 m long) in the supralittoral and mesolittoral (upper, middle and lower intertidal) zones. A total of 6,643 mollusks were collected. Gastropods dominated the samples (6,272 individuals, 44 species); the bivalves were less abundant and diverse (371 individuals, five species). Seventeen species comprised 89.8% of all individuals collected. The gastropods Nodilittorina aspera and Nerita scabricosta were the most abundant with 637.8 and 71.43 individuals/m2, respectively. The most abundant bivalves were Brachidontes adamsianus and Chloromytilus palliopunctatus with 60.7 and 61.3 individuals/m2 respectively. The abundance of gastropods decreased from the supralittoral to the lower tidal zones while the number of species increased in the same direction. The number of species of bivalves also increased from the supralittoral to the lower intertidal zone; the abundance of individuals was higher at the middle intertidal zone. Affinities between groups of species among sampling stations were identified by computing Pearson's correlation coefficient using abundance values (ind./m2) and Jaccard's dissimilarity index using species presence or absence in the lower intertidal zone. Affinity among stations was not dependent upon their vicinity but on the high dominance of few species, the occurrence of many secondary species and beach characteristics.

  8. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds as Indicators of Change in a Deep Arid Unsaturated Zone, Amargosa Desert, USA (United States)

    Green, C. T.; Baker, R. J.; Luo, W.; Andraski, B. J.; Haase, K.; Stonestrom, D. A.


    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are important agents in atmospheric chemistry, climatic forcing, plant physiology, and ecologic signaling. Despite a marked increase in scientific attention to bVOCs since the 1990s, relatively little is known about bVOC dynamics in soils and virtually nothing is known about bVOCs in deep unsaturated zones. The goal of this study was to systematically explore subsurface bVOCs through characterization and analysis of deep unsaturated zone VOCs in an arid setting. A wide range of VOCs have been sampled from the unsaturated zone at the Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) at least annually for over a decade in the vicinity of a hazardous waste repository in southwestern Nevada. Grid- and transect-based soil gas samples were collected at shallow (0.5-m and 1.5-m) depths, and vertical arrays of samples were collected from three unsaturated zone boreholes ( 10m intervals from 0 to 110 m below ground surface), one of which is in an undisturbed area 3000 m from the waste repository. The VOC data were analyzed to identify bVOCs and processes related to bVOC transport in the deep unsaturated zone. Locally generated bVOCs were identified on the basis of (1) frequency of detections at the remote borehole location, (2) patterns of distribution in shallow unsaturated zone samples around the waste repository, (3) comparisons with atmospheric concentrations, and (4) comparisons with travel blank samples. Several dozen compounds met the criteria to be characterized as bVOCs. The relatively abundant compound m,p-xylene was selected as a tracer for subsequent modeling analysis of vertical and horizontal transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Targeted processes comprised (1) changes in vertical bVOC profiles as a result of ecological shifts, and (2) predominantly horizontal transport of unsaturated-zone gases following installation of the low level nuclear waste repository at the ADRS. To the best of our knowledge the results document

  9. Transmissivity and water quality of water-producing zones in the intermediate aquifer system, Sarasota County, Florida (United States)

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia


    The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2

  10. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  11. Effects of fluid-rock interactions on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from fault rock samples retrieved from international drilling projects (United States)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Yabe, Y.; Sulem, J.; Dresen, G. H.


    Chemical and mechanical effects of fluids influence the fault mechanical behavior. We analyzed fresh fault rocks from several scientific drilling projects to study the effects of fluids on fault strength. For example, in drill core samples on a rupture plane of an Mw 2.2 earthquake in a deep gold mine in South Africa the main shock occurred on a preexisting plane of weakness that was formed by fluid-rock interaction (magnesiohornblende was intensively altered to chlinochlore). The plane acted as conduit for hydrothermal fluids at some time in the past. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault core samples from SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes and healing were initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. Newly formed phyllosilicates growing into open pore spaces likely reduced the fluid permeability. The mechanical influence of fluids is indicated by TEM observations, which document open pores that formed in-situ in the gouge material during or after deformation. Pores were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting elevated fluid pressure preventing pore collapse. Fluid-driven healing of fractures in samples from SAFOD and the DGLab Gulf of Corinth project is visible in cementation. Cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) reveals different generations of calcite veins. Differences in CL-colors suggest repeated infiltration of fluids with different chemical composition from varying sources (formation and meteoric water).

  12. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  13. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen


    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...... this strategic behavior, yields better market performance than Cournot beliefs...

  14. Hunting Voronoi vertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrucci, V.; Overmars, Mark; Rao, A.; Vleugels, J.


    Given three objects in the plane, a Voronoi vertex is a point that is equidistant simultaneously from each. In this paper, we consider the problem of computing Voronoi vertices for planar objects of xed but possibly unknown shape; we only require the ability to query the closest point on an object

  15. Vertical shaft windmill (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)


    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  16. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkungwal Jaranit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  17. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.


    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  18. Vertical gastroplasty: evolution of vertical banded gastroplasty. (United States)

    Mason, E E; Doherty, C; Cullen, J J; Scott, D; Rodriguez, E M; Maher, J W


    The objective of this paper is to summarize the goals, technical requirements, advantages, and potential risks of gastroplasty for treatment of severe obesity. Gastroplasty is preferred to more complex operations, as it preserves normal digestion and absorption and avoids complications that are peculiar to exclusion operations. The medical literature and a 30-year experience at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) provides an overview of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) evolution. Preliminary 10-year results with the VBG technique currently used at UIHC are included. At UIHC the VBG is preferred to other gastroplasties because it provides weight control that extends for at least 10 years and the required objective, intraoperative quality control required for a low rate of reoperation. It is recommended that modifications of the operative technique not be attempted until a surgeon has had experience with the standardized operation--and then only under a carefully designed protocol. Realistic goals for surgery and criteria of success influence the choice of operation and the optimum, lifelong risk/benefit ratio. In conclusion, VBG is a safe, long-term effective operation for severe obesity with advantages over complex operations and more restrictive simple operations.

  19. A one-dimensional model of vertical stratification of Lake Shira focussed on winter conditions and ice cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genova, S.N.; Belolipetsky, V.M.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Degermendzhy, A.G.; Mooij, W.M.


    In meromictic lakes such as Lake Shira, horizontal inhomogeneity is small in comparison with vertical gradients. To determine the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, and density of water in a deep zone of a Lake Shira, or other saline lakes, a one-dimensional (in vertical direction)

  20. Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...... in the zone above the occupied zone. A model to calculate the two air temperatures has been developed and implemented in Suncode- PC, a thermal analysis programme for residential and small commercial buildings. The dimensionless temperature profile based on measurements in a laboratory test room is presented...

  1. (ajst) vertical hydrochemical profiles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flows from a potentiometric dome (35 m) located South. East towards the north (in Louga area), the west and into the ocean and the limestone aquifer in the East. Under natural conditions, the aquifer system recharges by rainfall infiltration mainly at the potentiometric dome zone. The natural discharge occurs by lateral flow ...

  2. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  3. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D


    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  4. Analytical testing of the electrical sensing zone (ESZ) - method for the quantitation of particles in ground, surface and artificial water - laboratory and field sampling investigations; Analytische Erprobung der Electrical Sensing Zone (ESZ) - Methode fuer die Quantifizierung von Partikeln in Grund-, Oberflaechen- und Modellwasser - Labor- und Felduntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Schneider, P. [Hydroisotop-Piewak GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Eckardt, L. [C and E - Consulting und Engineering GmbH, Fachbereich Umweltlabor/Biotechnologie, Chemnitz-Gruena (Germany); Kuhn, K.; Lankau, R.; Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Referat Grundwasser, Dresden (Germany)


    Particles, included in the three environmental spheres of the Earth, are important components in water, soil and atmosphere. There is a wide-spread distribution of particles with a diameter between 0.5 {mu}m and 200 {mu}m in ground water, where they can play an active role as solid matter due to their immense surface and multivalent hydrochemical functions. Measurements of the number, volume and size distribution of particles were carried out after ground water sampling from aquifer by pumping and from surface water by dipping. Laboratory investigations using a Coulter trademark -Counter-instrument (Multisizer II), based on the electrical sensing zone (ESZ)-principle, were done for measuring particles in groundwater samples in Central Europe for the first time. Sampling in the field was carried out by pumping tests in boreholes situated in porous aquifers in the Freestate of Saxony (Germany). At the beginning of the tests marginal conditions of particle sampling like the interaction of oxidable ions like Fe(II) and Mn(II) with oxygen during contact of the groundwater samples with air or the influence of atmospheric born particles were analyzed. Besides some possibilities of chemical induced stabilization of the samples were discussed and technical protection systems tested. The following parameters were investigated by using the ESZ-method for particle detection and their influences to the total error of the whole method were analyzed: sample preparation using supersonics, reproducibility of the measuring results and standard deviation as well as effects of sample dilution. Marginal conditions of sample splitting, dilution, and storage as well as the influence of micro-biological growth and propagation were examinated. The magnitude of error of the analytical ESZ-method, following by the different and relevant influence factors were found about 2% or 4%. For that reason, the resulting error of the whole analytical laboratory method is not higher than 10%. All

  5. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries


    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  6. Vertical migration and diel feeding periodicity of the skinnycheek lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind


    The vertical migration and diel feeding periodicity of the skinnycheek lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum) were studied by use of a hull-mounted 38 kHz echo sounder, ROV-deployments and net-sampling at two locations (∼24°48′N, ∼36°15′E and ∼21°27′N, ∼38°5′E) in the central Red Sea. The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an unusual environment with very high temperatures (∼22 °C) and low zooplankton concentrations (<10 individuals m−3 below 600 m). The skinnycheek lanternfish performed normal diel vertical migration from ∼500 to 750 m during daytime to the epipelagic zone (upper ∼200 m) at night. A strict feeding periodicity occurred; with the skinnycheek lanternfish foraging on zooplankton throughout the night, while rapidly digesting the preceding nocturnal meal in the warm mesopelagic region. We hypothesize that the constrained epipelagic distribution of zooplankton and the unusual warm waters of the Red Sea force the whole population to ascend and feed in epipelagic waters every night, as the prey-ration eaten each night is fully digested at mesopelagic depths during daytime.

  7. Life zone investigations in Wyoming (United States)

    Cary, Merritt


    Wyoming is among the foremost of our States in its wealth of natural scenery, culminating in the grandeur of Yellowstone National Park, one of the wonders of the world. In addition to this distinction it posseses vast open plains and lofty mountains whence flow the headwaters of mighty river systems emptying far away to the west into the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast into the Gulf of Mexico, and to the southwest into the Gulf of California. The various slope exposures of its mountain ranges, the fertility of its intervening valleys or basins, and the aridity of its desert spaces present a study of geographic and vertical distribution of wild life that is in many particulars unique.The study of geographic and vertical distribution of life with the governing factors and attendant problems is valuable as a matter of scientific research and in the attainment of practical knowledge. The Biological Survey has been making detailed investigations of the transcontinental life belts, or zones, of North America for some years, and this work has been carried on with special reference to their practical value. It has become increasingly evident that life zones furnish a fairly accurate index to average climatic conditions and, therefore, are useful as marking the limits of agricultural possibilities, so far as these are dependent upon climate. The knowledge thus gained has been published and made available as the investigations have progressed and the life zones have been mapped.1

  8. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010 (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu


    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  9. Use of Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotope, Radiocarbon, 222Rn and Terrigenic 4He to Study the Geochemical Processes and the Mode of Vertical Leakage to the Gambier Basin Tertiary Confined Sand Aquifer, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne


    Full Text Available The mode of vertical recharge to aquifers is important to the application of appropriate recharge estimation methods. This study identifies the origin, geochemical evolution and mode of vertical leakage to the Gambier Basin confined aquifer, south east of South Australia. The recharge zone spans areas of the Glencoe-Nangwarry-Nagwarry (GNN. The Hundreds of Glencoe and Nangwarry are in South Australia, and the Parish of Nagwarry adjoins Nangwarry in western Victoria. The plot of stable isotopes of water molecules, δ2H versus δ18O, indicates that local rainfall with minor surface evaporation is the source of recharge. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicate that the sources of ions in the recharge zone groundwater are derived from carbonate and silicate weathering with cation exchange. The majority of water types (66% of samples within the South Australian part of the recharge zone show Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl due to carbonate dissolution processes, and about 83% of samples within the Victorian part of the recharge zone show Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl water types, indicating cation exchange or mixing with other waters. The influence of faults on vertical leakage was studied at eight sites located in the Nangwarry and Nagwarry area using electrical conductivity logging, measuring the concentration of radiocarbon activity, δ18O, 222Rn and terrigenic 4He in the vertical profiles. Results show that regardless of land use in the study area, the interconnection of the unconfined Tertiary limestone aquifer with the Tertiary confined sand aquifer occurs, via both diffuse and preferential flows. Thus, the application of conventional vertical leakage estimation methods using Darcy’s equation or the application of tracer techniques may be inappropriate unless the duality of the flow system is considered.

  10. Vertical geochemical profiling of an aquifer contaminated with JP-4 fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiasong; Barcelona, M.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Soil samples were collected at a site contaminated with jet fuel at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, and were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic acid metabolites, and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). Vertically in the source zone contaminant concentrations of alkylbenzenes (with C1-C4 substitutions) ranged from less than 1.0 to 21.69 {mu}g/kg away from water table to 2605.96 {mu}g/kg in samples taken at water table. Contamination decreased to less than 1.0 {mu}g/kg in downgradient zone. Aromatic acids of the fuel contaminants identified include o-, m-, and p-toluic acid, 2,5-, 3,5-, 2,6- and 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid, and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid, suggesting that the aromatic acid production was associated with the microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. PLFA ranging from C{sub 12} to C{sub 20} were determined in soil samples, including saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The only polyenic acid detected was 18:2w6, a biomarker for protozoa. The total microbial biomass calculated from PLFA in aquifer solid samples showed varied profiles with depth as well as at different locations at similar depths indicating considerable microbial heterogeneity in the subsurface over distance of less than 2 meters. The PLFA profiles also suggested that anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities dominate the biomass in the aquifer solids.

  11. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution (United States)

    Datta, Koushik


    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  12. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander


    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  13. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index......, an index of refraction of the second low-index layer or air being less than 2; and a thickness of the cap layer and a thickness of the grating layer, and a pitch and a duty cycle of the grating structure are selected to obtain a resonance having a free-space resonance wavelength in the interval 300 nm to 3...... microns, the cap layer comprises an active region configured to generate or absorb photons at the free-space resonance wavelength by stimulated emission or absorption when a sufficient forward or reverse bias voltage is applied across the active region, a thickness of the first low-index layer is less...

  14. β-Cyclodextrin enhanced on-line organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis for analysis of ambroxol in human plasma, following liquid-liquid extraction in the 96-well format. (United States)

    Li, Ji; Bi, Youwei; Wang, Li; Sun, Fanlu; Chen, Zhao; Xu, Guili; Fan, Guorong


    A field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method is described for the quantification of ambroxol hydrochloride in human plasma, following liquid-liquid extraction in the 96-well format. The separation was carried out at 25 °C in a 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 15 kV. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 6.25 mM borate-25 mM phosphate (pH 3.0) and 1mM β-cyclodextrin. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Clean-up and preconcentration of plasma biosamples were developed by 96-well format liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). In this study, FASS in combination with β-cyclodextrin enhanced the sensitivity about 60-70 fold in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and robustness. The calibration graph was linear for ambroxol hydrochloride from 2 to 500 ng/ml. The lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions of lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 9.61 and 11.80%, respectively. The method developed was successfully applied to the evaluation of clinical pharmacokinetic study of ambroxol hydrochloride tablet after oral administration to 12 healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent


    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  16. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones (United States)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.


    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  17. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  18. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction? (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold


    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea (United States)

    Reisser, J.; Slat, B.; Noble, K.; du Plessis, K.; Epp, M.; Proietti, M.; de Sonneville, J.; Becker, T.; Pattiaratchi, C.


    Millimeter-sized plastics are numerically abundant and widespread across the world's ocean surface. These buoyant macroscopic particles can be mixed within the upper water column due to turbulent transport. Models indicate that the largest decrease in their concentration occurs within the first few meters of water, where subsurface observations are very scarce. By using a new type of multi-level trawl at 12 sites within the North Atlantic accumulation zone, we measured concentrations and physical properties of plastics from the air-seawater interface to a depth of 5 m, at 0.5 m intervals. Our results show that plastic concentrations drop exponentially with water depth, but decay rates decrease with increasing Beaufort scale. Furthermore, smaller pieces presented lower rise velocities and were more susceptible to vertical transport. This resulted in higher depth decays of plastic mass concentration (mg m-3) than numerical concentration (pieces m-3). Further multi-level sampling of plastics will improve our ability to predict at-sea plastic load, size distribution, drifting pattern, and impact on marine species and habitats.

  20. Seismic coupling and uncoupling at subduction zones (United States)

    Ruff, L.; Kanamori, H.


    Some of the correlations concerning the properties of subduction zones are reviewed. A quantitative global comparison of many subduction zones reveals that the largest earthquakes occur in zones with young lithosphere and fast convergence rates. Maximum earthquake size is directly related to the asperity distribution on the fault plane. This observation can be translated into a simple model of seismic coupling where the horizontal compressive stress between two plates is proportional to the ratio of the summed asperity area to the total area of the contact surface. Plate age and rate can control asperity distribution directly through the horizontal compressive stress associated with the vertical and horizontal velocities of subducting slabs. The basalt to eclogite phase change in the down-going oceanic crust may be largely responsible for the uncoupling of subduction zones below a depth of about 40 km.

  1. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees


    Van Duzer, Anthony


    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  2. Vertical distributions of autumn spawned larval herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.; Brander, Keith; Munk, Peter


    Vertical distributions of autumn spawned herring larvae were sampled at 10 sites in the North Sea between October 1987 and March 1988 during the Autumn Circulation Experiment (ACE). Several different patterns of vertical migrations occurred. Diel variations in the vertical distributions were foun...

  3. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on lip positions at smile. (United States)

    Chou, Jang-Ching; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Aggarwal, Harshit A; Bosio, Jose A; Irelan, Jon P


    In complete mouth reconstructive dentistry, the occlusal vertical dimension may be increased to provide adequate restorative space or to improve esthetics. The effect of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension on the smile is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension on the dimensions of the smile. Thirty dental students, 12 men and 18 women between the ages of 21 and 30 years old, participated in this study. Polyvinyl siloxane occlusal registrations 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm in thickness were fabricated from articulated stone casts. Posed smile images at occlusal vertical dimension +0, +2, +4, +6, and +8 mm were made with a digital single lens reflex camera mounted on a tripod. A wall-mounted head-positioning device, modified from a cephalometric unit, was used to stabilize the head position. Interlabial gap height, intercommissural width, incisal edge to upper lip, and incisal edge-to-lower lip measurements were made with computer software. The smile index was obtained by dividing width by height. The display zone area was measured by using computer software tracing. One-way repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05) was used for statistical analysis. With an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension, the interlabial gap height, incisal edge to lower lip distance, and display zone area increased significantly (Pdimension. The smile index decreases with increased occlusal vertical dimension. However, the width of the smile and the length of the upper lip tend to remain unchanged. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  5. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs. (United States)

    Johns, Pat


    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich


    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  7. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  8. Vadose zone microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.


    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  9. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure


    Spiegel, Yossi


    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  10. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad


    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  11. Transient reflectivity on vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galimberti, Gianluca; Ponzoni, Stefano; Ferrini, Gabriele; Hofmann, Stephan; Arshad, Muhammad; Cepek, Cinzia; Pagliara, Stefania


    One-color transient reflectivity measurements are carried out on two different samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and compared with the response recently published on unaligned bundles. The negative sign of the optical response for both samples indicates that the free

  12. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.


    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of the Black Sea suboxic zone (United States)

    Glazer, Brian T.; Luther, George W.; Konovalov, Sergey K.; Friederich, Gernot E.; Trouwborst, Robert E.; Romanov, Alexander S.


    We coupled an in situ electrochemical analyzer to a CTD to conduct high-resolution, real-time profiling of redox species across the oxic-anoxic transition zone of the Black Sea water column. Voltammetry was performed using gold-amalgam working electrodes to measure simultaneously soluble oxygen and sulfur species (H 2S/HS -, Sx2-, S 8) at a resolution of greater than one measurement per meter. In situ data agreed with measurements made in an on-deck voltammetry flow cell coupled to a pump profiling system, and from water samples collected with conventional CTD rosette bottle casts. In situ voltammetric analyses provided rapid redox information, thus enabling more accurate targeting of specific geochemical features by the CTD rosette package. We observed much less lateral oxygen injection from the Bosphorus in 2003 (less than 95 km from Bosphorus) than in 2001 (up to 150 km). This difference can be attributed to variability in physical processes including seasonal temperature and wind variations between winter conditions (2003) and early summer conditions (2001). Furthermore, suboxic zone thickness varied basin-wide, exhibiting changes in the depth of oxygen extinction (minimum detection limit=3 μM) and sulfide onset (minimum detection limit=30 nM). The density surface for oxygen extinction was more variable than the density for the onset of sulfide. Vertical shifts in oxygen extinction and sulfide onset also were observed at the western central gyre station for seven profiles measured over 21 days in 2003.

  14. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children. (United States)

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia


    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano

  16. A Comparison between Horizontal and Vertical Interchannel Decorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gribben


    Full Text Available The perceptual effects of interchannel decorrelation on perceived image spread have been investigated subjectively in both horizontal and vertical stereophonic reproductions, looking specifically at the frequency dependency of decorrelation. Fourteen and thirteen subjects graded the horizontal and vertical image spreads of a pink noise sample, respectively. The pink noise signal had been decorrelated by a complementary comb-filter decorrelation algorithm, varying the frequency-band, time-delay and decorrelation factor for each sample. Results generally indicated that interchannel decorrelation had a significant effect on auditory image spread both horizontally and vertically, with spread increasing as correlation decreases. However, it was found that the effect of vertical decorrelation was less effective than that of horizontal decorrelation. The results also suggest that the decorrelation effect was frequency-dependent; changes in horizontal image spread were more apparent in the high frequency band, whereas those in vertical image spread were in the low band. Furthermore, objective analysis suggests that the perception of vertical image spread for the low and middle frequency bands could be associated with a floor reflection; whereas for the high band, the results appear to be related to spectral notches in the ear input signals.

  17. Development of an evaluation method for fracture mechanical tests on small samples based on a cohesive zone model; Entwicklung einer Auswertemethode fuer bruchmechanische Versuche an kleinen Proben auf der Basis eines Kohaesivzonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahler, Michael


    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants of the fourth generation is an important issue. It is based on a reliable interpretation of the components for which, among other fracture mechanical material properties are required. The existing irradiation in the power plants significantly affects the material properties which therefore need to be determined on irradiated material. Often only small amounts of irradiated material are available for characterization. In that case it is not possible to manufacture sufficiently large specimens, which are necessary for fracture mechanical testing in agreement with the standard. Small specimens must be used. From this follows the idea of this study, in which the fracture toughness can be predicted with the developed method based on tests of small specimens. For this purpose, the fracture process including the crack growth is described with a continuum mechanical approach using the finite element method and the cohesive zone model. The experiments on small specimens are used for parameter identification of the cohesive zone model. The two parameters of the cohesive zone model are determined by tensile tests on notched specimens (cohesive stress) and by parameter fitting to the fracture behavior of smalls specimens (cohesive energy). To account the different triaxialities of the specimens, the cohesive stress is used depending on the triaxiality. After parameter identification a large specimen can be simulated with the cohesive zone parameters derived from small specimens. The predicted fracture toughness of this big specimen fulfills the size requirements in the standard (ASTM E1820 or ASTM E399) in contrast to the small specimen. This method can be used for ductile and brittle material behavior and was validated in this work. In summary, this method offers the possibility to determine the fracture toughness indirectly based on small specimen testing. Main advantage is the low required specimen volume. Thereby massively

  18. Root Apex Transition Zone as Oscillatory Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Baluska


    Full Text Available Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command centre. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwins, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  19. Waves, circulation and vertical dependence (United States)

    Mellor, George


    Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper

  20. The response of streambed nitrogen cycling to spatial and temporal hyporheic vertical flux patterns and associated residence times (United States)

    Briggs, M. A.; Lautz, L. K.; Hare, D. K.


    Small beaver dams enhance the development of patchy micro-environments along the stream corridor by trapping sediment and creating complex streambed morphologies. This generates intricate hyporheic flux patterns that govern the exchange of oxygen and redox sensitive solutes between the water column and the streambed, and exert control on the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. Specifically, flowpaths from the stream into the subsurface with low residence times create oxic conditions that favor nitrification, while flowpaths with longer residence times become anoxic and favor denitrification. To investigate these processes we collected vertical profiles of pore water upstream of two beaver dams in Wyoming, USA at nine locations with varied morphology. We sampled pore water to the 0.55 m depth every week for five weeks as stream discharge dropped by 45% and subsequently measured concentrations of dissolved oxygen and several redox sensitive solutes, including nitrate. Additionally, estimates of hyporheic flux along these nine vertical profiles through time were made using high-resolution heat data combined with 1-D heat transport modeling. The data show that areas of rapid, deep hyporheic flux at the glides immediately upstream of the dams were oxygen rich, and were generally sites of moderate net nitrification to at least the 0.35 m depth. These conditions were relatively steady over the study period. Hyporheic zones at sediment bars closest to the dams were hotspots of nitrate production to a depth of 0.35 m, with nitrate concentrations increasing by as much as 400% as vertical flux fell sharply and residence times increased over the study period. In contrast, shallow bars farther upstream from the dams showed increasing fluxes and decreased residence times, which caused a shift from net denitrification to net nitrification over the period at shallow depths. These results support previous work indicating threshold behavior of nitrogen cycling in response to

  1. Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Du, Jianguo; Chen, Zhi; Cheng, Jianwu; Tang, Yi; Yang, Liming; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Liu, Lei; Yi, Li; Yang, Panxin; Li, Ying


    The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity.

  2. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.


    same depths interrogated by push hole C5602. Given that the deepest sample string analyzed from push hole C5602 contained trace activities of technetium-99, it is obvious that tank waste contamination has impacted the vadose zone to at least a depth of 92 ft bgs at this location. However, the scope of the sampling campaign was to acquire additional samples to better understand the aerial extent of contamination in the U Tank Farm; therefore, future characterization activities (i.e., a borehole) will be required to understand the total vertical depth of contamination at this location.

  3. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  4. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...

  5. Physics and the Vertical Jump (United States)

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.


    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  6. Multiservice Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Fang


    Full Text Available Future wireless networks must be able to coordinate services within a diverse-network environment. One of the challenging problems for coordination is vertical handoff, which is the decision for a mobile node to handoff between different types of networks. While traditional handoff is based on received signal strength comparisons, vertical handoff must evaluate additional factors, such as monetary cost, offered services, network conditions, and user preferences. In this paper, several optimizations are proposed for the execution of vertical handoff decision algorithms, with the goal of maximizing the quality of service experienced by each user. First, the concept of policy-based handoffs is discussed. Then, a multiservice vertical handoff decision algorithm (MUSE-VDA and cost function are introduced to judge target networks based on a variety of user- and network-valued metrics. Finally, a performance analysis demonstrates that significant gains in the ability to satisfy user requests for multiple simultaneous services and a more efficient use of resources can be achieved from the MUSE-VDA optimizations.

  7. Dilution in Transition Zone between Rising Plumes and Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    The papers presents some physical experiments with the dilution of sea outfall plumes with emphasize on the transition zone where the relative fast flowing vertical plume turns to a horizontal surface plume following the slow sea surface currents. The experiments show that a considerable dilution...

  8. Surf zone surface retention on a rip?channeled beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, A.J.H.M.; MacMahan, J.H.; Thornton, E.B.; Stanton, T.P.; Henriquez, M.; Brown, J.W.; Brown, J.A.; Gallagher, E.

    The retention of floating matter within the surf zone on a rip-channeled beach is examined with a combination of detailed field observations obtained during the Rip Current Experiment and a three-dimensional (3-D) wave and flow model. The acoustic Doppler current profiler–observed hourly vertical

  9. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of... (United States)


    ... standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. A preliminary... zones for Neptune consist of circular zones, each with a 500-meter radius and centered on each of...

  10. Vertical geochemical profiling of an aquifer contaminated with JP-4 fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiasong; Barcelona, M.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Soil samples were collected at a site contaminated with jet fuel at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, and were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic acid metabolites, and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). Vertically, concentrations of alkylbenzenes (with C1-C4 substitutions) ranged from less than 1.0 to 21.69 {mu}g/kg away from water table to 2605.96 {mu}g/kg in samples taken at water table in the contaminated areas. Contaminant concentration decreased to less than 1.0 {mu}g/kg in downgradient zone. Aromatic acid metabolites identified include o-, m-, and p-toluic acid, 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,5-, 2,6- and 3,4- dimethylbenzoic acid, and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid. The contaminant profiles paralleled to the concentration profiles of alkylbenzenes, suggesting that the production of aromatic acid was associated with the microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. PLFA ranging from C{sub 12} to C{sub 20} were determined in soil samples, including saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The only polyenoic acid detected was 18:2w6, a biomarker for protozoa. The total microbial biomass calculated from PLFA showed varied profiles within wells at different depths as well as at different wells at similar depths indicating considerable microbial heterogeneity in the subsurface over depths or lateral distance. The PLFA profiles also suggested a dominant anaerobic and aerobic microbial community in the aquifer solids.

  11. Influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and facial vertical dimensions in subjects with or without skeletal open bite (United States)

    Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Pérez-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mir, Carlos


    Summary Objectives: To determine the influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and dentofacial vertical dimensions in individuals with or without skeletal open bite (SOB). Materials and methods: Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 139 young adults were examined. The sample was divided into eight groups categorized according to their sagittal and vertical skeletal facial growth pattern and maxillary posterior discrepancy (present or absent). Upper molar vertical position, overbite, lower anterior facial height and facial height ratio were measured. Independent t-test was performed to determine differences between the groups considering maxillary posterior discrepancy. Principal component analysis and MANCOVA test were also used. Results: No statistically significant differences were found comparing the molar vertical position according to maxillary posterior discrepancy for the SOB Class I group or the group with adequate overbite. Significant differences were found in SOB Class II and Class III groups. In addition, an increased molar vertical position was found in the group without posterior discrepancy. Limitations: Some variables closely related with the individual’s intrinsic craniofacial development that could influence the evaluated vertical measurements were not considered. Conclusions and implications: Overall maxillary posterior discrepancy does not appear to have a clear impact on upper molar vertical position or facial vertical dimensions. Only the SOB Class III group without posterior discrepancy had a significant increased upper molar vertical position. PMID:26385786

  12. Influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and facial vertical dimensions in subjects with or without skeletal open bite. (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis Ernesto; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Pérez-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mir, Carlos


    To determine the influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and dentofacial vertical dimensions in individuals with or without skeletal open bite (SOB). Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 139 young adults were examined. The sample was divided into eight groups categorized according to their sagittal and vertical skeletal facial growth pattern and maxillary posterior discrepancy (present or absent). Upper molar vertical position, overbite, lower anterior facial height and facial height ratio were measured. Independent t-test was performed to determine differences between the groups considering maxillary posterior discrepancy. Principal component analysis and MANCOVA test were also used. No statistically significant differences were found comparing the molar vertical position according to maxillary posterior discrepancy for the SOB Class I group or the group with adequate overbite. Significant differences were found in SOB Class II and Class III groups. In addition, an increased molar vertical position was found in the group without posterior discrepancy. Some variables closely related with the individual's intrinsic craniofacial development that could influence the evaluated vertical measurements were not considered. Overall maxillary posterior discrepancy does not appear to have a clear impact on upper molar vertical position or facial vertical dimensions. Only the SOB Class III group without posterior discrepancy had a significant increased upper molar vertical position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  13. Delineation of site-specific management zones by fuzzy clustering of soil and topographic attributes: A case study of East Nile Delta, Egypt (United States)

    Saleh, A.; Belal, A. A.


    The objective of this study was to define site-specific management zones of 67.2 ha of a wheat pivot field at East of Nile Delta, Egypt for use in precision agriculture based on spatial variability of soil and topographic attributes. The field salinity was analysed by reading the apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) with the EM38 sensor horizontally and vertically at 432 locations. The field was sampled for soil attributes systematically with a total of 80 sampling location points. All samples were located using GPS hand held unit. Soil sampling for management zones included soil reaction pH, soil saturation percentage, organic matter, calcium carbonates content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. The field topographic attributes were digital elevation model (DEM), slope, profile curvature, plane curvature, compound topographic index (CTI) and power stream index (PSI). The maps of spatial variability of soil and field topographic attributes were generated using ordinary kriging geostatistical method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the most important soil and topographic attributes for representing within-field variability. Principal component analysis of input variables indicated that EM38 horizontal readings (EM38h), soil saturation percentage and digital elevation model were more important attributes for defining field management zones. The fuzzy c-means clustering method was used to divide the field into potential management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Measures of cluster performance indicated no advantage of dividing these fields into more than five management zones. The defined management zones not only provided a better description of the soil properties, but also can direct soil sampling design and provide valuable information for site-specific management in precision agriculture.

  14. Vertical habitat and behaviour of the bluntnose sixgill shark in Hawaii (United States)

    Comfort, Christina M.; Weng, Kevin C.


    Bluntnose sixgill sharks are apex predators and scavengers that are near-globally distributed in slope and shelf habitats, but many aspects of their behaviour and ecology are poorly understood. A better understanding of how oceanographic variables influence sixgill shark behaviour may help predict their distribution, response to increasing anthropogenic stressors including climate change, and role in ecosystems throughout their geographic range. We used satellite telemetry to observe the vertical behaviour of four bluntnose sixgill sharks in the subtropical oligotrophic waters of Hawaii. A strong diel vertical movement cycle was observed, with sharks spending nighttime in thermocline waters and descending into the oxygen minimum zone in daytime. Depth changes generally occurred between nautical twilight and sunrise/sunset. Dive initiation and dive completion were significantly correlated with nautical dawn and sunrise, respectively. A stepwise generalised estimating equations model was used to investigate vertical speeds in the daytime and nighttime depth habitats, and this analysis revealed that photic zone light level was the primary factor correlated with vertical speed. Outside of the depth transitions, higher vertical speeds were observed when photic zone light was low, suggesting more active foraging in the shallow nighttime habitat than the deep daytime habitat.

  15. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Lihua Cui; Gary Feng; John Read


    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) model for estimating phosphorus (P) removal in an artificial VFCW (i.e., a substrate column with six zones) grown...

  16. Mapping the Vertical Battlespace:Towards a Legal Cartography of Aerial Sovereignty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye


    Proliferating drone violence has instantiated the notion of an unbounded global battlespace. Mapping the vertical battlespace layered over the target zones of the imperial periphery discloses how antecedent legalities legitimate violence exercised exclusively from above, and reveals the imperial ...... cartographies that sanction the emergence of a novel form of aerial sovereignty....

  17. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos


    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  18. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  19. Vertical distribution of Arctic methane (United States)

    Tukiainen, Simo; Karppinen, Tomi; Hakkarainen, Janne; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Tamminen, Johanna


    In this study we show the vertical distribution of atmospheric methane (CH4) measured in Sodankylä, Northern Finland. The CH4 profiles are retrieved from the direct Sun FTS measurements using the dimension reduction retrieval method. In the retrieval method, we have a few degrees of freedom about the profile shape. The data set covers years 2010-2016 (from February to November) and altitudes 0-40 km. The retrieved FTS profiles are validated against ACE satellite measurements and AirCore balloon measurements. The total columns derived from the FTS profiles are compared to the official TCCON XCH4 data. A vertically resolved methane data set can be used, e.g., to study stratospheric methane during the polar vortex.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furia Donatella


    Full Text Available During the last decades, market segmentation and intra-industry trade have become increasingly relevant. The underlying hypothesis of our work is that distinct articles have heterogeneous potential for vertical differentiation, implying that different patterns of international specialization should be identifiable. We carry out an analysis on revealed comparative advantage (through the Lafay Index in specific sectors of interest. Then we highlight the emergence of diverse degrees of product quality differentiation among sectors (through the Relative Quality Index. Results confirm our hypothesis. Indeed it appears that only certain goods, for which the pace of either creative or technological innovation (or both is particularly fast, present a high degree of vertical differentiation and market segmentation. This allows countries to specialize in a particular product variety and gain market power position for that variety. These findings should be taken in due consideration when designing trade policies.

  1. Poligonación Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries


    Full Text Available La poligonación vertical es un método de medición de diferencias de altura que aprovecha las posibilidades de las estaciones totales. Se presta fundamentalmente para líneas de nivelación entre nodos formando red. El nombre se debe a que las visuales sucesivas se proyectan sobre aristas verticales en lugar de un plano horizontal, como ocurre en la poligonación convencional.

  2. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner (United States)


    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...mathematically complex and require training to operate the software. A Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) Excel (Microsoft Corporation, 2015...lockheed/data/ms2/documents/laun chers/MK41 VLS factsheet.pdf Microsoft Excel version 14.4.3, VBA computer software. (2011). Redmond, WA: Microsoft

  3. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data. Finally, we notice that our model's sorting pattern is in line with recent evidence when the wage difference across countries is not too big....

  4. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection. (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof


    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  5. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico. (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G


    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  6. The Turkish Gecko Hemidactylus turcicus Prefers Vertical Walls


    Vogrin, Milan


    In summer 1997 on the island of Pag in Croatia, we studied a selection of perching sites of the Turkish gecko Hemidactylus turcicus. With the transect sampling of 1 hour in 2 days we found 102 geckos. Adults as well as juveniles were founds mostly on vertical walls.

  7. Subjective visual vertical with the bucket method in Brazilian healthy individuals. (United States)

    Ferreira, Maristela Mian; Cunha, Fabiana; Ganança, Cristina Freitas; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena


    The capacity of a healthy individual to estimate the true vertical in relation to the Earth when a fluorescent line is aligned in a completely dark room is called the subjective visual vertical. To evaluate subjective visual vertical using the bucket method in healthy Brazilian individuals. Binocular subjective visual vertical was measured in 100 healthy volunteers, 50 females and 50 males. The volunteers indicated the estimated position in which a fluorescent line inside a bucket reached the vertical position. A total of ten repetitions were performed, five clockwise and five counterclockwise. Data were tabulated and analyzed statistically. It was observed that the highest concentration of absolute values of vertical deviation was present up to 3°, regardless of gender, and the vertical deviation did not increase with age. The analysis of the mean of the absolute values of deviations from the vertical of 90% of the sample showed a maximum value of 2.6°, and at the analysis of 95%, the maximum value was 3.4° deviation from the vertical. The bucket method is easy to perform and interpret when assessing the deviation of the subjective visual vertical in relation to the true vertical in healthy Brazilian individuals. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases]. (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R


    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  9. Parachute landing fall characteristics at three realistic vertical descent velocities. (United States)

    Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark A; Munro, Bridget J


    Although parachute landing injuries are thought to be due in part to a lack of exposure of trainees to realistic descent velocities during parachute landing fall (PLF) training, no research has systematically investigated whether PLF technique is affected by different vertical descent conditions, with standardized and realistic conditions of horizontal drift. This study was designed to determine the effects of variations in vertical descent velocity on PLF technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force, and electromyographic data were collected and analyzed for 20 paratroopers while they performed parachute landings, using a custom-designed monorail apparatus, with a constant horizontal drift velocity (2.3 m x s(-1)) and at three realistic vertical descent velocities: slow (2.1 m x s(-1)), medium (3.3 m x s(-1)), and fast (4.6 m x s(-1)). Most biomechanical variables characterizing PLF technique were significantly affected by descent velocity. For example, at the fast velocity, the subjects impacted the ground with 123 degrees of plantar flexion and generated ground reaction forces averaging 13.7 times body weight, compared to 106 degrees and 6.1 body weight, respectively, at the slow velocity. Furthermore, the subjects activated their antigravity extensor muscles earlier during the fast velocity condition to eccentrically control the impact absorption. As vertical descent rates increased, the paratroopers displayed a significantly different strategy when performing the PLF. It is therefore recommended that PLF training programs include ground training activities with realistic vertical descent velocities to better prepare trainees to withstand the impact forces associated with initial aerial descents onto the Drop Zone and, ultimately, minimize the potential for injury.

  10. Management zones in coffee cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L. Jacintho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to apply precision agriculture techniques in coffee production, using correlation analysis in the definition of management zones. This work was carried out in a 22-ha area of coffee (Coffea arabica L., cv. ‘Topázio MG 1190’, which was sampled on a regular grid, using a topographic GPS, totaling 64 georeferenced samples (on average, 2.9 points per ha. Descriptive analysis was used in the data, followed by Pearson’s correlation analysis at 0.05 significance between soil chemical attributes, agronomic characteristics of the plants and altitude. It was possible to verify the correlation of soil chemical attributes, agronomic characteristics of the plants and altitude with coffee yield. Altitude was the variable most correlated with coffee yield through correlation analysis. Therefore, it was chosen as the best variable to define management zones and thematic maps capable to support coffee farmers. Three maps were generated to characterize the area in two, three and four management zones. There was a direct influence on mean yield.

  11. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)


    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  12. Ellipsometric study of vertically aligned nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Marino, A.; Santamato, E.; Bennis, N.; Quintana, X.; Otón, J. M.; Tkachenko, V.; Abbate, G.


    The director tilt angle distribution in vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays has been investigated by means of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Liquid crystal vertical alignment has been realized by thermal evaporation of SiOx. By changing the deposition angle, it is possible to control the pretilt angle. The director profile inside the sample was inferred by reflection and transmission ellipsometric measurements. The tilt angle distribution inside the cell versus the applied voltage is reported and eventually, comparing it with the simulations from the elastic theory, the anchoring energy has been obtained.

  13. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone (United States)

    Sterling, S.N.; Parker, B.L.; Cherry, J.A.; Williams, J.H.; Lane, J.W.; Haeni, F.P.


    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 ??g/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael


    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  15. Work zone safety analysis. (United States)


    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  16. Vertically Integrated Rheology of Deforming Oceanic Lithosphere (United States)

    Mishra, J. K.; Gordon, R. G.


    The tectonics of the oceans have traditionally been modeled in terms of rigid plates interacting at narrow boundaries. The now well-documented existence of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, across which relative motion is distributed over hundreds to thousands of kilometers, demonstrates the need for a different approach to understanding the tectonics and geodynamics of a substantial fraction of oceanic lithosphere. A model that has usefully been applied to diffuse zones of continental deformation is that of a thin viscous sheet of fluid obeying a power-law rheology. The model has few adjustable parameters, typically a power-law exponent, n, and the Argand number [England & McKenzie, 1982], which is a measure of the size of buoyancy forces caused by the deformation, and which can be neglected for deformation of oceanic lithosphere. In prior investigations of a thin sheet of power-law fluid for continental regions, most studies have found that the most appropriate power-law exponent is ≈3 [e.g., England & Molnar 1991, 1997], but a value as large as ≈10 has been recently suggested by Dayem et al. [2009]. Because the rheology of oceanic lithosphere differs significantly from that of continental lithosphere, the most appropriate exponent may be larger than 3, and should in some sense be an appropriately weighted average between the properties of the upper lithosphere, which deforms brittlely and semi-brittlely, and for which the power-law exponent is n → ∞, and the lower lithosphere, which deforms by dislocation glide [Goetze 1978; Evans & Goetze 1979; Ratteron et al. 2003; Dayem et al. 2009; Mei et al. 2010], which obeys an exponential law, and by dislocation creep for which n≈3 [Sonder & England, 1986]. To estimate the appropriate power-law exponent consistent with laboratory experiments we determine strain rate as a function of applied end load on the lithosphere for various ages of lithosphere. We find that a power-law fluid well approximates the

  17. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.


    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  18. ?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights? (United States)

    Richey, Michael

    Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.



    Lama Ramirez, R.; Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias Av. Venezuela cdra. 34 sin, Lima - Perú; Condorhuamán Ccorimanya, C.; Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias Av. Venezuela cdra. 34 sin, Lima - Perú


    lt has been studied the batch sedimentation of aqueous suspensions of precipitated calcium carbonate, barium sulphate and lead oxide , in vertical thickeners of rectangular and circular cross sectional area. Suspensions vary in concentration between 19.4 and 617.9 g/I and the rate of sedimentation obtained between 0.008 and 7.70 cm/min. The effect of the specific gravity of the solid on the rate of sedimentation is the same for all the suspensions, that is, the greater the value of the specif...

  20. Binocular responses and vertical strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risović Dušica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Elevation in adduction is the most common pattern of vertical strabismus, and it is mostly treated with surgery. The results of weaking of inferior oblique muscle are very changeable. The aim of this study was to evaluate binocular vision using sensory tests before and one and six months after the surgery. Methods. A total of 79 children were divided in two groups: the first, with inferior oblique muscle of overaction (n = 52, and the second with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD, and primary inferior oblique muscle overaction (n = 27. We tested them by polaroid mirror test (PMT, Worth test at distance and near, fusion amplitudes on sinoptofore, Lang I stereo test and Wirt-Titmus stereo test. We examined our patients before and two times after the surgery for vertical strabismus. Results. Foveal suppression in the group I was found in 60.5% of the patients before, and in 56.4% after the surgery. In group II Foveal suppression was detected in 64.7% of the patients before, but in 55.6% 6 months after the surgery with PMT. Worth test revealed suppression in 23.5% of the patients before, and in 40.7% after the vertical muscle surgery. Parafoveal fussion persisted in about 1/3 of the patients before the surgery, and their amplitudes were a little larger after the surgery in the group I patients. Lang I stereo test was negative in 53.9% before and 51.9% after the surgery in the group I, and in 48.2% of the patients before and after the surgery in the group II patients. Wirt-Titmus stereo test was negative in 74.5% of the patients before and in 72.9% after the surgery in the group I, but in the group II it was negative in 70.8% before and in 68.0% of the patients 6 months after the surgery. Conclusion. Binocular responses were found after surgery in 65.7% of the patients the group I and in 55.6% patients the group II. There was no significant difference between these two groups, but binocular responses were more often in the patients

  1. Knapsack - TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network (United States)


    In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay. PMID:26237221

  2. Investigation of the Hyporheic Zone at the 300 Area,Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; McFarland, Doug; Arntzen, Evan V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Patton, Gregory W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Bunn, Amoret L.


    The Remediation Task of the Science and Technology (S&T) Project is intended to provide research to meet several objectives concerning the discharge of groundwater contamination into the river at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This report serves to meet the research objectives by developing baseline data for future evaluation of remedial technologies, evaluating the effects changing river stage on near-shore groundwater chemistry, improving estimates of contaminant flux to the river, providing estimates on the extent of contaminant discharge areas along the shoreline, and providing data to support computer models used to evaluate remedial alternatives. This report summarizes the activities conducted to date and provides an overview of data collected through July 2006. Recent geologic investigations (funded through other U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs) have provided a more complete geologic interpretation of the 300 Area and a characterization of the vertical extent of uranium contamination. Extrapolation of this geologic interpretation into the hyporheic zone is possible, but there is little data to provide corroboration. Penetration testing was conducted along the shoreline to develop evidence to support the extrapolation of the mapping of the geologic facies. In general, this penetration testing provided evidence supporting the extrapolation of the most recent geologic interpretation, but it also provided some higher resolution detail on the shape of the layer than constrains contaminant movement. Information on this confining layer will provide a more detailed estimate of the area of river bed that has the potential to be impacted by uranium discharge to the river from groundwater transport. Water sampling in the hyporheic zone has provided results that illustrate the degree of mixing that occurs in the hyporheic zone. Uranium concentrations measured at individual sampling locations can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the river and

  3. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor. (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun


    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10(4) loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  4. Biologically-associated Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in the Euphotic Zone (United States)

    Xianhui, W. S.


    The largest uncertainty and inconsistency in global marine N2O emission estimate appear in the euphotic zone, where light and phytoplankton competition inhibit nitrification, a major contributor to N2O production. The rigorous physical disturbance in the surface ocean prevents the N2O accumulation thus potentially masking the role of biological N2O production. Here we presented high vertical resolution N2O profiles in the euphotic zone from the oligotrophic South China Sea and mid-latitude northwestern Pacific Ocean. Distinctive N2O peaks, which deviated from the vertical mixing curve, were observed near the nitracline, of which the maximum of Chl-a and nitrite appeared correspondingly. The intimate association between N2O excursion and biological parameters suggests that extra source in the euphotic zone is required to support such N2O offset. By using 15NH4+ and 15NO2- tracers, we measured rates and explored the potential processes associated with N2O production. More high vertical resolution observation and process studies are urgently needed to explore the spatial-temporal distribution of euphotic zone N2O production and its controlling mechanisms to fill the knowledge gap. In addition, innovative methods are required to discern pathways biologically produced N2O in mixed layer from physical supply from deeper ocean.

  5. Partial diel vertical migrations in pelagic fish. (United States)

    Mehner, Thomas; Kasprzak, Peter


    1. Field studies on diel vertical migration (DVM) usually report uniform behaviour with population-wide ascents and descents during crepuscular periods. This contrasts partial seasonal migrations of many animal populations, where individuals choose either the resident or the migrant strategy depending on population density, feeding opportunity and predation risk in the resident and migrant habitats. 2. We tested whether DVM of freshwater zooplanktivorous fish (Coregonus spp.) resembles partial migrations. Twenty-eight hydroacoustic surveys were performed in the deep Lake Stechlin (Germany) between 2000 and 2010, with samplings encompassing all months between March and December. Zooplankton samples were simultaneously taken in epilimnetic and hypolimnetic layers. Fish obtained from depth-stratified samplings by a midwater trawl were used to test for individual differences between residents and migrants. 3. We show for the first time that DVMs of freshwater fish resemble patterns of partial migrations often found in seasonal environments. Across all samplings, 7-33% of fish did not ascend at dusk, but exhibited the resident strategy. The proportion or residents increased at low zooplankton feeding rates in the daytime habitat and during months when the temperature difference between daytime and night-time habitats was minor. 4. Slightly larger size and higher caloric density of migrants over residents in one of the coexisting Coregonus species suggested that individual differences contributed to the migration strategy performed. However, these results were based on one sample only, and extrapolation to the entire data set is not possible. 5. Our results are indirect evidence that the balance between migrants and residents may primarily depend on the trade-off between feeding gains and metabolic and predation costs of migration. However, the results also suggest that the global fitness consequences for the resident and migrant strategies may not be identical

  6. Characterization and Extraction of Uranium Contamination Perched within the Deep Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site, Washington State (United States)

    Williams, B. A.; Rohay, V. J.; Benecke, M. W.; Chronister, G. B.; Doornbos, M. H.; Morse, J.


    A highly contaminated perched water zone has been discovered in the deep vadose zone above the unconfined aquifer during drilling of wells to characterize groundwater contamination within the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington. The perched water, which contains nitrate, uranium, and technetium-99 at concentrations that have exceeded 100,000 μg/L, 70,000 μg/L, and 45,000 pCi/L respectively, is providing contamination to the underlying unconfined aquifer. A perched zone extraction well has been installed and is successfully recovering the contaminated perched water as an early remedial measure to reduce impacts to the unconfined aquifer. The integration and interpretation of various borehole hydrogeologic, geochemical, and geophysical data sets obtained during drilling facilitated the delineation of the perching horizon and determination of the nature and extent of the perched contamination. Integration of the borehole geologic and geophysical logs defined the structural elevation and thickness of the perching low permeability silt interval. Borehole geophysical moisture logs, gamma logs, and sample data allowed detailed determination of the elevation and thickness of the oversaturated zone above the perching horizon, and the extent and magnitude of the radiological uranium contamination within the perching interval. Together, these data sets resolved the nature of the perching horizon and the location and extent of the contaminated perched water within the perching zone, allowing an estimation of remaining contaminant extent. The resulting conceptual model indicates that the contaminated perched water is contained within a localized sand lens deposited in a structural low on top of a semi-regional low-permeability silt layer. The top of the sand lens is approximately 72 m (235 ft) below ground surface; the maximum thickness of the sand lens is approximately 3 m (10 ft). The lateral and vertical extent of the

  7. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein


    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  8. The development of an advanced vertical discretisation scheme for a regional ocean model (United States)

    Bruciaferri, Diego; Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred


    When designing an ocean model, the choice of the vertical coordinate system must be pursued very carefully (Griffies et al., 2000); especially in those regional areas where local multi-scale processes interact with large-scale oceanographic features. Three main vertical coordinates are usually used in ocean modelling, namely the geopotential, terrain-following and isopycnic, but each one presents its own limitations and strengths. In the last decades, much research has been spent to investigate and develop hybrid approaches able to combine the advantages of each vertical coordinate system but minimising their disadvantages. Here we propose the hybrid s-s-z vertical discretisation scheme, an advanced version of the approach used by Shapiro et al. (2013). In our new scheme, the vertical domain is divided into three zones: in the upper and middle zones use s-coordinates while the deeper zone uses z-levels. The s-s-z vertical grid is introduced into the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model code and we compare the model skill of our new vertical discretisation scheme with the NEMO vertical grid using z-levels with partial steps through a set of idealized numerical experiments for which analytical solutions or theoretical models exist. Modelling results demonstrate that the magnitude of spurious currents arising from the horizontal pressure gradient errors are of the same order (10 ^ -3 m/s ) both with z-partial steps or with s-s-z vertical grids for the conditions favourable for the geopotential grids ( horizontal initial density levels). For a number of more realistic conditions representing a general cyclonic circulation in the sea, the new discretisation scheme produces smaller spurious currents and hence is more accurate than the z-level approach. Moreover, the enhanced capability of the s-s-z scheme to reproduce dense water cascades as compared to the z-partial steps grid is shown. Finally, we show how the new s-s-z grid can be useful to improve

  9. An Update of the Bodeker Scientific Vertically Resolved, Global, Gap-Free Ozone Database (United States)

    Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.; Hassler, B.


    High vertical resolution ozone measurements from multiple satellite-based instruments have been merged with measurements from the global ozonesonde network to calculate monthly mean ozone values in 5º latitude zones. Ozone number densities and ozone mixing ratios are provided on 70 altitude levels (1 to 70 km) and on 70 pressure levels spaced approximately 1 km apart (878.4 hPa to 0.046 hPa). These data are sparse and do not cover the entire globe or altitude range. To provide a gap-free database, a least squares regression model is fitted to these data and then evaluated globally. By applying a single fit at each level, and using the approach of allowing the regression fits to change only slightly from one level to the next, the regression is less sensitive to measurement anomalies at individual stations or to individual satellite-based instruments. Particular attention is paid to ensuring that the low ozone abundances in the polar regions are captured. This presentation reports on updates to an earlier version of the vertically resolved ozone database, including the incorporation of new ozone measurements and new techniques for combining the data. Compared to previous versions of the database, particular attention is paid to avoiding spatial and temporal sampling biases and tracing uncertainties through to the final product. This updated database, developed within the New Zealand Deep South National Science Challenge, is suitable for assessing ozone fields from chemistry-climate model simulations or for providing the ozone boundary conditions for global climate model simulations that do not treat stratospheric chemistry interactively.

  10. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  11. VT Data - Zoning 20130529, Readsboro (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Data were originally created by John Whitman of Readsboro in 2004 as prooposed zoning, and were adopted...

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.


    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  13. Scaling from Surface Satellite Measurements of PIC to Integrated Euphotic Estimates over the Global Ocean: Do Vertical Profiles of Coccolithophores Look Like Vertical Profiles of Chlorophyll? (United States)

    Balch, W. M.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.; Lyczkowski, E.; Lubelczyk, L.


    We have participated in a number of cruises throughout the world ocean, observing the vertical and horizontal distributions of coccolithophores, their particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) and associated optical properties. We will provide a synthesis of our observations in support of the NASA ocean color algorithm for PIC, highlighting how the integrated concentration of these plants can be interpreted from surface satellite measurements. Our work has shown consistencies in the vertical distributions of coccolithophores that allow us to extrapolate surface PIC observations (from the top optical depth observed by satellite) to the integrated euphotic zone on depth scales of 100m. Such results are a function of the degree of eutrophy and are critical for understanding the global consequences of this phytoplankton functional group, their associated biogeochemistry and implications to the alkalinity pump. We will end by showing whether the vertical distributions of PIC differ from those of diatom biogenic silica.

  14. Structure of a shear zone at the base of the seismogenic zone, Norumbega fault system, Maine; Potential for comparison with upper-crustal fault structure (United States)

    Price, N. A.; Johnson, S. E.; Gerbi, C. C.; Koons, P. O.


    Studies of large strike-slip faults provide a detailed picture of the upper crustal structure of a seismogenic fault system (e.g. Chester et al., 1993; Ben-Zion and Sammis, 2003; Wibberley et al., 2008). Few studies have provided that same degree of detail for such faults at greater depths. Because of this, it is not well understood how the structure of the fault at the surface correlates with the structure of a fault with depth, particularly across the frictional-to-viscous transition. Our study of the Sandhill Corner shear zone (SCSZ) within the Norumbega fault system (a long-lived, subvertical, seismogenic fault system in Maine, USA) focuses on this depth level and provides an informative view of across and along strike variations within a shear zone from the base of the seismogenic zone. We suggest that the structure of this shear zone correlates with the structure of modern strike slip faults like the San Andreas. The SCSZ is a 300-500m wide shear zone exhumed from depths of ~10-15km that preserves mutually-overprinting pseudotachylyte and mylonite. Using over 100 samples from 6 transects, we considered the spatial variation in (1) quartz fabric intensity, grain size, and CPO data; (2) the prevalence of mineral-filled fractures and shattered porphyroclasts; and (3) the amount of pseudotachylyte (deformed and undeformed). We find a focused shear zone core (1-7m) that contains ultramylonite and phyllonite nearly devoid of porphyroclasts and rich in deformed pseudotachylyte with the finest sizes of quartz new grains. This core region is comparable to the focused core region of upper crustal faults rich in foliated gauge where most of the slip is thought to occur. The core of the SCSZ is surrounded by a wider zone of quartzofeldspathic mylonite and protomylonite, mylonitized calc-silicates, and sheared schist (~100-500m). There is an increased incidence of shattered porphyroclasts and deformed pseudotachylyte in these rocks with proximity to the fault core but

  15. Surface geochemical survey for geothermal exploration in the south-east zone of Tenerife Island, Canary Islands (United States)

    Diaz Requejo, M.; Marrero, R.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Guerrero, V.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Hidalgo, R.


    Water and gas sampling of natural discharges are the most common type of geochemical surveys for geothermal exploration. However, these natural discharges are generally scarces at geothermal exploration areas where the extent of the field is not known. Therefore, soil-volatile (Hg, As, Sb, NH3 and B) and soil-gas surveys (222Rn, CO2, He, H2, CH4, O2, Ar) are becoming a useful geochemical tool to identify permeable areas and potential upflow or boiling zones. These surveys can also help to delineate the margins of a geothermal system, and therefore often complement geophysical surveys particularly where the interpretation of geophysical data shows some difficulties. During July and August, 2008, a surface geochemical survey was undertaken in a ~120 km2 area at the south-east slope of Tenerife Island, Spain. In order to obtain a representative distribution of the whole study area, during the field work a total of 577 sampling points were performed. In-situ measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities together with Hg0 and H2S gas concentration and CO2 and H2S soil effluxes were performed at each sampling point. At the same time, gas samples were taken from the soil atmosphere at 40 cm depth for subsequent chemical analysis by means of micro-gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry (He, H2, Ne, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and CO2). At least two geochemical anomalous zones have been identified in the present work: (A) one close to Siete Fuentes-Fasnia historical vents (1704-1705 AD) and (B) located on the southwestern limit of the study area. Relatively high concentrations of H2 and ΔHe as well as high H2/Ar and He/CO2 ratios were observed at both zones, indicating a clear evidence of the existence of an upflow zone with an important contribution of endogenous gases. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system coupled with a vertical permeability structures in both zones could explain these geochemical anomalies observed in the surface environment

  16. BLM Solar Energy Zones (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  17. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  18. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  19. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris


    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  20. Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects. (United States)

    Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Fowler, Neil E; Bennett, Simon J


    The aim of this study was to investigate the segmental coordination of vertical jumps under fatigue of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. Eleven healthy and active subjects performed maximal vertical jumps with and without fatigue, which was imposed by requesting the subjects to extend/flex their knees continuously in a weight machine, until they could not lift a load corresponding to approximately 50% of their body weight. Knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques were also measured before and after fatigue. Video, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously and used to provide several variables of the jumps. Fatiguing the knee flexor muscles did not reduce the height of the jumps or induce changes in the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic profiles. Knee extensor fatigue caused the subjects to adjust several variables of the movement, in which the peak joint angular velocity, peak joint net moment, and power around the knee were reduced and occurred earlier in comparison with the nonfatigued jumps. The electromyographic data analyses indicated that the countermovement jumps were performed similarly, i.e., a single strategy was used, irrespective of which muscle group (extensor or flexors) or the changes imposed on the muscle force-generating characteristics (fatigue or nonfatigue). The subjects executed the movements as if they scaled a robust template motor program, which guided the movement execution in all jump conditions. It was speculated that training programs designed to improve jump height performance should avoid severe fatigue levels, which may cause the subjects to learn and adopt a nonoptimal and nonspecific coordination solution. It was suggested that the neural input used in the fatigued condition did not constitute an optimal solution and may have played a role in decreasing maximal jump height achievement.

  1. Seasonal variations and cycling of nitrous oxide using nitrogen isotopes and concentrations from an unsaturated zone of a floodplain (United States)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Kolding, S.; Williams, K. H.; Tokunaga, T. K.


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations and isotope ratios of 15N to 14N of N2O in the vadose zone mainly depend on atmospheric deposition, symbiotic or non-symbiotic N2 fixation, and nitrification/denitrification processes in underlying groundwater. In an effort to quantify N2O seasonal variations, cycling and N budgets in an alluvial aquifer in western Colorado (Rifle, CO), the concentrations and nitrogen stable isotopes of N2O within the pore space of partially saturated sediments have been monitored over the 2013-2014 years. Vertically resolved profiles spanning from 0m to 3m depth were sampled at 0.5m increments at a periodicity of one month. At each of the profile locations, N2O concentrations decreased from 3m depth to the surface. The maximum concentrations were observed at the interface between the unsaturated zone and groundwater, with minimum values observed in the near surface samples. The d15N values tend to increase from the unsaturated zone/groundwater interface to the surface. Both variation of N2O concentrations and d15N values suggest that denitrification is the main contribution to N2O production and both parameters exhibited a strong seasonal variation. The maximum concentrations (~10ppmv) were observed at the beginning of summer, during the annual maximum in water table elevation. The minimum N2O concentrations were observed in the period from January to May and coincided with low water table elevations. Additionally, nitrogen concentrations and d15N values of the shallowest sediments within the vertical profiles do not show variation, suggesting that the main source of N2O is associated with groundwater denitrification, with the shallower, partially saturated sediments acting as a sink for N2O.

  2. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels of seismic waves to fault zone structures (United States)

    Allam, A. A.; Tape, C.; Ben-Zion, Y.


    We analyse the volumetric sensitivity of fault zone seismic head and trapped waves by constructing finite-frequency sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels for these phases using a suite of idealized and tomographically derived velocity models of fault zones. We first validate numerical calculations by waveform comparisons with analytical results for two simple fault zone models: a vertical bimaterial interface separating two solids of differing elastic properties, and a `vertical sandwich' with a vertical low velocity zone surrounded on both sides by higher velocity media. Establishing numerical accuracy up to 12 Hz, we compute sensitivity kernels for various phases that arise in these and more realistic models. In contrast to direct P body waves, which have little or no sensitivity to the internal fault zone structure, the sensitivity kernels for head waves have sharp peaks with high values near the fault in the faster medium. Surface wave kernels show the broadest spatial distribution of sensitivity, while trapped wave kernels are extremely narrow with sensitivity focused entirely inside the low-velocity fault zone layer. Trapped waves are shown to exhibit sensitivity patterns similar to Love waves, with decreasing width as a function of frequency and multiple Fresnel zones of alternating polarity. In models that include smoothing of the boundaries of the low velocity zone, there is little effect on the trapped wave kernels, which are focused in the central core of the low velocity zone. When the source is located outside a shallow fault zone layer, trapped waves propagate through the surrounding medium with body wave sensitivity before becoming confined. The results provide building blocks for full waveform tomography of fault zone regions combining high-frequency head, trapped, body, and surface waves. Such an imaging approach can constrain fault zone structure across a larger range of scales than has previously been possible.

  3. Determination of warm, sensitive permafrost areas in near-vertical rockwalls and evaluation of distributed models by electrical resistivity tomography (United States)

    Magnin, Florence; Krautblatter, Michael; Deline, Philip; Ravanel, Ludovic; Malet, Emmanuel; Bevington, Alexandre


    Alpine rockwalls with warm permafrost (near 0°C) are the most active rockfall detachment zones in the Mont Blanc massif (MBM, French Alps) with more than 380 recent events. Near-vertical rockwall permafrost is spatially controlled by variations in rock fractures, snow cover, and microtopography. A reliable method to validate the distribution of permafrost in critical and unstable areas does not yet exist. We present seven electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys measured on five near-vertical rockwalls in the MBM from 2012 and 2013 that have been calibrated with measurements on a granite sample in the laboratory. ERT shows consistent measurements of remaining sensitive permafrost relating to inferred temperatures from 0 to -1.5°C. ERT results demonstrate evidence of topographic controls on permafrost distribution and resistivity gradients that appear to reflect crest width. ERT results are compared to two permafrost index maps that use topoclimatic factors and combine effects of thin snow and fractures, where index model spatial resolution is crucial for the validation with ERT. In cryospheric environments, index maps seem to overestimate permafrost conditions in glacial environments. As a consequence, the sensitive areas of permafrost may slightly deviate from the results from distributed models that are only constrained by topoclimatic factors and interpreted with consideration of local fracture and snow conditions. This study demonstrates (i) that the sensitive and hazardous areas of permafrost in near-vertical rock faces can be assessed and monitored by the means of temperature-calibrated ERT and (ii) that ERT can be used for distributed model validation.

  4. Some characteristics of the seismicity and the stress field in the Panxi rift zone (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-Zhong; Xu, Wen-Yue; Liu, Jin; Zou, Ying


    Some characteristics of the horizontal distribution of the earthquakes, the focus depth distribution, distribution of the earthquakes with time, b-values, fault slip rates and stress field in the Panxi rift zone have been investigated. The results are as follows: (1) Earthquakes with M ⩾ 4.7 occurred mainly along the major faults in the Panxi rift zone. Earthquake activity is greater along the sides of the Panxi rift zone than along its axis. Earthquakes with M ⩾ 6 occurred along the bounding faults of the Panxi rift zone. The small earthquakes exhibit a random distribution. (2) The focal depths along the axis of the Panxi rift zone are shallow (5-20 km), but the focal depths outside the rift zone are deeper (6-40 km). (3) The b-values in the Panxi rift zone are 0.58-0.75. (4) The correlation of the seismicity between the Panxi rift zone and the eastern India-Eurasian collision zone is high. (5) The fault planes in the Panxi rift zone are nearly vertical and strike-slip. The fault slip rates in the Panxi rift zone are 0.13-0.19 cm/yr. (6) The maximum principal compressive stress axis in the Panxi rift zone is nearly horizontal, NNW-SSE in direction. According to the above results, a dynamic model for the aborting process of the Panxi rift zone is suggested.

  5. Zone trapping/merging zones in flow analysis: a novel approach for rapid assays involving relatively slow chemical reactions. (United States)

    Vida, Ana C F; Sasaki, Milton K; Gomes, Taciana F; Silva, Claudineia R; Feres, Mário A; Zagatto, E A G


    A novel strategy for accomplishing zone trapping in flow analysis is proposed. The sample and the reagent solutions are simultaneously inserted into convergent carrier streams and the established zones merge together before reaching the detector, where the most concentrated portion of the entire sample zone is trapped. The main characteristics, potentialities and limitations of the strategy were critically evaluated in relation to an analogous flow system with zone stopping. When applied to the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite in river waters, the main figures of merit were maintained, exception made for the sampling frequency which was calculated as 189 h(-1), about 32% higher relatively to the analogous system with zone stopping. The sample inserted volume can be increased up to 1.0 mL without affecting sampling frequency and no problems with pump heating or malfunctions were noted after 8-h operation of the system. In contrast to zone stopping, only a small portion of the sample zone is halted with zone trapping, leading to these beneficial effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertical groundwater flow in Permo-Triassic sediments underlying two cities in the Trent River Basin (UK) (United States)

    Taylor, R. G.; Cronin, A. A.; Trowsdale, S. A.; Baines, O. P.; Barrett, M. H.; Lerner, D. N.


    The vertical component of groundwater flow that is responsible for advective penetration of contaminants in sandstone aquifers is poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is of particular concern in urban areas where abstraction disrupts natural groundwater flow regimes and there exists an increased density of contaminant sources. Vertical hydraulic gradients that control vertical groundwater flow were investigated using bundled multilevel piezometers and a double-packer assembly in dedicated boreholes constructed to depths of between 50 and 92 m below ground level in Permo-Triassic sediments underlying two cities within the Trent River Basin of central England (Birmingham, Nottingham). The hydrostratigraphy of the Permo-Triassic sediments, indicated by geophysical logging and hydraulic (packer) testing, demonstrates considerable control over observed vertical hydraulic gradients and, hence, vertical groundwater flow. The direction and magnitude of vertical hydraulic gradients recorded in multilevel piezometers and packers are broadly complementary and range, within error, from +0.1 to -0.7. Groundwater is generally found to flow vertically toward transmissive zones within the hydrostratigraphical profile though urban abstraction from the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer also influences observed vertical hydraulic gradients. Bulk, downward Darcy velocities at two locations affected by abstraction are estimated to be in the order of several metres per year. Consistency in the distribution of hydraulic head with depth in Permo-Triassic sediments is observed over a one-year period and adds support the deduction of hydrostratigraphic control over vertical groundwater flow.

  7. Variations in the structural and functional diversity of zooplankton over vertical and horizontal environmental gradients en route to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. (United States)

    Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Goszczko, Ilona; Kubiszyn, Anna Maria; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Walczowski, Waldemar; Kwasniewski, Slawomir


    A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30'N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system. The results indicate that the most important environmental variables shaping the zooplankton structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability are those associated with depth, whereas variables acting in the horizontal dimension are of lesser importance. Multivariate analysis of the zooplankton assemblages, together with different univariate descriptors of zooplankton diversity, clearly illustrated the segregation of zooplankton taxa in the vertical plane. The epipelagic zone (upper 200 m) hosted plentiful, Oithona similis-dominated assemblages with a high proportion of filter-feeding zooplankton. Although total zooplankton abundance declined in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m), zooplankton assemblages in that zone were more diverse and more evenly distributed, with high contributions from both herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. The vertical distribution of integrated biomass (mg DW m-2) indicated that the total zooplankton biomass in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones was comparable. Environmental gradients acting in the horizontal plane, such as the ones associated with different ice cover and timing of the spring bloom, were reflected in the latitudinal variability in protist community structure and probably caused differences in succession in the zooplankton community. High abundances of Calanus finmarchicus in the WSC core branch suggest the existence of mechanisms advantageous for higher productivity or/and responsible for physical

  8. Modeling hyporheic zone processes (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar


    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  9. Vertical profiles of pelagic communities in the vicinity of the Azores Front and their implications to deep ocean ecology (United States)

    Angel, M. V.

    remaining quite high to depths of 800m during the summer. At night, the ratios tended to be lower as a result of diel vertical migration, but except in one or two of the deepest samples the planktonic biomass always exceeded that of the micronekton. The total biomass profiles were very similar in shape between the stations, although there were quite large differences in the depths of the quartiles. There were substantial differences between the day and the night profiles. These could be attributed mostly to the effects of diel vertical migrations, but must also have included unquantifiable effects as a result of variations in net avoidance. The subdivision of the catches into the major taxonomic groups showed that the degree of avoidance varied substantially between them; euphausiids were the most effective daytime avoiders, but decapod crustaceans and fish showed a suprisingly small tendency to avoid. The ranges and the numbers of each group undertaking vertical migrations varied markedly between the stations, and these differences were expressed in the biomass estimates. Attempts have been made to quantify the movement of biomass in and out of the surface 200m and 500m resulting from these migrations. There were substantial changes in migratory behaviour across the front, even though there were no detectable changes in the light profiles. The data also imply that the micronektonic migrants play an important role in the active transport of organic substances down from the euphotic zone to mesopelagic depths (>500m), either in their gut contents or directly as a result of predation at depth. In addition, migrating plankton seem likely to be important in redistributing nutrients about the nutricline in these oligotrophic regions where the water column stability limits physical vertical mixing processes. Preliminary estimates suggest that their influence may be sufficiently large to alter the ratio between “new” and “old” production.

  10. Vertical distribution of sediment phosphorus in Lake Hachirogata related to the effect of land reclamation on phosphorus accumulation. (United States)

    Jin, G; Onodera, S; Saito, M; Maruyama, Y; Hayakawa, A; Sato, T; Ota, Y; Aritomi, D


    The focus of this work is the change in sediment properties and chemical characteristics that occur after land reclamation projects. The results indicate a higher sedimentation rate in Lake Hachirogata after reclamation, with the rate increasing with proximity to the agricultural zone. In the west-side water samples, higher levels of dissolved total nitrogen and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) were found in both surface and bottom waters. The increase in P (39-80%) was generally greater than that for N (12-16%), regarding the nutrient supply from reclaimed farmland in the western part of the lake. In the eastern part of the lake, the pore-water Cl(-) profile showed a decreasing vertical gradient in the sediment core. This indicates desalination of the lake water after construction of a sluice gate in 1961. In the western sediment-core sample, a uniform Cl(-) profile indicates the mixing of lake water and pore water after reclamation. Considering the sedimentation of P in the last 100 years, there is a trend of increasing accumulation of P and P-activities after the reclamation project. This appears to be an impact from change in the lake environment as a result of increased agricultural nutrients, desalination, and residence. A large amount of mobile phosphorus (42-72% of TP in the western core sample) trapped in sediment increases the risk of phosphorus release and intensification of algal blooms. High sediment phosphorus and phosphorus mobility should be considered a source of pollution in the coastal environment.

  11. Subduction and vertical coastal motions in the eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Copley, Alex; McKenzie, Dan; Nissen, Ed


    Convergence in the eastern Mediterranean of oceanic Nubia with Anatolia and the Aegean is complex and poorly understood. Large volumes of sediment obscure the shallow structure of the subduction zone, and since much of the convergence is accommodated aseismically, there are limited earthquake data to constrain its kinematics. We present new source models for recent earthquakes, combining these with field observations, published GPS velocities and reflection-seismic data to investigate faulting in three areas: the Florence Rise, SW Turkey and the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The depths and locations of earthquakes reveal the geometry of the subducting Nubian plate NE of the Florence Rise, a bathymetric high that is probably formed by deformation of sediment at the surface projection of the Anatolia-Nubia subduction interface. In SW Turkey, the presence of a strike-slip shear zone has often been inferred despite an absence of strike-slip earthquakes. We show that the GPS-derived strain-rate field is consistent with extension on the orthogonal systems of normal faults observed in the region and that strike-slip faulting is not required to explain observed GPS velocities. Further SW, the Pliny and Strabo Trenches are also often interpreted as strike-slip shear zones, but almost all nearby earthquakes have either reverse-faulting or normal-faulting focal mechanisms. Oblique convergence across the trenches may be accommodated either by a partitioned system of strike-slip and reverse faults or by oblique slip on the Aegean-Nubia subduction interface. The observed late-Quaternary vertical motions of coastlines close to the subduction zone are influenced by the interplay between: (1) thickening of the material overriding the subduction interface associated with convergence, which promotes coastal uplift; and (2) subsidence due to extension and associated crustal thinning. Long-wavelength gravity data suggest that some of the observed topographic contrasts in the eastern

  12. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.


    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  13. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian


    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  14. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten


    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  15. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    components undergo vertical mixing, and phytoplank- ton sink. Phytoplankton growth is limited by the product of nutrient and light terms. The equations for nitrate (NO3) and ... resolved model there is an extra complication: the largest particles that sink out of ...... and biogeochemistry with satellite ocean colour data. Vertically ...

  16. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertical plate metering device is intended to minimize seed damage during planting while improving metering efficiency and field capacity. A vertical plate maize seed planter which is adapted for gardens and small holder farmers cultivating less than two hectares has been designed, constructed and tested. The major ...

  18. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.


    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  19. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment. (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  20. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik


    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... for the ventilation equipment. To   overcome a shortcoming in Simulink to solve algebraic equations and matrix inversions, we have developed the library inspired by the so called dynamic node technique. We present simulation results using the presented library, and concludes with visions for further...

  1. Grid zone drone


    McCarthy, Clive; Cooper, Graham; Field, James; Thayne, Martyn; Vickers, Richard


    From 16th – 19th October 2014, co_LAB presented its newest creation, Grid Zone Drone, at Kinetica – an international exhibition providing a global platform for galleries, curatorial groups, design studios and artists working with new media art. 2014 marked the third consecutive year that the University of Lincoln has been represented at the global art fair. Grid Zone Drone represents a continuation of the group’s research into ‘drone culture’, and explores the detachment of the drone withi...

  2. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  3. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig


    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  4. Distribution and ecophysiology of calanoid copepods in relation to the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Teuber

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs affect distribution patterns, community structure and metabolic processes of marine organisms. Due to the prominent role of zooplankton, especially copepods, in the marine carbon cycle and the predicted intensification and expansion of OMZs, it is essential to understand the effects of hypoxia on zooplankton distribution and ecophysiology. For this study, calanoid copepods were sampled from different depths (0-1800 m at eight stations in the eastern tropical Atlantic (3 °47'N to 18 °S during three expeditions in 2010 and 2011. Their horizontal and vertical distribution was determined and related to the extent and intensity of the OMZ, which increased from north to south with minimum O2 concentrations (12.7 µmol kg(-1 in the southern Angola Gyre. Calanoid copepod abundance was highest in the northeastern Angola Basin and decreased towards equatorial regions as well as with increasing depth. Maximum copepod biodiversity was observed in the deep waters of the central Angola Basin. Respiration rates and enzyme activities were measured to reveal species-specific physiological adaptations. Enzyme activities of the electron transport system (ETS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH served as proxies for aerobic and anaerobic metabolic activity, respectively. Mass-specific respiration rates and ETS activities decreased with depth of occurrence, consistent with vertical changes in copepod body mass and ambient temperature. Copepods of the families Eucalanidae and Metridinidae dominated within the OMZ. Several of these species showed adaptive characteristics such as lower metabolic rates, additional anaerobic activity and diel vertical migration that enable them to successfully inhabit hypoxic zones.

  5. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hewlett Packard gas chromatographs equipped with mass spectrometer detectors (GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The monitoring data revealed that Sihwa major industrial zone have lower levels of PAHs in comparison to Sihwa minor industrial zone where increase levels of PAHs were observed in both the ...

  6. Variation in the diel vertical distributions of larvae and transforming stages of oceanic fishes across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic (United States)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Contreras, Tabit; Hulley, P. Alexander; Emelianov, Mikhail; López-Pérez, Cristina; Tuset, Víctor; Castellón, Arturo


    The vertical distributions of early developmental stages of oceanic fishes were investigated across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, from oligotrophic waters close to the Brazilian coast to more productive waters close to the Mauritanian Upwelling Region. Stratification of the water column was observed throughout the study region. Fishes were caught with a MOCNESS-1 net with mouth area of 1 m2 at 11 stations. Each station was sampled both during the day and at night within a single 24-h period. The investigation covered both larvae and transforming stages from the surface to 800 m depth. Distribution patterns were analysed, and weighted mean depths for the larvae and transforming stages of each species were calculated for day and night conditions. Forty-seven different species were found. The highest number of species occurred in the three stations south of Cape Verde Islands, characterized by a mixture of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW). There was a marked drop in species richness in the three stations closer to the African upwelling, dominated by ENACW. The highest abundances occurred in the families Myctophidae, Sternoptychidae, Gonostomatidae and Phosichthyidae. Day and night vertical distributions of larvae and transforming stages showed contrasting patterns, both in the depths of the main concentration layers in the water column, and in the diel migration patterns (where these were observed). Larvae generally showed a preference for the upper mixed layer (ca. 0-50 m) and upper thermocline (ca. 50-100 m), except for sternoptychids, which were also abundant in the lower thermocline layer (100-200 m) and even extended into the mesopelagic zone (down to 500 m). Transforming stages showed a more widespread distribution, with main concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200-800 m). Larvae showed peak concentrations in the more illuminated and zooplankton-rich upper mixed layers during the day and a wider

  7. Linking Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to transport direction: The Gavarnie Thrust, Axial Zone, Pyrenees (United States)

    Marcén, Marcos; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Soto, Ruth; Oliva-Urcía, Belén


    This work deals with the application of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), structural analysis and microstructural analysis to the study of shear zones. Mylonitized fault rocks have been sampled in the Gavarnie Trust, one of the main structures of the Pyrenean Axial Zone, which was structured as a south-verging antiformal stack during the Alpine Orogeny. In the studied area, the Gavarnie Unit (Silurian-Carboniferous, low grade metasedimentary rocks) overthrust the Millares and Bielsa Units (Permian and Cretaceous cover, Cambro-Ordovician medium grade metamorphic rocks and granitoids), with a minimum horizontal displacement of 12km. Three profiles of the shear zone were studied with the goal of observing changes in the transport direction, the strain distribution and the orientation of the magnetic ellipsoid., One profile is parallel to the basal thrust plane, where the core zone has been identified, and the other two are vertical transects (profiles 1 and 2), perpendicular to the thrust plane. The shear zone, developed into the hangingwall phyllitic Silurian and Devonian units, is at least 30 m wide. The structural analysis reveals that the Silurian rocks are the local detachment level, which becomes thinner and pinchs out completely towards the South, where the detachment level is within the Devonian units (Fourche de la Sede Fm.). In both vertical profiles, the shear zone shows a decrease in the strain from the contact with the Cretaceous limestones at the footwall, towards the upper limit of the shear zone. This is evidenced by the lower development of mylonitic foliations and SCC' structures and the upwards increase of brittle deformation. The transport direction inferred from SC structures (stretching lineations in S and C planes) is constant in all sites, with an average of N190E. AMS data are in perfect agreement with the structural analysis, being the magnetic foliation parallel to the S or C planes of the SC structures. The magnetic

  8. Aerial Surveys of the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone in 2012-2014 (United States)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Andersen, R.; Zhang, J.


    Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) of the Beaufort Sea aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights were made monthly from May 2012 to October 2012, June 2013 to August 2013, and June 2014 to October 2014. In 2012 sea ice extent reached a record minimum and the SIZRS sampling ranged from complete ice cover to open water; in addition to its large spatial coverage, the SIZRS program extends temporal coverage of the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) beyond the traditional season for ship-based observations, and is a good set of measurements for model validation and climatological comparison. The SIZ, where ice melts and reforms annually, encompasses the marginal ice zone (MIZ). Thus SIZRS tracks interannual MIZ conditions, providing a regional context for smaller-scale MIZ processes. Observations with Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) reveal two near-surface warm layers: a locally-formed surface seasonal mixed layer and a layer of Pacific origin at 50-60m. Temperatures in the latter differ from the freezing point by up to 2°C more than climatologies. To distinguish vertical processes of mixed layer formation from Pacific advection, vertical heat and salt fluxes are quantified using a 1-D Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) model adapted for ice-covered seas. This PWP simulates mixing processes in the top 100m of the ocean. Surface forcing fluxes are taken from the Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System MIZMAS. Comparison of SIZRS observations with PWP output shows that the ocean behaves one-dimensionally above the Pacific layer of the Beaufort Gyre. Despite agreement with the MIZMAS-forced PWP, SIZRS observations remain fresher to 100m than do outputs from MIZMAS and ECCO.2. The shapes of seasonal cycles in SIZRS salinity and temperature agree with MIZMAS and ECCO.2 model outputs despite differences in the values of each. However, the seasonal change of surface albedo is not high enough resolution to accurately drive the PWP. Use of ice albedo

  9. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.


    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  10. Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments (United States)


    A while reverse biased at 1200V. The safe zone of the single pulse avalanche current is limited by peak pulse power and energy deposited in the...Vertical GaN devices are studied under cryogenic conditions, radiation, and ruggedness performance under repetitive avalanche stress. Mg, which is used...temperatures below 200K. Impact ionization based avalanche breakdown in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77K and 423K for the first time

  11. Hydrology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada (United States)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Stuckless, John S.


    The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was investigated as a possible site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Scientific investigations included infiltration studies, matrix properties testing, borehole testing and monitoring, underground excavation and testing, and the development of conceptual and numerical models of the hydrologic processes at Yucca Mountain. Infiltration estimates by empirical and geochemical methods range from 0.2 to 1.4 mm/yr and 0.2–6.0 mm/yr, respectively. Infiltration estimates from numerical models range from 4.5 mm/yr to 17.6 mm/yr. Rock matrix properties vary vertically and laterally as the result of depositional processes and subsequent postdepositional alteration. Laboratory tests indicate that the average matrix porosity and hydraulic conductivity values for the main level of the proposed repository (Topopah Spring Tuff middle nonlithophysal zone) are 0.08 and 4.7 × 10−12 m/s, respectively. In situ fracture hydraulic conductivity values are 3–6 orders of magnitude greater. The permeability of fault zones is approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of the surrounding rock unit. Water samples from the fault zones have tritium concentrations that indicate some component of postnuclear testing. Gas and water vapor movement through the unsaturated zone is driven by changes in barometric pressure, temperature-induced density differences, and wind effects. The subsurface pressure response to surface barometric changes is controlled by the distribution and interconnectedness of fractures, the presence of faults and their ability to conduct gas and vapor, and the moisture content and matrix permeability of the rock units. In situ water potential values are generally less than −0.2 MPa (−2 bar), and the water potential gradients in the Topopah Spring Tuff units are very small. Perched-water zones at Yucca Mountain are associated with the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Tuff or the Calico

  12. Phytoplankton dynamics driven by vertical nutrient fluxes during the spring inter-monsoon period in the northeastern South China Sea (United States)

    Li, Q. P.; Dong, Y.; Wang, Y.


    A field survey from the coastal ocean zones to the offshore pelagic zones of the northeastern South China Sea (nSCS) was conducted during the inter-monsoon period of May 2014 when the region was characterized by prevailing low-nutrient conditions. Comprehensive field measurements were made for not only hydrographic and biogeochemical properties but also phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. We also performed estimations of the vertical turbulent diffusivity and diffusive nutrient fluxes using a Thorpe-scale method and the upwelling nutrient fluxes by Ekman pumping using satellite-derived wind stress curl. Our results indicated a positive correlation between the integrated phytoplankton chlorophyll a and vertical nutrient fluxes in the offshore region of the nSCS during the study period. We generally found an increasing role of turbulent diffusion but a decreasing role of curl-driven upwelling in vertical transport of nutrients from the coastal ocean zones to the offshore pelagic zones. Elevated nutrient fluxes near Dongsha Islands supported high new production leading to net growth of the phytoplankton community, whereas the low fluxes near the southwest of Taiwan had resulted in a negative net community growth leading to decline of a surface phytoplankton bloom. Overall, phytoplankton dynamics in the large part of the nSCS could be largely driven by vertical nutrient fluxes including turbulent diffusion and curl-driven upwelling during the spring inter-monsoon period.

  13. Deformation of Sedimentary Rock Across the San Andreas Fault Zone: Mesoscale and Microscale Structures Displayed in Core From SAFOD (United States)

    Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.; Kirschner, D. L.; Almeida, R.; Evans, J. P.; Guillemette, R. N.; Hickman, S.; Zoback, M.; Ellsworth, W.


    Sedimentary rocks captured in cores taken at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) provide an unparalleled sampling of deformation in the transition zone between creeping and locked segments of a major transform fault at 2.5-3.1 km vertical depth. These samples provide the unique opportunity to study deformation processes and the development of brittle structures within porous and granular rocks that have been subjected to variable loading rates and chemically reactive fluids while residing at the top of the seismogenic zone. The samples provide a transect from relatively undeformed host rock through highly fractured and sheared rock, and capture the two prominent zones of active, aseismic slip. Core recovery was almost complete. Wrap-around 1:1 map tracings of the outer surfaces of all cores characterize the lithology and mesoscale deformation. Cores from 3056-3067 m and 3141-3153 m measured depth (MD) sample moderately deformed rock at the western boundary of the fault zone. The cores display massive to finely laminated, pebbly arkosic sandstones with lesser amounts of fine-grained sandstone and siltstone. Numerous shear fractures and cm-thick cataclastic shear zones form a conjugate geometry indicating contraction at high angles to the San Andreas fault. Both intervals display minor faults that juxtapose different lithologies consistent with meters or greater of slip. Fracture density is variable but tends to increase with proximity to the minor faults. Cross-cutting relationships between shear fractures and cataclastic zones indicate a general progression from early faulting along thicker shear zones to later, more localized slip within shear zones and along fractures. Microstructures provide ample evidence for densification of the sandstones through grain-scale fracture and crushing, as well as fluid assisted processes of crack-sealing, dissolution-precipitation, and alteration-neocrystallization. Grain-scale features are consistent with these

  14. Arid Zone Hydrology (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  15. Zone of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affected by Fertilizer in the Southern Guinea Savanna. Zone of Nigeria ... soybean varieties and the requirement by the exotic varieties ... Deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus ... maize at the time of sowing soybean. Maize ..... when cut open were pinkish red in colour. 56 ..... release from root of alfalfa and soybean grown.

  16. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A biogeochemical model of water, salt and nutrients budgets for two estuarine systems within Cameroon's coastal zone (Latitudes 2°— 1 3°N, Longitudes ... along ecological food webs and the earth's along an approximate 25,000 km along ...... Cameroon. Cameroon Wildlife and. Conservation Society Consultancy Report.

  17. Zone of intrusion study. (United States)


    The Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) performed an analysis using LS-DYNA simulation to investigate the zone of intrusion (ZOI) of an NCHRP Report No. 350 2000p pickup truck when impacting a 40-in. high F-shape parapet. : The ZOI for the 40-in...

  18. Buffer Zone Sign Template (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  19. Small scale denitrification variability in riparian zones: Results from a high-resolution dataset (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Knöller, Kay; Musolff, Andreas; Popp, Felix; Lüders, Tillmann; Stumpp, Christine


    Riparian zones are important compartments at the interface between groundwater and surface water where biogeochemical processes like denitrification are often enhanced. Nitrate loads of either groundwater entering a stream through the riparian zone or streamwater infiltrating into the riparian zone can be substantially reduced. These processes are spatially and temporally highly variable, making it difficult to capture solute variabilities, estimate realistic turnover rates and thus to quantify integral mass removal. A crucial step towards a more detailed characterization is to monitor solutes on a scale which adequately resemble the highly heterogeneous distribution and on a scale where processes occur. We measured biogeochemical parameters in a spatial high resolution within a riparian corridor of a German lowland river system over the course of one year. Samples were taken from three newly developed high-resolution multi-level wells with a maximum vertical resolution of 5 cm and analyzed for major ions, DOC and N-O isotopes. Sediment derived during installation of the wells was analyzed for specific denitrifying enzymes. Results showed a distinct depth zonation of hydrochemistry within the shallow alluvial aquifer, with a 1 m thick zone just below the water table with lower nitrate concentrations and EC values similar to the nearby river. Conservative parameters were consistent inbetween the three wells, but nitrate was highly variable. In addition, spots with low nitrate concentrations showed isotopic and microbial evidence for higher denitrification activities. The depth zonation was observed throughout the year, with stronger temporal variations of nitrate concentrations just below the water table compared to deeper layers. Nitrate isotopes showed a clear seasonal trend of denitrification activities (high in summer, low in winter). Our dataset gives new insight into river-groundwater exchange processes and shows the highly heterogeneous distribution of

  20. Geophysical and geochemical tracing of fault-zone slip and seal mechanisms through diagenetic evolution (United States)

    Matonti, Christophe; Guglielmi, Yves; Viseur, Sophie; Leonide, Phlippe; Floquet, Marc; Garambois, Stéphane


    Fault and fractures properties are responsible of a large part of the fluid transfer properties at all scales, especially in tight rocks. Fault reactivations increase the complexity of the fault zone structure and cause slip reactivation on previously formed fractures. Multiple fracture reactivations can deeply modify the initial fracture properties all along the rocks diagenetic history, leading to alternate periods of fractures sealing and seismic instability. For instance, each slip step may be associated with cementation/dissolution that can be traced through combined geophysical and geochemical analyses. To that end, we studied a polyphased fault-zone outcropping on a quarry presenting a very smooth surface due to diamond wire saw exploitation of rock blocks. The quarry is composed of carbonates displaying non-porous inner-platform rudist facies of Late Cenomanian. Inside the fault zone, the rock is affected by two en-échelon fracture clusters, the first one being simply formed in mode 1 and cemented, the second one being polyphased (multiple reactivations, cementation and karstification phases). We performed a detailed structural and diagenetical characterization (fractures, karsts and stylolites digitalization on Gocad software; thin section and plug porosity), along with geochemical analyses of carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios on fracture fillings/cements and geophysical measurements at two scales. First, 1298 ultrasonic P-wave velocity measurements using a piezoelectric source were performed on a rock block (2.4x1.5x1.1m parallelepiped sampled in the fault zone border), along a vertical cross section. Then, more than 200 seismic measurements using hammer source across the decameter scale outcrop. Source and receivers were precisely located using a LIDAR 3D model of the fault-zone outcrop. First key results from ultrasonic measurements show that the fracture diagenetical/temporal evolution induces an anisotropic Vp variation regarding the dip angle of the

  1. Geophysics in the Critical Zone: Constraints on Deep Weathering and Water Storage Potential in the Southern Sierra CZO (United States)

    Holbrook, W.; Riebe, C. S.; Hayes, J. L.; Reeder, K.; Harry, D. L.; Malazian, A. I.; Dosseto, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.


    Quantifying the depth and degree of subsurface weathering in landscapes is crucial for quantitative understanding of the biogeochemistry of weathering, the mechanics of hillslope sediment transport, and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon over both short and long timescales. Although the degree of weathering can be readily measured from geochemical and physical properties of regolith and rock, many distributed samples are needed to measure it over broad spatial scales. Moreover, quantifying the thickness of subsurface weathering has remained challenging, in part because the interface between altered and unaltered rock is often buried at difficult to access depths. To overcome these challenges, we combined seismic refraction and resistivity surveys to estimate regolith thickness and generate representative hillslope-scale images of subsurface weathering and water storage at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Inferred seismic velocities and electrical resistivities of the subsurface provide evidence for a weathering zone with thickness ranging from 10 to 35 m (average = 23 m) along one intensively studied transect. This weathering zone consists of roughly equal thicknesses of saprolite (P-velocity < 2 km/s) and moderately weathered bedrock (P-velocity < 4 km/s). We use a rock physics model of seismic velocities, based on Hertz-Mindlin contact theory, to estimate lateral and vertical variations in porosity as a metric of water storage potential along the transect. Inferred porosities are as high as 55% near the surface and decrease to zero at the base of weathered rock. Model-predicted porosities are broadly consistent with values measured from physical properties of saprolite, suggesting that our analysis of the geophysical data provides realistic estimates of subsurface water storage potential. A major advantage of our geophysical approach is that it quickly and non-invasively quantifies porosity over broad vertical and lateral scales

  2. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    As phytoplankton photosynthesis is dependent on light, one might assume that all the phytoplankton activity occurs in the surface of our oceans. This assumption was, however, challenged early in the history of biological oceanography when chlorophyll sampling and fluorescence profiling showed deep...

  3. Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine (United States)

    Coşoiu, C. I.; Georgescu, A. M.; Degeratu, M.; Haşegan, L.; Hlevca, D.


    The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.

  4. Application of burst vibrothermography to characterize planar vertical cracks (United States)

    Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, Ricardo; Cifuentes, Ángel; Zatón, Lander; Salazar, Agustín.


    We present a method to characterize vertical cracks in a fast way using burst vibrothermography. In this technique the sample is excited by ultrasounds and, at the defect, rubbing of the contacting surfaces produces heat that can be detected as a temperature rise at the surface using an infrared camera. In this work, first we present the solution of the direct problem, i.e., the calculation of the surface temperature distribution produced by a vertical heat source representing a crack excited by an ultrasound burst, and we choose the information that will be used to characterize the crack, namely, one thermogram and one timing-graph. Next we address the inverse problem, consisting of finding the heat source distribution that is responsible for the observed surface temperature. This inverse problem is ill-posed, and a naïve inversion process is unstable. We propose to use three penalty terms, based on zero order Tikhonov and Total Variation functionals and the Lasso method, to stabilize the inversion. By inverting synthetic data, we analyze the performance of the algorithm as a function of the depth of the heat source and we study the effect of the burst duration and noise level in the data on the quality of the reconstructions. Finally, we invert experimental data taken in samples containing calibrated heat sources. The results show that it is possible to characterize vertical cracks down to depths of 6 mm in AISI 304 stainless steel.

  5. Electrical Imaging of Saline Tracer Migration for the Investigation of Unsaturated Zone Transport Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Slater


    Full Text Available Abstract: Better understanding of field-scale unsaturated zone transport mechanisms is required if the fate of contaminants released at the surface is to be predicted accurately. Interpretation of results from direct tracer sampling in terms of operative hydraulic processes is often limited by the poor spatial coverage and the invasive nature of such techniques. Cross-borehole electrical imaging during progress of saline tracer migration is proposed to assist investigation of field-scale solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Electrical imaging provides non-destructive, high density and spatially continuous sampling of saline tracer transport injected over an area of the ground surface between two boreholes. The value of electrical imaging was tested at a field site on an interfluve of the UK Chalk aquifer. Improved understanding of active transport mechanisms in the unsaturated zone of the UK Chalk is required to predict its vulnerability to surface pollutants. In a tracer experiment in May 1996, a conductive saline tracer was infiltrated over 18 m2 at an average rate of 47 mm day-1 for 56 hours. Cross-borehole images obtained during and after infiltration show a large, homogenous, resistivity reduction in the top 3 m, no change between 3 m and 6 m depth, and smaller, inhomogeneous, resistivity reductions below 6 m depth. The resistivity has reduced at down to 15 m depth less than 2 days after tracer infiltration began. Hydrological interpretation of a sequence of electrical images obtained prior to, during, and up to three months after tracer injection suggests: (1 rapid tracer entry into the soil zone and upper 2 m of weathered Chalk, (2 intergranular transport of the bulk of the tracer, (3 a significant fissure flow component transporting tracer to at least 15 m depth in 31 hours, and (4 vertical changes in transport mechanisms possibly caused by interception of fissures by marl layers. The results of this experiment suggest that

  6. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  7. Unconventional vertical word-order impairs reading. (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Claudia


    Western written languages unfold across both the horizontal (from left to right) and the vertical (from top to bottom) dimensions. Culturally determined horizontal reading/writing habits are so pervasive that their influence can be found not only in visual scanning but also in performance across different domains and tasks. However, little is known on the effects of vertical word order. In the present study, a lexical decision task is used to show that reading performance is less efficient when verbal material is vertically arranged following a bottom-to-top order.

  8. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films (United States)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.


    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  9. Search for R-parity violating supersymmetry with displaced vertices

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    A search for $R$-parity violating supersymmetry has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of $17.6~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. This search assumes a minimal flavor violating model where the lightest supersymmetric particle is a long-lived neutralino or gluino, leading to a signal with jets emanating from displaced vertices. Based on a sample of events with two displaced vertices, the pair production cross section is bounded as a function of mass and lifetime of the neutralino or gluino. For a mass of 400 GeV and mean proper decay length of 10 mm, the analysis excludes cross sections above $0.6~\\mathrm{fb}$ at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  10. Isopycnal diffusivity in the tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Visbeck, Martin; Tanhua, Toste; Fischer, Tim


    Isopycnal diffusivity plays an important role in the ventilation of the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Lateral tracer transport is described by isopycnal diffusivity and mean advection of the tracer (e.g. oxygen), together they account for up to 70% of the oxygen supply for the OMZ. One of the big challenges is to separate diffusivity from advection. Isopycnal diffusivity was estimated to be Ky=(500 ± 200) m2 s-1 and Kx=(1200 ± 600) m2 s-1 by Banyte et. al (2013) from a Tracer Release Experiment (TRE). Hahn et al. (2014) estimated a meridional eddy diffusivity of 1350 m2 s-1 at 100 m depth decaying to less than 300 m2 s-1 below 800 m depth from repeated ship sections of CTD and ADCP data in addition with hydrographic mooring data. Uncertainties of the estimated diffusivities were still large, thus the Oxygen Supply Tracer Release Experiment (OSTRE) was set up to estimate isopycnal diffusivity in the OMZ using a newly developed sampling strategy of a control volume. The tracer was released in 2012 in the core of the OMZ at approximately 410 m depth and mapped after 6, 15 and 29 months in a regular grid. In addition to the calculation of tracer column integrals from vertical tracer profiles a new sampling method was invented and tested during two of the mapping cruises. The mean eddy diffusivity during OSTRE was found to be about (300 ± 130) m2 s-1. Additionally, the tracer has been advected further to the east and west by zonal jets. We compare different analysis methods to estimate isopycnal diffusivity from tracer spreading and show the advantage of the control volume surveys and control box approach. From the control box approach we are estimating the strength of the zonal jets within the OMZ core integrated over the TRE time period. References: Banyte, D., Visbeck, M., Tanhua, T., Fischer, T., Krahmann, G.,Karstensen, J., 2013. Lateral Diffusivity from Tracer Release Experiments in the Tropical North Atlantic Thermocline

  11. Modeling surf zone-inner shelf exchange: Interaction of rip currents and stratification (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Feddersen, F.


    Transient rip currents on alongshore uniform beaches develop from the coalescence of surf zone eddies, exchanging tracers between the surf zone and the potentially stratified inner shelf. The interaction of stratification and transient rip currents has not yet been investigated. Surf zone eddies responsible for transient rip currents are generated by short-crested wave breaking, a process included in wave-resolving (WR) Boussinesq models. However, WR models are depth-integrated and cannot account for stratification and vertically sheared flows. Wave-averaged (WA) models can simulate these processes, but cannot create surf zone eddies. A combination of WR and WA models is required to accurately simulate surf zone-inner shelf exchange. Here, WR depth-integrated Boussinessq model funwaveC is coupled to the stratification and depth-resolving WA Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The surf zone eddy generation forcing is extracted from a funwaveC simulation of normally incident waves on a planar beach, and provided to COAWST as a depth-uniform surf zone force. COAWST model simulations resolving the surf zone to mid-shelf are conducted with surf zone eddy forcing, idealistic surface heating/cooling, stratification, and Coriolis effects. These simulations provide three-dimensional evolution of velocity and temperature, diagnosed to quantify the role of surf zone eddy forcing in surf zone-inner shelf exchange. The impact of stratification on rip currents and exchange is studied by varying the stratification. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Can small zooplankton enhance turbulence in a lake during vertical migration? (United States)

    Wain, D.; Simoncelli, S.; Thackeray, S.


    Recent research in both oceanic and freshwater systems suggests that the Diel Vertical Migration (DVM), a predator-avoidance mechanism adopted by many zooplankton, may be an underrepresented source of turbulence and mixing. In particular, the migration can play a crucial role when organisms cross the thermocline; this could be particularly important in enhancing the mixing in lakes, where the pelagic zone is often quiescent, with a consequent impact on lake ecosystem functioning. A field experiment was performed to directly measure the temperature fluctuations and kinetic energy dissipation rate generated by DVM of Daphnia spp., a 1 mm crustacean zooplankton genus. Profiles of turbulence were acquired with a temperature microstructure profiler in Vobster Quay (UK), a small quarry with small wind fetch, steep sides, and with a maximum depth of approximately 25 m. Sixteen profiles were measured over the course of two hours during sunset on 16 July 2015, during which there was no wind. Backscatter strength from bottom-mounted ADCP was used as a proxy to assess DVM. Zooplankton vertical distribution was also quantified by sampling with a 100 μm mesh net before and after the turbulence profiling in 8 layers to verify the distribution of Daphnia spp. before and after the migration. Zooplankton tows show higher abundance (450 ind./L) of Daphnia at 9m and near the bottom before sunset (8PM). Samples after dusk (11.20PM) showed an increase in the surface layer, from 0 up to 250 ind./L. However, migration also appears to happen horizontally. Ensemble-averaged profiles show a great variation of the dissipation rates over the course of the time series with a peak of 10-7 W/kg between 6m and 12m where the DVM is happening and with respect to profiles before sunset. Given the uncertainty in measuring the length scales of turbulence associated with small zooplankton, further analysis is required to determine if the observed turbulence during the time of migration was due the

  13. The Vertical Dust Profile Over Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Newman, C. E.; Smith, M. D.; Moores, J. E.; Smith, C. L.; Moore, C.; Richardson, M. I.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Mischna, M.; Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.-P.; Battalio, M.


    We create a vertically coarse, but complete, profile of dust mixing ratio from the surface to the upper atmosphere over Gale Crater, Mars, using the frequent joint atmospheric observations of the orbiting Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. Using these data and an estimate of planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth from the MarsWRF general circulation model, we divide the vertical column into three regions. The first region is the Gale Crater PBL, the second is the MCS-sampled region, and the third is between these first two. We solve for a well-mixed dust mixing ratio within this third (middle) layer of atmosphere to complete the profile. We identify a unique seasonal cycle of dust within each atmospheric layer. Within the Gale PBL, dust mixing ratio maximizes near southern hemisphere summer solstice (Ls = 270°) and minimizes near winter solstice (Ls = 90-100°) with a smooth sinusoidal transition between them. However, the layer above Gale Crater and below the MCS-sampled region more closely follows the global opacity cycle and has a maximum in opacity near Ls = 240° and exhibits a local minimum (associated with the "solsticial pause" in dust storm activity) near Ls = 270°. With knowledge of the complete vertical dust profile, we can also assess the frequency of high-altitude dust layers over Gale. We determine that 36% of MCS profiles near Gale Crater contain an "absolute" high-altitude dust layer wherein the dust mixing ratio is the maximum in the entire vertical column.

  14. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, A.


    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  15. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.


    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  16. Vertical vergence adaptation produces an objective vertical deviation that changes with head tilt. (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L; Ramey, Nicholas A; Adyanthaya, Rohit S; Ying, Howard S


    To document the cyclovertical ocular motor mechanism used for vertical fusion in healthy subjects, and to explore whether vertical vergence training in healthy individuals can produce objectively confirmed vertical deviations that change with head tilt, revealing a basic mechanism that can produce a pattern of misalignment in an otherwise normal ocular motor system that is similar to superior oblique muscle paresis (SOP). Seven subjects with normal orthoptic examinations were adapted to vertical image disparities using our tilting haploscopic eye-tracking apparatus presenting concentric circle targets without torsional cues. Static eye positions were recorded with head straight and when tilted 45 degrees to the left and right, during both binocular and monocular viewing. Vertical fusional vergence was accompanied by a cycloversion, with the downward-moving eye intorting and the upward-moving eye extorting, implicating primary involvement of the oblique extraocular muscles. After adaptation to the slowly increasing vertical target separation, all subjects developed a temporary vertical deviation in the straight ahead position that increased with head tilt to one side and decreased with head tilt to the other side. These results not only show that head-tilt-dependent changes in vertical deviation are not necessarily pathognomonic for SOP, but also, and more importantly, suggest mechanisms that can mimic SOP and suggest a possible role for vertical vergence training in reducing deviations and thus the amount of head tilt required for fusion. Ultimately, vertical vergence training may provide an adjunct or alternative to extraocular muscle surgery in selected cases.

  17. Zoning Districts - MDC_ROZABoundary (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The boundaries of the ROZA are defined in Chapter 33 of the Zoning Code, Section 33-420, ARTICLE XLI. The area is known as the ROCK MINING OVERLAY ZONING AREA (ROZA)...

  18. Ecological zones of California deserts (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  19. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea


    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  20. Thermal vertical bimorph actuators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sehr, H J


    In this thesis, a novel concept for lateral actuators based on vertical bimorphs is presented. Vertical bimorphs consist of silicon beams side-coated with aluminium, which bend when heated due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials causing a displacement in the wafer plane. The heating of the actuator is provided by an electrical current through the silicon beam. The simplest implementation of a vertical bimorph actuator is a clamped-clamped beam. To obtain higher deflections, a meander shaped actuator has been designed. By combining four meander actuators, a two-dimensional positioning stage has been realised. The meander actuator has also been applied for normally closed and normally open micro-relays. Analytical calculations and ANSYS simulations have been carried out to predict the physical behaviour of the bimorph devices, including temperature distribution, static deflection, vertical stiffness, thermal time constant and lateral resonances. For both the clamped-clamped beam...

  1. Multiloop string vertices from the path integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Lerda, A.


    We derive the multiloop vertices for the bosonic string using path integral methods and establish a precise equivalence between the functional approach to string perturbation theory and the operator formalism on Riemann surfaces recently developed by various authors.

  2. Vertical Land Change, Perry County, Kentucky (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The vertical land change activity focuses on the detection, analysis, and explanation of topographic change. These detection techniques include both quantitative...

  3. Measurement of the Average B Hadron Lifetime Using Reconstructed Vertices in Three-Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S


    This thesis describes a measurement of the average B hadron lifetime using data collected with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Collider in 1993. An inclusive analysis selects three dimensional vertices with B hadron lifetime information in a sample of 50,000 Z{sup 0} decays. A lifetime of 1.564 {+-} 0.030(stat) {+-} 0.036(syst) ps is extracted from the decay length distribution of these vertices using a binned maximum likelihood method.

  4. A Computational Framework for Vertical Video Editing


    Gandhi, Vineet; Ronfard, Rémi


    International audience; Vertical video editing is the process of digitally editing the image within the frame as opposed to horizontal video editing, which arranges the shots along a timeline. Vertical editing can be a time-consuming and error-prone process when using manual key-framing and simple interpolation. In this paper, we present a general framework for automatically computing a variety of cinematically plausible shots from a single input video suitable to the special case of live per...

  5. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.


    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...... cargo ship regulations, was based on a very simplified presumption of bow heights. This paper investigates the development of this damage extent distribution based on three independent methodologies; actual casualty measurements, world fleet bow height statistics, and collision simulation modeling...

  6. Vertical Jump: Biomechanical Analysis and Simulation Study


    Babic, Jan; Lenarcic, Jadran


    By building an efficient biorobotic model which includes an elastic model of the biarticular muscle gastrocnemius and by simulation of the vertical jump we have demonstrated that biarticular links contribute a great deal to the performance of the vertical jump. Besides, we have shown that timing of the biarticular link activation and stiffness of the biarticular link considerably influence the height of the jump. Methodology and results of our study offer an effective tool for the design of t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ursu


    Full Text Available The features of structure of some parent materials essentially influence of direction of pedogenesis, cause the processes of lithomorphism. On heavy tertiary clays in different conditionsare formed the special genetic type (vertisols or transitive to lithomorphic subtype of zonal soil (vertic soil. In article the characteristic of vertisols (the subtype of mollic and ochric and thesubtypes of vertic chernozems and grey soils is given.

  8. Shear zone-controlled magma emplacement or magma-assisted nucleation of shear zones? Insights from northeast Brazil (United States)

    Neves, S. P.; Vauchez, A.; Archanjo, C. J.


    In the Borborema province of northeast Brazil, neoproterozoic granitoids and large-scale transcurrent shear zones are spatially associated, suggesting a genetic link between magma bodies and shear zones. In some cases magma emplacement was clearly favored by shear zone activity, but for several plutons this model is not satisfactory. In these plutons, pre-full crystallization strike-slip deformation, evidenced by parallelism of magmatic foliations and lineations with the solid-state mylonitic fabric, and by a transition from magmatic to solid-state flow, is restricted to the vicinity of the shear zones. Evidence of shear zone activity prior to magma emplacement is lacking, and the magmatic foliation away from the shear zones is in most cases shallowly dipping and concordant with the slightly older, gently-dipping, regional gneissic foliation. Field and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility mapping, together with petrographic and geochemical studies performed in one of the magmatic complexes of the Borborema province have revealed a structure and a magmatic fabric incompatible with the shear zone-controlled emplacement model. Away from the shear zones, this complex has retained a stratification inherited from the mixing of crystal-poor magmas of contrasting composition, and a magmatic fabric characterized by low-to moderate-dip magmatic foliations bearing a NW-trending lineation, which contrast with vertical foliations bearing NE- or E-W-trending stretching lineations in the shear zones and indicates that crystallization started prior to shear zone development. Based on evidence that magma emplacement predated strike-slip shearing and on information about the transition from magmatic to solid-state deformation observed in the studied plutons, we suggest that incompletely solidified plutons within the crust represent rheological heterogeneities that may induce strain localization and favor shear zone nucleation. We propose that in the studied cases deformation first

  9. Late Quaternary strike-slip along the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone and its tectonic implications in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, China (United States)

    Yu, Jing-xing; Zheng, Wen-jun; Zhang, Pei-zhen; Lei, Qi-yun; Wang, Xu-long; Wang, Wei-tao; Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Ning


    The Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan are composed of discontinuous a set of active faults with various strikes and slip motions that are located to the north of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Despite growing understanding of the geometry and kinematics of these active faults, the late Quaternary deformation pattern in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan remains controversial. The active E-W trending Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone is located in the southern Gobi Alashan. Study of the geometry and nature of slip along this fault zone holds crucial value for better understanding the regional deformation pattern. Field investigations combined with high-resolution imagery show that the Taohuala Shan fault and the E-W trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F2 and F5) are left-lateral strike-slip faults, whereas the NW or WNW-trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F1 and F3) are reverse faults. We collected Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and cosmogenic exposure age dating samples from offset alluvial fan surfaces, and estimated a vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr, and a strike-slip rate of 0.14-0.93 mm/yr for the Taohuala Shan fault. Strata revealed in a trench excavated across the major fault (F5) in the Ayouqi fault zone and OSL dating results indicate that the most recent earthquake occurred between ca. 11.05 ± 0.52 ka and ca. 4.06 ± 0.29 ka. The geometry and kinematics of the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone enable us to build a deformation pattern for the entire Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, which suggest that this region experiences northeastward oblique extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. These left-lateral strike-slip faults in the region are driven by oblique compression but not associated with the northeastward extension of the Altyn Tagh fault.

  10. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver


    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  11. Magnetic depth profile in GaMnAs layers with vertically graded Mn concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, J., E-mail: [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kirby, B.J. [Center for Neutron Research, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Fitzsimmons, M.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tivakornsasithorn, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol Univeristy, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.K.; Dobrowolska, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)


    Controlled vertical grading of magnetization of the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs represents a significant step toward optimizing its magnetic properties for device applications. Quantitative control of such grading is difficult due to various competing effects, such as Mn diffusion, self-annealing, and diffusion of charge carriers. Furthermore, there are also several surface effects that can influence the magnetization profile, which should be considered in designing and fabricating graded GaMnAs specimens. However, we show that vertical magnetization gradients in GaMnAs layers can be readily achieved by appropriate growth strategies. In this paper we describe the preparation, magnetization measurements, and polarized neutron reflectometry studies of vertically graded GaMnAs layers, which provide direct evidence that vertical grading of Mn concentration has been successfully achieved in our GaMnAs samples. Our measurements also indicate that these graded samples exhibit magnetic “hardening” near the surface. - Highlights: • Controlled vertical grading of the magnetization ferromagnetic semiconductors represents a significant step toward optimizing its magnetic properties for device applications. • Quantitative control of such grading is difficult due to various competing effects, such as Mn diffusion, self-annealing, and diffusion of charge carriers. • We show (via SQUID and Polarized Neutron Scattering) that vertical magnetization gradients in GaMnAs layers can be readily achieved by appropriate MBE growth strategies. • Our measurements also indicate that these graded samples exhibit magnetic “hardening” near the surface.

  12. Bacterial Colonization and Vertical Distribution of Marine Gel Particles (TEP and CSP in the Arctic Fram Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Busch


    Full Text Available Gel particles—a class of abundant transparent organic particles—have increasingly gathered attention in marine research. Field studies on the bacterial colonization of marine gels however are still scarce. So far, most studies on respective particles have focused on the upper ocean, while little is known on their occurrence in the deep sea. Here, we report on the vertical distribution of the two most common gel particle types, which are polysaccharide-containing transparent exopolymer particles (TEP and proteinaceous Coomassie stainable particles (CSP, as well as numbers of bacteria attached to gel particles throughout the water column, from the surface ocean down to the bathypelagial (< 3,000 m. Our study was conducted in the Arctic Fram Strait during northern hemispheres' summer in 2015. Besides data on the bacterial colonization of the two gel particle types (TEP and CSP, we present bacterial densities on different gel particle size classes according to 12 different sampling depths at four sampling locations. Gel particles were frequently abundant at all sampled depths, and their concentrations decreased from the euphotic zone to the dark ocean. They were colonized by bacteria at all sampled water depths with risen importance at the deepest water layers, where fractions of bacteria attached to gel particles (% increased within the total bacterial community. Due to the omnipresent bacterial colonization of gel particles at all sampled depths in our study, we presume that euphotic production of this type of organic matter may affect microbial species distribution within the whole water column in the Fram Strait, down to the deep sea. Our results raise the question if changes in the bacterial community composition and functioning on gel particles occur over depth, which may affect microbial respiration and remineralization rates of respective particles in different water layers.

  13. Regional variability of nitrate fluxes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater, Wisconsin, USA (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant


    Process-based modeling of regional NO3− fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3− reactive transport processes make implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3− in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3−, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3−, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3− front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g. limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  14. Strain and vorticity patterns in ideally ductile transpression zones (United States)

    Robin, Pierre-Yves F.; Cruden, Alexander R.


    The prevalent model for ductile shear zones assumes that they develop by progressive simple shearing, resulting in a monoclinic fabric in which the vorticity vector is parallel to the shear zone and perpendicular to the lineation. But some ductile shear zones exhibit an amount of coaxial flattening, or a fabric pattern which appear to be incompatible with the assumptions of plane strain and progressive simple shear. In certain sections of the Archean Larder Lake—Cadillac deformation zone (LCDZ), for example, vorticity indicators (asymmetric pressure wings, Z-folds, SC fabrics), best seen on horizontal surfaces, indicate dextral transcurrent motion, whereas stretching lineations have variable but steep plunges. In the Proterozoic Mylonite Zone (MZ) of south-west Sweden, vorticity indicators combined with foliation and lineation data suggest a continuous change from reverse dip-slip motion close to the footwall to sinistral transcurrent motion adjacent to the hangingwall of the zone. Such departures from the ideal progressive simple shear zone pattern may in fact be common. Rather than invoke two stages of deformation, we explore the possibility that these patterns could be the result of ductile transpression. Ductile transpression between relatively rigid walls implies an extrusion of material out of the shear zone. When the material cannot slip freely along the boundaries of the zone, the extrusion strain is by necessity heterogeneous. In order to explore these heterogeneous strain distributions, we have developed a continuum mechanics model in which the 'transpressed' rock is a linear viscous material squeezed upward between two parallel, rigid, vertical walls. Transpression is further generalized by modelling oblique (i.e. with a dip-slip component) relative displacements of the walls. Models, which can vary in their obliquity and their 'press'/'trans' ratio, are examined for their distributions of K-values, strain rate intensity, 'lineation' (direction of

  15. 75 FR 32664 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI (United States)


    ... establishing a safety zone on Lake Michigan near Bradford Beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This zone is intended..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... to Bradford Beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The safety zone will encompass all U.S. waters of Lake...

  16. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind


    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  17. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE (United States)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.


    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  18. Bubble-facilitated VOC transport from LNAPL smear zones and its potential effect on vapor intrusion: Laboratory experiments (United States)

    Soucy, N. C.; Mumford, K. G.


    Light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) sources can pose a significant threat to indoor air through the volatilization of hydrocarbons from the source and the subsequent transport of vapor through the soil. If subjected to the rise and fall of a water table, an LNAPL source can become a smear zone that consists of trapped discontinuous LNAPL blobs (residual) and has a higher aqueous permeability and higher surface area-to-volume ratio than pool sources. The rise and fall of a water table can also trap atmospheric air bubbles alongside the LNAPL. If these bubbles expand and become mobile, either through partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or the production of biogenic gases, bubble-facilitated vertical vapor transport can occur. It is important to understand the bubble-facilitated transport of VOCs as it is a mechanism that could lead to faster transport. The transport of VOCs from smear zones was investigated using laboratory column and visualization experiments. In the column experiments, pentane LNAPL was emplaced in a 5 cm sand-packed source zone and the water level was raised and lowered to trap residual LNAPL and air bubbles. Each column also contained a 10 cm-high zone of clean saturated sand, and a 10 cm vadose zone of 4 mm-diameter glass beads. Water was pumped through the source and occlusion zones, and air flowed across the top of the column, where vapor samples were collected and analyzed immediately by gas chromatography. In the visualization experiments, pentane LNAPL was emplaced in a two-dimensional cell designed to allow visualization of mobilized LNAPL and gas through glass walls. Results of the column experiments showed VOC mass fluxes in test columns were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than in the control columns. In addition, the flux signal was intermittent, consistent with expectations of bubble-facilitated transport. The results from the visualization experiments showed gas fingers growing and mobilizing over time, and supports

  19. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  20. Smartphones and Time Zones (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire


    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  1. Seismic Velocity Gradients Across the Transition Zone (United States)

    Escalante, C.; Cammarano, F.; de Koker, N.; Piazzoni, A.; Wang, Y.; Marone, F.; Dalton, C.; Romanowicz, B.


    One-D elastic velocity models derived from mineral physics do a notoriously poor job at predicting the velocity gradients in the upper mantle transition zone, as well as some other features of models derived from seismological data. During the 2006 CIDER summer program, we computed Vs and Vp velocity profiles in the upper mantle based on three different mineral physics approaches: two approaches based on the minimization of Gibbs Free Energy (Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2005; Piazzoni et al., 2006) and one obtained by using experimentally determined phase diagrams (Weidner and Wang, 1998). The profiles were compared by assuming a vertical temperature profile and two end-member compositional models, the pyrolite model of Ringwood (1979) and the piclogite model of Anderson and Bass (1984). The predicted seismic profiles, which are significantly different from each other, primarily due to different choices of properties of single minerals and their extrapolation with temperature, are tested against a global dataset of P and S travel times and spheroidal and toroidal normal mode eigenfrequencies. All the models derived using a potential temperature of 1600K predict seismic velocities that are too slow in the upper mantle, suggesting the need to use a colder geotherm. The velocity gradient in the transition zone is somewhat better for piclogite than for pyrolite, possibly indicating the need to increase Ca content. The presence of stagnant slabs in the transition zone is a possible explanation for the need for 1) colder temperature and 2) increased Ca content. Future improvements in seismic profiles obtained from mineral physics will arise from better knowledge of elastic properties of upper mantle constituents and aggregates at high temperature and pressure, a better understanding of differences between thermodynamic models, and possibly the effect of water through and on Q. High resolution seismic constraints on velocity jumps at 400 and 660 km also need to be

  2. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration. (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A


    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Vertical saccades in children: a developmental study. (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Seassau, Magali


    There are no studies exploring the development of vertical saccades in large populations of children. In this study, we examined the development of vertical saccades in sixty-nine children. Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video oculography system [Mobile EBT(®), e(ye)BRAIN], and movements from both eyes had been analyzed. The gain and the peak velocity of vertical saccades show an up-down asymmetry. Latency value decreases with the age of children, and it does not depend on the direction of the saccades; in contrast, the gain and the peak velocity values of vertical saccades are stable during childhood. We suggest that the up-down asymmetry is developed early, or is innate, in humans. Latencies of vertical saccades develop with the age of children, in relationship with the development of the cortical network responsible for the saccade preparation. In contrast, the precision and the peak velocity are not age-dependent as they are controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem structures.

  4. Stress Rotation in the Kachchh Rift Zone, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Mandal, Prantik


    Double difference relocations of the 1402 Kachchh events (2001 2006) clearly delineate two fault zones viz. south-dipping North Wagad fault (NWF) and almost vertical Gedi fault (GF). The relocated focal depths delineate a marked variation of 4 and 7 km in the brittle-ductile transition depths beneath GF and NWF, respectively. The focal mechanism solutions of 464 aftershocks (using 8 12 first motions) show that the focal mechanisms ranged between pure reverse and pure strike-slip except for a few pure dip-slip solutions. The stress inversions performed for five rectangular zones across the Kachchh rift reveal both clockwise and anticlockwise rotation (7 32°) in the σ1 orientation within the rupture zone, favoring a heterogeneous stress regime with an average N-S fault normal compression. This rotation may be attributed to the presence of crustal mafic intrusives (5 35 km depth) in the rupture zone of the 2001 Bhuj main shock. Results suggest a relatively homogeneous stress regime in the GF zone favoring strike-slip motion, with a fault normal N-S compression.

  5. Upper Ocean Evolution Across the Beaufort Sea Marginal Ice Zone (United States)

    Lee, C.; Rainville, L.; Gobat, J. I.; Perry, M. J.; Freitag, L. E.; Webster, S.


    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g., the relatively warm Pacific Summer and Atlantic waters), and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice. Spatial and temporal variability in ice properties and open water fraction impact these processes. To investigate how upper ocean structure varies with changing ice cover, how the balance of processes shift as a function of ice fraction and distance from open water, and how these processes impact sea ice evolution, a network of autonomous platforms sampled the atmosphere-ice-ocean system in the Beaufort, beginning in spring, well before the start of melt, and ending with the autumn freeze-up. Four long-endurance autonomous Seagliders occupied sections that extended from open water, through the marginal ice zone, deep into the pack during summer 2014 in the Beaufort Sea. Gliders penetrated up to 200 km into the ice pack, under complete ice cover for up to 10 consecutive days. Sections reveal strong fronts where cold, ice-covered waters meet waters that have been exposed to solar warming, and O(10 km) scale eddies near the ice edge. In the pack, Pacific Summer Water and a deep chlorophyll maximum form distinct layers at roughly 60 m and 80 m, respectively, which become increasingly diffuse late in the season as they progress through the MIZ and into open water. Stratification just above the Pacific Summer Water rapidly weakens near the ice edge and temperature variance increases, likely due to mixing or energetic vertical exchange associated with strong

  6. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Steiger, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Jane C.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (US). Mackay School of Mines; Wood, Tom [Parsons Engineering, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lore, Jason [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zawislanski, Peter T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  7. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  8. [Current approach to zoning atomic shipbuilding plants]. (United States)

    Blekher, A Ia


    The paper discusses the currently introduced radiation-and-hygienic system for zoning atomic shipbuilding plants, in accordance with which three radiation-and-hygienic zones (a strict regime zone, a controlled approach zone, and a free regime zone) are established at the plant site and two zones (a sanitary-and-protective zone and a follow-up zone) are also established outside the plant site.

  9. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid


    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...... situation was observed. Mean ambient temperatures, calculated from the predicted vertical distributions of the eggs and used for the computation of egg developmental times, were overestimated by 0.05 degrees C on average. This corresponds to an error in prediction of egg developmental time of less than 1%...

  10. Ups and downs in western Crete (Hellenic subduction zone). (United States)

    Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto; Vannoli, Paola


    Studies of past sea-level markers are commonly used to unveil the tectonic history and seismic behavior of subduction zones. We present new evidence on vertical motions of the Hellenic subduction zone as resulting from a suite of Late Pleistocene - Holocene shorelines in western Crete (Greece). Shoreline ages obtained by AMS radiocarbon dating of seashells, together with the reappraisal of shoreline ages from previous works, testify a long-term uplift rate of 2.5-2.7 mm/y. This average value, however, includes periods in which the vertical motions vary significantly: 2.6-3.2 mm/y subsidence rate from 42 ka to 23 ka, followed by ~7.7 mm/y sustained uplift rate from 23 ka to present. The last ~5 ky shows a relatively slower uplift rate of 3.0-3.3 mm/y, yet slightly higher than the long-term average. A preliminary tectonic model attempts at explaining these up and down motions by across-strike partitioning of fault activity in the subduction zone.

  11. Groundwater flow and heat transport dynamics across an intertidal zone (United States)

    Befus, K. M.; Cardenas, M. B.; Swanson, T. E.; Erler, D. V.; Santos, I. R.; Tait, D. R.


    Intertidal zones mark the interface between terrestrial and marine systems. Nearshore energy and mass fluxes can be bi-directional as tidal and wave processes compete with surface water and groundwater discharges. We installed a transect of thirteen piezometers across a shoreface on Rarotonga, Cook Islands to measure vertical and horizontal water flux and temperature time series below the sediment-water interface. An array of four thermistors within each piezometer recorded temperatures ranging from the sediment-water interface to 0.2 m depth over multiple tidal cycles. Temperature time series at 0.2 m depth strongly resemble the tidal temperature signal with a variable time lag between nearly instantaneous to 11 hrs, suggesting predominance of marine influx over fresh groundwater seepage in this area. Vertical hydraulic head gradients calculated from select, deeper piezometers show downward water fluxes at all tides with lower gradients at low tides. However, horizontal gradients between piezometers are always seaward. A parallel series of two-dimensional, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys show some resistivity values that may be due to presence of fresh water near land at depth, but most values correspond to that of seawater-saturated sediment. We interpret this intertidal zone as a venue for seawater recirculation in the subsurface with minimal diffuse terrestrial groundwater discharge. Terrestrially-derived groundwater may be discharging further out in the lagoon and mostly bypassing the intertidal zone.

  12. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  13. Dissociated vertical deviation and eye torsion: Relation to disparity-induced vertical vergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. van Rijn; H.J. Simonsz (Huib); M.P.M. ten Tusscher


    textabstractWe studied the relation between vertical eye movements and binocular torsion in five subjects with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). During trials, subject viewed a well illuminated Snellen letter chart, with both eyes uncovered during 4 seconds. Subsequently, DVD was induced by

  14. Facilitation of vertical vergence by horizontal saccades, found in a patient with dissociated vertical deviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); L.J. van Dijk (Laurens)


    textabstractAbstract The authors examined vertical vergence in a Is-year-old girl with dissociated vertical deviation, a 60 convergent strabismus, no binocular vision, latent nystagmus, and a minimal left amblyopia. Eye movements were recorded during 4s-periods of (1) both eyes open, alternated with

  15. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion by using the phonetic vowel "O" and "E"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Marko


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The vertical dimension of occlusion is a very important parameter for proper reconstruction of the relationship between the jaws. The literature describes many methods for its finding, from the simple, easily applicable clinically, to quite complicated, with the use of one or more devices for determination. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of determining the vertical dimension of occlusion using the vocals “O” and “E” with the control of values o btained by applying cognitive functions. Methods. This investigation was performed with the two groups of patients. The first group consisted of 50 females and 50 males, aged 18 to 30 years. In this group the distance between the reference points (on top of the nose and chin was measured in the position of the mandible in the vertical dimension of occlusion, the vertical dimension at rest and the pronunciation of the words “OLO” and “ELE”. Checking the correctness of the particular value for the word “OLO” was also performed by the phonetic method with the application of cognitive exercises when the patients counted from 89 to 80. The obtained difference in the average values i n determining the vertical dimension of occlusion and the “OLO” and “ELE” in the first group was used as the reference for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion in the second group of patients. The second group comprised of 31 edentulous persons (14 females and 17 males, aged from 54 to 85 years who had been made a complete denture. Results. The average value obtained for the vertical dimension of rest for the entire sample was 2.16 mm, for the word “OLO” for the entire sample was 5.51 mm and for the word “ELE” for the entire sample was 7.47 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the genders for the value of the vertical dimension at rest, “ELE” and “OLO”. There was a statistically significant difference between the

  16. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion by using the phonetic vowel "O" and "E". (United States)

    Igić, Marko; Krunić, Nebojsa; Aleksov, Ljiljana; Kostić, Milena; Igić, Aleksandra; Petrović, Milica B; Dacić, Stefan; Igić, Stevan; Igić, Aleksandar


    The vertical dimension of occlusion is a very important parameter for proper reconstruction of the relationship between the jaws. The literature describes many methods for its finding, from the simple, easily applicable clinically, to quite complicated, with the use of one or more devices for determination. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of determining the vertical dimension of occlusion using the vocals "O" and "E" with the control of values obtained by applying cognitive functions. This investigation was performed with the two groups of patients. The first group consisted of 50 females and 50 males, aged 18 to 30 years. In this group the distance between the reference points (on top of the nose and chin) was measured in the position of the mandible in the vertical dimension of occlusion, the vertical dimension at rest and the pronunciation of the words "OLO" and "ELE". Checking the correctness of the particular value for the word "OLO" was also performed by the phonetic method with the application of cognitive exercises when the patients counted from 89 to 80. The obtained difference in the average values in determining the vertical dimension of occlusion and the "OLO" and "ELE" in the first group was used as the reference for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion in the second group of patients. The second group comprised of 31 edentulous persons (14 females and 17 males), aged from 54 to 85 years who had been made a complete denture. The average value obtained for the vertical dimension of rest for the entire sample was 2.16 mm, for the word "OLO" for the entire sample was 5.51 mm and for the word "ELE" for the entire sample was 7.47 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the genders for the value of the vertical dimension at rest, "ELE" and "OLO". There was a statistically significant difference between the values f or the vertical dimension at rest, "OLO" and "ELE" for both genders. There was a

  17. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi


    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  18. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  19. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.


    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at

  20. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik


    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  1. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda


    the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...

  2. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon


    are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle......It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...

  3. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study (United States)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)


    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  4. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  5. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter


    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  6. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  7. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar (United States)

    Gage, K. S.


    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  8. 2D and 3D resistivity inversion of Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings in Wadi El Natrun, Egypt: A case study (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando A. Monteiro


    The Wadi El Natrun area is characterized by a very complicated geological and hydrogeological system. 45 vertical electrical soundings (Schlumberger array) were measured in the study area to elucidate the peculiarity of this unique regime, specifically the nature of waterless area. 2D and 3D resistivity inversion based on the finite element technique and regularization method were applied on the data set. 2D and 3D model resolution was investigated through the use of the Depth and Volume of Investigation Indexes. A very good matching was found between the zones of high resistivity, the waterless area, and the non-productive wells. The low resistivity zones (corresponding to Lower Pliocene clay) were also identified. The middle resistivity fresh water aquifer zones were recognized. Available results can assist in the aquifer management by selecting the most productive zone of groundwater.

  9. Venous Sampling (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  10. Sampling Development (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.


    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  11. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik


    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  12. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    is the substantial impact of the current and future oil price on the optimal compliance strategies ship-owners choose when complying with the new air emission requirements for vessels. The oil price determines the attractiveness of investing in asset modification for compliance, given the capital investment required....... Operating on low-Sulphur fuels remains favourable with a low oil price, as the price spread between high- and low-Sulphur does not outweigh the price of asset investments. Ship-owners who are contemplating future compliance strategies should monitor the developments of the global oil price, and consider how......This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...

  13. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan


    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  14. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.


    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  15. Ductile Flow Accompanied by Vertical Thinning and Near-Isothermal Decompression in the Lhagoi Kangri Gneiss Dome, Southern Tibet (United States)

    Diedesch, T.; Jessup, M. J.; Cottle, J. M.; Zeng, L.


    staurolite- to sillimanite-grade samples constrain timing and rates of M1, D2, and M2 between early Eocene and late Oligocene. Results suggest the core-bounding shear zone accommodated a component of vertical thinning that was at least partially responsible for exhumation and doming of rocks in the LKD.

  16. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin. (United States)

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R


    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  17. Differences in the regional stratigraphy of NE Poland caused by vertical movements due to glacioisostasy (United States)

    Morawski, Wojciech


    Geological mapping in combination with geophysical investigations and borehole analyses show differences of the Pleistocene between the Warmia and Mazury palaeogeographic provinces in NE Poland. The (more western) Warmia province has a crystalline basement that is covered by a folded sedimentary succession of 2-4 km thick. The (more eastern) Mazury province (eastern) has a basement that forms part of the rigid East European crystalline craton, which is covered by a sedimentary cover of only 1-1.5 km thick. Cyclic loading by the Pleistocene ice sheets in this area induced glacioisostatic processes of different intensities, resulting in changing palaeogeographic conditions. The changes were increased by intense neotectonic activity that was induced by the ice sheets in the intermediate zone between the two provinces, stretching along the western slope of the crystalline craton. Significant part of intermediate zone forms a belt of crevasse-infill landforms deposited between the Warmia and Mazury lobes of the last glaciation. Studied deposits reveal a cyclic reactivation of the interlobe zone during the successive Pleistocene glaciations. Considerable variations of the relief of the top-Neogene, vertical discontinuities cutting the Pleistocene and Neogene, stratigraphic gaps within the Pleistocene succession, and thick glaciolacustrine successions result from the vertical neotectonic movements in the intermediate area between the two provinces.

  18. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  19. Euphotic zone variations in bulk and compound-specific δ13C of suspended organic matter in the Subantarctic Ocean, south of Australia (United States)

    O'Leary, T.; Trull, T. W.; Griffiths, F. B.; Tilbrook, B.; Revill, A. T.


    The carbon isotopic compositions of suspended organic matter δ13CPOC collected from Subantarctic Zone surface waters south of Australia in November 1995 decrease southward from -20 to -26‰ and display strong correlations with aqueous carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]aq), consistent with previous studies. In contrast, vertical profiles through the euphotic zone (top ˜100 m) of δ13CPOC at six stations display decreases with depth of up to 2.4‰. These decreases in δ13CPOC cannot be fully explained by the small vertical variations in [CO2]aq or its 13C content. Carbon 13 analyses of several individual sterols revealed similar isotopic changes with depth, suggesting that they derive from a fundamental depth control on primary production, rather than from algal community variations or remineralization processes. Growth rate μ appears to be the most likely source of the depth variations. The relationship between μ/[CO2]aq and δ13CPOC derived from surface water samples can explain the vertical variations of δ13CPOC within the mixed layer, provided integrated mixed layer growth rates are used. Below the mixed layer, differences between the observed δ13CPOC and the growth rate model can be explained by recent shallowing in mixed layer depth and the subsequent effect on growth rates. These results suggest that δ13CPOC determinations can be used to provide some information on the recent history of mixed layer processes and that interpretation of sedimentary δ13CPOC records should include consideration of possible growth rate and mixed layer depth variations.

  20. [Research advances in macroinvertebrate ecology of the stream hyporheic zone]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Wei; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai-Qing


    The stream hyporheic zone is an ecotone of surface water-ground water interactions, which is rich in biodiversity, and is an important component of stream ecosystem. The macroinvertebrates, which are at the top of food webs in the hyporheic zone to directly influence the matter and energy dynamics of the hyporheic zone, and are potential indicators of river ecological health to adjust the function of environment purification and ecological buffer. The macroinvertebrates in the hyporheic zone are divided into three categories: stygoxenes, stygophiles and stygobites. The key factors which influenced macroinvertebrates distribution in the hyporheic zone are physical size of interstitial spaces, interstitial current velocity, dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, available organic matter, hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic retention time. A suitable sampling method should be used for diverse research purposes in the special ecological interface. In the future, some necessary researches should focus on the life-history and life history strategy of the macroinvertebrates in the hyporheic zone, the quantitative analysis on the matter and energy dynamics in the ecological system of stream, the assessment systems of river ecological health based on the macroinvertebrates of the stream hyporheic zone, and the ecological significance of the hyporheic zone as a refuge for distribution and evolution of the macroinvertebrates.

  1. The vertical distribution and abundance of gastropods and bivalves from rocky beaches of Cuastecomate Bay, Jalisco. México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C Esqueda


    Full Text Available The vertical distribution and abundance of conspicuous gastropod and bivalve species were studied at five rocky beaches in Cuastecomate Bay, Jalisco. Sampling was done from September, 1993 through March, 1994 with 0.75 m2 quadrants placed along replicate transect lines (10 m long in the supralittoral and mesolittoral (upper, middle and lower intertidal zones. A total of 6 643 mollusks were collected. Gastropods dominated the samples (6 272 individuals, 44 species; the bivalves were less abundant and diverse (371 individuals, five species. Seventeen species comprised 89.8% of all individuals collected. The gastropods Nodilittorina aspera and Nerita scabricosta were the most abundant with 637.8 and 71.43 individuals/m2, respectively. The most abundant bivalves were Brachidontes adamsianus and Chloromytilus palliopunctatus with 60.7 and 61.3 individuals/m2 respectively. The abundance of gastropods decreased from the supralittoral to the lower tidal zones while the number of species increased in the same direction. The number of species of bivalves also increased from the supralittoral to the lower intertidal zone; the abundance of individuals was higher at the middle intertidal zone. Affinities between groups of species among sampling stations were identified by computing Pearson’s correlation coefficient using abundance values (ind./m2 and Jaccard's dissimilarity index using species presence or absence in the lower intertidal zone. Affinity among stations was not dependent upon their vicinity but on the high dominance of few species, the occurrence of many secondary species and beach characteristics.Se presenta la distribución y abundancia de las especies conspicuas de gastrópodos y bivalvos encontradas en cinco playas rocosas de la Bahía Cuatecomate, Jalisco. El muestreo se realizó desde septiembre de 1993 hasta marzo de 1994 usando cuadrantes de 0.75 m2 colocados a lo largo de líneas de transectos (longitud = 10 m en réplica, en las

  2. Vertical Distribution of Structural Components in Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. F. Johnson


    Full Text Available In the United States, corn (Zea mays L. stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg−1, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ−1, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha−1, but it would be only 1000 L ha−1 if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  3. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane M. F. Johnson; Douglas L. Karlen; Garold L. Gresham; Keri B. Cantrell; David W. Archer; Brian J. Wienhold; Gary E. Varvel; David A. Laird; John Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Jeff M. Novak; Ardell D. Halvorson; Francisco Arriaga; David T. Lightle; Amber Hoover; Rachel Emerson; Nancy W. Barbour


    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg?¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha?¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  4. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL


    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  5. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  6. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although past investigations establish the effect of various parameters on scour around vertical submerged structures for live and clear water condition, yet further studies are required to analyze the scour around group of submerged structures for various bed sediments, understand the flow physics around the group and ...

  7. integrated vertical photobioreactor system for carbon dioxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Astri Nugroho


    Jul 2, 2013 ... Abstract. A vertical photobioreactor containing the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus is a highly efficient system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass. The use of photobioreactor for CO2 mitigation has been explored using microalgae as photosynthetic microorganism. The growth rate (μ, h-1) ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diurnal vertical migrations of meiofauna were observed in an estuarine sand flat and these were related primarily to desiccation and temperature. The migrations. which occurred in the top 10 cm of the sediment. had a mean range of 5 cm and were most strongly exhibited by the interstitial flatworms. polychaetes and ...

  9. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that not all types of natural resource endowment have a 'Dutch disease' effect. While inflation, exchange rate, and foreign aid variables have a mixed effect on vertical and horizontal export diversification, political instability however has a strong adverse effect on export diversification; especially for SSA. The key ...

  10. Phase diagram of vertically vibrated dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; van der Meer, Roger M.


    When a hole is created in a layer of a dense, vertically vibrated suspension, phenomena are known to occur that defy the natural tendency of gravity to close the hole. Here, an overview is presented of the different patterns that we observed in a variety of dense particulate suspensions.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) of six common species of hydromedusae was investigated during two drogue studies conducted in St Helena Bay on the west coast of South Africa in February 1995. Clytia spp., Obelia spp. and Bougainvillia macloviana, were largely confined to surface waters and did not appear to display any ...

  12. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff


    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  13. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan


    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...

  14. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet


    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  15. Integrated Vertical Photobioreactor System for Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical photobioreactor containing the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus is a highly efficient system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass. The use of photobioreactor for CO2 mitigation has been explored using microalgae as photosynthetic microorganism. The growth rate (m, h-1) were 0.03; 0.13; 0.20; 0.09 ...

  16. The Design Philosophy for a Vertical Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijling, J. K.; Burcharth, H. F.; Voortman, H. G.


    A consistent risk-based design philosophy for vertical breakwaters is proposed. The design philosophy consists of a two-step approach. The first step is the definition of the main function of the breakwater, which leads to a definition of failure. The second step is the choice of the acceptable...

  17. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weert, M.H.M.; Den Heijer, M.; Van Kouwen, M.P.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.


    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the

  18. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1 D. E. Manolakis. Efficient solution and performance analysis of 3-d position estimation by trilateration. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, volume 32(4), pages 1239–1248, October 1996. 2 D. E. Manolakis. Aircraft vertical profile prediction based on surveillance data only. IEE Proceedings on Radar, ...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow in vertical concentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports an analytical solution for fully developed mixed convection flow of viscous,incompressible, electrically conducting fluid in vertical concentric annuli under the influence of a transverse magnetic field, where the outer surface of inner cylinder is heated sinusoidally and the inner surface of outercylinder is kept ...

  1. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)


    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  2. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida


    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  3. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution. (United States)

    Phillips, Richard C.


    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  4. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice. (United States)

    Corrie, L.


    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  5. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  6. Vertical electrical resistivity investigation of foundation conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Vertical Electrical Soundings have been carried out for building sites using Schlumberger array within a buried River channel near Okilton close, Port Harcourt. The objective was to delineate the different geoelectric and geologic parameters of the subsurface as a means of determining its effect on foundation.

  7. Vertical and horizontal transmission drive bacterial invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, N.; Huigens, M.E.


    A huge variety of Arthropod species is infected with endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that manipulate their host’s reproduction to invade populations. In addition to vertical transmission from mother to offspring through the egg cytoplasm, it has been demonstrated through phylogenetic analyses and

  8. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia (United States)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.


    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  9. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill (United States)

    Shultz, B., Jr.


    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  10. Elevating sampling (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi


    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  11. Towards Cost-efficient Sampling Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Luo; Chong, Wu


    The sampling method has been paid much attention in the field of complex network in general and statistical physics in particular. This paper presents two new sampling methods based on the perspective that a small part of vertices with high node degree can possess the most structure information of a network. The two proposed sampling methods are efficient in sampling the nodes with high degree. The first new sampling method is improved on the basis of the stratified random sampling method and selects the high degree nodes with higher probability by classifying the nodes according to their degree distribution. The second sampling method improves the existing snowball sampling method so that it enables to sample the targeted nodes selectively in every sampling step. Besides, the two proposed sampling methods not only sample the nodes but also pick the edges directly connected to these nodes. In order to demonstrate the two methods' availability and accuracy, we compare them with the existing sampling methods in...

  12. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)


    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  13. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)


    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  14. Fault Zone Architecture and Mineralogy: Implications in Fluid Flow and Permeability in Crustal Scale Fault Zones in the Southern Andes. (United States)

    Roquer, T.; Terrón, E.; Perez-Flores, P.; Arancibia, G.; Cembrano, J. M.


    Fluid flow in the upper crust is controlled by the permeability and interconnection of fractures in the fault zones. The permeability within the fault zone is determined by its activity, architecture and, in particular, by the mineralogy of the core and the damage zone. Whereas the permeability structure of a fault zone can be defined by the volume proportion of the core with respect to the damage zone, the relationship between the mineralogy and permeability along fault zones still remains obscure. This work examines structural and mineralogical data to show the relationship between the mineral composition of the fault zone with its permeability in the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault Systems (ALFS), Southern Chile. The LOFS is an active ca. 1200 km long strike-slip Cenozoic intra-arc structure that strikes NNE in its master traces and NE in its subsidiary traces, with dextral and dextral-normal movement mostly developed in the last 6 My. Although the LOFS and the ALFS cross-cut each other, the ALFS is an apparently older basement fault system where seismic and field evidences record sinistral, sinistral-normal and sinistral-reverse movements. One 22-m-long NE transect was mapped orthogonal to a segment of the ALFS, where host rocks are Miocene andesitic rocks. Structural and XRD sampling were conducted in the core and damage zone. Structural mapping shows a multiple core, NW-striking fault zone with foliated gouge and an asymmetric damage zone, where the hanging wall has significantly higher mesoscopic fracture density than the footwall. The hanging wall is characterized by NW-striking, steeply dipping veins. Preliminary XRD results indicate the presence of homogenously distributed Ca-rich zeolite (mainly laumontite) in the core and the veins of the damage zone, which could indicate that the core acted as a conduit for low-temperature (ca. 220°C) fluids.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An optical transducer with vertical structure integrated with MEMS microfluidic device is developed for the detection of bio-particle. The system consists of optical detection part; electronics control part and microfluidic part. Integrating of these parts, using optical transducer as a label-free method can provide the diagnosis of low volume biological samples as well as leading to direct detection with no significant change in physical forms of the samples. A collimated light source of deep UV-AlGaN based LED and a SiC photodiode operating at 260 nm are utilized as a light transmitter and detector, respectively. The principle of bio-particle detection is based on absorption of ultraviolet (UV range of DNA biological samples extracted from a Caco-2 cell in a fluidic medium. The outcomes show that the signal is detected by the SiC photodiode for the rise time of τr ~ 118.1371 µs which shows sufficient response time to enable the detection of the bio-particle. Testing on various samples showed that the detector has no response to non-absorbance samples such as deionized (DI water, Tris-EDTA (TE buffer and protein samples. However, a significant outcome in the detection of a Caco-2 cell line with the absorbance coefficient of average 0.08 a.u was achieved.

  16. On the coupled unsaturated–saturated flow process induced by vertical, horizontal, and slant wells in unconfined aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liang


    established with special consideration of the coupled unsaturated–saturated flow process and the well orientation. Groundwater flow in the saturated zone is described by a three-dimensional governing equation and a linearized three-dimensional Richards' equation in the unsaturated zone. A solution in the Laplace domain is derived by the Laplace–finite-Fourier-transform and the method of separation of variables, and the semi-analytical solutions are obtained using a numerical inverse Laplace method. The solution is verified by a finite-element numerical model. It is found that the effects of the unsaturated zone on the drawdown of a pumping test exist at any angle of inclination of the pumping well, and this impact is more significant in the case of a horizontal well. The effects of the unsaturated zone on the drawdown are independent of the length of the horizontal well screen. The vertical well leads to the largest water volume drained from the unsaturated zone (W during the early pumping time, and the effects of the well orientation on W values become insignificant at the later time. The screen length of the horizontal well does not affect W for the whole pumping period. The proposed solutions are useful for the parameter identification of pumping tests with a general well orientation (vertical, horizontal, and slant in unconfined aquifers affected from above by the unsaturated flow process.

  17. Two-phase flow modelling for oxygen renewal estimation in vertical flow filter: luxury or necessity? (United States)

    Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A-G


    Scientists and practitioners exhibit an increasing interest on effluent transfer and degradation modelling in Vertical Flow Sand Filters (VFSF) and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW). Modelling software used to this purpose is mainly monophasic: in the unsaturated zone, only water flow is taken into account and air phase influence is assumed to be negligible. In hydrology, many studies have point out the limitations of this assumption in order to quantify air phase movement but little has been done in the modelling of vertical flow filter. Despite its complexity, two-phase flow modelling allows to overcome these difficulties. In this work, we describe the complex air and water flows in the particular case of vertical flow filter fed intermittently using both numerical and experimental results. Complete different behaviour is observed depending on ponding occurs or not. If it does, flow is clearly influenced by air entrapment which is responsible of a reduction of the infiltration speed and of the drainage of a part of the water kept at the interface between the sand and the drainage layer. Finally, we study the dependency of oxygen income by convection on hydraulic load and compare numerical results with experimental results obtained on oxygen consumption.

  18. Numerical analysis of the cylindrical rigidity of the vertical steel tank shell (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergey; Tarasenko, Alexander; Chepur, Petr


    The paper deals with the study of rigidity of a vertical steel cylindrical tank and its structural elements with the development of inhomogeneous subsidence in ANSYS software complex. The limiting case is considered in this paper: a complete absence of a base sector that varies along an arc of a circle. The subsidence zone is modeled by the parameter n. A finite-element model of vertical 20000 m3 steel tank has been created, taking into account all structural elements of tank metal structures, including the support ring, beam frame and roof sheets. Various combinations of vertical steel tank loading are analyzed. For operational loads, the most unfavorable combination is considered. Calculations were performed for the filled and emptied tank. Values of the maximum possible deformations of the outer contour of the bottom are obtained with the development of inhomogeneous base subsidence for the given tank size. The obtained parameters of intrinsic rigidity (deformability) of vertical steel tank can be used in the development of new regulatory and technical documentation for tanks.

  19. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)


    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  20. Achieving That Elusive "Leadership Zone" (United States)

    Martin, Ann M.


    Reaching the "leadership zone" happens when librarians tap into the extraordinary skills lying within to overcome obstacles and transform sometimes-difficult situations into meaningful outcomes. Maturing into an experienced leader who stays in the leadership zone requires knowledge, training, and practice. This article provides tactical…

  1. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  2. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  3. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  4. Experimental Compaction in a Growing Dendritic Zone (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussière, T.; Brito, D.; La Rizza, P.; Masson, J.


    The Earth inner core is thought to be in a state of dynamical equilibrium between dendritic solidification and compaction of the resulting solid-liquid region (or 'mushy zone') (Sumita et al.,1996). One important question is how much liquid can be trapped in the inner core, or how efficient is compaction to squeeze out the liquid phase. While this can be estimated theoretically in the case of non-reacting liquid and solid phases, this problem is somewhat more complicated in the case of a crystallizing mushy zone, as it involves a continuous mass transfer between the two phases as the system evolves. Consequences on the evolution of the connectivity of the melt as solidification proceed are difficult to assess, making the dependence of the permeability on porosity difficult to predict theoretically, particularly when the liquid fraction becomes small. Other open questions includes how does compaction and convection compete in the mushy zone? What are the effects of compaction on the thickness of the convecting zone? on the interdendritic spacing? on the structure and dimensions of chimneys? We present here preliminary results of an experiment devoted to the study of compaction during the dendritic crystallization of a model material. In our experimental set-up, compaction is promoted by a high apparent gravity, which is imposed by putting the crystallizing sample in a standard lab centrifuge, where the centrifuge acceleration can reach a few thousand g. While solidification proceed, the sample is scanned in situ with ultrasounds, allowing us to follow the propagation of the solidification front and to investigate the variations of ultrasound velocity and attenuation in the liquid, mush and solid domains.

  5. Vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003 (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Carney, C.P.


    The northern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Despite the aquifer’s importance to the regional economy, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the northern High Plains aquifer were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and other parameters to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Chemical data and tritium and radiocarbon ages show that water in the aquifer was chemically and temporally stratified in the study area, with a relatively thin zone of recently recharged water (less than 50 years) near the water table overlying a thicker zone of older water (1,800 to 15,600 radiocarbon years). In areas where irrigated agriculture was an important land use, the recently recharged ground water was characterized by elevated concentrations of major ions and nitrate and the detection of pesticide compounds. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and silica. In general, the chemistry of ground water throughout the aquifer was of high quality. None of the approximately 90 chemical constituents analyzed in each sample exceeded primary drinking-water standards.Mass-balance models indicate that changes in groundwater chemistry along flow paths in the aquifer can be accounted for by small amounts of feldspar and calcite dissolution; goethite

  6. [Vertical stratification and host preference by vascular epiphytes in a Chiapas, Mexico, cloud forest]. (United States)

    Martínez-Meéndez, Nayely; Pérez-Farrera, Miguel A; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro


    The high diversity of vascular epiphytes in neotropical montane forest has been explained as the result of vertical stratification of the forest and specific relationships between epiphytes and their hosts trees at local scales. In a lower montane cloud forest, we studied the vertical stratification and host preferences of vascular epiphytes in a 0.0625 ha plot where 41 trees > or = of 10 cm DBH were sampled during 12 months in 2001 and 2002. We found 43 epiphyte species growing on 15 tree genera. We tested for vertical strata and host preferences using 19 epiphyte taxa. We found strong evidence that epiphytes divided the canopy, but those epiphyte species dispersed by animals were generalists with respect to hosts and vertical strata. Wind dispersed epiphytes were vertically stratified, with a higher richness in the lowest tree strata. On average the epiphytes preferred 3.5 host species, suggesting low host preference. Two host species, Ardisia and Quercus, were avoided by the majority of the epiphyte species. Our results show that epiphytes divided the canopy horizontally and were stratified vertically, suggesting that host identity could be important determining the abundance of colonizing sites for epiphytes.

  7. Influence of anaerobic physical effort in the horizontal and vertical peripheral view INFLUENCIA DEL ESFUERZO FÍSICO ANAERÓBICO EN LA VISIÓN PERIFÉRICA VERTICAL Y HORIZONTAL


    M. Arteaga; Cárdenas, D; Delgado, M.


    There now seems to be a generalized tendency to consider that sporting performance declines as the sportsperson becomes fatigued. However, there is little empirical evidence to show that this adversely affects visual function. In some sports it is necessary to see stimuli in zones peripheral to central vision. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of anaerobic exertion on vertical and horizontal Peripheral Vision. An intra-subject design was used with 14 ...

  8. Bending zone from mobilistic positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrijevic, M.D.


    Between the carbonate platform of Dinarid and the region of development of the diabase-hornfels formation (to the north and northeast), a transitional zone is observed with specific geological characteristics. It is called the ''bending zone'' and is viewed as an intermediate zone between the eugeosynclinal and myogeosynclinal regions and is the slope of the carbonate platform which is turned towards the region of Mesozoic magmatism. From the mobilistic viewpoint of geotectonics, it can be considered the boundary of the Adriatic microplate and the Tetis Sea. The geological position of the zone and the time of its existence (Triassic, Jurassic and later; ratio of it to the Senoman blend remains obscure) are examined. The zone is not considered to be very promising from an oil geological viewpoint.

  9. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone (United States)

    Mason, Paul


    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  10. A flow system with zone merging and zone trapping in the main reactor applied to spectrophotometric catalytic determination of cobalt in grasses. (United States)

    Gomes, Taciana F; Vida, Ana C F; Sasaki, Milton K; Silva, Claudineia R; Barros, Valdemir A F; Zagatto, Elias A G


    A flow system with zone merging and zone trapping in the main reactor was proposed. The sample and reagent inserted aliquots merge together and the resulting zone is directed towards a displaceable reactor inside which its most concentrated portion is trapped. After the pre-set TRAP period, the handled sample is released towards detection. A comparison with an analogous flow system exploiting zone stopping revealed the superior characteristics of sampling rate and system operation; moreover, the sample inserted volume plays little influence on sampling rate. The system was applied to the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt in pastures, and enhanced figures of merit (sampling rate=18 h(-1); peak height r.s.d.=0.7%, detection limit=0.046 μg L(-1) Co; reagent consumption=330 μg of Tiron per measurement; 98%

  11. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.


    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

  12. Numerical Model for Solidification Zones Selection in the Large Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.


    Full Text Available A vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-ton forging steel ingot has been performed by curtesy of the CELSA - Huta Ostrowiec plant. Some metallographic studies were able to reveal not only the chilled undersized grains under the ingot surface but columnar grains and large equiaxed grains as well. Additionally, the structural zone within which the competition between columnar and equiaxed structure formation was confirmed by metallography study, was also revealed. Therefore, it seemed justified to reproduce some of the observed structural zones by means of numerical calculation of the temperature field. The formation of the chilled grains zone is the result of unconstrained rapid solidification and was not subject of simulation. Contrary to the equiaxed structure formation, the columnar structure or columnar branched structure formation occurs under steep thermal gradient. Thus, the performed simulation is able to separate both discussed structural zones and indicate their localization along the ingot radius as well as their appearance in term of solidification time.

  13. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.


    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  14. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR) (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali


    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  15. The Vertical Farm: A Review of Developments and Implications for the Vertical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the emerging need for vertical farms by examining issues related to food security, urban population growth, farmland shortages, “food miles”, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Urban planners and agricultural leaders have argued that cities will need to produce food internally to respond to demand by increasing population and to avoid paralyzing congestion, harmful pollution, and unaffordable food prices. The paper examines urban agriculture as a solution to these problems by merging food production and consumption in one place, with the vertical farm being suitable for urban areas where available land is limited and expensive. Luckily, recent advances in greenhouse technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics have provided a promising future to the vertical farm concept. These high-tech systems represent a paradigm shift in farming and food production and offer suitable and efficient methods for city farming by minimizing maintenance and maximizing yield. Upon reviewing these technologies and examining project prototypes, we find that these efforts may plant the seeds for the realization of the vertical farm. The paper, however, closes by speculating about the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of the vertical farm’s implementation. Economic feasibility, codes, regulations, and a lack of expertise remain major obstacles in the path to implementing the vertical farm.

  16. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation. (United States)

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo


    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Micro contactor based on isotachophoretic sample transport. (United States)

    Goet, Gabriele; Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen


    It is demonstrated how isotachophoresis (ITP) in a microfluidic device may be utilized to bring two small sample volumes into contact in a well-controlled manner. The ITP contactor serves a similar purpose as micromixers that are designed to mix two species rapidly in a microfluidic channel. In contrast to many micromixers, the ITP contactor does not require complex channel architectures and allows a sample processing in the spirit of "digital microfluidics", i.e. the samples always remain in a compact volume. It is shown that the ITP zone transport through microchannels proceeds in a reproducible and predictable manner, and that the sample trajectories follow simple relationships obtained from Ohm's law. Firstly, the micro contactor can be used to synchronize two ITP zones having reached a channel at different points in time. Secondly, fulfilling its actual purpose it is capable of bringing two samples in molecular contact via an interpenetration of ITP zones. It is demonstrated that the contacting time is proportional to the ITP zone extension. This opens up the possibility of using that type of device as a special type of micromixer with "mixing times" significantly below one second and an option to regulate the duration of contact through specific parameters such as the sample volume. Finally, it is shown how the micro contactor can be utilized to conduct a hybridization reaction between two ITP zones containing complementary DNA strands.

  18. 49 CFR 71.14 - Chamorro Zone. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chamorro Zone. 71.14 Section 71.14 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.14 Chamorro Zone. The ninth zone, the Chamorro standard time zone, includes the Island of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  19. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor. (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu


    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  20. Vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, M


    Active stabilisation showed a relative locked linewidth of approx 3 kHz. Coarse tuning over 7 nm was achieved using a 3-plate birefingent filter plate while fine-tuning using cavity length change allowed tuning over 250 MHz. Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers have emerged as an interesting technology based on current vertical cavity semiconductor laser knowledge. High power output into a single transverse mode has attracted companies requiring good fibre coupling for telecommunications systems. The structure comprises of a grown semiconductor Bragg reflector topped with a multiple quantum well gain region. This is then included in an external cavity. This device is then optically pumped to promote laser action. Theoretical modelling of AIGaAs based VECSEL structures was undertaken, showing the effect of device design on laser characteristics. A simple 3-mirror cavity was constructed to assess the static characteristics of the structure. Up to 153 mW of output power was achieved in a single transver...

  1. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions. (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong


    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  2. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór


    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... of a reference response spectrum. The simulations use known statistical data for pedestrian and population walking characteristics to generate loads for a 50m long simply-supported bridge, with a fixed level of damping and a mean pedestrian flow rate of 1 pedestrian / sec. The response obtained from...

  3. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU


    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  4. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon Williams


    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  5. Ozone vertical distribution in Mars polar atmosphere (United States)

    Komitov, B.

    On the basis of an ultraviolet spectrum obtained over the north polar region of Mars by Mariner-9, the vertical profile of the ozone density is calculated. A density maximum is found at about 25 km height over the surface of the planet. Its value is about 1×1010molecules cm-3. The obtained result is compared to the results obtained by other authors.

  6. Vertical Silicon Nanowires for Image Sensor Applications


    Park, Hyunsung


    Conventional image sensors achieve color imaging using absorptive organic dye filters. These face considerable challenges however in the trend toward ever higher pixel densities and advanced imaging methods such as multispectral imaging and polarization-resolved imaging. In this dissertation, we investigate the optical properties of vertical silicon nanowires with the goal of image sensor applications. First, we demonstrate a multispectral imaging system that uses a novel filter that consists...

  7. Centro-lateral subperiosteal vertical midface lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hönig, Johannes Franz


    Full Text Available The use of fiberendoscopic video-assisted technique in facial rejuvenation is one of the most advances in aesthetic plastic surgery of the face. It substitutes the coronal incision without the necessity of skin resection and allows a vertical reposition of the mobile soft tissue of the midface in indicated cases. It can easily be done through a small incision of the scalp just behind the coronal incision and in the temporal area.

  8. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.


    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  9. Vertical leadership in a case company


    Nguyen, Ngan


    The thesis concentrated about vertical leadership. The topic clarifies leadership behaviours in different styles. Based on unique characteristics would build up different leadership styles. A good leader is not only be independence, responsibility, visionary, but also must be interpersonal. Creating network through the rest of organization, a leader establishes relationship with his or her employees. Building trust then would help an organization overcome obstacles in order to accomplish comm...

  10. Predicting Vertical Motion within Convective Storms (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.


    Convective storms are both beneficial in the fresh water they supply and destructive in the life-threatening extreme weather they produce. They are found throughout the tropics and midlatitudes, vary in structure from isolated to highly organized systems, and are the sole source of precipitation in many regions of Earth. Convective updrafts and downdrafts plays a crucial role in cloud and precipitation formation, latent heating, water vapor transport, storm organization, and large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells. These processes, in turn, impact the strength and longevity of updrafts and downdrafts through complex, non-linear feedbacks. In spite of the significant influence of convective updrafts and downdrafts on the weather and climate system, accurately predicting vertical motion using numerical models remains challenging. In high-resolution cloud-resolving models where vertical motion is normally resolved, significant biases exist in the predicted profiles of updraft and downdraft velocities, at least for the limited cases where observational data have been available for model evaluation. It has been suggested that feedbacks between the vertical motion and microphysical processes may be one cause of these discrepancies, however, our understanding of these feedbacks remains limited. In this talk, the results of a small field campaign conducted over northeastern Colorado designed to observe storm vertical motion and cold pool characteristics within isolated and organized deep convective storms will be described. High frequency radiosonde, radar and drone measurements of a developing through mature supercell storm updraft and cold pool will be presented and compared with RAMS simulations of the same supercell storm. An analysis of the feedbacks between the storm dynamical and microphysical processes will be presented, and implications for regional and global modeling of severe storms will be discussed.

  11. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model. (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L


    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  12. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)


    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  13. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires


    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.


    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (...

  14. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.


    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  15. Vertically integrated flow in stratified aquifers (United States)

    Strack, Otto D. L.


    We present a set of continuous discharge potentials that can be used to determine the vertically integrated flow in stratified aquifers. The method applies to cases where the boundaries are vertical and either the hydraulic head is given, or the boundary is a seepage face, or the integrated discharge is given. The approach is valid for cases of given recharge through the upper and/or lower boundaries of the aquifer. The method is valid for any values of hydraulic conductivity; there are no limitations of the contrast for the method to be valid. The flows in the strata may be either confined or unconfined, and locally perched conditions may exist, but the effect of capillarity is not included. The hydraulic head is determined by applying the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation. The main advantage of the approach is that very complex conditions in stratified aquifer systems, including locally perched conditions and extremely complex flow systems can be treated in a relatively straight forward approach by considering only the vertically integrated flow rates. The approach is particularly useful for assessing groundwater sustainability, as a model to be constructed prior to developing a fully three-dimensional numerical model.

  16. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars


    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  17. Improvement of vertical stabilization on KSTAR (United States)

    Mueller, D.; Bak, J. G.; Boyer, M. D.; Eideitis, N.; Hahn, S. H.; Humphreys, D. A.; Kim, H. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lanctot, M.; Walker, M. L.


    The successful control of strongly shaped plasmas on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device requires active feedback of fast motion of the plasma vertical position by the use of internal normal conducting coils (IVC). This has required new electronics to supply relative flux loop differences, for zp, and voltage loop differences, for dzp/dt, as well as a novel technique (Zfast) to use a high-pass filter, typically 1 Hz, on the error in the signal in the feedback loop. Use of Zfast avoids the potential contention encountered when the internal coil attempts to perform control of the plasma shape which should be controlled by the slower and more powerful superconducting coils. A common problem of this contention is saturation of the IVC and loss of fast vertical control. This is eliminated by proper use of the Zfast. A Ziegler-Nichols relay feedback system was used to fine tune the required feedback gains. The selection of the magnetic sensors, filter time constants, control gains and of the Zfast control strategy which allowed vertically stable operation at a plasma elongation, kappa. of up to 2.16 at li = 1.15 and Betap = 2.4 will be discussed which is beyond the design reference of KSTAR of kappa = 2.0 at li = 1.2 and Betap = 1.9. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-SC0010685 and the KSTAR project.

  18. Vertical distribution of small pelagic fish eggs and larvae on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertical distributions of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardinops sagax eggs and larvae within the upper 50 m of the water column on the eastern Agulhas Bank, South Africa, were examined using discrete depth samples collected with a multiple, opening/closing plankton net. Eggs and larvae of sardine and ...

  19. Vertical Distribution of the Plant-Parasitic Nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, Under Four Field Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudassaini, M.P.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.; Moens, M.


    The vertical distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans was monitored in four fields cropped with maize, black salsify, carrot, or potato. Soil samples were collected at 21-day intervals from May 2002 until April 2003 from five plots (2 × 5 m(^2)) per field. Per plot, 15 cores were taken to a depth of

  20. Plankton community composition and vertical migration during polar night in Kongsfjorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenvald, Julie Cornelius; Callesen, Trine Abraham; Daase, Malin


    characterize the plankton community composition during the polar night using water samplers and zooplankton net samples (50, 64, 200, 1500 lm), supplemented by acoustics (ADCPs, 300 kHz), to address a previously unresolved question–which species of zooplankton perform diel vertical migration during the polar...

  1. A chemostratigraphic study of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Insights on magma chamber withdrawal and deposit accumulation as revealed by compositionally zoned stratigraphic and facies framework (United States)

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Sparice, D.; Perrotta, A.; Laiena, F.


    Petrochemical analyses of juvenile samples from twenty stratigraphic sections of the Campanian Ignimbrite medial deposits, located from 30 to 79 km from the vent, are presented here. Sampling has accurately followed a well-defined stratigraphic framework and the new component facies scheme. The Campanian Ignimbrite succession is formed by a basal plinian pumice fall deposit, overlain by a complex architecture of pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced from a single sustained pyroclastic density current through a mechanism of vertical and lateral accretion. The deposit is broadly zoned, from more evolved trachyte at its base to less evolved trachyte at its top, and is similarly less evolved with increasing distance from the area of emission. Irregular chemical trends are locally observed and interpreted to represent only a limited, "patchy" record of the entire vertical geochemical trend. The petrochemical variation observed horizontally was ascribed to changes in the flow dynamics and interaction between the advancing flow and the underlying topography. The results of this study were used to propose a unified volcanological-petrological model for the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, taking into account the emplacement of both the proximal (i.e., the "Breccia Museo" formation) and medial deposits.

  2. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.


    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  3. Metagenomic insights into important microbes from the Dead Zone (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Temperton, B.; Gillies, L.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.


    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. While this dead zone shares many features with more well-known marine oxygen minimum zones, it is nevertheless understudied with regards to the microbial assemblages involved in biogeochemical cycling. We performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Assembly and binning led to the recovery of over fifty partial to nearly complete metagenomes from key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR324, Synechococcus spp., and Planctomycetes. These results provide information about the roles of these taxa in the nGOM dead zone, and opportunities for comparing this region of low oxygen to others around the globe.

  4. [Chin morphology in subjects with different vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern]. (United States)

    Jia, Pei-Zeng; Wu, Wei


    To evaluate whether there is difference with regard to chin morphology in subjects with different vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern and the relationship among them. The sample was composed of 80 adolescents who denied orthodontic treatment history and presented Class I skeletal pattern, aged (12.69+/-0.70) years. They were divided into three groups according to mandibular plane angle: High angle group (21 cases, FH/MP> or = 32 degrees), average angle group(43 cases, 22 degrees pattern were evaluated. In addition, chin dimensions studied included height, depth, ratio (depth/height), angle, and so on. They were compared between different groups with One-Way ANOVA. Correlation was analyzed between vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern and chin morphology. SNA, SNB and ANB presented no significant difference among three groups. Compared with the low angle group, high angle subjects exhibited increased chin height, depth/height ratio, concavity and decreased chin angle. Therefore the chin looked lathier and less protrusive in high angle group. Positive correlation was found between mandibular plane angle and chin height, concavity, curvature (Pskeletal pattern, which deserves to be taken into consideration in orthodontic treatment planning.

  5. Winter Storm Zones on Mars (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Barnes, J. R.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)


    Preferred regions of weather activity in Mars' winter middle latitudes-so called 'storm zones' are found in a general circulation model of Mars' atmospheric circulation. During northern winter, these storm zones occur in middle latitudes in the major planitia (low-relief regions) of the western and eastern hemisphere. In contrast, the highlands of the eastern hemisphere are mostly quiescent. Compared to Earth's storm zones where diabatic heating associated with land-sea thermal contrasts is crucial, orography on Mars is fundamental to the regionalization of weather activity. Future spacecraft missions aimed at assessing Mars' climate and its variability need to include such regions in observation strategies.

  6. Zooplankton associated with the oxygen minimum zone system in the northern upwelling region of Chile during March 2000 (United States)

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; Krautz, Cristina


    Zooplankton in the coastal upwelling region off northern Chile may play a significant biogeochemical role by promoting carbon flux into the subsurface OMZ (oxygen minimum zone). This work identifies the dominant zooplankton species inhabiting the area influenced by the OMZ in March 2000 off Iquique (20°S, northern Chile). Abundance and vertical distribution studies revealed 17 copepod and 9 euphausiid species distributed between the surface and 600 m at four stations sampled both by day and by night. Some abundant species remained in the well-oxygenated upper layer (30 m), with no evidence of diel vertical migration, apparently restricted by a shallow (40-60 m) oxycline. Other species, however, were found closely associated with the OMZ. The large-sized copepod Eucalanus inermis was found below the oxycline and performed diel vertical migrations into the OMZ, whereas the very abundant Euphausia mucronata performed extensive diel vertical migrations between the surface waters and the core of the OMZ (200 m), even crossing it. A complete assessment of copepods and euphausiids revealed that the whole sampled water column (0-600 m) is occupied by distinct species having well-defined habitats, some of them within the OMZ. Ontogenetic migrations were evident in Eucalanidae and E. mucronata. Estimates of species biomass showed a substantial (>75% of total zooplankton biomass) daily exchange of C between the photic layer and the OMZ. Both E. inermis and E. mucronata can actively exchange about 37.8 g C m -2 d -1 between the upper well-oxygenated (0-60 m) layer and the deeper (60-600 m) OMZ layer. This migrant biomass may contribute about 7.2 g C m -2 d -1 to the OMZ system through respiration, mortality, and production of fecal pellets within the OMZ. This movement of zooplankton in and out of the OMZ, mainly as a result of the migratory behavior of E. mucronata, suggests a very efficient mechanism for introducing large amounts of freshly produced carbon into the OMZ

  7. [Effect of Intermittent Aeration on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland]. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Huai-zheng; Zhen, Bao-chong; Liu, Zhen-dong


    One-stage vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat effluent from grit chamber in municipal wastewater treatment plant. The CW was divided into aerobic zone and anoxic zone by means of raising the effluent level and installing a perforated pipe. Two parameters (the ratio of aeration time and nonaeration time, aeration cycle) were optimized in the experiment to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. The results suggested that the removal rates of COD and NH₄⁺-N increased while TN showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing ratio. When the ratio was 3:1, the C/N value in the anoxic zone was 4. 8. And the TN effluent concentration was 15.8 mg · L⁻¹ with the highest removal rate (62.1%), which was increased by 12.7% compared with continuous aeration. As the extension of the aeration cycle, the DO effluent concentration as well as the removal rates of COD and NH: -N declined gradually. The TN removal rate reached the maximum (65.5%) when the aeration cycle was 6h. However, the TN removal rate dropped rapidly when the cycle exceeded the hydraulic retention time in the anoxic zone.

  8. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition]. (United States)

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin


    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system.

  9. Sanitary protection zoning based on time-dependent vulnerability assessment model - case examples at two different type of aquifers (United States)

    Živanović, Vladimir; Jemcov, Igor; Dragišić, Veselin; Atanacković, Nebojša


    Delineation of sanitary protection zones of groundwater source is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary task. Uniform methodology for protection zoning for various type of aquifers is not established. Currently applied methods mostly rely on horizontal groundwater travel time toward the tapping structure. On the other hand, groundwater vulnerability assessment methods evaluate the protective function of unsaturated zone as an important part of groundwater source protection. In some particular cases surface flow might also be important, because of rapid transfer of contaminants toward the zones with intense infiltration. For delineation of sanitary protection zones three major components should be analysed: vertical travel time through unsaturated zone, horizontal travel time through saturated zone and surface water travel time toward intense infiltration zones. Integrating the aforementioned components into one time-dependent model represents a basis of presented method for delineation of groundwater source protection zones in rocks and sediments of different porosity. The proposed model comprises of travel time components of surface water, as well as groundwater (horizontal and vertical component). The results obtained using the model, represent the groundwater vulnerability as the sum of the surface and groundwater travel time and corresponds to the travel time of potential contaminants from the ground surface to the tapping structure. This vulnerability assessment approach do not consider contaminant properties (intrinsic vulnerability) although it can be easily improved for evaluating the specific groundwater vulnerability. This concept of the sanitary protection zones was applied at two different type of aquifers: karstic aquifer of catchment area of Blederija springs and "Beli Timok" source of intergranular shallow aquifer. The first one represents a typical karst hydrogeological system with part of the catchment with allogenic recharge, and the second one

  10. Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: Stratiform "super-K" zones (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Sukop, M.C.; Huang, H.; Alvarez, P.F.; Curran, H.A.; Renken, R.A.; Dixon, J.F.


    A combination of cyclostratigraphic, ichnologic, and borehole geophysical analyses of continuous core holes; tracer-test analyses; and lattice Boltzmann flow simulations was used to quantify biogenic macroporosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida. Biogenic macroporosity largely manifests as: (1) ichnogenic macroporosity primarily related to postdepositional burrowing activity by callianassid shrimp and fossilization of components of their complex burrow systems (Ophiomorpha); and (2) biomoldic macroporosity originating from dissolution of fossil hard parts, principally mollusk shells. Ophiomorpha-dominated ichno-fabric provides the greatest contribution to hydrologic characteristics in the Biscayne aquifer in a 345 km2 study area. Stratiform tabular-shaped units of thalassinidean-associated macroporosity are commonly confined to the lower part of upward-shallowing high-frequency cycles, throughout aggradational cycles, and, in one case, they stack vertically within the lower part of a high-frequency cycle set. Broad continuity of many of the macroporous units concentrates groundwater flow in extremely permeable passage-ways, thus making the aquifer vulnerable to long-distance transport of contaminants. Ichnogenic macroporosity represents an alternative pathway for concentrated groundwater flow that differs considerably from standard karst flow-system paradigms, which describe groundwater movement through fractures and cavernous dissolution features. Permeabilities were calculated using lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) applied to computer renderings assembled from X-ray computed tomography scans of various biogenic macroporous limestone samples. The highest simulated LBM permeabilities were about five orders of magnitude greater than standard laboratory measurements using air-permeability methods, which are limited in their application to extremely permeable macroporous rock samples. Based on their close conformance to analytical

  11. Transient reflectivity on vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galimberti, Gianluca; Ponzoni, Stefano; Ferrini, Gabriele [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Materials Physics (i-LAMP) and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, I-25121 Brescia (Italy); Hofmann, Stephan [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Arshad, Muhammad [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen (Netherlands); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); National Centre for Physics Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali — CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Pagliara, Stefania, E-mail: [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Materials Physics (i-LAMP) and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, I-25121 Brescia (Italy)


    One-color transient reflectivity measurements are carried out on two different samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and compared with the response recently published on unaligned bundles. The negative sign of the optical response for both samples indicates that the free electron character revealed on unaligned bundles is only due to the intertube interactions favored by the tube bending. Neither the presence of bundles nor the existence of structural defects in aligned bundles is able to induce a free-electron like behavior of the photoexcited carriers. This result is also confirmed by the presence of non-linear excitonic effects in the transient response of the aligned bundles. - Highlights: • Transient reflectivity measurements on two aligned carbon nanotube samples • Relationship between unalignment and/or bundling and intertube interaction • The bundling is not able to modify the intertube interactions • The presence of structural defects does not affect the intertube interactions • A localized exciton-like behavior has been revealed in these samples.

  12. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  13. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease.To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil.A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG, Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%.The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62-72.86. The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74-67.32. The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3-7.3 suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4-45.6.These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical

  14. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014 (United States)

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria


    Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. Objective To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Methods A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. Results The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62–72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74–67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3–7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4–45.6). Conclusions These results show an elevated prevalence of

  15. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014. (United States)

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria


    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62-72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74-67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3-7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4-45.6). These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of T

  16. Theoretical model of the helium zone plate microscope (United States)

    Salvador Palau, Adrià; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil


    Neutral helium microscopy is a new technique currently under development. Its advantages are the low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms, a potential large depth of field, and the fact that at thermal energies the helium atoms do not penetrate into any solid material. This opens the possibility, among others, for the creation of an instrument that can measure surface topology on the nanoscale, even on surfaces with high aspect ratios. One of the most promising designs for helium microscopy is the zone plate microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by an aperture (skimmer) focused by a Fresnel zone plate onto a sample. The resolution is determined by the focal spot size, which depends on the size of the skimmer, the optics of the system, and the velocity spread of the beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate. An important factor for the optics of the zone plate is the width of the outermost zone, corresponding to the smallest opening in the zone plate. The width of the outermost zone is fabrication limited to around 10 nm with present-day state-of-the-art technology. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and width of the outermost zone. Here we present an optimization model for the helium zone plate microscope. Assuming constant resolution and width of the outermost zone, we are able to reduce the problem to a two-variable problem (zone plate radius and object distance) and we show that for a given beam temperature and pressure, there is always a single intensity maximum. We compare our model with the highest-resolution zone plate focusing images published and show that the intensity can be increased seven times. Reducing the width of the outermost zone to 10 nm leads to an increase in intensity of more than 8000


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  18. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng


    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

  19. Effect of eddy transport on the nutrient supply into the euphotic zone simulated in an eddy-permitting ocean ecosystem model (United States)

    Sumata, Hiroshi; Hashioka, Taketo; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Yoshie, Naoki; Okunishi, Takeshi; Aita, Maki N.; Sakamoto, Takashi T.; Ishida, Akio; Okada, Naosuke; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro


    Hindcast experiment with an eddy-permitting ocean ecosystem model was performed in order to investigate the process of nutrient supply into the euphotic zone by vertical and horizontal fluxes with multiple time scales. The model reasonably reproduced the basin-scale spatial pattern of biological production and its seasonal cycles with eddy fields, statistically consistent with those observed in the satellite images. The model results illustrated the nutrient cycle in the euphotic zone with mesoscale eddies, in which the vertical advection with mesoscale spatial variation and convection with relatively large spatial variation supply nutrients into the euphotic zone, and the horizontal advection redistributes them within the euphotic zone, thereby fueling biological production. The vertical advection associated with mean flow supplies a substantial part of nutrients from the aphotic zone, and contributions from time-varied vertical fluxes are limited within the tropical region and regions where strong meandering currents exist. Horizontal advection due to seasonal and eddy fluctuations plays an important role in the redistribution process, in addition to that effected by temporal-mean advection. The relative importance of these fluctuations strongly depends on the horizontal scales of vertical nutrient supply, in contrast to the relatively small effects eddy fields have on heat or fresh-water transport in the global ocean.

  20. ShoreZone Survey Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  1. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  2. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  3. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny


    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  4. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.


    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  5. Analysis of vertical stability limits and vertical displacement event behavior on NSTX-U (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Battaglia, Devon; Gerhardt, Stefan; Menard, Jonathan; Mueller, Dennis; Myers, Clayton; Sabbagh, Steven; Smith, David


    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) completed its first run campaign in 2016, including commissioning a larger center-stack and three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources. NSTX-U operates at increased aspect ratio due to the larger center-stack, making vertical stabilization more challenging. Since ST performance is improved at high elongation, improvements to the vertical control system were made, including use of multiple up-down-symmetric flux loop pairs for real-time estimation, and filtering to remove noise. Similar operating limits to those on NSTX (in terms of elongation and internal inductance) were achieved, now at higher aspect ratio. To better understand the observed limits and project to future operating points, a database of vertical displacement events and vertical oscillations observed during the plasma current ramp-up on NSTX/NSTX-U has been generated. Shots were clustered based on the characteristics of the VDEs/oscillations, and the plasma parameter regimes associated with the classes of behavior were studied. Results provide guidance for scenario development during ramp-up to avoid large oscillations at the time of diverting, and provide the means to assess stability of target scenarios for the next campaign. Results will also guide plans for improvements to the vertical control system. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  6. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones


    Judit Vidiella


    This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  7. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella


    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  8. Measurement of Cabbibo-suppressed {tau} lepton decays and the determination of vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Stefan


    This work presents simultaneous branching fraction measurements of the decay modes {tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}n{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} with n=0,1,2,3 and {tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}n{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} with n=3,4. The analysis is based on a data sample of 427 x 10{sup 6}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 464.4 fb{sup -1}. The measured values are B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(6.57{+-}0.03{+-}0.11) x 10{sup -3}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(4.61{+-}0.03{+-}0.11) x 10{sup -3}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(5.05{+-}0.17{+-}0.44) x 10{sup -4}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(1.31{+-}0.43{+-}0.40) x 10{sup -4}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(1.263{+-}0.008{+-}0.078) x 10{sup -2} and B({tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(9.6{+-}0.5{+-}1.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. All measurements are compatible with the current world averages whereas the uncertainties are significantly smaller by a factor of up to five. The determination of B({tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}}) is the first measurement of this branching fraction. The measured branching fractions are combined with the current world averages. Using the new averages, an updated determination of vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke from hadronic {tau} decays yields vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke =0.2146{+-}0.0025, which improves previous measurements by 19%. Its uncertainty is comparable to the one of the current world average from semileptonic kaon decays. (orig.)

  9. Vertical emission profiles for Europe based on plume rise calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Quante, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.


    The vertical allocation of emissions has a major impact on results of Chemistry Transport Models. However, in Europe it is still common to use fixed vertical profiles based on rough estimates to determine the emission height of point sources. This publication introduces a set of new vertical

  10. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck


    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  11. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section... TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.14 Coupler vertical restraint system. (a) Performance... not be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except...

  12. Climate change and dead zones. (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B


    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Zoning, equity, and public health. (United States)

    Maantay, J


    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  14. Seasonal variability in particulate matter source and composition to the depositional zone of Baltimore Canyon, U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Mienis, Furu; Campbell, P.; Roark, E. Brendan; Davies, Andrew; Robertson, Craig M.; Duineveld, Gerard; Ross, Steve W.; Rhodes, M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.


    Submarine canyons are often hotspots of biomass and productivity in the deep sea. However, the majority of deep-sea canyons remain poorly sampled. Using a multi-tracer approach, results from a detailed geochemical investigation from a year-long sediment trap deployment reveals details concerning the source, transport, and fate of particulate matter to the depositional zone (1318 m) of Baltimore Canyon on the US Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB). Both organic biomarker composition (sterol and n-alkanes) and bulk characteristics (δ13C, Δ14C, Chl-a) suggest that on an annual basis particulate matter from marine and terrestrially-derived organic matter are equally important. However, elevated Chlorophyll-a and sterol concentrations during the spring sampling period highlight the seasonal influx of relatively fresh phytodetritus. In addition, the contemporaneous increase in the particle reactive elements cadmium (Cd) and molybdenum (Mo) in the spring suggest increased scavenging, aggregation, and sinking of biomass during seasonal blooms in response to enhanced surface production within the nutricline. While internal waves within the canyon resuspend sediment between 200 and 600 m, creating a nepheloid layer rich in lithogenic material, near-bed sediment remobilization in the canyon depositional zone is minimal. Instead, vertical transport and lateral transport across the continental margin are the dominant processes driving seasonal input of particulate matter. In turn, seasonal variability in deposited particulate organic matter may be linked to benthic faunal composition and ecosystem scale carbon cycling.

  15. Draught Risk from Cold Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    of the research is to develop expressions for the airflow beyond the floor area, which influences the thermal comfort in the occupied zone. Measurements of velocities and temperatures are carried out in a two-dimensional test case. They show that the characteristics of the flow in the near floor region are very......Glazed facades and atria have had a boom in the 1980's as an architectural feature in building design. Natural convective flows from these cold surfaces are in winter time, however, often the cause of thermal discomfort and there is a need for research to improve the design methods. The objective...... similar to the characteristics of stratified flows. Expressions have been developed for the rate of decrement of the maximum velocity with distance from the surface and for the maximum temperature difference between the cold airflow along the floor and the rest of the occupied zone....

  16. AUV mapping and targeted ROV sampling on the Alarcon Rise (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Dreyer, B. M.; Paduan, J. B.; Lundsten, L.; Bowles, J.; Castillo, P.; France, R. G.; Portner, R. A.; Spelz, R. M.; Zierenberg, R. A.


    Alarcon Rise, the northernmost bare-rock East Pacific Rise segment, and its intersections with the adjacent Pescadero and Tamayo Transforms were mapped at 10-cm vertical and 1-m lateral resolution using an AUV. The ~50 km long ridge segment is the first completely mapped at such high-resolution. Using the AUV base maps, targeted sampling during 15 ROV dives and 29 wax-tip cores in 2012 and 2015 recovered 322 precisely located glassy lavas. Melts are most primitive (MgO>8.5%) near the shallowest part of the segment where a chemically heterogeneous (7.96-8.73% MgO) sheet flow erupted from a 9 km-long fissure, ~1/3 from the southwest end. Four active black-smoker hydrothermal fields were discovered here using the maps. Inactive fields occur to the north. Lavas are N- to T-MORB with an off-axis E-MORB near mid-segment. A cross-axis transect to the northwest shows similar lava chemistry to 3.4 km off-axis. Extensive flows with glass MgO of 5.3-7.3% and 6.7-7.5% occur on the Tamayo and Pescadero Transforms, respectively. The flows have variable sediment cover indicating a wide age range. The transforms have sediment domes likely uplifted and deformed by sills. Most domes are surrounded by younger lava flows. Magmatic activity on the transforms indicates they are transtensional. An unusually rough faulted terrain on the northeastern end of the segment occurs near the northwestern edge of the neovolcanic zone. Sampling during 5 ROV dives recovered 110 glassy samples of rhyolite, dacite, andesite, and basaltic andesite from the 8 km-long fault-bounded region with basalt recovered along the southeastern part of the zone. The samples form an almost continuous sequence with glass compositions from 50-77% SiO2 and 8-0.05% MgO and include the first rhyolitic lavas from the global submarine ridge system. Isotopic data preclude significant continental crustal contamination, indicating the evolved rocks formed by fractional crystallization and magma mixing of mantle derived melts.

  17. The global aftershock zone (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,


    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  18. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail:; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail:; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail:


    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  19. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper


    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  20. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie


    We study triangulations $\\\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  1. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation


    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.A.; Aplin, K. L.


    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kgm−3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neu...

  2. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H


    Full Text Available update onto the information of the current update by projecting the possible positions of the aircraft against the radar sphere. Figure 1 illustrates this mapping in two dimensions for the sake of clarity and without loss of generality. Note... of the manoeuvre and delimits these with vertical. Note that some portions of Table 3 have been omitted. These sections have been deleted for the sake of brevity. The corresponding entries are all marked as accelerating by the system and do not contain further...

  3. Brand Equity and Vertical Product Line Extent


    Taylor Randall; Karl Ulrich; David Reibstein


    This paper addresses the question of how the vertical structure of a product line relates to brand equity. Does the presence of “premium” or high-quality products in a product line enhance brand equity? Conversely, does the presence of “economy” or low-quality products in a product line diminish brand equity? Economists and marketing researchers refer to variation in quality levels of products within a category as “vertical” differentiation, whereas variation in the function or “category” of ...

  4. Vertical CNT-Si photodiode array. (United States)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, Hang; Dai, Qing; Vygranenko, Yuri; Suzuki, Yuji; Esmaeili-Rad, Mr; Amaratunga, Gehan; Nathan, Arokia


    A photodiode consisting of nanopillars of thin-film silicon p-i-n on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a noncontinuous cathode electrode is demonstrated. The structure exploits the intrinsic enhancement of the CNTs' electric field, which leads to reduction in the photodiode's operating voltage and response time and enhancement of optical coupling due to better light trapping, as compared with the conventional planar photodiode. These improvements translate to higher resolution and higher frame rate flat-panel imaging systems for a broad range of applications, including computed tomography and particle detection.

  5. Vertical Meandering Approach for Antenna Size Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng


    Full Text Available A novel vertical meandering technique to reduce the lateral size of a planar printed antenna is presented. It is implemented by dividing a conventional spiral patch into a different number of segments and placing them on different sides of the microwave substrate with vias as the connections. To confirm the validity of this technique, measured electrical performance and radiation characteristics of five antennas with different numbers of segments are compared. The smallest antenna is reduced in size by 84% when compared with the conventional printed spiral antenna.

  6. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph


    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... at the Danish National Test Station for Large Wind Turbines at Høvsøre in Denmark. The site represents flat, homogeneous grassland with an average gust factor of 1.4 at 10m and 1.2 at 100m level. In a typical surface-layer gust parametrization, the gust factor is composed of two components, the peak factor...

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical) (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations. (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.


    This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-

  9. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.


    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  10. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara


    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length......) is investigated by numerical analyses of representative finite element models. The 3D numerical model is compared and validated with existing analytical solutions. A parametric study is carried out analyzing the effect of the slenderness ratio Hp/d and the height and the stiffness of the soil layer on the dynamic...

  11. Determination of the comfort zone for intergingival height and its practical application to treatment planning: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Pareek


    Conclusion: The comfort zone of intergingival height should become a part of our vocabulary and should be routinely utilized as a guideline for consistently achieving the correct vertical dimension at the end of treatment. The areas of utilization of this measurement are many and it should be used to assist in achieving better and more stable clinical results.

  12. Vertical designs and agriculture joined for food production in the modules for urban vertical gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro


    Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.

  13. Potential field signatures along the Zagros collision zone in Iran (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Fournier, Dominique; Devriese, Sarah G. R.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.


    The Zagros orogenic belt, known as an active fold-thrust belt, was formed in southwestern Iran due to the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. In this study, potential field data are inverted in 3D to image the variations of magnetic susceptibility and density contrast along the collision zone, resulting in better tectonic understanding of the studied region. Geophysical data measured by airborne magnetic and ground-based gravity systems are used to construct an integrated model that facilitates the interpretations of various tectonic zones across a 450-km line. This line intersects the main structural units from the SW portion of the Zagros belt. The constructed model reveals a contrast that indicates the transition between the two continental plates coinciding with the western boundaries of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) at the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT) fault. The subduction of the Arabian continental crust below the Iranian one is evident because of its lower susceptibility property and alternating sequence of high and low density regions. Higher susceptibility, magnetic remanence and density are the mainstays of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage (UDMA) zone at the NE of the studied route, whereas lower values of these properties correspond to (1) the thin massive Tertiary-Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the central domain (CD) zone, and (2) the thick sedimentary and salt intrusion cover over the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust belt (ZFTB). Higher density of regions in the Arabian crust below the ZFTB implies that fault activities have caused significant vertical displacement of the basement. Finally, a simplified geological model is presented based upon the inversions of the geophysical data, in which the main geological units are divided along the studied route.

  14. Knapsack--TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Malathy

    Full Text Available In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay.

  15. Knapsack--TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network. (United States)

    Malathy, E M; Muthuswamy, Vijayalakshmi


    In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay.

  16. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar


    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  17. Development of a horizontally and vertically focused neutron monochromator using stacked elastically bent Si single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, H; Kojima, A; Noda, Y; Minakawa, N; Morii, Y; Takesue, N


    A horizontally and vertically focused monochromator has been developed for the 4-axis neutron diffractometer applied for a single crystal structure analysis. Silicon perfect single crystals are bent elastically in order to focus monochromatic neutrons horizontally. The monochromatic beam can also be focused vertically by stacking the horizontally bent crystals. Tilting motion of each stacked bent crystal is controlled independently by stepping pulse motors for optimizing and reproducing perfectly the vertical focusing at the sample position. The intensity of neutrons with a 1.57 A wavelength monochromatized by the new monochromator increases remarkably, and is comparable to that of pyrolytic graphite monochromator with a 2.44 A wavelength. The high tunability of the doubly focusing system established in the present study can be adopted easily when obtaining the shorter wavelength of neutrons.

  18. The 'Sharpen' filter improves the radiographic detection of vertical root fractures. (United States)

    Nascimento, H A R; Ramos, A C A; Neves, F S; de-Azevedo-Vaz, S L; Freitas, D Q


    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of digital enhancement filters in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures. The sample consisted of 40 single-rooted teeth randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. Vertical root fractures were induced in the experimental group using a universal testing machine. All teeth were individually radiographed with three different horizontal angles using the Digora Optime(®) digital system. Three observers separately examined the original and filtered images (3D Emboss, Negative, Sharpen and Shadow). The area under Receiver Operating Characteristic curve values (Az) for each protocol were compared by one-way anova with post hoc Bonferroni test. The significance level was set at 5%. The highest Az value was obtained using the Sharpen filter, with significant differences from the original and other filtered images (P detection of vertical root fractures. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gaplaev


    Full Text Available Based on the researches conducted in conditions of vertical zonality of the Chechen Republic, the high-yielding varieties of red beet in the certain climate and environmental conditions were selected. Moving from the plain zone to the piedmont and the mountain zones, the yield of red beet roots has increased by 1,6-3,4 t/ha regardless of early ripeness of cultivars and hybrids. Application of mathematical modeling allows the selection of the varieties, which are able to realize their yield potential in various conditions.

  20. Th-Pb ion probe dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite and its implications for repeated shear zone activity: An example from the Central Alps, Switzerland (United States)

    Bergemann, C.; Gnos, E.; Berger, A.; Whitehouse, M.; Mullis, J.; Wehrens, P.; Pettke, T.; Janots, E.


    Th-Pb age dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite from alpine-type fissures/clefts is a powerful tool for constraining polyphase deformation at temperatures below 350°C and presents an alternative to K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques for dating brittle tectonics. This study considers the relationship between cleft orientations in ductile shear zones and cleft mineral crystallization during subsequent brittle overprinting. In the Grimsel area, located in the Aar Massif of the Central Alps, horizontal clefts formed during a primary thrust dominated deformation, while younger and vertically oriented clefts developed during secondary strike-slip movements. The change is due to a switch in orientation between the principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. The transition is associated with monazite crystallization and chloritization of biotite at around 11.5 Ma. Quartz fluid inclusion data allow a link between deformation stages and temperatures to be established and indicate that primary monazite crystallization occurred in both cleft systems at 300-350°C. While cleft monazite crystallization ceases at 11 Ma in inactive shear zones, monazite growth, and/or dissolution-reprecipitation continues under brittle deformation conditions in vertical clefts during later deformation until 7 Ma. This younger shear zone activity occurs in association with dextral strike-slip movement of the Rhone-Simplon fault system. With the exception of varying Th/U values correlated with the degree of oxidation, there is only limited compositional variation in the studied cleft monazites.