WorldWideScience

Sample records for vertical zone samples

  1. simulation of vertical water flow through vadose zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Simulation of vertical water flow representing the release of water from the vadose zone to the aquifer of surroundings ... ground water pollution from agricultural, industrial and municipal .... Peak Flow Characteristics of Wyoming. Streams: US ...

  2. Contribution to the study of the vertical molten zone process (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzin, M.

    1963-01-01

    Construction and use of several molten zone apparatuses operating either vertically or horizontally. Efficient purification of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate but less successful in the case of other hydrated double salts and of zirconyl chloride in the hydrochloric gel form. Demonstration and study of the dissymmetry in the direction of the transport of the impurity during, the purification by a vertical molten zone process. (author) [fr

  3. Vertical hydrochemical profiles in the unsaturated zone of louga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solutions chemistry of the rainwater and the unsaturated zone interstitial water of Louga (Northern Senegal) local aquifer provide valuable ... together with chemical analysis of the interstitial water carried out through the entire unsaturated ...

  4. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah Sd.

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from RCRA borehole bore samples and composite samples. Intact cores from two RCRA boreholes (299-W22-48 and 299-W22-50) near the SX Tank Farm and four, large-quantity grab samples from outcrop sediment on and off the Hanford Site were sampled to better understand the fate of contaminants in the vadose zone beneath underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Borehole and outcrop samples analyzed for this report are located outside the tank farms, and therefore may be considered standard or background samples from which to compare contaminated sediments within the tank farms themselves. This report presents our interpretation of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the uncontaminated vadose zone sediments, and variations in the vertical distribution of these properties. The information presented in this report is intended to support preparation of the S-SX Field Investigation Report to be prepared by CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. as well as future remediation actions at the S-SX Tank Farm

  5. Facile Route to Vertically Aligned High-Aspect Ratio Block Copolymer Films via Dynamic Zone Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kulkarni, Manish; Yager, Kevin; Smilgies, Detlef; Bucknall, David; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Directed assembly of block copolymers (BCP) can be used to fabricate a diversity of nanostructures useful for nanotech applications. The ability to vertically orient etchable high aspect ratio (˜30) ordered BCP domains on flexible substrates via continuous processing methods are particularly attractive for nanomanufacturing. We apply sharp dynamic cold zone annealing (CZA-S) to create etchable, and predominantly vertically oriented 30nm cylindrical domains in 1 μm thick poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) films on low thermal conductivity rigid (quartz) and flexible (PDMS & Kapton) substrates. Under similar static conditions, temporally stable vertical cylinders form within a narrow zone above a critical temperature gradient. Primary ordering mechanism of CZA-S involves sweeping this vertically orienting zone created at maximum thermal gradient. An optimal speed is needed since the process competes with preferential surface wetting dynamics that favors parallel orientation. GISAXS of etched BCP films confirms internal morphology.

  6. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-01-01

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel

  7. Investigation of Vertical Migration of Pollutants through the Unsaturated Zone Using Stable Isotopes and Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical migration of pollutants through unsaturated zone is a complicated process and is affected by a number of factors like type of soil, its chemical properties, or organic matter content, in addition to climatic conditions and biological activity of microorganisms in soil. Soil properties that influence water movement through unsaturated zone are important for determining flow paths, reactions between soil and pollutants and the ultimate destination of these pollutants, and may improve the diagnosis of the potential pollution risk. Three soil cores were sampled to a depth up to 100 cm from cultivated clayey soil, sewage irrigated sandy soil and fertilized sandy soil. The samples were collected at intervals of 5 or 10 cm. The δ 13 C signature of the soil shifted significantly towards that of C 3 -type vegetation in soil cores. The general trend toward heavier 13 C enrichment with depth could be due to isotopic fractionation occurring during decomposition of soil organic matters. Increased δ 15 N with depth in the soil cores suggests that microbial mineralization, denitrification, or volatilization processes caused the enriched δ 15 N signatures. Decreasing nitrogen percent and nitrate values with depth also help support the idea of microbiological processes. The results indicate that concentrations of major and trace elements varied widely among the different soil types and decreased with depths in the studied soil profile. The accumulation pattern for these elements in the soil profiles follows the order: Co < Ni < Mo < Ag < Sr < V < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn < B < Mg < Al < Fe. The relationships between element concentrations against ph and organic matter contents show antithetical relationships and suggest evidence that these elements arise from anthropogenic input. The results of this study show that there exists risk for the environment due to notable migration of pollutants through the unsaturated zone and that the migrations were also observed to be highly

  8. Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Rosalino; Schneider, Wolfgang; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Lange, Carina

    2009-07-01

    Recent hydrographic measurements within the eastern South Pacific (1999-2001) were combined with vertically high-resolution data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, high-resolution profiles and bottle casts from the World Ocean Database 2001, and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 in order to evaluate the vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone (oxygen minimum zone to be 9.82±3.60×10 6 km 2 and 2.18±0.66×10 6 km 3, respectively. The oxygen minimum zone is thickest (>600 m) off Peru between 5 and 13°S and to about 1000 km offshore. Its upper boundary is shallowest (zone in some places. Offshore, the thickness and meridional extent of the oxygen minimum zone decrease until it finally vanishes at 140°W between 2° and 8°S. Moving southward along the coast of South America, the zonal extension of the oxygen minimum zone gradually diminishes from 3000 km (15°S) to 1200 km (20°S) and then to 25 km (30°S); only a thin band is detected at ˜37°S off Concepción, Chile. Simultaneously, the oxygen minimum zone's maximum thickness decreases from 300 m (20°S) to less than 50 m (south of 30°S). The spatial distribution of Ekman suction velocity and oxygen minimum zone thickness correlate well, especially in the core. Off Chile, the eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water mass introduces increased vertical stability into the upper water column, complicating ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone from above. In addition, oxygen-enriched Antarctic Intermediate Water clashes with the oxygen minimum zone at around 30°S, causing a pronounced sub-surface oxygen front. The new estimates of vertical and horizontal oxygen minimum zone distribution in the eastern South Pacific complement the global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margins by Helly and Levin [2004. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins. Deep-Sea Research I 51, 1159-1168] and provide new baseline data useful for studies on the

  9. Using the Vertical Component of the Surface Velocity Field to Map the Locked Zone at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Brandon, M. T.; Podladchikov, Y.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    At present, our understanding of the locked zone at Cascadia subduction zone is based on thermal modeling and elastic modeling of horizontal GPS velocities. The thermal model by Hyndman and Wang (1995) provided a first-order assessment of where the subduction thrust might be cold enough for stick-slip behavior. The alternative approach by McCaffrey et al. (2007) is to use a Green's function that relates horizontal surface velocities, as recorded by GPS, to interseismic elastic deformation. The thermal modeling approach is limited by a lack of information about the amount of frictional heating occurring on the thrust (Molnar and England, 1990). The GPS approach is limited in that the horizontal velocity component is fairly insensitive to the structure of the locked zone. The vertical velocity component is much more useful for this purpose. We are fortunate in that vertical velocities can now be measured by GPS to a precision of about 0.2 mm/a. The dislocation model predicts that vertical velocities should range up to about 20 percent of the subduction velocity, which means maximum values of ~7 mm/a. The locked zone is generally entirely offshore at Cascadia, except for the Olympic Peninsula region, where the underlying Juan De Fuca plate has an anomalously low dip. Previous thermal and GPS modeling, as well as tide gauge data and episodic tremors indicate the locked zone there extends about 50 to 75 km onland. This situation provides an opportunity to directly study the locked zone. With that objective in mind, we have constructed a full 3D geodynamic model of the Cascadia subduction zone. At present, the model provides a full representation of the interseismic elastic deformation due to variations of slip on the subduction thrust. The model has been benchmarked against the Savage (2D) and Okada (3D) analytical solutions. This model has an important advantage over traditional dislocation modeling in that we include temperature-sensitive viscosity for the upper and

  10. Vertical nitrogen flux from the oceanic photic zone by diel migrant zooplankton and nekton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan R.; Glen Harrison, W.

    1988-06-01

    Where the photic zone is a biological steady-state, the downward flux of organic material across the pycnocline to the interior of the ocean is thought to be balanced by upward turbulent flux of inorganic nitrogen across the nutricline. This model ignores a significant downward dissolved nitrogen flux caused by the diel vertical migration of interzonal zooplankton and nekton that feed in the photic zone at night and excrete nitrogenous compounds at depth by day. In the oligotrophic ocean this flux can be equivalent to the flux of particulate organic nitrogen from the photic zone in the form of faecal pellets and organic flocculates. Where nitrogen is the limiting plant nutrient, and the flux by diel migration of interzonal plankton is significant compared to other nitrogen exports from the photic zone, there must be an upward revision of previous estimates for the ratio of new to total primary production in the photic zone if a nutrient balance is to be maintained. This upward revision is of the order 5-100% depending on the oceanographic regime.

  11. Generalization of some results of a vertical radionuclide migration study in soils of 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziborov, A.M.; Sadol'ko, I.V.; Sushchik, Yu.Ya.; Tikhanov, Eh.K.; Proskuryakov, A.G.; Kuz'michev, V.N.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of radionuclide distribution study in a vertical profile of soils are presented under different landscape geochemical conditions in 1989-1991. It is ascertained that radionuclide migration process in geochemical profile of soils of 30-km zone is in early stage of development. More than 90% of radioactivity concentrates in the upper 5-10 cm layer whereas measurable radioactivity fixes at a depth up to 1 m. The process of deepening of radioactivity reserve center takes place in the surface soil layer. Now it equals 1,5-3 cm. Peculiarities of the vertical radionuclide distribution haven't brightly pronounced character depending on soil types and are at the formation stage. 12 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Contribution to the study of the vertical molten zone process (1963); Contribution a l'etude du procede de la zone fondue verticale (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Construction and use of several molten zone apparatuses operating either vertically or horizontally. Efficient purification of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate but less successful in the case of other hydrated double salts and of zirconyl chloride in the hydrochloric gel form. Demonstration and study of the dissymmetry in the direction of the transport of the impurity during, the purification by a vertical molten zone process. (author) [French] Construction et utilisation de plusieurs appareils de zone fondue travaillant soit en vertical, soit en horizontal. Purification efficace du nitrate d'uranyle hexahydrate mais peu significative dans le cas des autres couples de sels hydrates et du chlorure de zirconyle a l'etat de gel chlorhydrique. Mise en evidence et etude de la dissymetrie sur le sens de transport de l'impurete au cours de la purification par zone fondue verticale. (auteur)

  13. Problems involved in sampling within and outside zones of emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelschlaeger, W

    1973-01-01

    Problems involved in the sampling of plant materials both inside and outside emission zones are considered, especially in regard to trace element analysis. The basic problem revolves around obtaining as accurately as possible an average sample of actual composition. Elimination of error possibilities requires a knowledge of such factors as botanical composition, vegetation states, rains, mass losses in leaf and blossom parts, contamination through the soil, and gaseous or particulate emissions. Sampling and preparation of samples is also considered with respect to quantitative aspects of trace element analysis.

  14. Installation and sampling of vadose zone monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, S.M.; Strickland, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    1987-10-01

    A vadose zone monitoring system was installed in a sanitary landfill near the Y-12 facility on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge, Tennessee Reservation. The work was completed as part of the LLWDDD program to develop, design, and demonstrate new low level radioactive waste disposal monitoring methods. The objective of the project was to evaluate the performance of three types of vadose zone samplers within a similar hydrogeologic environment for use as early detection monitoring devices. The three different types of samplers included the Soil Moisture Equipment Corporation Pressure-Vacuum samplers (Models 1920 and 1940), and the BAT Piezometer (Model MK II) manufactured by BAT Envitech, Inc. All three samplers are designed to remove soil moisture from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Five clusters of three holes each were drilled to maximum depths of 45 ft around part of the periphery of the landfill. Three samplers, one of each type, were installed at each cluster location. Water samples were obtained from 13 of the 15 samplers and submitted to Martin Marietta for analysis. All three samplers performed satisfactorily when considering ease of installation, required in-hole development, and ability to collect water samples from the vadose zone. Advantages and disadvantages of each sampler type are discussed in the main report

  15. Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Zone by Infiltrometer Analysis of Shallow Groundwater Regime (KUISG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkan Radhi Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A hydrogeologic model was developed and carried out in Taleaa district of 67km2 . The study adopted a determination of KUISG depends upon the double rings infiltrometer model. The tests were carried out in a part of Mesopotamian  Zone which is covered with quaternary deposits  . In general the groundwater levels are about one meter below ground surface.  Theoretically, the inclination angle of the saturated water phase plays an important role in the determination of KUISG. The experimental results prove that the angle of inclination of the saturated phase is identical to the angle of internal friction of the soil. This conclusion is supported by the comparison of the results that obtained from falling head test and infiltrometer measurements for estimating the hydraulic conductivitiy values for ten locations within the study area. The determination of vertical hydraulic conductivity by current infiltrometer model is constrained to only the shallow groundwater regime.7

  16. A sampling device for counting insect egg clusters and measuring vertical distribution of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The use of a vertical sampling pole that delineates known volumes and position is illustrated and demonstrated for counting egg clusters of N. sertifer. The pole can also be used to estimate vertical and horizontal coverage, distribution or damage of vegetation or foliage.

  17. a Borehole-Dilution Method for Quantifying Vertical Darcy Fluxes in the Hyporheic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, S. D.; Annable, M. D.; Cho, J.

    2017-12-01

    The borehole dilution method has consistently and successfully been used for estimating local water fluxes, however, this method can be relatively labor intensive and expensive. The focus of this research is aimed at developing a low-cost, borehole dilution method for quantifying vertical water fluxes in the hyporheic zone at the surface-groundwater interface. This would allow for the deployment of multiple units within a targeted surface water body and thus produce high-resolution, spatially distributed data on the infiltration rates over a short period of time with minimal set-up requirements. The device consists of a 2-inch, inner diameter PVC pipe containing short, screened sections in its upper and lower segments. The working unit is driven into the sediment and acts as a continuous flow reactor creating a pathway between the subsurface pore-water and the overlying surface water where the presence of a hydraulic gradient facilitates vertical movement. We developed a simple electrode and tracer-injection system housed within the unit to inject and measure salt tracer concentrations at the desired intervals while monitoring and storing those measurements using open-source Arduino technology. Preliminary lab and field scale trials provided data that was fit to both zero and first order reaction rate functions for analysis. The field test was conducted over approximately one day within a wet retention basin. The initial results estimated a vertical Darcy flux of 113.5 cm/d. Additional testing over a range of expected Darcy fluxes will be presented along with an evaluation considering enhanced water flow due to the high hydraulic conductivity of the device.

  18. Field determination of vertical permeability to air in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Edwin P.

    1978-01-01

    The vertical permeability to air of layered materials in the unsaturated zone may be determined from air pressure data obtained at depth during a period when air pressure is changing at land surface. Such data may be obtained by monitoring barometric pressure with a microbarograph or surveying altimeter and simultaneously measuring down-hole pneumatic head differences in specially constructed piezometers. These data, coupled with air-filled porosity data from other sources, may be compared with the results of electric-analog or numerical solution of the one-dimensional diffusion equation to make a trial-and-error determination of the air permeability for each layer. The permeabilities to air may in turn be converted to equivalent hydraulic conductivity values if the materials are well drained, are permeable enough that the Klinkenberg effect is small, and are structurally unaffected by wetting. The method offers potential advantages over present methods to evaluate sites for artificial recharge by spreading; to evaluate ground-water pollution hazards from feedlots, sanitary landfills , and land irrigated with sewage effluent; and to evaluate sites for temporary storage of gas in the unsaturated zone. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. A computational model of pile vertical vibration in saturated soil based on the radial disturbed zone of pile driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Shi Qian; Wang Kuihua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.

  20. Use of X-ray fluorescence analysis in studying vertical element migration in weathering zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdkova, Z.; Hally, J.

    1980-01-01

    The vertical migration of elements was studied in a model area of the Zelivka river basin. The VRS 2 Zeiss GDR analyzer, connected to automatic processor KSR 4 100, were used for the study of concentration variations. Soil samples were taken from bore holes drilled to a depth of the solid bedrock (0 to 6 m). The contents of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O, CaO, TiO 2 , P 2 O 5 and MnO were determined in concentration ranges from 10 -2 to 10 1 %. The method was tested in comparative measurements against conventional methods of chemical analysis. (author)

  1. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  2. The Vertical Flux Method (VFM) for regional estimates of temporally and spatially varying nitrate fluxes in unsaturated zone and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. T.; Liao, L.; Nolan, B. T.; Juckem, P. F.; Ransom, K.; Harter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality. Measurements of atmospheric tracers of groundwater age and dissolved-gas indicators of denitrification progress have potential to improve estimates of NO3- reactive transport processes. This presentation introduces a regionalized version of a vertical flux method (VFM) that uses simple mathematical estimates of advective-dispersive reactive transport with regularization procedures to calibrate estimated tracer concentrations to observed equivalents. The calibrated VFM provides estimates of chemical, hydrologic and reaction parameters (source concentration time series, recharge, effective porosity, dispersivity, reaction rate coefficients) and derived values (e.g. mean unsaturated zone travel time, eventual depth of the NO3- front) for individual wells. Statistical learning methods are used to extrapolate parameters and predictions from wells to continuous areas. The regional VFM was applied to 473 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and triogiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with independent estimates. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) fractions of N leached to groundwater have changed over time, with increasing fractions from manure and decreasing fractions from fertilizer, and (3) under current practices and conditions, 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by NO3- contamination. Based on GIS coverages of variables related to soils, land use and hydrology, the VFM results at individual wells were extrapolated regionally using boosted regression trees, a statistical learning approach, that related

  3. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both...... the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone...

  4. Ten kilometer vertical Moho offset and shallow velocity contrast along the Denali fault zone from double-difference tomography, receiver functions, and fault zone head waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A. A.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Tape, C.; Ruppert, N.; Ross, Z. E.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the structure of the Denali fault system in the crust and upper mantle using double-difference tomography, P-wave receiver functions, and analysis (spatial distribution and moveout) of fault zone head waves. The three methods have complementary sensitivity; tomography is sensitive to 3D seismic velocity structure but smooths sharp boundaries, receiver functions are sensitive to (quasi) horizontal interfaces, and fault zone head waves are sensitive to (quasi) vertical interfaces. The results indicate that the Mohorovičić discontinuity is vertically offset by 10 to 15 km along the central 600 km of the Denali fault in the imaged region, with the northern side having shallower Moho depths around 30 km. An automated phase picker algorithm is used to identify 1400 events that generate fault zone head waves only at near-fault stations. At shorter hypocentral distances head waves are observed at stations on the northern side of the fault, while longer propagation distances and deeper events produce head waves on the southern side. These results suggest a reversal of the velocity contrast polarity with depth, which we confirm by computing average 1D velocity models separately north and south of the fault. Using teleseismic events with M ≥ 5.1, we obtain 31,400 P receiver functions and apply common-conversion-point stacking. The results are migrated to depth using the derived 3D tomography model. The imaged interfaces agree with the tomography model, showing a Moho offset along the central Denali fault and also the sub-parallel Hines Creek fault, a suture zone boundary 30 km to the north. To the east, this offset follows the Totschunda fault, which ruptured during the M7.9 2002 earthquake, rather than the Denali fault itself. The combined results suggest that the Denali fault zone separates two distinct crustal blocks, and that the Totschunda and Hines Creeks segments are important components of the fault and Cretaceous-aged suture zone structure.

  5. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  6. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  8. Vertical sampling flights in support of the 1981 ASCOT cooling tower experiments: field effort and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G.T.

    1982-03-01

    During the month of August 1981, three nights of experimental sampling of tracers released into the cooling tower plume of a geothermal power plant were conducted. In these experiments a tethered balloon was used to lift a payload so as to obtain vertical profiles of the cooling tower plume and the entrained tracers. A description of the equipment used, the field effort and the data acquired are presented here.

  9. Application of INAA in monitoring vertical migration of elements in weathering zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.; Henes, J.

    1983-01-01

    The vertical migration of elements is studied in two types of Czechoslovak soils formed on loess. The INAA method is used to determine the total value of ca 40 elements in soils. Processed are relative errors of determination and the concentrations of elements to depths of 150 cm. Tables show the distribution of elements of rare earths according to genetic horizons, graphically presented is the vertical distribution of elements with concentrations exceeding 0.1 weight %. Soil enrichment or depletion with trace elements as compared with bedrock is shown on the examples of Co, Mn and Zn. (author)

  10. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the soil sampling efforts.

  11. In Situ Sampling of Relative Dust Devil Particle Loads and Their Vertical Grain Size Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Balme, Matthew R; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2017-04-19

    During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46.5% and ∼61% of all particles; ∼76.5 wt % and ∼89 wt % of the relative particle load). Furthermore, ∼69% and ∼82% of all lifted sand grains occurred in the first meter of the dust devils, indicating the occurrence of "sand skirts." Both sampled dust devils were relatively small (∼15 m and ∼4-5 m in diameter) compared to dust devils in surrounding regions; nevertheless, measurements show that ∼58.5% to 73.5% of all lifted particles were small enough to go into suspension (grain size classification). This relatively high amount represents only ∼0.05 to 0.15 wt % of the lifted particle load. Larger dust devils probably entrain larger amounts of fine-grained material into the atmosphere, which can have an influence on the climate. Furthermore, our results indicate that the composition of the surface, on which the dust devils evolved, also had an influence on the particle load composition of the dust devil vortices. The internal particle load structure of both sampled dust devils was comparable related to their vertical grain size distribution and relative particle load, although both dust devils differed in their dimensions and intensities. A general trend of decreasing grain sizes with height was also detected. Key Words: Mars-Dust devils-Planetary science-Desert soils-Atmosphere-Grain sizes. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  12. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP and Volunteer Observation System (VOS were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line

  13. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiulong; Yang, Kunde; Cao, Ran; Duan, Shunli

    2018-01-01

    Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and Volunteer Observation System (VOS) were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line array deployed near

  14. Vertical gradients in species richness and community composition across the twilight zone in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Stephanie A; Van Woudenberg, Lauren; Lenz, Petra H; Cepeda, Georgina; Goetze, Erica

    2017-11-01

    Although metazoan animals in the mesopelagic zone play critical roles in deep pelagic food webs and in the attenuation of carbon in midwaters, the diversity of these assemblages is not fully known. A metabarcoding survey of mesozooplankton diversity across the epipelagic, mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic zones (0-1500 m) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre revealed far higher estimates of species richness than expected given prior morphology-based studies in the region (4,024 OTUs, 10-fold increase), despite conservative bioinformatic processing. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness of the full assemblage peaked at lower epipelagic-upper mesopelagic depths (100-300 m), with slight shoaling of maximal richness at night due to diel vertical migration, in contrast to expectations of a deep mesopelagic diversity maximum as reported for several plankton groups in early systematic and zoogeographic studies. Four distinct depth-stratified species assemblages were identified, with faunal transitions occurring at 100 m, 300 m and 500 m. Highest diversity occurred in the smallest zooplankton size fractions (0.2-0.5 mm), which had significantly lower % OTUs classified due to poor representation in reference databases, suggesting a deep reservoir of poorly understood diversity in the smallest metazoan animals. A diverse meroplankton assemblage also was detected (350 OTUs), including larvae of both shallow and deep living benthic species. Our results provide some of the first insights into the hidden diversity present in zooplankton assemblages in midwaters, and a molecular reappraisal of vertical gradients in species richness, depth distributions and community composition for the full zooplankton assemblage across the epipelagic, mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic zones. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Distribution of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs in vertical soil sections of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.; Raspredelenie form nakhozhdeniya {sup 90} Sr i {sup 137} Cs po vertikal`nym pochvennym razrezam Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, G N; Kononenko, L.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov

    1994-12-31

    Water-soluble, exchangeable and acid-soluble (IM HCI) forms of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs were determined in 15 layer-by-layer (1 cm) samples of podzolis and peaty soils from the Chernobyl exclusion zone taken in 1991 and 1992. Positions of centers of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr supply as well as their water-soluble and exchangeable forms were estimated. The data obtained testify to deceleration of vertical migration of {sup 137} Cs in soils till the early 90th. The conclusion is made on evolution of dominating mechanisms of vertical migration of radionuclides. It consists in a decrease of the lessivage significance.

  16. Vertical Sampling Scales for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Hemingway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, plays an important role in the formation of weather events. Simple meteorological measurements collected from within the ABL, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity, are key to understanding the exchange of energy within this region, but conventional surveillance techniques such as towers, radar, weather balloons, and satellites do not provide adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage for monitoring weather events. Small unmanned aircraft, or aerial, systems (sUAS provide a versatile, dynamic platform for atmospheric sensing that can provide higher spatio-temporal sampling frequencies than available through most satellite sensing methods. They are also able to sense portions of the atmosphere that cannot be measured from ground-based radar, weather stations, or weather balloons and have the potential to fill gaps in atmospheric sampling. However, research on the vertical sampling scales for collecting atmospheric measurements from sUAS and the variabilities of these scales across atmospheric phenomena (e.g., temperature and humidity is needed. The objective of this study is to use variogram analysis, a common geostatistical technique, to determine optimal spatial sampling scales for two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity captured from sUAS. Results show that vertical sampling scales of approximately 3 m for temperature and 1.5–2 m for relative humidity were sufficient to capture the spatial structure of these phenomena under the conditions tested. Future work is needed to model these scales across the entire ABL as well as under variable conditions.

  17. Vertical Migration of Radionuclides in Soils on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Exclusion Zone (1987-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannik, G. T.; Ivanov, Y. A.; Kashparov, V. A.; Levchuk, S. E.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 1986-1987, a set of experimental sites for studies of vertical migration of radionuclides released from the ChNPP was established in the ChNPP Exclusion Zone for various fallout plumes. The sites were selected considering local terrain and geo-chemical conditions, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fallout. The experimental sites included grasslands, and pre-Chernobyl cultivated meadows and croplands. Vertical migration of radionuclides in the ChNPP Exclusion Zone grasslands was evaluated. Parameters of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239,240Pu transfer were calculated and the periods during which these radionuclides reach their ecological half-life in the upper 5 cm soil layer were estimated. Migration capabilities of these radionuclides in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: 90Sr >137Cs ≥ 239,240Pu. A significant retardation of the 137Cs vertical migration was shown in the grasslands long after the Chernobyl accident. During the 21st year after the fallout, average Tecol values for 137Cs (the period of time it takes in the environment for 137Cs to reach half the value of its original concentration in the upper 5 cm soil layer, regardless of physical decay) are as follows: 180 - 320 years for grassland containing automorphous mineral soils of a light granulometric composition; and 90 - 100 years for grassland containing hydromorphous organogenic soils. These values are significantly higher than those estimated for the period of 6-9 years after the fallout: 60 - 150 years and 11 - 20 years, respectively. The absolute 137Cs Tecol values are by factors of 3-7 higher than 137Cs radiological decay values long after the accident. Changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited 137Cs only depend on its radiological decay. This factor should necessarily be considered for development of predictive assessments, including dose exposures for the hypothetical population in case of their re-evacuation to the exclusion areas. The obtained

  18. Measurement of the wetting profile in concrete samples with vertical water by gamma radiation transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.M. da; Rocha, M.C. da; Appoloni, C.R.; Portezan Filho, O.; Lopes, F.; Melquiades, F.L.; Santos, E.A. dos; Santos, A.O. dos; Moreira, A.C.; Poetker, W.E.; Almeida, E. de; Tannous, C.Q.; Kuramoto, R.; Cavalcante, F.H. de M.; Barbieri, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of concrete for popular habitation (0,1x0,03x0,1 m) and cellular concrete (0,1x0,05x0,1 m) were submitted to water vertical ascending infiltration. The moisture content spatial and temporal evolution of each sample it was monitored in three halfway positions in a same horizontal line, applying the gamma rays transmission method. The data were taken with a 137 Cs (3,7x10 10 Bq, 0662 MeV) source, NaI (Tl) of 2x2' detector coupled to between wetting profiles and concrete strength. The cellular concrete showed a wetting profile compatible to its greater porosity. (author)

  19. Optimizing the design of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for imaging fracture zones over hardrock basement geothermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Fabienne; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Hellwig, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    A primary focus of geothermal seismic imaging is to map dipping faults and fracture zones that control rock permeability and fluid flow. Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is therefore a most valuable means to image the immediate surroundings of an existing borehole to guide, for example, the placing of new boreholes to optimize production from known faults and fractures. We simulated 2D and 3D acoustic synthetic seismic data and processed it through to pre-stack depth migration to optimize VSP survey layouts for mapping moderately to steeply dipping fracture zones within possible basement geothermal reservoirs. Our VSP survey optimization procedure for sequentially selecting source locations to define the area where source points are best located for optimal imaging makes use of a cross-correlation statistic, by which a subset of migrated shot gathers is compared with a target or reference image from a comprehensive set of source gathers. In geothermal exploration at established sites, it is reasonable to assume that sufficient à priori information is available to construct such a target image. We generally obtained good results with a relatively small number of optimally chosen source positions distributed over an ideal source location area for different fracture zone scenarios (different dips, azimuths, and distances from the surveying borehole). Adding further sources outside the optimal source area did not necessarily improve the results, but rather resulted in image distortions. It was found that fracture zones located at borehole-receiver depths and laterally offset from the borehole by 300 m can be imaged reliably for a range of the different dips, but more source positions and large offsets between sources and the borehole are required for imaging steeply dipping interfaces. When such features cross-cut the borehole, they are particularly difficult to image. For fracture zones with different azimuths, 3D effects are observed. Far offset source positions

  20. Clio: An Autonomous Vertical Sampling Vehicle for Global Ocean Biogeochemical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakuba, M.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Saito, M. A.; Dick, G.; Breier, J. A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We report the preliminary design of a fast vertical profiling autonomous underwater vehicle, called Clio, designed to cost-effectively improve the understanding of marine microorganism ecosystem dynamics on a global scale. The insights into biogeochemical cycles to be gained from illuminating the relationships between ocean life and chemistry have led to establishment of the GEOTRACES program. The nutrient and trace element profiles generated by GEOTRACES will provide insight into what is happening biogeochemically, but not how it is happening, i.e., what biochemical pathways are active? Advances in sequencing technology and in situ preservation have made it possible to study the genomics (DNA), transcriptomics (RNA), proteomics (proteins and enzymes), metabolomics (lipids and other metabolites), and metallomics (metals), associated with marine microorganisms; however, these techniques require sample collection. To this end, Clio will carry two to four SUspended Particle Rosette (SUPR) multi-samplers to depths of 6000 m. Clio is being designed specifically to complement the GEOTRACES program—to operate simultaneously and independently of the wire-based sampling protocols developed for GEOTRACES. At each GEOTRACES ocean transect sampling station, Clio will be deployed from the ship, transit vertically to the seafloor, and then ascend to, and stop at up to 32 sampling depths, where it will filter up to 150 l of seawater per sample. Filtered samples for RNA will be administered a dose of preservative (RNALater) in situ. Clio must efficiently hold station at multiple depths between the surface and 6000 m, but also move rapidly between sampling depths. It must be chemically clean and avoid disturbing the water column while sampling. Clio must be operationally friendly, requiring few personnel to operate, and have minimal impact on shipboard operations. We have selected a positively-buoyant thruster-driven design with a quasi-isopycnal construction. Our simulations

  1. Pleistocene vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc from subducting topography and a migrating fracture zone triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Silver, Eli A.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the links between subducting slabs and upper-plate deformation is a longstanding goal in the field of tectonics. New 3D seismic sequence stratigraphy, mapped within the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) seismic-reflection volume offshore southern Costa Rica, spatiotemporally constrains several Pleistocene outer forearc processes and provides clearer connections to subducting plate dynamics. Three significant shelf and/or slope erosional events at ca. 2.5–2.3 Ma, 1.95–1.78 Ma, and 1.78–1.19 Ma, each with notable differences in spatial extent, volume removed, and subsequent margin response, caused abrupt shifts in sedimentation patterns and rates. These shifts, coupled with observed deformation, suggest three primary mechanisms for Pleistocene shelf and slope vertical motions: (1) regional subaerial erosion and rapid subsidence linked to the southeastward Panama Fracture Zone triple-junction migration, with associated abrupt bathymetric variations and plate kinematic changes; (2) transient, kilometer-scale uplift and subsidence due to inferred subducting plate topography; and (3) progressive outer wedge shortening accommodated by landward- and seaward-dipping thrust faults and fold development due to the impinging Cocos Ridge. Furthermore, we find that the present-day wedge geometry (to within ∼3 km along strike) has been maintained through the Pleistocene, in contrast to modeled landward margin retreat. We also observe that deformation, i.e., extension and shortening, is decoupled from net margin subsidence. Our findings do not require basal erosion, and they suggest that the vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc are not the result of a particular continuous process, but rather are a summation of plate to plate changes (e.g., passage of a fracture zone triple junction) and episodic events (e.g., subducting plate topography).

  2. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Optimizing sampling strategy for radiocarbon dating of Holocene fluvial systems in a vertically aggrading setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernqvist, T.E.; Dijk, G.J. Van

    1993-01-01

    The authors address the question of how to determine the period of activity (sedimentation) of fossil (Holocene) fluvial systems in vertically aggrading environments. The available data base consists of almost 100 14 C ages from the Rhine-Meuse delta. Radiocarbon samples from the tops of lithostratigraphically correlative organic beds underneath overbank deposits (sample type 1) yield consistent ages, indicating a synchronous onset of overbank deposition over distances of at least up to 20 km along channel belts. Similarly, 14 C ages from the base of organic residual channel fills (sample type 3) generally indicate a clear termination of within-channel sedimentation. In contrast, 14 C ages from the base of organic beds overlying overbank deposits (sample type 2), commonly assumed to represent the end of fluvial sedimentation, show a large scatter reaching up to 1000 14 C years. It is concluded that a combination of sample types 1 and 3 generally yields a satisfactory delimitation of the period of activity of a fossil fluvial system. 30 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Vertical structure and pH as factors for chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial community of soils and terrestrial ecosystems of different climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacheva, Evgeniya; Natalia, Manucharova

    2016-04-01

    Chitin is a naturally occurring fibre-forming polymer that plays a protective role in many lower animals similar to that of cellulose in plants. Also it's a compound of cell walls of fungi. Chemically it is a long-chain unbranched polysaccharide made of N-acetylglucosamine residues; it is the second most abundant organic compound in nature, after cellulose. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. Roots of the plants and root crops contain pectin. Chitin and pectin are widely distributed throughout the natural world. Structural and functional features of the complex microbial degradation of biopolymers one of the most important direction in microbial ecology. But there is no a lot of data concerns degradation in vertical structure of terrestrial ecosystems and detailed studies concerning certain abiotic features as pH. Microbial complexes of natural areas were analyzed only as humus horizons (A1) of the soil profile. Only small part of microbial community could be studied with this approach. It is known that ecosystems have their own structure. It is possible to allocate some vertical tiers: phylloplane, litter (soil covering), soil. We investigated chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial communities dedicated to different layers of the ecosystems. Also it was described depending on pH dominated in certain ecosystem with certain conditions. Quantity of eukaryote and procaryote organisms increased in the test samples with chitin and pectin. Increasing of eukaryote in samples with pectin was more then in samples with chitin. Also should be noted the significant increasing of actinomycet's quantity in the samples with chitin in comparison with samples with pectin. The variety and abundance of bacteria in the litter samples increased an order of magnitude as compared to other probes. Further prokaryote community was investigated by method FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). FISH is a cytogenetic

  5. Some methodical questions of study of vertical geochemical zoning of ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochevanov, N.N.; Gorelova, E.K.

    1975-01-01

    Taking a hydrothermal uranium deposit as an example, the advisability of dividing ore-localizing structures (for the purpose of making a calculation for a single geochemical zonality) into five zones, a supra-, an upper, a central, a lower and an infra-ore one, has been shown. It is recommended to determine the place of elements in the geochemical zonality sequence by taking into account the productivity of their aureoles and the location of the centre of gravity of their reserves in the ore, supra- and infra-ore horizons. When considering the peculiarities of a zonality, it is irrational to take account of elements determined with an insufficient sensitivity as well as of low-contrast or unstable ones. When calculating tracer ratios the most contrasting data can be obtained by using the most distant elements in the geochemical zonality sequence

  6. Geodetic proof of vertical recent movements at the seism generating zone of Acambay, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Espinosa-Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The central territorial belt oriented west-east and located along the parallel 19 in the Mexican Republic, is composed of a complex system of faults, that respond to the consequent morphology of a tension arched system, which has been erected to the Volcanic Transmexican or Transversal Belt. This region evidences the dynamics and evolution of a graben and horst tectonic system, as well as volcanic manifestations characterized by stratovolcanoes, monogenetic fields and fisural flows, among others. In particular, in the center of the Mexican regional complex, the fault system which delimits the region of Acambay in the state of Mexico, had showed evidences of seismogenerating activity during a century until the present time. According to the above and based on the geomorphological analysis and the geodetic measurements, the dynamic presented by these morphostructures in a multitemporal comparative study (1998/2003 o 2011 is showed. The rates of vertical tectonic movements reflect recent rise values ranging from + 7,3 to 12,8 mm/year in the northern horst of Santa María Tixmadejé, while in the central graben of Acambay are very weak, of the order of + 0,4 to + 0,5 mm/year.

  7. Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health. © 2012, The Author(s). GroundWater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Numerical modeling of the vertical hydrofluorination zone in the moving bed furnace for the production of UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourde, J.; Patisson, F.; Ablitzer, D. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques; Houzelot, J.L. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1996-12-31

    Uranium tetrafluoride UF{sub 4} is produced in the moving bed furnace, a reactor in which solid- and gas counterflow. Due to the highly exothermic nature of the chemical reactions involved, the-reactor operation requires a careful temperature control. To provide operators with an appropriate tool for the predictive simulation, optimization and control of the process an overall numerical model of the furnace has been developed. This article describes the part of the model concerning the vertical hydrofluorination zone. The differential equations representing the mass, energy and momentum balances are solved using the finite volume method. The physicochemical parameters necessary for the calculation are detailed. The rate of the main reaction, the hydrofluorination of UO{sub 2}, has been determined with the aid of a specific kinetic model. The computed parameters, namely the temperature and solid and gas compositions, are visualized in the form of isovalue maps. The initial results reveal the influence of a thermodynamic limitation of the reaction at temperatures higher than 650 K. (author)

  9. Numerical modeling of the vertical hydrofluorination zone in the moving bed furnace for the production of UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourde, J; Patisson, F; Ablitzer, D [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques; Houzelot, J L [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1997-12-31

    Uranium tetrafluoride UF{sub 4} is produced in the moving bed furnace, a reactor in which solid- and gas counterflow. Due to the highly exothermic nature of the chemical reactions involved, the-reactor operation requires a careful temperature control. To provide operators with an appropriate tool for the predictive simulation, optimization and control of the process an overall numerical model of the furnace has been developed. This article describes the part of the model concerning the vertical hydrofluorination zone. The differential equations representing the mass, energy and momentum balances are solved using the finite volume method. The physicochemical parameters necessary for the calculation are detailed. The rate of the main reaction, the hydrofluorination of UO{sub 2}, has been determined with the aid of a specific kinetic model. The computed parameters, namely the temperature and solid and gas compositions, are visualized in the form of isovalue maps. The initial results reveal the influence of a thermodynamic limitation of the reaction at temperatures higher than 650 K. (author)

  10. Vertical distribution of Pu radionuclides, 241Am and 99Sr in soil Samples from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, D.; Mocanu, N.; Moreno-Bermudez, J.

    2002-01-01

    The investigated area is a natural alpine pasture located in the South chain of the Carpathian Mountains, which was found as one of the most contaminated areas in Romania after the Chernobyl accident.Radioactive concentrations of Pu radioisotopes, 2 41Am and 9 0Sr were determined in successive layers from 4 soil sections downward a depth of 6-8 cm, providing for the first time information on the effect of fallout acumulation of these radionuclides in soil samples from Romania. Pu and Am were separated by using a combined sequential procedure based on anion exchange and extraction chromatography. The measurements of 241Pu were performed by Liquid Scintillation Counting. 9 0Sr was determined by chemical separation of Sr using the classical precipitation method and Cerenkov counting of 9 0Y. For Quality Control IAEA reference materials were analyzed along with the samples. In a soil section of 8 cm depth radioactive inventories were approximately 500 Bq/m 2 for 2 41Pu, 115 Bq/m 2 for 2 39 +2 40Pu, 8 Bq/m 2 for 2 38Pu, 50 Bq/m2 for 2 41Am and 2500 Bq/m 2 for 9 0Sr. The data on each of the radioisotopes vertical distribution profile are compared between themselves and give an idea for their migration. On the basis of activity isotopic ratios in the soil depth profile, the origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon test fallout) is discussed. The results are also compared to previous data on Cs-137

  11. Evolution of the Marginal Ice Zone: Adaptive Sampling with Autonomous Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    release; distribution is unlimited. Evolution of the Marginal Ice Zone: Adaptive Sampling with Autonomous Gliders Craig M. Lee, Luc Rainville and Jason I...missions in ice-covered waters , where they provide several unique capabilities. Ice-capable Seagliders can maintain persistent (many months) sampling ...irradiance. Careful calibration casts, including water sampling , were conducted during both the deployment and recovery cruises. An example of a

  12. Frictional properties of JFAST core samples and implications for slow earthquakes at the Tohoku subduction zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Niemeijer, André R.; Hirose, Takehiro; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Slow earthquakes occur in the shallow (<20 km deep) part of the Tohoku subduction zone. To understand how frictional properties of the plate boundary fault affect the generation of these slow earthquakes, we conducted friction experiments using borehole samples retrieved from the plate boundary

  13. Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2004-01-01

    Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations

  14. Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well

  15. Overview of SAFOD Phases 1 and 2: Drilling, Sampling and Measurements in the San Andreas Fault Zone at Seismogenic Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hickman, S.; Ellsworth, W.

    2005-12-01

    In this talk we provide an overview of on-site drilling, sampling and downhole measurement activities associated with the first two Phases of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. SAFOD is located at the transition between the creeping and locked sections of the fault, 9 km NW of Parkfield, CA. A 2.1 km deep vertical pilot hole was drilled at the site in 2002. The SAFOD main borehole was drilled vertically to a depth of 1.5 km and then deviated at an average angle of 55° to vertical, passing beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas fault, 1.8 km to the NW at a depth of 3.2 km. Repeating microearthquakes on the San Andreas define the main active fault trace at depth, as well as a secondary active fault about 250 m to the SW (i.e., closer to SAFOD). The hole was rotary drilled, comprehensive cuttings were obtained and a real-time analysis of gases in the drilling mud was carried out. Spot cores were obtained at three depths (at casing set points) in the shallow granite and deeper sedimentary rocks penetrated by the hole, augmented by over fifty side-wall cores. Continuous coring of the San Andreas Fault Zone will be carried out in Phase 3 of the project in the summer of 2007. In addition to sampling mud gas, discrete fluid and gas samples were obtained at several depths for geochemical analysis. Real-time geophysical measurements were made while drilling through most of the San Andreas Fault Zone. A suite of "open hole" geophysical measurements were also made over essentially the entire depth of the hole. Construction of the multi-component SAFOD observatory is well underway, with a seismometer and tiltmeter operating at 1 km depth in the pilot hole and a fiber-optic laser strainmeter cemented behind casing in the main hole. A seismometer deployed at depth in the hole between Phases 1 and 2 detected one of the target earthquakes. A number of surface-to-borehole seismic experiments have been carried out to characterize seismic velocities and structures at

  16. Independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Task 2.50.05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojic, M.; Pavicevic, M.

    1964-01-01

    This report contains the following volumes V and VI of the Project 'Independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in RA reactor vertical experimental channels': Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, and Safety report for the Independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels [sr

  17. Vertical and Horizontal Analysis of Crustal Structure of Southeastern Mediterranean and the Egyptian Coastal Zone, from Bouguer and Satellite Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah

    2016-07-01

    The present Tectonic system of Southeastern Mediterranean is driven by the collision of the African and Eurasian plates, the Arabian Eurasian convergence and the displacement of the Anatolian Aegean microplate, which generally represents the characteristic of lithospheric structure of the region. In the scope of this study, Bouguer and the satellite gravity (satellite altimetry) anomalies of southeastern Mediterranean and North Eastern part of Egypt were used for investigating the lithospheric structures. Second order trend analyses were applied firstly to Bouguer and satellite altimetry data for examining the characteristic of the anomaly. Later, the vertical and horizontal derivatives applications were applied to the same data. Generally, the purpose of the applying derivative methods is determining the vertical and horizontal borders of the structure. According to the results of derivatives maps, the study area could mainly divided into important four tectonic subzones depending on basement and Moho depth maps. These subzones are distributed from south to the north as: Nile delta-northern Sinai zone, north Egyptian coastal zone, Levantine basin zone and northern thrusting (Cyprus and its surroundings) zone. These zones are separated from each other by horizontal tectonic boundaries and/or near-vertical faults that display the block-faulting tectonic style of this belt. Finally, the gravity studies were evaluated together with the seismic activity of the region. Consequently, the geodynamical structure of the region is examined with the previous studies done in the region. Thus, the current study indicates that satellite gravity mission data is a valuable source of data in understanding the tectonic boundary behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important modern source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  18. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  19. Lead distribution and possible sources along vertical zone spectrum of typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; Sun, Shouqin; Yang, Dandan; She, Jia; Yang, Peijun

    2015-08-01

    A total of 383 samples from soil, plant, litterfall and precipitation in four typical ecosystems of Gongga Mountain were collected. Pb concentrations of samples were measured and analyzed. The results showed mean Pb concentrations in different soil layers were in the order of O > A > C, and mean Pb concentrations of the aboveground parts of plant was 3.60 ± 2.54 mg kg-1, with the minimum value of 0.77 mg kg-1 and the maximum value of 10.90 mg kg-1. Pb concentrations in soil's O-horizon and A-horizon showed a downward trend with increasing elevation (the determination coefficient R2 was 0.9478, 0.7918 and 0.9759 respectively). In contrast to other soil layers, the level of Pb concentrations in O-horizon (incomplete decomposition) was significantly high. Litterfall decomposition, atmospheric deposition and the unique climate could be main factors leading high Pb accumulation in soil's O-horizon. What's more, significant correlation (R2 = 0.8126, P soil's A-horizon confirms that fine roots could adsorb and accumulate Pb materials in soil. In general, the fact that Pb inputted into the typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain via long-range transportation and deposition of the atmosphere from external Pb sources could be confirmed by the HYSPLIT model and the ratio of CPb/CAl in plants (leaves) and CPb/CAl in litterfall. The mining activities and increasing anthropogenic activities (tourism development) could be main sources of Pb in this area. In order to better understand Pb sources and eco-risks of these typical ecosystems, litterfall decomposition characteristics, biomass of productivity of forest ecosystem, Pb isotopic tracing among air mass, twigs, leaves, litterfall and O-horizon soil in this vertical belt should also be taken into consideration.

  20. Seasonal variation in vertical flux of biogenic matter in the marginal ice zone and the central Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kalle; Wexels Riser, Christian; Wassmann, Paul; Ratkova, Tatjana; Arashkevich, Elena; Pasternak, Anna

    2002-12-01

    The spatial and seasonal variations in the vertical flux of particulate biogenic matter were investigated in the Barents Sea in winter and spring 1998 and summer 1999. Arrays of simple cylindrical sediment traps were moored for 24 h between 30 and 200 m along a transect from the ice-free Atlantic water to Arctic water with up to 80% ice cover. Large gradients in the quantity and composition of the sinking particles were observed in the south-north direction, and in relation to water column structure and stability, which depend on the processes of ice retreat. The magnitude of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) out of the upper mixed layer ranged from background winter values (30-70 mg C m -2 day -1) to 150-300 mg C m -2 day -1 in summer and 500-1500 mg C m -2 day -1 in spring. Vertical flux of chlorophyll a (CHL) was negligible in winter, generally balticum and single-celled P. pouchetii). The magnitude of the vertical flux to the bottom in spring was comparable in the Arctic and Atlantic waters (ca. 200 mg C m -2 day -1), but the composition and C/N ratio of the particles were different. The regulation of biogenic particle sedimentation took place in the upper layers and over very short vertical distances, and varied with season and water mass. The vertical flux was mainly shaped by the water column stratification (strong salinity stratification in the Arctic water; no stratification in the Atlantic water) and also by the activity of plankton organisms. Zooplankton faecal pellets were an important constituent of the vertical flux (up to 250 mg C m -2 day -1), but their significance varied widely between stations. The daily sedimentation loss rates of POC in spring exceeded the loss rates in summer on the average of 1.7 times. The complexity of the planktonic community during summer suggested the prevalence of a retention food chain with a higher capacity of resource recycling compared to spring.

  1. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of samples from bed-contact zones in Tunnel Bed 5, U12g-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.R.; Keil, K.; Mansker, W.L.; Allen, C.C.; Husler, J.; Lowy, R.; Fortney, D.R.; Lappin, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the detailed geologic characterization of samples of bed-contact zones and surrounding nonwelded bedded tuffs, both within Tunnel Bed 5, that are exposed in the G-Tunnel complex beneath Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Original planning studies treated the bed-contact zones in Tunnel Bed 5 as simple planar surfaces of relatively high permeability. Detailed characterization, however, indicates that these zones have a finite thickness, are depositional in origin, vary considerably over short vertical and horizontal distances, and are internally complex. Fluid flow in a sequence of nonwelded zeolitized ash-flow or bedded tuffs and thin intervening reworked zones appears to be a porous-medium phenomenon, regardless of the presence of layering. There are no consistent differences in either bulk composition or detailed mineralogy between bedded tuffs and bed-contact zones in Tunnel Bed 5. Although the original bulk composition of Tunnel Bed 5 was probably peralkaline, extensive zeolitization has resulted in a present peraluminous bulk composition of both bedded tuffs and bed-contact zones. The major zeolite present, clinoptilolite, is intermediate (Ca:K:Na = 26:35:39) and effectively uniform in composition. This composition is similar to that of clinoptilolite from the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills above the static water level in hole USW G-1, but somewhat different from that reported for zeolites from below the static water level in USW G-2. Tunnel Bed 5 also contains abundant hydrous manganese oxides. The similarity in composition of the clinoptilolites from Tunnel Bed 5 and those above the static water level at Yucca Mountain indicates that many of the results of nuclide-migration experiments in Tunnel Bed 5 would be transferrable to zeolitized nonwelded tuffs above the static water level at Yucca Mountain

  3. Automated CBED processing: Sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, M., E-mail: klinger@post.cz; Němec, M.; Polívka, L.; Gärtnerová, V.; Jäger, A.

    2015-03-15

    An automated processing of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is presented. The proposed methods are used in an automated tool for estimating the thickness of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples by matching an experimental zone-axis CBED pattern with a series of patterns simulated for known thicknesses. The proposed tool detects CBED disks, localizes a pattern in detected disks and unifies the coordinate system of the experimental pattern with the simulated one. The experimental pattern is then compared disk-by-disk with a series of simulated patterns each corresponding to different known thicknesses. The thickness of the most similar simulated pattern is then taken as the thickness estimate. The tool was tested on [0 1 1] Si, [0 1 0] α-Ti and [0 1 1] α-Ti samples prepared using different techniques. Results of the presented approach were compared with thickness estimates based on analysis of CBED patterns in two beam conditions. The mean difference between these two methods was 4.1% for the FIB-prepared silicon samples, 5.2% for the electro-chemically polished titanium and 7.9% for Ar{sup +} ion-polished titanium. The proposed techniques can also be employed in other established CBED analyses. Apart from the thickness estimation, it can potentially be used to quantify lattice deformation, structure factors, symmetry, defects or extinction distance. - Highlights: • Automated TEM sample thickness estimation using zone-axis CBED is presented. • Computer vision and artificial intelligence are employed in CBED processing. • This approach reduces operator effort, analysis time and increases repeatability. • Individual parts can be employed in other analyses of CBED/diffraction pattern.

  4. Seismic Measurement of the Locations of the Base of Convection Zone and Helium Ionization Zone for Stars in the Kepler Seismic LEGACY Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Lund, Mikkel N.; Aguirre, Víctor Silva [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Raodeo, Keyuri; Mazumdar, Anwesh [Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, TIFR, V. N. Purav Marg, Mankhurd, Mumbai 400088 (India); Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: kuldeep@phys.au.dk [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 065208101 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Acoustic glitches are regions inside a star where the sound speed or its derivatives change abruptly. These leave a small characteristic oscillatory signature in the stellar oscillation frequencies. With the precision achieved by Kepler seismic data, it is now possible to extract these small amplitude oscillatory signatures, and infer the locations of the glitches. We perform glitch analysis for all the 66 stars in the Kepler seismic LEGACY sample to derive the locations of the base of the envelope convection zone (CZ) and the helium ionization zone. The signature from helium ionization zone is found to be robust for all stars in the sample, whereas the CZ signature is found to be weak and problematic, particularly for relatively massive stars with large errorbars on the oscillation frequencies. We demonstrate that the helium glitch signature can be used to constrain the properties of the helium ionization layers and the helium abundance.

  5. Vertical Profile Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds in Southwest Mexico City with a semiautomatic sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Murillo, M.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Gutiérrez-López, W.; García-Espinosa, M.

    2017-12-01

    A prototype for the simultaneous sampling of VOC at different heights using a Tethered meteorological balloon was integrated and tested in a smog urban receptor site in southwest Mexico City. A selection of COV species measured at three different heights was used to estimate the chemical aging using the expression:Δt=[ln(ER1,2)-ln(VOC1/VOC2)]/[(K1-K2)[OH

  6. A whole-air relaxed eddy accumulation measurement system for sampling vertical vapour exchange of elemental mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Sommar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus relying on relaxed eddy accumulation (REA methodology has been designed and developed for continuous-field measurements of vertical Hg0 fluxes over cropland ecosystems. This micro-meteorological technique requires sampling of turbulent eddies into up- and downdraught channels at a constant flow rate and accurate timing, based on a threshold involving the sign of vertical wind component (w. The fully automated system is of a whole-air type drawing air at a high velocity to the REA sampling apparatus and allowing for the rejection of samples associated with w-fluctuations around zero. Conditional sampling was executed at 10-Hz resolution on a sub-stream by two fast-response three-way solenoid switching valves connected in parallel to a zero Hg0 air supply through their normally open ports. To suppress flow transients resulting from switching, pressure differentials across the two upstream ports of the conditional valves were minimised using a control unit. The Hg0 concentrations of the up- and downdraught channel were sequentially (each by two consecutive 5-minute gas samples determined after enhancement collection onto gold traps by an automated cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (CVAFS instrument. A protocol of regular reference sampling periods was implemented during field campaigns to continuously adjust for bias that may exist between the two conditional sampling channels. Using a 5-minute running average was conditional threshold, nearly-constant relaxation coefficients (β s of ~0.56 were determined during two bi-weekly field deployments when turbulence statistics were assured for good quality, in accordance with previously reported estimates. The fully developed REA-CVAFS system underwent Hg0 flux field trial runs at a winter wheat cropland located in the North China Plain. Over a 15-d period during early May 2012, dynamic, often bi-directional, fluxes were observed during the course of a day with a tendency of

  7. Vertical distribution and environmental significance of sulfur and oxygen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil samples collected from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihuan; He Fengpeng; Bu Qingwei; Lu Song

    2008-01-01

    Vertical distribution of the concentration and composition of some sulfur and oxygen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SOHAHs), such as, fluorene, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene and their alkyl homologues in 10 soil profiles in Beijing have been investigated. The results showed that the concentrations and composition of SOHAHs in topsoil (0-30 cm) from different profiles are different. The concentrations of SOHAHs in topsoils are much higher than that in bottom soils where the concentrations are relatively constant. The fingerprints of SOHAHs from same profile are similar in topsoil samples, which are obviously different at the deep part, which suggested that the sources of these compounds are consistent in topsoil and are discriminating between surface and bottom soils. The main sources of SOHAHs in surface soil were fossil fuel combustion, petroleum and wastewater irrigation, while those at deep part were likely derived from the degradation products of soil organic matters. - The vertical distribution of SOHAHs was provided and possible sources were different between topsoils and deep part

  8. Small-scale Forearc Structure from Residual Bathymetry and Vertical Gravity Gradients at the Cocos-North America Subduction Zone offshore Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E. S. M.; Ito, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The subduction of topographic relief on the incoming plate at subduction zones causes deformation of the plate interface as well as the overriding plate. Whether the resulting geometric irregularities play any role in inhibiting or inducing seismic rupture is a topic of relevance for megathrust earthquake source studies. A method to discern the small-scale structure at subduction zone forearcs was recently developed by Bassett and Watts (2015). Their technique constructs an ensemble average of the trench-perpendicular topography, and the removal of this regional tectonic signal reveals the short-wavelength residual bathymetric anomalies. Using examples from selected areas at the Tonga, Mariana, and Japan subduction zones, they were able to link residual bathymetric anomalies to the subduction of seamount chains, given the similarities in wavelength and amplitude to the morphology of seamounts that have yet to subduct. We focus here on an analysis of forearc structures found in the Mexico segment of the Middle America subduction zone, and their potential mechanical interaction with areas on the plate interface that have been previously identified as source regions for earthquake ruptures and aseismic events. We identified several prominent residual bathymetric anomalies off the Guerrero and Oaxaca coastlines, mainly in the shallow portion of the plate interface and between 15 and 50 kilometers away from the trench axis. The residual amplitude of these bathymetric anomalies is typically in the hundreds of meters. Some of the residual bathymetric anomalies offshore Oaxaca are found landward of seamount chains on the incoming Cocos Plate, suggesting that these anomalies are associated with the prior subduction of seamounts at the margin. We also separated the residual and regional components of satellite-based vertical gravity gradient data using a directional median filter to isolate the possible gravity signals from the seamount edifices.

  9. Light-absorbent liquid immersion angled exposure for patterning 3D samples with vertical sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Shinya; Kubo, Hironori; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    To make photolithography patterns on 3D samples, the angled (inclined) exposure technique has been used so far. However, technological issues have emerged in making photolithography patterns on the surface of trench structures. The surface of the trench structures can be covered with a photoresist film by spray-coating but the photoresist film deposited on the sidewalls and bottom of the trench is generally thin. The thin photoresist film deposited inside the trench has been easily overdosed. Moreover, irregular patterns have frequently been formed by the light reflected inside the trench. In this study, we have developed liquid immersion photolithography using a light-absorbent material. The light-reflection inside the trench was suppressed. Various patterns were transferred in the photoresist film deposited on the trench structures which had an aspect ratio of 0.74. Compared to immersion photolithography using pure water under p -polarization light control, the light-absorbent liquid immersion photolithography developed here patterned well the surfaces of the trench sidewalls and bottom. (paper)

  10. 206Pb/207Pb ratios in dry deposit samples from the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Marquez, C.

    2007-01-01

    206 Pb/ 207 Pb isotope ratios of dry deposit samples in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley (MZMV) were determined and correlated with some contemporary environmental material such as gasoline, urban dust, etc., as possible pollution sources, the latter presenting different signatures. 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were determined in samples 'as is' by ICP-MS, using an Elan-6100. A standard material NIST-981 was used to monitor accuracy and to correct mass fractionation. The calculated enrichment factors of lead (taking rubidium as a conservative endogenous element) show its anthropogenic origin with percentages higher than 97.65%. 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in dry deposit samples ranges from 0.816 to a maximum of 1.154, following a normal distribution. Arithmetic mean was 0.9967±0.0864 lower than those of possible pollution sources: 1.1395±0.0165 for gasoline, 1.071±0.008 for industrially derived lead and, for the more radiogenic natural soil and urban dust values ranging from 1.2082±0.022 to 1.211±0.108. The possible origin of lead in gasoline used prior to 1960 is discussed. (author)

  11. Biogeographic Zoning of Russia's Far Eastern Seas and Adjacent Waters Based on Nekton Trawling Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, O. A.; Sukhanov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of biogeographic zoning of the epi- and mesopelagic region based on nekton areas using a new modification of the Shorygin method. It is shown that the position and boundaries of biogeographic areas are related to real relatively stable elements of the biotope (water masses, currents, frontal zones, eddies, and rings). A pronounced latitudinal pattern of the areas of natural zones is not always seen. Zoning becomes less detailed from the top layer of the epipelagic to mesopelagic region, and the zonalities of mesopelagic and epipelagic areas are not similar. We propose a new zoning approach to solve dynamic biogeography problems.

  12. Radon concentration and exhalation rates in building material samples from crushing zone in Shivalik Foot Hills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pundir, Anil; Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Chauhan, R.P.; Rana, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is an inert radioactive gas in the decay chain of uranium ( 238 U). It continuously emanates from soil to the atmosphere. Radon and its progeny are the major natural radioactive sources for the ambient radioactivity on Earth. A number of studies on radon were performed in recent decades focusing on its transport and movement in the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. Building materials are the main source of radon inside buildings. Some construction materials are naturally more radioactive and removal of such material from the earth's crust and their subsequent use in construction of buildings further enhances the radioactivity level. The knowledge of radioactivity level in the building materials makes us aware about the management, guidelines and standards in construction of buildings. The main objective of the present investigations is to measure radon Concentration and exhalation rates in the samples collected from the Crushing zone of Shivalik foot hills. Different types of materials are being used in Northern part of India for construction of dwellings. For the measurement of radon concentration and its exhalation rates in building materials, LR-115 detectors were exposed in closed plastic canisters for three months. At the end of the exposure time, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5N NaOH solution. The tracks produced by the alpha particles were observed and counted under an optical Olympus microscope at 600X. The measured track density was converted into radon concentration using a calibration factor. The surface and mass exhalation rates of radon have also been calculated using present data. The results indicate that the radon concentration varies appreciably from sample to sample and they were found to satisfy the safety criteria. There are samples in which radon concentration is higher and may enhance the indoor radiation levels when used as building construction materials. (author)

  13. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-11

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

  14. Fast Separation and Determination of Flavonoids in Honey Samples by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiu Tu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have crucial applications in the biological and physiological fields. Honey, as an important sweet food made by bees, is rich in flavonoids. In this paper, the analytical method for flavonoids determination in different sorts of honey from different geographical locations was developed by capillary zone electrophoresis with direct ultraviolet detection. With a running buffer (borate, 20 mmol l−1 at pH of 8.4, four typical flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, were separated in five minutes under a applied potential of 25 kV. A linear relationship within the range of 2.0 – 500 mg l−1 was found for these four kinds of flavonoids. Moreover, the detection limits ranged from 1.17 to 1.76 mg l−1. The recoveries lie in the range between 80 % – 107 %. The developed method was then used in the separation and determination of flavonoids in real honey samples collected from 12 geographical locations in the Henan Province of China. Rutin was detected in six, and quercetin in eight honey samples, which may be the markers for the identification of honey from different geographical origins.

  15. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10

  16. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new method for pressure test analysis of a vertically fractured well producing commingled zones in bounded square reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Mohammed E.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1997-07-15

    Although hydraulically or naturally fractured wells located in stratified bounded reservoirs are common, reliable techniques available to analyze the pressure test data for such reservoirs are lacking. This paper presents a mathematical model that describes the pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well located in a stratified, bounded, square reservoir. The fracture can be either a uniform flux or an infinite conductivity fracture. It was found that the dimensionless pressure function and its derivative and the fractional production rate from the different layers are mainly controlled by the fracture penetration into the formation, and that transmissibility and storativity affect the fractional production rate and the pressure derivative but have little effect on the dimensionless pressure function. Type curves of dimensionless pressure and dimensionless pressure derivative can be used to evaluate the reservoir characteristics. The selection of the appropriate type curve is guided by the behavior of the layer fractional production rate obtained from flow rate survey carried out during well testing. Type curves for uniform flux and infinite conductivity fractures exhibit similar features. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the new method of analysis presented in this paper

  18. Counterbalancing hydrodynamic sample distortion effects increases resolution of free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G; Bauer, J

    1998-06-01

    On fractionation of highly heterogeneous protein mixtures, optimal resolution was achieved by forcing proteins to migrate through a preestablished pH gradient, until they entered a medium with a pH similar but not equal to their pIs. For this purpose, up to seven different media were pumped through the electrophoresis chamber so that they were flowing adjacently to each other, forming a pH gradient declining stepwise from the cathode to the anode. This gradient had a sufficiently strong band-focusing effect to counterbalance sample distortion effects of the flowing medium as proteins approached their isoelectric medium closer than 0.5 pH units. Continuous free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) with high throughput capability was applicable if proteins did not precipitate or aggregate in these media. If components of heterogeneous protein mixtures had already started to precipitate or aggregate, in a medium with a pH exceeding their pI by more than 0.5 pH units, the application of interval modus and media forming flat pH gradients appeared advantageous.

  19. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Wealthall, Gary P; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting

  20. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A.; Rivett, Michael O.; Wealthall, Gary P.; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting a

  1. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  2. Extraction methods for determination of Pu and Am contents in soil samples from the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvetsov, I.K.; Yakovlev, N.G.; Kalinichenko, B.S.; Kulakov, V.M.; Kulazhko, V.G.; Vlasov, M.M.; Shubko, V.M.; Pchelkin, V.A.; Rodionov, Yu.F.; Lisin, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    The possibilities for decreasing the time of soil sample analysis for Pu, Am, Cm isotope concentrations with simultaneous increasing the sensitivity and analysis representativity are demonstrated. It is achieved due to changing the total sample break-down by oxidizing leaching, and the procedure of ion-exchange separation by single extraction using trioctylamine. Experience in the method applications for analysis of soil samples in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone aimed at determination of correlation coefficients for Pu/Ce-144 and Pu/Am-241 is generalized. 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Automated CBED processing: sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klinger, Miloslav; Němec, Martin; Polívka, Leoš; Gärtnerová, Viera; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 150, Mar (2015), s. 88-95 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : TEM * CBED * thickness estimation * zone axis * computer vision * automatization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2015

  4. Moisture profile measurements of concrete samples in vertical flow by gamma ray attenuation method. Medidas do perfil de umidade de amostras de concreto em infiltracao vertical, atraves da atenuacao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, C R; Nardocci, A C; Obuti, M M [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1988-04-01

    This work deals with the study of the water diffusion in concrete by the gamma ray attenuation method. The moisture profiles, [theta] (z,t), of the vertical water flow were determined in concrete samples of different trace and porosity. The data were taken with a vertical and horizontal measurement table, a [sup 60] Co gamma ray source, a NaI (T) scintillation detector and the standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic. The [theta] (z,t) data analysis is presented using a phenomenological model of the moisture profile temporal evolution in heterogeneous materials. Two other models, Cell and Sandwich, were also applied to determine the attenuation coefficient of a non-homogeneous media from the attenuation coefficients of the components, taking into account particles-size effects. (author).

  5. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Membrive

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented by NOAA in 2010 (Karion et al., 2010. It consists of a long (>  100 m and narrow (<  1 cm stainless steel tube that can retain a profile of atmospheric air. The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the objectives to (i better capture the vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4, (ii provide a tool to compare AirCores and validate the estimated vertical resolution achieved by AirCores. This (high-resolution AirCore-HR consists of a 300 m tube, combining 200 m of 0.125 in. (3.175 mm tube and a 100 m of 0.25 in. (6.35 mm tube. This new configuration allows us to achieve a vertical resolution of 300 m up to 15 km and better than 500 m up to 22 km (if analysis of the retained sample is performed within 3 h. The AirCore-HR was flown for the first time during the annual StratoScience campaign from CNES in August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada. High-resolution vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 up to 25 km were successfully retrieved. These profiles revealed well-defined transport structures in the troposphere (also seen in CAMS-ECMWF high-resolution forecasts of CO2 and CH4 profiles and captured the decrease of CO2 and CH4 in the stratosphere. The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields an excellent match between both sets of CH4 profiles and shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores. Concerning CO2 although a

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  7. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  8. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Determination of ammonium in river water and sewage samples by capillary zone electrophoresis with direct UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Keiichi; Ito, Hideyuki; Kimura, Kenichi; Yokota, Kuriko; Saito, Keiitsu; Chayama, Kenji; Takeda, Sahori; Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2006-02-17

    We developed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV detection for determination of ammonium in environmental water samples. Ammonium in the samples was partly converted into ammonia in the alkaline background electrolyte (BGE) during migration and was detected by molecular absorption of ammonia at 190 nm in approximately 7 min. The limit of detection (LOD) for ammonium was 0.24 mg/l (as nitrogen) at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. The respective values of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of peak area, peak height, and migration time for ammonium were 2.1, 1.8, and 0.46%. Major alkali and alkaline earth metal ions coexisting in the samples did not interfere with ammonium determination by the proposed method. The proposed method determined ammonium in surface water and sewage samples. The results were compared to those obtained using ion chromatography (IC).

  1. Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Vol. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO 2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels includes the following: calculations of CO 2 gas activity, design of the dosimetry control system, review of the changes that should be done in the RA reactor building for installing the independent CO 2 loop, specification of the materials with cost estimation, engineering drawings of the system [sr

  2. Safety report for the independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, A.; Zivkovic, S.; Milosevic, M.; Strugar, P.

    1969-01-01

    Independent CO 2 loop was designed for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels in the region of heavy water or in the graphite reflector. It is considered as a significant improvement of the RA reactor experimental possibilities. Six 'heads' are placed in vertical experimental channels and connected in parallel with the outer loop which contains out-of-reactor equipment. It is planned to irradiate samples in the 'heads' of the loop for the needs of Hot laboratory and Laboratory for reactor materials. Heat generated during sample irradiation is removed by CO 2 circulation. This report contains detailed description of the main loop, auxiliary systems, calculation results of anti reactivity and activation of construction materials of the low-temperature CO 2 loop. A separate chapter is devoted to control and regulation of temperature and pressure. Testing of the fundamental parameters of the coolant loop showed that it could fulfill more demanding tasks than designed by the project. Annex of this report includes results of leak testing for the loop 'heads' in vertical experimental channels VEK-6 and VEK-8 by helium leak detector [sr

  3. Impact of grey zone sample testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in enhancing blood safety: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Archana; Singh, Abhay; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for screening blood donors for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) can sometimes fail to detect blood donors who are recently infected or possessing the low strength of pathogen. Estimation of a grey zone in ELISA testing and repeat testing of grey zone samples can further help in reducing the risks of TTI in countries where nucleic acid amplification testing for TTIs is not feasible. Grey zone samples with optical density (OD) lying between cut-off OD and 10% below the cut-off OD (cut-off OD × 0.9) were identified during routine ELISA testing. On performing repeat ELISA testing on grey zone samples in duplicate, the samples showing both OD value below grey zone were marked nonreactive, and samples showing one or both OD value in the grey zone were marked indeterminate. The samples on repeat testing showing one or both OD above cut-off value were marked positive. About 119 samples (77 for hepatitis B virus [HBV], 23 for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and 19 for hepatitis C virus [HCV]) were found to be in grey zone. On repeat testing of these samples in duplicate, 70 (58.8%) samples (45 for HBV, 12 for HIV, and 13 for HCV) were found to be reactive. Six (5%) samples (four for HBV, one for HIV, and one for HCV) were found to be indeterminate. Seventy donors initially screened negative, were found out to be potentially infectious on repeat grey zone testing. Thus, estimation of grey zone samples with repeat testing can further enhance the safety of blood transfusion.

  4. Is there a role for anterior zone sampling as part of saturation trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eric; Margel, David; Greenspan, Michael; Shayegan, Bobby; Matsumoto, Edward; Fischer, Marc A; Patlas, Michael; Daya, Dean; Pinthus, Jehonathan H

    2014-05-03

    The prostatic anterior zone (AZ) is not targeted routinely by TRUS guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Pbx). MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for AZ tumors, but is often unavailable due to cost or system restrictions. We examined the diagnostic yield of office based AZ TRUS-Pbx. 127 men at risk for AZ tumors were studied: Patients with elevated PSA and previous extended negative TRUS-Pbx (group 1, n = 78) and actively surveyed low risk prostate cancer patients (group 2, n = 49). None of the participants had a previous AZ biopsy. Biopsy template included suspicious ultrasonic areas, 16 peripheral zone (PZ), 4 transitional zone (TZ) and 6 AZ cores. All biopsies were performed by a single urologist under local peri-prostatic anaesthetic, using the B-K Medical US System, an end-firing probe 4-12 MHZ and 18 ga/25 cm needle. All samples were reviewed by a single specialized uro-pathologist. Multivariate analysis was used to detect predictors for AZ tumors accounting for age, PSA, PSA density, prostate volume, BMI, and number of previous biopsies. Median PSA was 10.4 (group 1) and 7.3 (group 2). Age (63.9, 64.5), number of previous biopsies (1.5) and cores (17.8, 21.3) and prostate volume (56.4 cc, 51 cc) were similar for both groups. The overall diagnostic yield was 34.6% (group 1) and 85.7% (group 2). AZ cancers were detected in 21.8% (group 1) and 34.7% (group 2) but were rarely the only zone involved (1.3% and 4.1% respectively). Gleason ≥ 7 AZ cancers were often accompanied by equal grade PZ tumors. In multivariate analysis only prostate volume predicted for AZ tumors. Patients detected with AZ tumors had significantly smaller prostates (36.9 cc vs. 61.1 cc p < 0.001). Suspicious AZ ultrasonic findings were uncommon (6.3%). TRUS-Pbx AZ sampling rarely improves the diagnostic yield of extended PZ sampling in patients with elevated PSA and previous negative biopsies. In low risk prostate cancer patients who are followed by active surveillance, AZ sampling changes risk

  5. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  6. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  7. Vertical ascending electrophoresis of cells with a minimal stabilizing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical fractionation of a mixture of fixed horse and human red blood cells layered over a stabilizing support medium was done to give a valid comparison with proposed space experiments. In particular, the effects of sample thickness and concentration on zone migration rate were investigated. Electrophoretic mobilities of horse and human cells calculated from zone migration rates were compatible with those obtained by microelectrophoresis. Complete cell separation was observed when low power and effective cooling were employed.

  8. Hot Zone Identification: Analyzing Effects of Data Sampling on Spam Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasib Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Email is the most common and comparatively the most efficient means of exchanging information in today's world. However, given the widespread use of emails in all sectors, they have been the target of spammers since the beginning. Filtering spam emails has now led to critical actions such as forensic activities based on mining spam email. The data mine for spam emails at the University of Alabama at Birmingham is considered to be one of the most prominent resources for mining and identifying spam sources. It is a widely researched repository used by researchers from different global organizations. The usual process of mining the spam data involves going through every email in the data mine and clustering them based on their different attributes. However, given the size of the data mine, it takes an exceptionally long time to execute the clustering mechanism each time. In this paper, we have illustrated sampling as an efficient tool for data reduction, while preserving the information within the clusters, which would thus allow the spam forensic experts to quickly and effectively identify the ‘hot zone’ from the spam campaigns. We have provided detailed comparative analysis of the quality of the clusters after sampling, the overall distribution of clusters on the spam data, and timing measurements for our sampling approach. Additionally, we present different strategies which allowed us to optimize the sampling process using data-preprocessing and using the database engine's computational resources, and thus improving the performance of the clustering process.

  9. Elemental analysis in bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Hossain, S.M.; Basunia, S.; Miah, R.U.; Rahman, M.; Sikder, D.H.; Chowdhury, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of rare earths and other elements have been determined in the bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples and the standards soil-5, soil-7, coal fly ash and pond sediment were prepared and simultaneously irradiated for short and long time at the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor facility of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. The maximum thermal neutron flux was of the order of 10 13 n x cm -2 x s -1 . After irradiation the radioactivity of the product nuclides was measured by using a high resolution high purity germanium detector system. Analysis of γ-ray spectra and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration were done via the software GANAAS. It has been possible to determine the concentration level of 27 elements including the rare earths La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb and uranium and thorium. (author)

  10. Efficient Bayesian parameter estimation with implicit sampling and surrogate modeling for a vadose zone hydrological problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Pau, G. S. H.; Finsterle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Parameter inversion involves inferring the model parameter values based on sparse observations of some observables. To infer the posterior probability distributions of the parameters, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are typically used. However, the large number of forward simulations needed and limited computational resources limit the complexity of the hydrological model we can use in these methods. In view of this, we studied the implicit sampling (IS) method, an efficient importance sampling technique that generates samples in the high-probability region of the posterior distribution and thus reduces the number of forward simulations that we need to run. For a pilot-point inversion of a heterogeneous permeability field based on a synthetic ponded infiltration experiment simu­lated with TOUGH2 (a subsurface modeling code), we showed that IS with linear map provides an accurate Bayesian description of the parameterized permeability field at the pilot points with just approximately 500 forward simulations. We further studied the use of surrogate models to improve the computational efficiency of parameter inversion. We implemented two reduced-order models (ROMs) for the TOUGH2 forward model. One is based on polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), of which the coefficients are obtained using the sparse Bayesian learning technique to mitigate the "curse of dimensionality" of the PCE terms. The other model is Gaussian process regression (GPR) for which different covariance, likelihood and inference models are considered. Preliminary results indicate that ROMs constructed based on the prior parameter space perform poorly. It is thus impractical to replace this hydrological model by a ROM directly in a MCMC method. However, the IS method can work with a ROM constructed for parameters in the close vicinity of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate. We will discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of using ROMs in the implicit sampling procedure

  11. Multivariate and spatial statistical analysis of Callovo-Oxfordian physical properties from lab and borehole logs data: towards a characterization of lateral and vertical spatial trends in the Meuse/Haute-Marne transposition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.H.; Rabaute, A.; Yven, B.; Guillemot, D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The geological exploration of the Meuse/Haute-Marne area began in 1994. Several boreholes were drilled, and the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, thought to become a potential storage formation, were cored and logged. 2D and 3D seismic surveys were completed, as well as geological field observations, and an underground research laboratory was created. A 250 km 2 -wide Transposition Zone was delimited, which was subject to further investigations in 2007 and 2008, including another series of coring and logging in four additional boreholes, and a tighter 2D seismic survey. The main objective of this study was to improve the knowledge of the spatial variability of geological and physical properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. The paper focuses on the three following aspects of the study to present and discuss the methods that have been used and the results that have been obtained: - Use of well-log data to identify equivalent homogeneous log-units on the boreholes. - Relating log attributes to physical properties of argillites measured on cores in laboratory. - Study of lateral and vertical spatial trends of selected physical properties across the Transposition Zone (TZ). To identify equivalent homogeneous log-units, a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis (FCA) was used. PCA was classically performed to reduce the number of variables to retain principal components gathering most of the original dataset variance. PCA was also used to identify isolated groups of correlated variables that could be associated to different properties of the formation. Then, FCA was applied to identify homogeneous log-units on the eight boreholes across the TZ. Well-logs data being much more numerous and better distributed along boreholes than lab data measured on rock samples, relations and correlations were sought between the two types of data to identify log attributes that were likely to provide

  12. [Composition of marine sediment samples in the Costa Rica intertidal zones using X-Ray fluorescence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alfonso; Lizano, Omar G; Alfaro, Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources.

  13. Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone.

  14. Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

  15. Use of the Asturfalia vertical powered support in conjunction with the H-1 shearer in the Centella zone of Polio colliery. Se ha aplicado en la zona conocida por 'Centella' en el Pozo Polio Entibacion Vertical Asturfalia con rozadora H-1 como elemento de arrangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    Coaling operations of a 480 metre long panel in the fourth seam in the zone known as Centella at Polio colliery, Spain have now finished. The equipment used was the Asturfalia vertical powered support together with the H-1 shearer. This equipment had been transferred from Fondon colliery and adapted to conditions in the fourth seam. The traditional supports used in Fondon and Samuno collieries were fitted with a base plate and a shield in order to give an operating range of 1,100 mm to 2,060 mm. 1 fig.

  16. Determination of benzimidazoles in meat samples by capillary zone electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Moreno-González, David; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2017-03-24

    A novel method based on capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed and validated for the identification and simultaneous quantification of twelve benzimidazoles in meat samples. Electrophoretic separation was carried out using 500mM formic acid (pH 2.2) as background electrolyte and applying a voltage of 25kV at 25°C. In order to improve the sensitivity, stacking mode injection was applied, using as injection solvent a mixture of 30:70 acetonitrile/water at 50mbar for 75s. Sensitivity enhancement factors from 74 to 317 were obtained under these conditions. Detection using an ion trap as analyzer, operating in multiple reactions monitoring mode was employed. The main MS/MS parameters as well as the composition of the sheath liquid and other electrospray variables were optimized in order to obtain the highest sensitivity and precision in conjunction with an unequivocal identification. The method was applied to poultry and pork muscle samples. The deproteinization of samples and extraction of benzimidazoles was carried out with acetonitrile. MgSO 4 and NaCl were added as salting-out agents. Subsequently, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was applied as clean up procedure. The organic layer (acetonitrile, used as dispersant) containing the benzimidazoles was mixed with the extractant (chloroform) and both were injected in water, producing a cloudy solution. Recoveries for fortified samples were higher than 70%, with relative standard deviations lower than 16% were obtained in all cases. The limits of detection were below 3μgkg -1 , demonstrating the applicability of this fast, simple, and environmentally friendly method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescence imaging of sample zone narrowing and dispersion in a glass microchip: the effects of organic solvent (acetonitrile)-salt mixtures in the sample matrix and surfactant micelles in the running buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhijian; Lee, Yi-kuen; Fang, Qun; Huie, Carmen W

    2006-03-01

    A mismatch in the EOF velocities between the sample zone and running buffer region is known to generate pressure-driven, parabolic flow profile of the sample plug in electrokinetic separation systems. In the present study, video fluorescence microscopy was employed to capture real-time dynamics of the sample plug (containing fluorescein as the probe molecule) in a discontinuous conductivity system within a glass microchip, in which the sample matrix consisted of a mixture of ACN and salt (NaCl), and the running buffer contained sodium cholate (SC) micelles as the pseudo-stationary phase (i.e., performing "ACN stacking" in the mode of MEKC). Upon application of the separation voltage, the video images revealed that zone narrowing and broadening of the probe molecules occurred as the sample plug headed toward the cathode during the initial time period, probably resulting in part from the stacking/sweeping, and destacking of the SC micelles at the boundaries between the sample zone and running buffer. Interestingly, a second sample zone narrowing event can be observed as the sample plug moved further toward the cathode, which could be attributed to the sweeping of the slower moving probe molecules by the faster moving SC micelles that originated from the anode. This phenomenon was studied as a function of pH, sample plug length, as well as the concentration of organic solvent and salt in the sample matrix. The data suggested that the presence of large amounts of an organic solvent (such as ACN or methanol) and salts in the sample matrix not only induces sample dispersion due to the formation of a pressure-driven (hydrodynamic) flow, but may also lead to the formation of a double sample zone narrowing phenomenon by altering the local EOF dynamics within the separation system.

  18. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  19. Radionuclide distributions in vertical soil cross sections of the Chernobyl NPP 30-kilometer zone along the western fallout track. II. Chernozem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, Yu.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Bryzgalova, R.V.; Alekseev, V.A.; Avdeev, V.A.; Kuksov, A.A.; Zudova, I.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclide distributions in vertical cross sections taken from chernozem in a former garden and tillable field along the western fallout track at distances of 5, 13.5, and 22 km from the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP are studied. The distributions through the chernozem cross sections are more complicated than those of sandy soil. Although the main mass of radionuclides in the cross sections is concentrated at depths of 0-3 cm, instances are observed where up to 5-15% of the radionuclides penetrate to greater depths

  20. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  1. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  2. Source of ultra-short laser pulses at 1,55μm in vertical-external-cavity for linear optical sampling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadour, A.

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this thesis were, in a first step, to develop and implement VECSEL structures containing an active zone formed by GaAlInAs/InP quantum wells located at the anti-nodes of the resonant electric field, positioned on a Bragg mirror, all this being bonded to a substrate of good thermal conductivity. For this, we have designed structures optimizing the evacuation of heat generated in the active zone. This has greatly improved the VECSEL performances, especially their output power. The VECSEL performances were evaluated in a simple cavity with two mirrors (plane-concave). The second point was to develop and implement SESAM structures which, owing to their nonlinear characteristics, would allow a passively mode-locked laser operation. The structures contained InGaAsN/GaAs quantum wells. The studied parameters were the number of quantum wells, and the resonant or anti-resonant behavior of the structure. The linear and nonlinear optical characterizations were used to optimize the SESAM structure and estimate their performances. Finally, the compatibility between the VECSEL and SESAM structures, in terms of modulation depth and resonance wavelength, made it possible to obtain the passive mode locking operation. The obtained pulses show two different behaviors depending on the dispersion properties of the structures. With low dispersion, we have made the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked VECSEL at 1550 nm, operating at room temperature. An all-optical sampling device implementing the linear optical sampling technique using short laser pulses has been realized and tested. This device will allow displaying eye diagrams and constellation diagrams with an expected sensitivity around -20 dBm of average power. Testing the device allowed to visualize the acquisition of very high repetition rate signals (40 Gb/s). (author)

  3. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical and biological samples using a vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Almeida; Zanin, Hudson; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Corat, Evaldo José; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-06-07

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.

  4. Diurnal and spatial (vertical dynamics of nutrients (N, P, Si in four sampling days (summer, fall, winter, and spring in a tropical shallow reservoir and their relationships with the phytoplankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ramírez

    Full Text Available The vertical and diurnal variation of nitrogen and phosphorus forms, as well as that of soluble reactive silica (SRS, were studied in four sampling days at Garças reservoir, a shallow tropical one located in the city of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. Except for N-NH4, all other inorganic forms of nitrogen (N-NO2, N-NO3, and total N demonstrated decreased concentrations toward the bottom of reservoir. Similarly, all showed significant diurnal differences on every sampling day, with increased values during the night due to absence of photosynthetic assimilation during that period. In the sampling days, these forms decreased on the spring sampling day due to the bloom of Microcystis registered during this period of the year. All three forms of phosphorus (SRP, particulate P, and total P showed significant vertical variation, except on the fall sampling day. On the summer sampling day there was an increase of both total P and particulate P, the latter because it constitutes more than 70% of the total P during all sampling days. Hourly phosphorus variation was significant during all sampling days, except for the summer one. The SRS vertical variation was significant during all sampling days, except for that in the spring. It was also different hourly on sampling days.

  5. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  6. Development of an evaluation method for fracture mechanical tests on small samples based on a cohesive zone model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants of the fourth generation is an important issue. It is based on a reliable interpretation of the components for which, among other fracture mechanical material properties are required. The existing irradiation in the power plants significantly affects the material properties which therefore need to be determined on irradiated material. Often only small amounts of irradiated material are available for characterization. In that case it is not possible to manufacture sufficiently large specimens, which are necessary for fracture mechanical testing in agreement with the standard. Small specimens must be used. From this follows the idea of this study, in which the fracture toughness can be predicted with the developed method based on tests of small specimens. For this purpose, the fracture process including the crack growth is described with a continuum mechanical approach using the finite element method and the cohesive zone model. The experiments on small specimens are used for parameter identification of the cohesive zone model. The two parameters of the cohesive zone model are determined by tensile tests on notched specimens (cohesive stress) and by parameter fitting to the fracture behavior of smalls specimens (cohesive energy). To account the different triaxialities of the specimens, the cohesive stress is used depending on the triaxiality. After parameter identification a large specimen can be simulated with the cohesive zone parameters derived from small specimens. The predicted fracture toughness of this big specimen fulfills the size requirements in the standard (ASTM E1820 or ASTM E399) in contrast to the small specimen. This method can be used for ductile and brittle material behavior and was validated in this work. In summary, this method offers the possibility to determine the fracture toughness indirectly based on small specimen testing. Main advantage is the low required specimen volume. Thereby massively

  7. Thermal Stability of Zone Melting p-Type (Bi, Sb)2Te3 Ingots and Comparison with the Corresponding Powder Metallurgy Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Fan, Xi'an; Hu, Jie; Feng, Bo; Xiang, Qiusheng; Li, Guangqiang; Li, Yawei; He, Zhu

    2018-04-01

    During the past few decades, Bi2Te3-based alloys have been investigated extensively because of their promising application in the area of low temperature waste heat thermoelectric power generation. However, their thermal stability must be evaluated to explore the appropriate service temperature. In this work, the thermal stability of zone melting p-type (Bi, Sb)2Te3-based ingots was investigated under different annealing treatment conditions. The effect of service temperature on the thermoelectric properties and hardness of the samples was also discussed in detail. The results showed that the grain size, density, dimension size and mass remained nearly unchanged when the service temperature was below 523 K, which suggested that the geometry size of zone melting p-type (Bi, Sb)2Te3-based materials was stable below 523 K. The power factor and Vickers hardness of the ingots also changed little and maintained good thermal stability. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivity increased with increasing annealing temperature, which resulted in an obvious decrease of the zT value. In addition, the thermal stabilities of the zone melting p-type (Bi, Sb)2Te3-based materials and the corresponding powder metallurgy samples were also compared. All evidence implied that the thermal stabilities of the zone-melted (ZMed) p-type (Bi, Sb)2Te3 ingots in terms of crystal structure, geometry size, power factor (PF) and hardness were better than those of the corresponding powder metallurgy samples. However, their thermal stabilities in terms of zT values were similar under different annealing temperatures.

  8. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  9. Effect of NaOH on large-volume sample stacking of haloacetic acids in capillary zone electrophoresis with a low-pH buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Ang, Chay Hoon; Lee, Hian Kee

    2003-06-01

    Large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) is an effective on-capillary sample concentration method in capillary zone electrophoresis, which can be applied to the sample in a low-conductivity matrix. NaOH solution is commonly used to back-extract acidic compounds from organic solvent in sample pretreatment. The effect of NaOH as sample matrix on LVSS of haloacetic acids was investigated in this study. It was found that the presence of NaOH in sample did not compromise, but rather help the sample stacking performance if a low pH background electrolyte (BGE) was used. The sensitivity enhancement factor was higher than the case when sample was dissolved in pure water or diluted BGE. Compared with conventional injection (0.4% capillary volume), 97-120-fold sensitivity enhancement in terms of peak height was obtained without deterioration of separation with an injection amount equal to 20% of the capillary volume. This method was applied to determine haloacetic acids in tap water by combination with liquid-liquid extraction and back-extraction into NaOH solution. Limits of detection at sub-ppb levels were obtained for real samples with direct UV detection.

  10. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis for the quality control of complex biologic samples: Application to snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpaibe, André P S; Ben-Ameur, Randa; Coussot, Gaëlle; Ladner, Yoann; Montels, Jérôme; Ake, Michèle; Perrin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Snake venoms constitute a very promising resource for the development of new medicines. They are mainly composed of very complex peptide and protein mixtures, which composition may vary significantly from batch to batch. This latter consideration is a challenge for routine quality control (QC) in the pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, we report the use of capillary zone electrophoresis for the development of an analytical fingerprint methodology to assess the quality of snake venoms. The analytical fingerprint concept is being widely used for the QC of herbal drugs but rarely for venoms QC so far. CZE was chosen for its intrinsic efficiency in the separation of protein and peptide mixtures. The analytical fingerprint methodology was first developed and evaluated for a particular snake venom, Lachesis muta. Optimal analysis conditions required the use of PDADMAC capillary coating to avoid protein and peptide adsorption. Same analytical conditions were then applied to other snake venom species. Different electrophoretic profiles were obtained for each venom. Excellent repeatability and intermediate precision was observed for each batch. Analysis of different batches of the same species revealed inherent qualitative and quantitative composition variations of the venoms between individuals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson

    2012-01-01

    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  12. Identification and verification of ultrafine particle affinity zones in urban neighbourhoods: sample design and data pre-processing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harris, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A methodology is presented and validated through which long-term fixed site air quality measurements are used to characterise and remove temporal signals in sample-based measurements which have good spatial coverage but poor temporal resolution. The work has been carried out specifically to provide a spatial dataset of atmospheric ultrafine particle (UFP < 100 nm) data for ongoing epidemiologic cohort analysis but the method is readily transferable to wider epidemiologic investigations and research into the health effects of other pollutant species.

  13. Characterizing fallout material using Cs and Pu atom ratios in environmental samples from the FDNPP fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David; Dunne, James; Martin, Peter; Scott, Tom; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Coath, Chris; Chen, Hart

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the use of combined of Cs and Pu isotope measurements to investigate the extensive plumes of radioactive fallout from the disaster at Fukishima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNDPP) in March 2011. Among the aims of our study are improved assessment of the physico-chemical nature and changing distribution of land-based fallout. 135Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs atom ratios are indicative of conditions that relate to the nuclear fission reactions responsible for producing the respective radiocaesium isotopes, and offer much more in terms of forensic and chronological analysis than monitoring 137Cs alone. We briefly present methods to quantify the atom ratios of Cs and Pu isotopes in soil, lichen and moss samples from FDNPP catchment using mass spectrometry (ThermoTRITON for Cs and ThermoNEPTUNE for Pu). High precision data from Fukushima are presented (e.g decay corrected 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio = 0.384 ± 0.001 (n = 5) for roadside dust from Iitate region), and these are in agreement with prelimary estimates by others. We also confirm results for IAEA-330, a spinach sample collected from Polesskoe, Ukraine and subject to contamination from the Chernobyl accident. In addition to Cs isotopes, we adopt Pu isotopes to add a further dimension to the forensic analysis. We discuss the corrections required for background levels prior to the disaster, possibility for multiple components of fallout and complicating factors associated with remobilisation during the clean-up operation. In parallel with this work on digests and leaches from bulk environmental samples, we are refining methods for particle identification, isolation and characterisation using a complementary sequence of cutting-edge materials and manipulation techniques, including combined electron microscopy, focused ion beam techniques (Dualbeam), nano/micro manipulators and nano-scale imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NanoESCA) and microCT.

  14. Influence of management of variables, sampling zones and land units on LR analysis for landslide spatial prevision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several authors, according to different methodological approaches, have employed logistic Regression (LR, a multivariate statistical analysis adopted to assess the spatial probability of landslide, even though its fundamental principles have remained unaltered. This study aims at assessing the influence of some of these methodological approaches on the performance of LR, through a series of sensitivity analyses developed over a test area of about 300 km2 in Calabria (southern Italy. In particular, four types of sampling (1 – the whole study area; 2 – transects running parallel to the general slope direction of the study area with a total surface of about 1/3 of the whole study area; 3 – buffers surrounding the phenomena with a 1/1 ratio between the stable and the unstable area; 4 – buffers surrounding the phenomena with a 1/2 ratio between the stable and the unstable area, two variable coding modes (1 – grouped variables; 2 – binary variables, and two types of elementary land (1 – cells units; 2 – slope units units have been tested. The obtained results must be considered as statistically relevant in all cases (Aroc values > 70%, thus confirming the soundness of the LR analysis which maintains high predictive capacities notwithstanding the features of input data. As for the area under investigation, the best performing methodological choices are the following: (i transects produced the best results (0 P(y ≤ 93.4%; Aroc = 79.5%; (ii as for sampling modalities, binary variables (0 P(y ≤ 98.3%; Aroc = 80.7% provide better performance than ordinated variables; (iii as for the choice of elementary land units, slope units (0 P(y ≤ 100%; Aroc = 84.2% have obtained better results than cells matrix.

  15. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  16. Vertical distribution of meiofauna on reflective sandy beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme physical conditions usually limit the meiofauna occurrence and distribution in highly hydrodynamic environments such as reflective beaches. Despite sediment grains of the upper layers being constantly resuspended and deposited, the high energy of the swash zone besides depositing coarse sediments allows an ample vertical distribution of meiofaunal organisms. The effect of physical, chemical and sediment variables on the vertical distribution of meiofaunal organims and nematodes was analysed on two reflective exposed beaches. Sampling was conducted at three sampling points on each beach in the swash zone. The sediment collected was divided into four 10-cm strata (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm. The statistical differences between strata due to factors previously established (i.e. meiofaunal composition, density of most abundant taxa were tested using a hierarchical PERMANOVA applied under similarity and euclidian distances. An inverse relation among average grain size, content of organic matter and sediment sorting was evident. Coarser sediment characterized the upper layers, while at deeper layers the sediment was very poorly sorted and presented a higher content of organic matter. A similar pattern in the vertical distribution of meiofaunal and nematofaunal composition and density was detected. The lowest densities were associated with the first stratum (0-10 cm, highly affected by hydrodynamics. The vertical distribution of organisms was statistically different only when the interaction among factors was considered. This result suggests that zonation and vertical distribution of meiofaunal organisms are determined by the within-beach variability.

  17. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tasks related to increase of RA reactor exploitation and experimental potential, Independent CO2 loop for cooling the samples irradiated in RA reactor vertical experimental channels, (I-IV), part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1963-07-01

    This volume contains the description of the design project of the head of the low-temperature coolant loops needed for cooling the samples to be irradiated in the RA vertical experimental channels. The thermal and mechanical calculations are included as well as calculation of antireactivity and activation of the construction materials. Cost estimation data are included as well. The drawings included are: head of the coolant loop; diagram of CO 2 coolant temperature dependence; diagrams of weight of the loop tubes in the channels; axial distribution of the thermal neutron flux. Engineering drawings of two design solutions of the low-temperature loops with details are part of this volume

  20. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  1. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40–50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL, the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  2. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results...

  4. Chemistry of unsaturated zone gases sampled in open boreholes at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Data and basic concepts of chemical and physical processes in the mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstenson, Donald C.; Weeks, Edwin P.; Haas, Herbert; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, Niel; Peters, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Boreholes open to the unsaturated zone at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were variously sampled for CO2 (including 13C and 14C), CH4, N2, O2, Ar, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 from 1986 to 1993. Air enters the mountain in outcrops, principally on the eastern slope, is enriched in CO2by mixing with soil gas, and is advected to the mountain crest, where it returns to the atmosphere. The CFC data indicate that travel times of the advecting gas in the shallow Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit are ≤5 years. The 14C activities are postbomb to depths of 100 m, indicating little retardation of 14CO2 in the shallow flow systems. The 14C activities from 168 to 404 m in the Topopah Spring hydrogeologic unit are 85–90 pMC at borehole USW-UZ6. The CFC data show that the drilling of USW-UZ6 in 1984 has altered the natural system by providing a conduit through the Paintbrush Nonwelded unit, allowing flow from Topopah Spring outcrops in Solitario Canyon on the west to USW-UZ6, upward in the borehole through the Paintbrush, to the shallow Tiva Canyon flow systems, and out of the mountain.

  5. Vertical Distribution and Estimated Doses from Artificial Radionuclides in Soil Samples around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides (241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides (241Am, 57Co, 137Cs, 95Zr, 95Nb, 58Co, and 60Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public. PMID:23469013

  6. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  7. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  8. Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor, Vol. I; Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA, Album I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Pavlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-06-15

    Project 'independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor' is presented in two volumes: volume I - head of the low temperature coolant loop for reactor RA, and volume II - Outer low-temperature reactor coolant loop. Volume I includes: the design specifications for the head of the low-temperature coolant loop, technical description, thermal calculation, calculations of mechanical loads, antireactivity and activation of the components of the coolant loop head, engineering schemes and drawings, cost estimation data. [Serbo-Croat] Projekat 'Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA', sastoji se od dva albuma: album I - Glava niskotemperaturno rashladne petlje za reaktor RA, album II - Spoljno kolo niskotemperaturne rashladne petlje za reaktora. Album I sadrzi projektni zadatak glave niskotemperaturne petlje, tehnicki opis, termicki proracun, proracun mehanickih naprezanja, antireaktivnosti i aktivacije kontrukcionih elemenata glave petlje, konstrukcione seme i crteze glave petlje, predracun.

  9. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  10. Proverbs : Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Allsop, N.W.H.; De Groot, M.B.; Crouch, R.S.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Final report and appendices of the European project Proverbs on tools for the design of vertical breakwaters (caisson type breakwaters) and similar hydraulic structures in the coastal zone. It includes the loads (waves) as well as the strength of the structure (geotechnial aspects, structural

  11. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  12. Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Density in Relation to Land Use/Cover, Altitude and Slope Aspect in the Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Dorji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In-depth understanding about the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC density is crucial for carbon (C accounting, C budgeting and designing appropriate C sequestration strategies. We examined the vertical distribution of SOC density under different land use/land cover (LULC types, altitudinal zones and aspect directions in a montane ecosystem of Bhutan. Sampling sites were located using conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS scheme. Soils were sampled based on genetic horizons. An equal-area spline function was fitted to interpolate the target values to predetermined depths. Linear mixed model was fitted followed by mean separation tests. The results show some significant effects of LULC, altitudinal zone and slope aspect on the vertical distribution of SOC density in the profiles. Based on the proportion of mean SOC density in the first 20 cm relative to the cumulative mean SOC density in the top meter, the SOC density under agricultural lands (34% was more homogeneously distributed down the profiles than forests (39%, grasslands (59% and shrublands (43%. Similarly, the SOC density under 3500–4000 m zone (35% was more uniformly distributed compared to 3000–3500 m zone (43% and 1769–2500 m and 2500–3000 m zones (41% each. Under different aspect directions, the north and east-facing slopes (38% each had more uniform distribution of SOC density than south (40% and west-facing slopes (49%.

  13. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Task 2.50.05; Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA, Zad. 2.50.05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojic, M; Pavicevic, M

    1964-07-01

    This report contains the following volumes V and VI of the Project 'Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in RA reactor vertical experimental channels': Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, and Safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi dva albuma zadatka 'Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA', Zad. 2.50.05: Album V: Predprojekat sistema dozimetrijske kontrole u nezavisnom kolu CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA i Album VI: Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA.

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Radioactive contamination of the 30-km zone according to the sampling data within bench-marks of gamma-ray survey in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnoj, D.A.; Rybalko, S.I.; Solyanek, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is noted that formation of radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl' 30-km zone is conditioned by two main factors: state of operation of the reactor and movement of air masses within the period of 26.04.86 till 5.06.86. The analyses of formation of the radioactive traces in this period is presented. It is noted that ground radiometric and spectrometric investigations in 1991 according to the bench-marks with regard to gamma-ray survey of the 30-km zone make it possible to recognize 25% areas as having values close on background rates of the exposure doze in south-western and south-eastern sectors. However, these areas can be recommended for agricultural use after careful geochemical and hydrological mapping and inspecting settlements, plants and animals contamination. 1 tabs

  17. Hydraulic Features of the Excavation Disturbed Zone - Laboratory investigations of samples taken from the Q- and S-tunnels at Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Brinkhoff, Petra; Gustafson, Gunnar; Kvartsberg, Sara (Div. of GeoEngineering, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    The general aim of the project has been to contribute to the SKB safety and assessment analysis with realistic figures of hydraulic properties in an excavation disturbed zone. The project had the following more detailed objectives: - Develop a laboratory method to determine fracture transmissivity under water-saturated conditions. - Provide magnitudes for realistic values for fracture transmissivity in the disturbed or damaged zone due to excavation. - Map micro cracks radially from the tunnel wall. - Map the spread of matrix porosity radially from the tunnel wall. - Develop single-hole hydraulic testing methodology in tunnel wall for saturated conditions. - Integration of fracture geometries and transmissivity investigations for conceptual hydraulic modelling of the bedrock along a tunnel wall

  18. Chloride present in biological samples as a tool for enhancement of sensitivity in capillary zone electrophoretic analysis of anionic trace analytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr; Caslavska, J.; Thormann, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2003), s. 505-517 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : acetoacetate * capillary zone electrophoresis * chloride stacking effects Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  19. Importance of the counterion in optimization of a borate electrolyte system for analyses of anions in samples with complex matrices performed by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila; Březková, M.; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 20 (2004), s. 3406-3415 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR IAA4031401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolyte * borate buffer * capillary zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  20. Impacts of Mesoscale Eddies on the Vertical Nitrate Flux in the Gulf Stream Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kang, Dujuan; Stock, Charles A.; Dussin, Raphael

    2018-01-01

    The Gulf Stream (GS) region has intense mesoscale variability that can affect the supply of nutrients to the euphotic zone (Zeu). In this study, a recently developed high-resolution coupled physical-biological model is used to conduct a 25-year simulation in the Northwest Atlantic. The Reynolds decomposition method is applied to quantify the nitrate budget and shows that the mesoscale variability is important to the vertical nitrate supply over the GS region. The decomposition, however, cannot isolate eddy effects from those arising from other mesoscale phenomena. This limitation is addressed by analyzing a large sample of eddies detected and tracked from the 25-year simulation. The eddy composite structures indicate that positive nitrate anomalies within Zeu exist in both cyclonic eddies (CEs) and anticyclonic eddies (ACEs) over the GS region, and are even more pronounced in the ACEs. Our analysis further indicates that positive nitrate anomalies mostly originate from enhanced vertical advective flux rather than vertical turbulent diffusion. The eddy-wind interaction-induced Ekman pumping is very likely the mechanism driving the enhanced vertical motions and vertical nitrate transport within ACEs. This study suggests that the ACEs in GS region may play an important role in modulating the oceanic biogeochemical properties by fueling local biomass production through the persistent supply of nitrate.

  1. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  2. Vertical selection in the information domain of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    In this paper we explore the vertical selection methods in aggregated search in the specific domain of topics for children between 7 and 12 years old. A test collection consisting of 25 verticals, 3.8K queries and relevant assessments for a large sample of these queries mapping relevant verticals to

  3. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  4. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  5. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  6. Nearly 1000 Protein Identifications from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis Zygote Homogenate Using Online Sample Preparation on a Strong Cation Exchange Monolith Based Microreactor Coupled with Capillary Zone Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Cox, Olivia F; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-01-05

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation exchange monolith microreactor was synthesized and coupled to a linear polyacrylamide coated capillary for online sample preparation and capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) bottom-up proteomic analysis. The protein sample was loaded onto the microreactor in an acidic buffer. After online reduction, alkylation, and digestion with trypsin, the digests were eluted with 200 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 8.2 for CZE-MS/MS analysis using 1 M acetic acid as the background electrolyte. This combination of basic elution and acidic background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction. 369 protein groups and 1274 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis zygote homogenate, which is comparable with an offline sample preparation method, but the time required for sample preparation was decreased from over 24 h to less than 40 min. Dramatically improved performance was produced by coupling the reactor to a longer separation capillary (∼100 cm) and a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. 975 protein groups and 3749 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus protein using the online sample preparation method.

  7. Wetlands Research Program. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling Vegetation and Delineating Wetlands Transition Zones in Coastal West-Central Florida, January 1979-May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    method ( Catana 1963) compensates for some of the limitations of the point-centered quarter method. A quarter is established at a sampling point and...Principal Soil Areas of Florida--A Supplement to the General Soils Map. University of Florida, in cooperation with USDA, Bulletin 717. Catana , H. J. 1963

  8. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  9. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  10. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  11. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  12. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  14. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  15. Vertical Electrical Sounding to delineate the potential Aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Groundwater Building, Uppal Road, ... techniques for groundwater prospecting was used in the Capital City, Niamey of Niger. ... Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the ..... Fitterman D V, Meekes J A C, and Ritsema I L, 1988, Equivalence behavior of three ...

  16. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joy Choudhury

    2017-09-06

    fed irrigation, etc. The ... position is important for optimum groundwater ... regional scale to estimate natural groundwater ... lithology with depth by means of measured resis- .... stratification for all the VES survey carried out in.

  17. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  18. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkungwal Jaranit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  19. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  20. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  1. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Linking carbon and hydrologic fluxes in the critical zone: Observations from high-frequency monitoring of a weathered bedrock vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, A. K.; Druhan, J. L.; Wang, J.; Cargill, S.; Murphy, C.; Rempe, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A principle challenge in quantifying feedbacks between continental weathering and atmospheric CO2 is to improve understanding of how biogeochemical processes in the critical zone influence the distribution and mobility of organic and inorganic carbon. In particular, in landscapes characterized by thin soils and heterogeneous weathered and fractured bedrock, little data exist to inform and constrain predictive models for carbon dynamics. Here, we present the results of an intensive water and gas sampling campaign across an 18 m thick, variably saturated argillite weathering profile in the Eel River CZO. We monitor water content in situ and regularly collect samples of freely-draining water, tightly-held water, and gas through wet and dry seasons using a novel Vadose-zone Monitoring System (VMS) consisting of sensors and samplers distributed across a 20 m long inclined borehole. This novel approach facilitates the interception of gas and water during transport across the entire variably saturated weathering profile. The data demonstrate that seasonal changes in saturation control the vertical distribution and mobility of carbon in the fractured critical zone. Concentrations of gaseous CO2, O2, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon fluctuate significantly and repeatably with seasonal additions of water infiltrating the weathered bedrock. A persistent vertical structure in the concentrations of dissolved phases and gas concentrations broadly corresponds to depths associated with unsaturated, seasonally saturated, and chronically saturated zones. Associated variations in the vertical structure of mineralogy and elemental composition, including solid phase organic carbon content, are observed in core obtained during drilling. Together, our observations indicate significant respiration of organic carbon at depths greater than the base of the soil, and thus motivate further investigation of the role of heterogeneous weathered, bedrock environments, which are needed to

  3. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  4. Straddle packer system design and operation for vertical characterization of open bore holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Bore holes open to large intervals provide groundwater samples and test results which represent an unknown integration of properties throughout the depth of the hole. The State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program is utilizing a custom straddle-packer system to develop a vertical characterization of water chemistry and hydrology in selected open bore holes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report describes the design and operation for bore hole zone isolation, water sampling, and hydrologic testing. To reduce potential influences on in situ water chemistry, the system utilizes chemically inert components to the extent possible. Straddle packer systems are effective in producing representative water samples from isolated formations. Hydrologic testing is limited by the ability to produce a measurable stress on the aquifer in individual formations, and head measurement sensitivity. 4 figs

  5. New technique of in-situ soil-moisture sampling for environmental isotope analysis applied at Pilat sand dune near Bordeaux. HETP modelling of bomb tritium propagation in the unsaturated and saturated zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, G.; Esser, N.; Sonntag, C.; Weiss, W.; Rudolph, J.; Leveque, P.

    1979-01-01

    A new soil-air suction method with soil-water vapour adsorption by a 4-A molecular sieve provides soil-moisture samples from various depths for environmental isotope analysis and yields soil temperature profiles. A field tritium tracer experiment shows that this in-situ sampling method has an isotope profile resolution of about 5-10cm only. Application of this method in the Pilat sand dune (Bordeaux/France) yielded deuterium and tritium profiles down to 25m depth. Bomb tritium measurements of monthly lysimeter percolate samples available since 1961 show that the tritium response has a mean delay of five months in the case of a sand lysimeter and of 2.5 years for a loess loam lysimeter. A simple HETP model simulates the layered downward movement of soil water and the longitudinal dispersion in the lysimeters. Field capacity and evapotranspiration taken as open parameters yield tritium concentration values of the lysimeters' percolate which agree well with the experimental results. Based on local meteorological data the HETP model applied to tritium tracer experiments in the unsaturated zone yields in addition an individual prediction of the momentary tracer position and of the soil-moisture distribution. This prediction can be checked experimentally at selected intervals by coring. (author)

  6. COMPARACIÓN DEL MUESTREO DE ESPECIES QUÍMICAS EN ZONAS REACTIVAS MEDIANTE EL USO DE SONDA CON Y SIN CUELLO SÓNICO COMPARISON OF SAMPLING CHEMICAL SPECIES IN REACTING ZONES USING PROBES WITHOUT SONIC NOZZLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cadavid

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de los productos de combustión en las zonas de reacción y al interior de cámaras de combustión requiere, con respecto a las medidas efectuadas en chimeneas, de equipos y de métodos particulares de muestreo. Así por ejemplo, en las zonas donde hay presencia de llama se deben utilizar dispositivos experimentales no intrusivos, tales como las técnicas láser, o intrusivos como las sondas de muestreo. El empleo de los primeros implica altos costos mientras que el de los segundos deben garantizar que las reacciones de combustión no continúen al interior de la sonda pues de lo contrario se producen errores importantes en la medición. En este trabajo se presenta una comparación de los resultados obtenidos al realizar muestreos al interior de la zona de reacción de una llama de premezcla parcial empleando dos tipos de sondas: una con cuello sónico y enfriamiento convectivo de la muestra y la otra constituida simplemente por un tubo en acero inoxidable; para identificar si existen efectos térmicos y cinético - químicos que generen diferencias en la medición de las especies mayoritarias. Los resultados muestran que al emplear una sonda con un tubo liso se estarían presentando errores en las mediciones de CO2 y CO cercanos al 7,0% y en las de O2 superiores al 14%.The analysis of combustion products inside flames reaction zones and combustion chambers requires special equipment and methods of sampling compared to measurements made in chimneys. For example, non-intrusive experimental devices, such as laser techniques, or intrusive ones, such as sampling probes, should be used in zones where a flame is present. The use of the first ones means high costs, while the second ones must guarantee that the combustion reactions do not continue inside the sample probe; otherwise significant errors occur in the species measurements. To identify whether there are thermal and chemical kinetic effects that produce differences in the major

  7. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  8. Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...

  9. Vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  10. Vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  11. Mapping the Vertical Battlespace:Towards a Legal Cartography of Aerial Sovereignty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye

    2014-01-01

    Proliferating drone violence has instantiated the notion of an unbounded global battlespace. Mapping the vertical battlespace layered over the target zones of the imperial periphery discloses how antecedent legalities legitimate violence exercised exclusively from above, and reveals the imperial...

  12. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  13. Horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, J S

    2001-10-01

    Among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina, the author examined the strength of 4 cultural patterns (horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, horizontal individualism, vertical individualism; H. C. Triandis, 1995). A 3-group confirmatory factor analysis established the measurement equivalence among the 3 samples before the comparison. The Taiwanese and the Argentine samples were more vertically collectivist than the U.S. sample. The U.S. and the Taiwanese samples were more vertically individualistic than the Argentine sample. The U.S. sample was more horizontally individualistic than the Argentine sample, which, in turn, was more horizontally individualistic than the Taiwanese sample.

  14. Turbulent stresses in the surf-zone: Which way is up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, John W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Edge, B.L

    1997-01-01

    Velocity observations from a vertical stack of three-component Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) within the energetic surf-zone are presented. Rapid temporal sampling and small sampling volume provide observations suitable for investigation of the role of turbulent fluctuations in surf-zone dynamics. While sensor performance was good, failure to recover reliable measures of tilt from the vertical compromise the data value. We will present some cursory observations supporting the ADV performance, and examine the sensitivity of stress estimates to uncertainty in the sensor orientation. It is well known that turbulent stress estimates are highly sensitive to orientation relative to vertical when wave motions are dominant. Analyses presented examine the potential to use observed flow-field characteristics to constrain sensor orientation. Results show that such an approach may provide a consistent orientation to a fraction of a degree, but the inherent sensitivity of stress estimates requires a still more restrictive constraint. Regardless, the observations indicate the degree to which stress estimates are dependent on orientation, and provide some indication of the temporal variability in time-averaged stress estimates.

  15. Vertical components of surface vibrations induced by mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciag, E.; Kowalski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of vertical components of surface vibration is epicentral zones due to mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield (USC) are analysed. Both maximum acceleration amplitudes and dominant frequencies of vertical (Z) and horizontal (N-S and E-W) components of vibrations are compared. The role played by the vertical components of vibrations in estimates of hazard for surface structures excited by mining tremors is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs

  16. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2013-12-01

    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  17. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  18. Vertical migration and diel feeding periodicity of the skinnycheek lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2012-11-13

    The vertical migration and diel feeding periodicity of the skinnycheek lanternfish (Benthosema pterotum) were studied by use of a hull-mounted 38 kHz echo sounder, ROV-deployments and net-sampling at two locations (∼24°48′N, ∼36°15′E and ∼21°27′N, ∼38°5′E) in the central Red Sea. The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an unusual environment with very high temperatures (∼22 °C) and low zooplankton concentrations (<10 individuals m−3 below 600 m). The skinnycheek lanternfish performed normal diel vertical migration from ∼500 to 750 m during daytime to the epipelagic zone (upper ∼200 m) at night. A strict feeding periodicity occurred; with the skinnycheek lanternfish foraging on zooplankton throughout the night, while rapidly digesting the preceding nocturnal meal in the warm mesopelagic region. We hypothesize that the constrained epipelagic distribution of zooplankton and the unusual warm waters of the Red Sea force the whole population to ascend and feed in epipelagic waters every night, as the prey-ration eaten each night is fully digested at mesopelagic depths during daytime.

  19. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  20. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  2. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  3. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  4. Geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal shear zone in granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, Tobias; Baron, Ludovic; Holliger, Klaus; Egli, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermally active faults and shear zones in the crystalline massifs of the central Alps are currently of particular interest because of their potential similarities and analogies with planned deep petrothermal reservoirs in the Alpine foreland. In order to better understand such hydrothermal systems, a near-vertical, hydrothermally active shear zone embedded in low-permeability granitic rocks has been drilled. This borehole is located on the Grimsel Pass in the central Swiss Alps, has an inclination of 24 degrees with regard to the vertical, and crosses the targeted shear zone between about 82 and 86 meters depth. The borehole has been fully cored and a comprehensive suite of geophysical logging data has been acquired. The latter comprises multi-frequency sonic, ground-penetrating radar, resistivity, self-potential, gamma-gamma, neutron-neutron, optical televiewer, and caliper log data. In addition to this, we have also performed a surface-to-borehole vertical seismic profiling experiment. The televiewer data and the retrieved core samples show a marked increase of the fracture density in the target region, which also finds its expression in rather pronounced and distinct signatures in all other log data. Preliminary results point towards a close correspondence between the ground-penetrating radar and the neutron-neutron log data, which opens the perspective of constraining the effective fracture porosity at vastly differing scales. There is also remarkably good agreement between the sonic log and the vertical seismic profiling data, which may allow for assessing the permeability of the probed fracture network by interpreting these data in a poroelastic context.

  5. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...... given credit for and may be responsible for some reverse kinematics reported in shear zones....... or wakes, elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones or wakes. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators usually display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either side of the shear zone or wake reported here show reverse...... kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit shear zones with opposed senses of movement across their center-lines or -planes.We have used field observations and results from analytical and numerical models to suggest that examples of wakes are the transit paths that develop where denser blocks sink within salt...

  6. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, Martine

    2009-07-10

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 {micro}m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth.

  7. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, Martine

    2009-01-01

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 (micro)m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth

  8. Microbial diversity from chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and bottom zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Silva, Renata; de Oliveira, Rafael R.; Pivel, Maria A. G.; Borges, Luiz G. A.; Simão, Taiz L. L.; Pereira, Leandro M.; Trindade, Fernanda J.; Augustin, Adolpho H.; Valdez, Fernanda P.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R. P.; Groposo, Claudia; Miller, Dennis J.; Viana, Adriano R.; Ketzer, João M. M.; Giongo, Adriana

    2018-02-01

    Conspicuous physicochemical vertical stratification in the deep sea is one of the main forces driving microbial diversity in the oceans. Oxygen and sunlight availability are key factors promoting microbial diversity throughout the water column. Ocean currents also play a major role in the physicochemical stratification, carrying oxygen down to deeper zones as well as moving deeper water masses up towards shallower depths. Water samples within a 50-km radius in a pockmark location of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean were collected and the prokaryotic communities from different water depths - chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and deep-sea bottom (down to 1355 m) - were described. At phylum level, Proteobacteria were the most frequent in all water depths, Cyanobacteria were statistically more frequent in chlorophyll maximum zone, while Thaumarchaeota were significantly more abundant in both oxygen minimum and bottom waters. The most frequent microorganism in the chlorophyll maximum and oxygen minimum zones was a Pelagibacteraceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU). At the bottom, the most abundant genus was the archaeon Nitrosopumilus. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data uncovered in this study shows high spatial heterogeneity among water zones communities. Our data brings important contribution for the characterisation of oceanic microbial diversity, as it consists of the first description of prokaryotic communities occurring in different oceanic water zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  10. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  11. Vertical retort with arrangements for special heating, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstenberg, R

    1922-02-28

    A vertical retort with arrangements for special heating of upper and lower zones and special gas outlets on the highest and lowest parts of the retort is characterized in that the lower gas outlet on the one side serves for feeding the burner for heating both upper zone as well as the lower, and on the other side runs to the collecting line for the gas, which emerges from the upper opening, while on the lower end of the retort is fastened a coke cooler, whose walls can be cooled with air supplied for the drying of the combustibles or with water, which is supplied for the steam generation.

  12. Safety report for the independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor; Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracenih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, A; Zivkovic, S; Milosevic, M; Strugar, P [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1969-07-01

    Independent CO{sub 2} loop was designed for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels in the region of heavy water or in the graphite reflector. It is considered as a significant improvement of the RA reactor experimental possibilities. Six 'heads' are placed in vertical experimental channels and connected in parallel with the outer loop which contains out-of-reactor equipment. It is planned to irradiate samples in the 'heads' of the loop for the needs of Hot laboratory and Laboratory for reactor materials. Heat generated during sample irradiation is removed by CO{sub 2} circulation. This report contains detailed description of the main loop, auxiliary systems, calculation results of anti reactivity and activation of construction materials of the low-temperature CO{sub 2} loop. A separate chapter is devoted to control and regulation of temperature and pressure. Testing of the fundamental parameters of the coolant loop showed that it could fulfill more demanding tasks than designed by the project. Annex of this report includes results of leak testing for the loop 'heads' in vertical experimental channels VEK-6 and VEK-8 by helium leak detector. [Serbo-Croat] Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} namenjeno je za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora u zoni teske vode i u zoni grafita, i predstavlja znacajan doprinos povecanju eksperimentalnih mogucnosti reaktora RA. Sest 'glava' je postavljeno u vertikalne eksperimentalne kanale i paralelno vezano na spoljno kolo koje sadrzi vanreaktorsku opremu. U glavama petlje se predvidja ozracivanje raznovrsnih uzoraka materijala za potrebe Laboratorije za visoku aktivnost i Laboratorije za reaktorske materijale. Toplota koja se generise prilikom ozracivanja uzoraka odvodi se cirkulacijom CO{sub 2}. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis: glavnog kola, pomocnih sistema; rezultate proracuna antireaktivnosti i aktivacije konstrukcionih elemenata glave niskotemperaturne petlje CO{sub 2}. Posebno poglavlje posveceno

  13. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  14. Measurements of the vertical correlation in turbulence under broken waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Deigaard, Rolf; Sutherland, James

    1998-01-01

    Turbulence measurements have been carried out in the surf zone of a wave flume. The purpose of the measurements is to determine the length scale of the turbulence generated by the wave breaking. The length scale of the turbulence is estimated on basis of the correlation between simultaneous measu...... measurements of the vertical turbulent fluctuations, taken at different levels above the bed, (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    , elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators ideally display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either sides of the shear zone reported here show reverse kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit...... by progressive extension and (perhaps) where slabs of subducted oceanic lithosphere delaminate from the continental crust and sink into the asthenosphere. We also argue that such shear zones may be more common than they have been given the credit for and may be responsible for some of the kinematic reversals...

  16. Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Vol. V; Album V: Predprojekat sistema dozimetrijske kontrole u nezavisnom kolu CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-01

    Design project of the dosimetry control system in the independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels includes the following: calculations of CO{sub 2} gas activity, design of the dosimetry control system, review of the changes that should be done in the RA reactor building for installing the independent CO{sub 2} loop, specification of the materials with cost estimation, engineering drawings of the system. Predprojekat sistema dozimetrijske kontrole u nezavisnom kolu CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA sadrzi: proracun aktivnosti gasa CO{sub 2}, idejno resenje sistema dozimetrijske kontrole, pregled izmena koje bi trebalo izvrsiti u zgradi RA u vezi montaze nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2}, specifikaciju materijala sa cenom kostanja i graficku dokumentaciju predprojekta.

  17. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  18. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  19. Ventricular Zone Disruption in Human Neonates With Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, James P.; Guerra, Maria Montserrat; Ruiz, Leandro Castaneyra; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Dominguez-Pinos, Dolores; Sival, Deborah; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Morales, Diego M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.; Limbrick, David D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls

  20. Global biogeochemical provinces of the mesopelagic zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Guidi, Lionel; Beaugrand, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Following the biogeographical approach implemented by Longhurst for the epipelagic layer, we propose here to identify a biogeochemical 3-D partition for the mesopelagic layer. The resulting partition characterizes the main deep environmental biotopes and their vertical boundaries on a global...... scale, which can be used as a geographical and ecological framework for conservation biology, ecosystem-based management and for the design of oceanographic investigations. Location: The global ocean. Methods: Based on the most comprehensive environmental climatology available to date, which is both...... of the mesopelagic layer. Results: First, we show via numerical interpretation that the vertical division of the pelagic zone varies and, hence, is not constant throughout the global ocean. Indeed, a latitudinal gradient is found between the epipelagic-mesopelagic and mesopelagic-bathypelagic vertical limits. Second...

  1. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  2. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  3. Improving performance through vertical disintegration: Evidence from UK manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Desyllas, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Unlike previous work on the vertical integration-performance relationship, we investigate the performance consequences of vertical disintegration. We offer a theoretical justification for the disintegration decision and we condition the disintegration effect on performance on the initial degree of firm integration, the timing and the direction of disintegration. Using a sample of UK manufacturing firms and controlling for disintegration endogeneity, we find that disintegration eventually resu...

  4. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  5. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  6. Investigating Unsaturated Zone Travel Times with Tritium and Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Van der Velde, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Travel times in the unsaturated zone are notoriously difficult to assess. Travel time tracers relying on the conservative transport of dissolved (noble) gases (tritium-helium, CFCs or SF6) are not applicable. Large water volume requirements of other cosmogenic radioactive isotopes (sulfur-35, sodium-22) preclude application in the unsaturated zone. Prior investigations have relied on models, introduced tracers, profiles of stable isotopes or tritium, or a combination of these techniques. Significant unsaturated zone travel times (UZTT) complicate the interpretation of stream water travel time tracers by ranked StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Close examination of rSAS functions in a sloping soil lysimeter[1] show the effect of the UZTT on the shape of the rSAS cumulative distribution function. We studied the UZTT at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SS-CZO) using profiles of tritium and stable isotopes (18O and 2H) in the unsaturated zone, supported by soil water content data. Tritium analyses require 100-500 mL of soil water and therefore large soil samples (1-5L), and elaborate laboratory procedures (oven drying, degassing and noble gas mass spectrometry). The high seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation of the Mediterranean climate, variable snow pack and high annual ET/P ratios lead to a dynamic hydrology in the deep unsaturated soils and regolith and highly variable travel time distributions. Variability of the tritium concentration in precipitation further complicates direct age estimates. Observed tritium profiles (>3 m deep) are interpreted in terms of advective and dispersive vertical transport of the input variability and radioactive decay of tritium. Significant unsaturated zone travel times corroborate previously observed low activities of short-lived cosmogenic radioactive nuclides in stream water. Under these conditions, incorporating the UZTT is critical to adequately reconstruct stream water travel time distributions. 1

  7. Transient reflectivity on vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galimberti, Gianluca; Ponzoni, Stefano; Ferrini, Gabriele; Hofmann, Stephan; Arshad, Muhammad; Cepek, Cinzia; Pagliara, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    One-color transient reflectivity measurements are carried out on two different samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and compared with the response recently published on unaligned bundles. The negative sign of the optical response for both samples indicates that the free

  8. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrifica......Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...

  9. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  10. Isotope studies of a thick unsaturated zone in a semi-arid area of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, M.J.; Verhagen, B.Th.

    2001-01-01

    Unsaturated zone profiles ranging in depth from 8 m to 22 m were obtained by hand augering an aeolian sand cover in the southern reaches of the semi-arid Kalahari thirstland. Moisture contents were rather low (<3 wt.%); in situ moisture chloride concentrations, measured by selective ion electrode following elutriation, are generally <500 ppm. Deuterium in the moisture was measured mass spectrometrically by direct quantitative conversion to hydrogen on zinc metal of moist soil samples. A novel technique of direct equilibration was developed for oxygen-18 analysis. Neither a thermonuclear tritium peak nor a stable isotope evaporation inversion near the surface could be observed in any of the profiles. Remarkable differences both laterally and vertically are observed in most parameters measured between profiles taken a few tens of metres apart. At greater depths, these differences become less pronounced. Recharge estimates based on chloride differ markedly from those obtained from tritium. Although the stable isotope values of the underlying saturated zone are similar to moisture in the deeper sections of the unsaturated zone profiles, the markedly lower chloride concentrations point towards preferential or bypass flow as an important mechanism of ground water recharge in the area. This can be regarded as a benchmark site on account of the wealth of unsaturated zone data as well as the detailed and ongoing rainfall record. (author)

  11. Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano

  12. Powerful Software to Simulate Soil Consolidation Problems with Prefabricated Vertical Drains

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo García-Ros; Iván Alhama; Manuel Cánovas

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the program Simulation of Consolidation with Vertical Drains (SICOMED_2018), a tool for the solution of consolidation processes in heterogeneous soils, with totally or partially penetrating prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) and considering both the effects of the smear zone, generated when introducing the drain into the ground, and the limitation in the discharge capacity of the drain. In order to provide a completely free program, the code Next-Generation Simulat...

  13. 76 FR 40935 - Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... employees and enhances productivity. Paragraph (k)(2) of 1917.71 requires that the written transport plan include the safe work zone and procedures to ensure that employees are not in the zone when a VTL is in... on Vertical Tandem Lifts for Marine Terminals (29 CFR part 1917). OSHA is proposing to increase the...

  14. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them.

  15. Development of an evaluation method for fracture mechanical tests on small samples based on a cohesive zone model; Entwicklung einer Auswertemethode fuer bruchmechanische Versuche an kleinen Proben auf der Basis eines Kohaesivzonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants of the fourth generation is an important issue. It is based on a reliable interpretation of the components for which, among other fracture mechanical material properties are required. The existing irradiation in the power plants significantly affects the material properties which therefore need to be determined on irradiated material. Often only small amounts of irradiated material are available for characterization. In that case it is not possible to manufacture sufficiently large specimens, which are necessary for fracture mechanical testing in agreement with the standard. Small specimens must be used. From this follows the idea of this study, in which the fracture toughness can be predicted with the developed method based on tests of small specimens. For this purpose, the fracture process including the crack growth is described with a continuum mechanical approach using the finite element method and the cohesive zone model. The experiments on small specimens are used for parameter identification of the cohesive zone model. The two parameters of the cohesive zone model are determined by tensile tests on notched specimens (cohesive stress) and by parameter fitting to the fracture behavior of smalls specimens (cohesive energy). To account the different triaxialities of the specimens, the cohesive stress is used depending on the triaxiality. After parameter identification a large specimen can be simulated with the cohesive zone parameters derived from small specimens. The predicted fracture toughness of this big specimen fulfills the size requirements in the standard (ASTM E1820 or ASTM E399) in contrast to the small specimen. This method can be used for ductile and brittle material behavior and was validated in this work. In summary, this method offers the possibility to determine the fracture toughness indirectly based on small specimen testing. Main advantage is the low required specimen volume. Thereby massively

  16. Study on water infiltration in loess aerated zone at CIRP's field test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongde; Zhao Yingjie; Ni Dongqi; Ma Binghui; Xu Zhaoyi; Tadao Tanaka; Masayuki Mukai

    2000-01-01

    Vertical joints and large pores existing uniquely in loess cause difference between loess and other homogenous soil media in water infiltration. Field test of water infiltration in loess aerated zone of and analysis with hydraulic theory of soil concludes that for the loess aerated zone of vertical joints existing in it makes little contribution to water infiltration under unsaturated condition, and large pores in the media would significantly retard water infiltration

  17. Use of space photographs of earth to study the structure of degasification zones of oil and gas basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amurskiy, G I; Bondareva, M S

    1981-01-01

    In the example of the well studied anticlinal structures of Central Asia, the possibility is shown of using space photographs to reveal and trace local faults and zones of fracturing which are favorable for vertical migration of bed fluids. Increased permeability of these zones governs degsification of the beds and accumulation in the zone of hypergenesis of gas sulfur.

  18. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  19. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  20. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  1. Alteration and geochemical zoning in Bodie Bluff, Bodie mining district, eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, P.A.; Closs, L.G.; Silberman, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The veins cut dacitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and intrusions. Sinter boulders occur in a graben structure at the top of Bodie Bluff and fragments of sinter and mineralized quartz veins occur in hydrothermal breccias nearby. Explosive venting evidently was part of the evolution of the ore-forming geothermal systems which, at one time, must had reached the paleosurface. Previous reconnaissance studies at Bodie Bluff suggested that the geometry of alteration mineral assemblages and distribution of some of the major and trace elements throughout the system correspond to those predicted by models of hot-spring, volcanic rock hosted precious metal deposits (Silberman, 1982; Silberman and Berger, 1985). The current study was undertaken to evaluate these sugestions further. About 500 samples of quartz veins and altered rocks, including sinter, collected over a vertical extent of 200 meters within Bodie Bluff were petrographically examined and chemically analyzed for trace elements by emission spectrographic and atomic absorption methods. Sixty-five samples were analyzed for major elements by X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses showed that, in general, alteration mineral assemblage and vertical geochemical zoning patterns follow those predicted for hot-spring deposits, but that geochemical zoning patterns for sinter and quartz veins (siliceous deposits), and altered wall rocks are not always similar. The predicted depth-concentration patterns for some elements, notably Au, Ag, Hg, and Tl in quartz veins, and Hg, As and Ag in wall rocks were not as expected, or were perturbed by the main ore producing zone. For both quartz veins and altered wall rocks, the main ore zone had elevated metal contents. Increased concentration of many of these elements could indicate proximity to this

  2. Vertical distribution of mercury and MeHg in Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands: Influence of microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruhai; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Jin; Shan, Huayao

    2018-02-01

    Wetlands often show different small-scale topography, such as riffle, habitat island, deep water, shallow water zone and dry zone. Core soils in different micro topographical landforms of Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands in North China were sampled for THg and MeHg to analyze the influence of microtopography. Results showed that THg content in surface soil (pollution in past. High THg content in undisturbed natural wetland soil implied accumulation of mercury. Harvest of plant, drained water decreased the accumulation of mercury in wetlands. Water level caused by microtopography affected the production of MeHg. Depth of the highest MeHg content decreased from N1, N2, N6, N3 to N4 following the increase of water level. Plant type and coverage also affected the vertical distribution of MeHg. More detailed profiles of MeHg, organic matter and total phosphorus in different sites show strong differences in soil chemistry, suggesting a complex interplay among hydrology, biogeochemistry and microtopography.

  3. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  4. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  5. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-12-20

    same depths interrogated by push hole C5602. Given that the deepest sample string analyzed from push hole C5602 contained trace activities of technetium-99, it is obvious that tank waste contamination has impacted the vadose zone to at least a depth of 92 ft bgs at this location. However, the scope of the sampling campaign was to acquire additional samples to better understand the aerial extent of contamination in the U Tank Farm; therefore, future characterization activities (i.e., a borehole) will be required to understand the total vertical depth of contamination at this location.

  6. Dinamics of radiating conditions in the natural complexes of a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', Yu.I.; Kalinichenko, S.A.; Marchenko, Yu.D.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of radiating conditions in exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP is resulted. Annual and seasonal fluctuations of capacity of a dose, and also change of parameters of vertical migration Cs 137, Sr 90, Am 241 in a vertical profile of soils of various territorially-natural complexes are considered. (authors)

  7. Safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Vol. VI; Album VI: Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-01

    First part of the safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels contains descriptions of the independent CO{sub 2} loop, system for regulation, measurement and control od the loop parameters, description of the dosimetry system, and the plan for testing the experimental device before start-up. Second part of this analysis describes the influence of of the experimental device on the reactor operation under steady state conditions as follows: influence of the head of the independent coolant loop on the reactivity of the reactor core and influence on the reactor temperature coefficient. Third part of the report includes the analysis of possible accidents during operation of the independent CO{sub 2} coolant loop in the reactor. Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA sadrzi u prvom delu: opis nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2}, sistema za regulaciju, merenje i kontrolu parametara nezavisnog kola, sistema dozimetrijske kontrole i plan ispitivanja eksperimentalnih uredjaja pre pustanja u rad. Drugi deo ove analize obuhvata uticaj eksperimentalnog uredjaja na reaktor u normalnom rezimu rada i to: uticaj glave petlje nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka na reaktivnost reaktora i uticaj uredjaja na temperaturni koeficijent reaktora. Treci deo sadrzi analizu mogucih akcidenata u toku rada nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2} u reaktoru.

  8. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  9. Testing the method of isolating fracture zones from tiltmeter data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazina, T.S.; Bogdanov, A.P.; Ruban, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    In examples of West Ciscaucasian wells, the possibility is shown of determining the presence of fissures with a steep incline, measurement of the vertical length and azimuth of the fissure zones by determining the ellipticity of the well sections and measuring the azimuths of ellipticity.

  10. Dilution in Transition Zone between Rising Plumes and Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The papers presents some physical experiments with the dilution of sea outfall plumes with emphasize on the transition zone where the relative fast flowing vertical plume turns to a horizontal surface plume following the slow sea surface currents. The experiments show that a considerable dilution...

  11. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  12. Recharge processes and vertical transfer investigated through long-term monitoring of dissolved gases in shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montety, V.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Chatton, E.; Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Fourré, E.; de Dreuzy, J. R.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated temporal variations and vertical evolution of dissolved gaseous tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6, and noble gases), as well as 3H/3He ratio to determine groundwater recharge processes of a shallow unconfined, hard-rock aquifer in an agricultural catchment. We sampled dissolved gas concentration at 4 locations along the hillslope of a small experimental watershed, over 6 hydrological years, between 2 and 6 times per years, for a total of 20 field campaigns. We collected groundwater samples in the fluctuation zone and the permanently saturated zone using piezometers from 5 to 20 m deep. The purpose of this work is i) to assess the benefits of using gaseous tracers like CFCs and SF6 to study very young groundwater with flows suspected to be heterogeneous and variable in time, ii) to characterize the processes that control dissolved gas concentrations in groundwater during the recharge of the aquifer, and iii) to understand the evolution of recharge flow processes by repeated measurement campaigns, taking advantage of a long monitoring in a site devoted to recharge processes investigation. Gas tracer profiles are compared at different location of the catchment and for different hydrologic conditions. In addition, we compare results from CFCs and 3H/3He analysis to define the flow model that best explains tracer concentrations. Then we discuss the influence of recharge events on tracer concentrations and residence time and propose a temporal evolution of residence times for the unsaturated zone and the permanently saturated zone. These results are used to gain a better understanding of the conceptual model of the catchment and flow processes especially during recharge events.

  13. Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Tarsicio

    2009-12-01

    A series of stratified bongo net samples taken over a 2 day period at ca. 18°S, about 20 nm off the coast of Peru, South America, suggest species-specific patterns of diel vertical migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE). The OMZ was the most dramatic feature of the water column and seemed to determine the extent of migration: Stylocheiron affine migrated only to the shallow oxycline; whereas Euphausia mucronata, Euphausia eximia, Euphausia distinguenda and Euphausia tenera migrated to the core of the OMZ; and Nematoscelis gracilis to beneath the core of the OMZ. Some differences were also found in the timing and duration of the ascent and descent, and residence times in shallow and deep layers. E. mucronata, N. gracilis and E. distinguenda displayed a normal descent during sunrise, and ascent during sunset. E. eximia and E. tenera also descended during sunrise but seemed to begin their ascent earlier in the afternoon and consequently shortened their deep residence times. S. affine showed the most extended residence times at the shallow layer and the shortest vertical displacement. Day and night vertical stratification and differences in the timing of migration into and out of the OMZ of the HCE suggest a community structure based on habitat partitioning whereby species avoided co-occurrence in time and space. Species-specific patterns of vertical stratification and migratory chronology are examined with regard to body and gill sizes, feeding adaptations of euphausiids, and potential food resources at the OMZ.

  14. Geographic differences in vertical connectivity in the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa despite high levels of horizontal connectivity at shallow depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, X; Baums, I B; O'Reilly, K; Smith, T B; Jones, R J; Shearer, T L; Nunes, F L D; Baker, A C

    2014-09-01

    The deep reef refugia hypothesis proposes that deep reefs can act as local recruitment sources for shallow reefs following disturbance. To test this hypothesis, nine polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and used to assess vertical connectivity in 583 coral colonies of the Caribbean depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa. Samples were collected from three depth zones (≤10, 15-20 and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida (within the Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), Bermuda, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Migration rates were estimated to determine the probability of coral larval migration from shallow to deep and from deep to shallow. Finally, algal symbiont (Symbiodinium spp.) diversity and distribution were assessed in a subset of corals to test whether symbiont depth zonation might indicate limited vertical connectivity. Overall, analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation by depth in Florida, but not in Bermuda or the U.S. Virgin Islands, despite high levels of horizontal connectivity between these geographic locations at shallow depths. Within Florida, greater vertical connectivity was observed in the Dry Tortugas compared to the Lower or Upper Keys. However, at all sites, and regardless of the extent of vertical connectivity, migration occurred asymmetrically, with greater likelihood of migration from shallow to intermediate/deep habitats. Finally, most colonies hosted a single Symbiodinium type (C3), ruling out symbiont depth zonation of the dominant symbiont type as a structuring factor. Together, these findings suggest that the potential for shallow reefs to recover from deep-water refugia in M. cavernosa is location-specific, varying among and within geographic locations likely as a consequence of local hydrology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prediction of permeability changes in an excavation response zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Naoto; Ishii, Takashi; Kuroda, Hidetaka; Tada, Hiroyuki

    1992-01-01

    In geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, stress changes due to cavern excavation may expand the existing fractures and create possible bypasses for groundwater. This paper proposes a simple method for predicting permeability changes in the excavation response zones. Numerical analyses using this method predict that the response zones created by cavern excavation would differ greatly in thickness and permeability depending on the depth of the cavern site and the initial in-situ stress, that when the cavern site is deeper, response zones would expand more and permeability would increases more, and that if the ratio of horizontal to vertical in-situ stress is small, extensive permeable zones at the crown and the bottom would occur, whereas if the ratio is large, extensive permeable zones would occur in the side walls. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of Bridge Transition Zones in Railways Considering the Moisture Condition of the Ballast and Subballast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haoyu; Silvast, Mika; Markine, V.L.; Wiljanen, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in vertical support structures, e.g., near bridges. Due to possible water flow constrictions in transition zone structures, there is frequently an increased moisture level in the ballast/subballast layers, which is a

  17. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  18. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  19. Delineation of site-specific management zones by fuzzy clustering of soil and topographic attributes: A case study of East Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A; Belal, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define site-specific management zones of 67.2 ha of a wheat pivot field at East of Nile Delta, Egypt for use in precision agriculture based on spatial variability of soil and topographic attributes. The field salinity was analysed by reading the apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) with the EM38 sensor horizontally and vertically at 432 locations. The field was sampled for soil attributes systematically with a total of 80 sampling location points. All samples were located using GPS hand held unit. Soil sampling for management zones included soil reaction pH, soil saturation percentage, organic matter, calcium carbonates content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. The field topographic attributes were digital elevation model (DEM), slope, profile curvature, plane curvature, compound topographic index (CTI) and power stream index (PSI). The maps of spatial variability of soil and field topographic attributes were generated using ordinary kriging geostatistical method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the most important soil and topographic attributes for representing within-field variability. Principal component analysis of input variables indicated that EM38 horizontal readings (EM38h), soil saturation percentage and digital elevation model were more important attributes for defining field management zones. The fuzzy c-means clustering method was used to divide the field into potential management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Measures of cluster performance indicated no advantage of dividing these fields into more than five management zones. The defined management zones not only provided a better description of the soil properties, but also can direct soil sampling design and provide valuable information for site-specific management in precision agriculture

  20. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  1. New Au-U deposit type in the weathering crust in tectonicmetasomatite zones of Pre-Cambrian shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Au-U mineralization is widely distributed in the tectonic-metasomatite zones of Pre-Cambrian shields (Aldan Shield, Ukraine Shield and others). The industrial ores are located only in several areas at depths of more than 150-300 m. Uranium mineralization is represented by uranotitnates and the gold mineralization by auriferous pyrite. The zone of weathering is present to the depth of 100-150 m. The feldspars are replaced by the clay minerals, carbonates are dissovled, sulfides are oxidized and the secondary minerals of uranium replace uranotitanates.The golden mineralization in the envelope of weathering is represented by the fine-grained native gold. The particle size is 40-50 nm. Uranium mineralization is in the form of relict brannerite, tuyamunite, torbernite, carnotite. The gold content is 1-2 g/t, and uranium content 0.01- 0.05% U. Ore bodies of gold and uranium are located inside the tectonic-metasomatite zones. The zones of maximum concentration of these metals may not coincide. The gold ore bodies have the length of hundreds meters and a thickness of 1-5 m. The vertical extent of the secondary Au-U mineralization is 100-150 m. 20 laboratory samples of ore from the weathered zone were tested by the method of heap leaching. The first stage is the uranium leach by diluted sulfuric acid. The second stage is the cyanation of gold and silver. The experimental data indicates leach rate of uranium 75%, gold 80-97%, silver 50-60%. Gold resources in the continous zone is estimated to be 80 t. Gold resources of the several other zones inside the area of 100 km 2 are estimated as 220 t. The heap leach process can be used for profitable development of the low-grade deposits. This method helps to increase the resources of gold and uranium. (author)

  2. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  3. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  4. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Lihua Cui; Gary Feng; John Read

    2015-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) model for estimating phosphorus (P) removal in an artificial VFCW (i.e., a substrate column with six zones) grown...

  5. Implementation of a flaw model to the fracturing around a vertical shaft

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Steen, B

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available -scale excavations. The simulated fracture pattern around a vertical shaft is compared to the fracturing around a shaft at a depth of 3400 m. The simulations suggest that wedge-shaped zones, called dog-ears, a reformed by a progressive splitting-like failure...

  6. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  7. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  8. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  9. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  10. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  11. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  12. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  13. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  14. Seasonality and vertical structure of microbial communities in an ocean gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treusch, Alexander H; Vergin, Kevin L; Finlay, Liam A; Donatz, Michael G; Burton, Robert M; Carlson, Craig A; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    Vertical, seasonal and geographical patterns in ocean microbial communities have been observed in many studies, but the resolution of community dynamics has been limited by the scope of data sets, which are seldom up to the task of illuminating the highly structured and rhythmic patterns of change found in ocean ecosystems. We studied vertical and temporal patterns in the microbial community composition in a set of 412 samples collected from the upper 300 m of the water column in the northwestern Sargasso Sea, on cruises between 1991 and 2004. The region sampled spans the extent of deep winter mixing and the transition between the euphotic and the upper mesopelagic zones, where most carbon fixation and reoxidation occurs. A bioinformatic pipeline was developed to de-noise, normalize and align terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data from three restriction enzymes and link T-RFLP peaks to microbial clades. Non-metric multidimensional scaling statistics resolved three microbial communities with distinctive composition during seasonal stratification: a surface community in the region of lowest nutrients, a deep chlorophyll maximum community and an upper mesopelagic community. A fourth microbial community was associated with annual spring blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton that occur in the northwestern Sargasso Sea as a consequence of winter convective mixing that entrains nutrients to the surface. Many bacterial clades bloomed in seasonal patterns that shifted with the progression of stratification. These richly detailed patterns of community change suggest that highly specialized adaptations and interactions govern the success of microbial populations in the oligotrophic ocean.

  15. Comparison of a vertically-averaged and a vertically-resolved model for hyporheic flow beneath a pool-riffle bedform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad; Steffler, Peter; She, Yuntong

    2018-02-01

    The interaction between surface water and groundwater through the hyporheic zone is recognized to be important as it impacts the water quantity and quality in both flow systems. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling is the most complete representation of a real-world hyporheic zone. However, 3D modeling requires extreme computational power and efforts; the sophistication is often significantly compromised by not being able to obtain the required input data accurately. Simplifications are therefore often needed. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of the vertically-averaged approximation compared to a more complete vertically-resolved model of the hyporheic zone. The groundwater flow was modeled by either a simple one-dimensional (1D) Dupuit approach or a two-dimensional (2D) horizontal/vertical model in boundary fitted coordinates, with the latter considered as a reference model. Both groundwater models were coupled with a 1D surface water model via the surface water depth. Applying the two models to an idealized pool-riffle sequence showed that the 1D Dupuit approximation gave comparable results in determining the characteristics of the hyporheic zone to the reference model when the stratum thickness is not very large compared to the surface water depth. Conditions under which the 1D model can provide reliable estimate of the seepage discharge, upwelling/downwelling discharges and locations, the hyporheic flow, and the residence time were determined.

  16. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  17. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  18. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  19. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  20. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  1. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  2. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  3. Vertical structures in vibrated wormlike micellar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Tamir; Deegan, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Vertically vibrated shear thickening particulate suspensions can support a free-standing interfaces oriented parallel to gravity. We find that shear thickening worm-like micellar solutions also support such vertical interfaces. Above a threshold in acceleration, the solution spontaneously accumulates into a labyrinthine pattern characterized by a well-defined vertical edge. The formation of vertical structures is of interest because they are unique to shear-thickening fluids, and they indicate the existence of an unknown stress bearing mechanism.

  4. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  5. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  6. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  7. Transport of elemental mercury in the unsaturated zone from a waste disposal site in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury contained in buried landfill waste may be released via upward emission to the atmosphere or downward leaching to groundwater. Data from the US Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in arid southwestern Nevada reveal another potential pathway of Hg release: long-distance (102 m) lateral migration of elemental Hg (Hg0) through the unsaturated zone. Gas collected from multiple depths from two instrumented boreholes that sample the entire 110-m unsaturated zone thickness and are located 100 and 160 m away from the closest waste burial trench exhibit gaseous Hg concentrations of up to 33 and 11 ng m−3, respectively. The vertical distribution of gaseous Hg in the borehole closest to the disposal site shows distinct subsurface peaks in concentration at depths of 1.5 and 24 m that cannot be explained by radial diffusive transport through a heterogeneous layered unsaturated zone. The inability of current models to explain gaseous Hg distribution at the ADRS highlights the need to advance the understanding of gas-phase contaminant transport in unsaturated zones to attain a comprehensive model of landfill Hg release.

  8. Vertical ecology of the pelagic ocean: classical patterns and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T T

    2013-12-01

    Applications of acoustic and optical sensing and intensive, discrete-depth sampling, in concert with collaborative international research programmes, have substantially advanced knowledge of pelagic ecosystems in the 17 years since the 1996 Deepwater Fishes Symposium of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Although the epipelagic habitat is the best-known, and remote sensing and high-resolution modelling allow near-synoptic investigation of upper layer biophysical dynamics, ecological studies within the mesopelagic and deep-demersal habitats have begun to link lower and upper trophic level processes. Bathypelagic taxonomic inventories are far from complete, but recent projects (e.g. MAR-ECO and CMarZ, supported by the Census of Marine Life programme) have quantitatively strengthened distribution patterns previously described for fishes and have provided new perspectives. Synthesis of net and acoustic studies suggests that the biomass of deep-pelagic fishes may be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the total global commercial fisheries landings. Discrete-depth net sampling has revealed relatively high pelagic fish biomass below 1000 m in some regions, and that gelatinous zooplankton may be key energy vectors for deep-pelagic fish production. Lastly, perhaps, the most substantive paradigm shift is that vertical connectivity among fishes across classical depth zones is prevalent- suggesting that a whole-water column approach is warranted for deep ocean conservation and management. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  10. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam

  11. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  12. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets . XXXII. New multi-planet systems in the HARPS volume limited sample: a super-Earth and a Neptune in the habitable zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, G.; Mayor, M.; Benz, W.; Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2013-03-01

    The vast diversity of planetary systems detected to date is defying our capability of understanding their formation and evolution. Well-defined volume-limited surveys are the best tool at our disposal to tackle the problem, via the acquisition of robust statistics of the orbital elements. We are using the HARPS spectrograph to conduct our survey of ≈850 nearby solar-type stars, and in the course of the past nine years we have monitored the radial velocity of HD 103774, HD 109271, and BD-061339. In this work we present the detection of five planets orbiting these stars, with msin (i) between 0.6 and 7 Neptune masses, four of which are in two multiple systems, comprising one super-Earth and one planet within the habitable zone of a late-type dwarf. Although for strategic reasons we chose efficiency over precision in this survey, we have the capability to detect planets down to the Neptune and super-Earth mass range as well as multiple systems, provided that enough data points are made available. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla (Chile), under the GTO program ID 072.C-0488 and the regular programs: 085.C-0019, 087.C-0831 and 089.C-0732. RV data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A59

  13. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  14. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  15. Acoustic observation of living organisms reveals the upper limit of the oxygen minimum zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change.

  16. Reconstruction of B- → D*0e- anti νe decays and determination of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this analysis the decay B - → D *0 e - anti ν e is measured. The underlying data sample consists of about 226 million B anti B-pairs accumulated on the Υ(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e + e - collider PEP-II. The reconstruction of the decay uses the channels D *0 → D 0 π 0 , D 0 → K - π + and π 0 → γγ. The neutrino is not reconstructed. Since the rest frame of the B meson is unknown, the boost w of the D *0 meson in the B meson rest frame is estimated by w. The w spectrum of the data is described in terms of the partial decay width dΓ/dw given by theory and the detector simulation translating each spectrum dΓ/dw into an expectation of the measured w spectrum. dΓ/dw depends on a form factor F(w) parameterizing the strong interaction in the decay process. To find the best descriptive dΓ/dw a fit to the data determines the following two parameters of dΓ/dw: (i) F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, the product between F at zero D *0 -recoil and the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke; (ii) ρ 2 A1 , a parameter of the form factor F(w). The former parameter scales the height of dΓ/dw and ρ 2 A1 varies the shape of it. The determined values of F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, ρ 2 A1 and B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e ) are F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke =(35.8±0.5±1.5) x 10 -3 , ρ 2 A1 =(1.08±0.05±0.09) and B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e )=(5.60±0.08±0.42)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The values of B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e ) has been determined by an integration of dΓ/dw over the allowed w range using the fitted values of F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke and ρ 2 A1 . (orig.)

  17. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  18. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  19. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  20. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  1. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  2. Vertical and temporal dynamics of phytoplanktonic associations and the application of index assembly in tropical semi-arid eutrophic reservoir, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryscila Cynara Soares Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimTo determine the composition and biomass of functional groups around the vertical and temporal gradient correlated with environmental conditions and apply the index Q in a water-supply reservoir.MethodsWater samples were collected monthly (n = 92 between 2009 and 2011 in two points of the dam for physicochemical and biological analysis.ResultsThe pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature showed significant differences between the photic and aphotic zones (p<0.05. The vertical variation of dissolved oxygen and water temperature, showed a profile of stratification. The phytoplankton community was represented by 11 functional groups: S1, M, H1, Lo, P, F, SN, J, W2, MP and R.ConclusionsThe vertical variations were less pronounced than the temporal variations in the phytoplankton community. The Q index pointed out poor water quality, corresponding to the current state of eutrophication in the reservoir and it was sensitive to responsive to environmental and hydrodynamic changes in these systems, demonstrating to be an appropriate tool for monitoring and evaluating the quality of water in tropical semi-arid reservoirs.

  3. Influence of ignored and well-known zone distortions on the separation performance of proteins in capillary free zone electrophoresis with special reference to analysis in polyacrylamide-coated fused silica capillaries in various buffers. I. Theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertén, Stellan; Mohabbati, Sheila; Westerlund, Douglas

    2004-10-22

    Distortion of the starting zone upon its electrophoretic migration toward the detection window gives rise to both symmetrical zones caused by diffusion, sedimentation in the horizontal section of the capillary and the curvature of the capillary, and asymmetrical zones having their origin in Joule heating, sedimentation in the vertical section of the capillary, pH and conductivity differences between the sample zone and the surrounding buffer, solute adsorption onto the capillary wall, and association-dissociation of complexes between the analyte and a buffer constituent or between analytes. Interestingly and importantly a theoretical study shows that moderate pH and conductivity differences as well as adsorption and all of the above interactions when they are characterized by a fast on/off kinetics do not increase the zone broadening (or only slightly), because the sharpening of one boundary of the zone is about the same as the broadening of the other boundary. In addition the peak symmetry caused by a conductivity difference is in most experiments counteracted by a pH difference. The experimentally determined plate numbers in the absence of electroosmosis exceeded one million per meter in some experiments (Part II). These plate numbers are among the highest reported [Z. Zhao, A. Malik, M.L. Lee, Anal. Chem. 65 (1993) 2747; M. Gilges, K. Kleemiss, G. Schomburg, Anal. Chem. 66 (1994) 2038; H. Wan, M. Ohman, L.G. Blomberg, J. Chromatogr. A 924 (2001) 591 (plate numbers determined in the presence of electroosmosis may be higher, although the width of the zone in the capillary may be larger) [p. 680 in S. Hjertén, Electrophoresis 11 (1990) 665]). Capillary free zone electrophoresis is perhaps the only separation method, which, under optimum conditions, gives a plate number not far from the theoretical limit. A prerequisite for this high performance is that the polyacrylamide-coated capillary is washed with 2 M HCl between the runs and stored in water over night (Part

  4. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  5. Vertical Distributions of Coccolithophores, PIC, POC, Biogenic Silica, and Chlorophyll a Throughout the Global Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William M; Bowler, Bruce C; Drapeau, David T; Lubelczyk, Laura C; Lyczkowski, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Coccolithophores are a critical component of global biogeochemistry, export fluxes, and seawater optical properties. We derive globally significant relationships to estimate integrated coccolithophore and coccolith concentrations as well as integrated concentrations of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) from their respective surface concentration. We also examine surface versus integral relationships for other biogeochemical variables contributed by all phytoplankton (e.g., chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon) or diatoms (biogenic silica). Integrals are calculated using both 100 m integrals and euphotic zone integrals (depth of 1% surface photosynthetically available radiation). Surface concentrations are parameterized in either volumetric units (e.g., m -3 ) or values integrated over the top optical depth. Various relationships between surface concentrations and integrated values demonstrate that when surface concentrations are above a specific threshold, the vertical distribution of the property is biased to the surface layer, and when surface concentrations are below a specific threshold, the vertical distributions of the properties are biased to subsurface maxima. Results also show a highly predictable decrease in explained-variance as vertical distributions become more vertically heterogeneous. These relationships have fundamental utility for extrapolating surface ocean color remote sensing measurements to 100 m depth or to the base of the euphotic zone, well beyond the depths of detection for passive ocean color remote sensors. Greatest integrated concentrations of PIC, coccoliths, and coccolithophores are found when there is moderate stratification at the base of the euphotic zone.

  6. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  7. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  8. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  9. Experimental constraints on partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; Van Westrenen, W.; van Bergen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fast diffusion and homogenization of divalent cations hamper the preservation of original chemical compositions and zoning patterns of igneous olivine phenocrysts. Sluggish intracrystalline diffusion of phosphorus in igneous olivine on the other hand allows the complex zoning patterns to be retained, making it a crucial element for reconstruction of cooling histories and evolution of the host magma. Crystallization rate variations, diffusion controlled growth or compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning have been put forward as mechanisms controlling zoning of igneous olivine in phosphorus. Here, we investigate partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivines by a comparison of natural and experimentally grown olivines. We explore the importance of variable degrees of undercooling and cooling rates in crystallizing melt (M1) with a starting composition equivalent to that of an Italian high-potassium basalt (Tliq=1274 °C). We examine the extent of compositional control on partitioning by varying the amount of alkali enrichment in starting compositions that are otherwise equivalent to melt M1. Olivine crystallization experiments were conducted in rhenium capsules suspended in a vertical 1-atm gas-mixing furnace at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) with fO2 buffered at 1.4 to 1.7 log units below the Ni-NiO buffer. Sets of dynamic crystallization experiments with various degrees of undercooling and controlled cooling rate experiments with varying cooling rates were performed. We compare the results with our extensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian K-rich mafic lavas and olivine hosted primitive melt inclusions (MIs). Phosphorus concentrations in the natural olivines reach 435 ppm P and MIs contain up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-4 µm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory, patchy and large scale sector zoning in P, uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are almost always found in P-poor zones

  10. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  11. Vertical distribution of 55Fe in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    The highest concentrations of 55 Fe in the ocean are found in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones with only low concentrations occurring in benthic animals and sediments. 55 Fe in the sediment appears in a very thin surface layer in the equatorial Pacific so that great care in sampling must be exercised to ensure accurate measurement

  12. The use of imagery of the earth to study the structure of degassing zones within oil and gas basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amurskii, G I; Bondareva, M S

    1981-05-01

    Space imagery is used to identify and trace the local faults and fracture zones of several anticlinal structures in Central Asia. These zones, favorable to the vertical migration of stratified fluids, exhibit an increased permeability, and are therefore subject to degassing and the accumulation of gaseous sulfur.

  13. Migration Imaging of the Java Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, Ramin M. H.; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging of tectonically complex regions can greatly benefit from dense network data and resolution enhancement techniques. Conventional methods in the analysis of SS precursors stack the waveforms to obtain an average discontinuity depth, but smearing due to large Fresnel zones can degrade the fine-scale topography on the discontinuity. To provide a partial solution, we introduce a depth migration algorithm based on the common scattering point method while considering nonspecular diffractions from mantle transition zone discontinuities. Our analysis indicates that, beneath the Sunda arc, the depth of the 410 km discontinuity (the 410) is elevated by 30 km and the 660 km discontinuity (the 660) is depressed by 20-40 km; the region of the strongest anticorrelation is correlated with the morphology of the subducting Indo-Australian slab. In eastern Java, a "flat" 410 coincides with a documented slab gap, showing length scales greater than 400 km laterally and 200 km vertically. This observation could be explained by the arrival of a buoyant oceanic plateau at the Java trench at approximately 8 Ma ago, which may have caused a temporary cessation of subduction and formed a tear in the subducting slab. Our results highlight contrasting depths of the 410 and 660 along the shallow-dipping slab below the Banda trench. The 660, however, becomes significantly uplifted beneath the Banda Sea, which is accompanied by enhanced reflection amplitudes. We interpret these observations as evidence for a subslab low-velocity zone, possibly related to the lower mantle upwelling beneath the subducting slab.

  14. Operational air sampling report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products

  15. Combined VIS-IR spectrometer with vertical probe beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopov, V.

    2017-12-01

    A prototype of a combined visible-infrared spectrometer with a vertical probe beam is designed and tested. The combined spectral range is 0.4-20 μ with spatial resolution 1 mm. Basic features include the ability to measure both visibly transparent and opaque substances, as well as buried structures, such as in semiconductor industry; horizontal orientation of a sample, including semiconductor wafers; and reflection mode of operation, delivering twice the sensitivity compared to the transmission mode.

  16. Estimating Vertical Stress on Soil Subjected to Vehicular Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    specified surface area of the tire . The silt and sand samples were both estimated to be 23.7-in. thick over a base of much harder soil. The pressures...study in which highway tread tires were used as opposed to the all-terrain tread currently on the vehicle. If the pressure pads are functioning...Vertical force versus time (front right CIV tire )....................................................................... 14 Tables Table 1. Testing

  17. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  18. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  19. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  20. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  1. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  2. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  4. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  5. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  6. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  7. Towards Cost-efficient Sampling Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Luo; Yongli, Li; Chong, Wu

    2014-01-01

    The sampling method has been paid much attention in the field of complex network in general and statistical physics in particular. This paper presents two new sampling methods based on the perspective that a small part of vertices with high node degree can possess the most structure information of a network. The two proposed sampling methods are efficient in sampling the nodes with high degree. The first new sampling method is improved on the basis of the stratified random sampling method and...

  8. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  10. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  11. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  12. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  13. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  14. Subduction and vertical coastal motions in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Copley, Alex; McKenzie, Dan; Nissen, Ed

    2017-10-01

    Convergence in the eastern Mediterranean of oceanic Nubia with Anatolia and the Aegean is complex and poorly understood. Large volumes of sediment obscure the shallow structure of the subduction zone, and since much of the convergence is accommodated aseismically, there are limited earthquake data to constrain its kinematics. We present new source models for recent earthquakes, combining these with field observations, published GPS velocities and reflection-seismic data to investigate faulting in three areas: the Florence Rise, SW Turkey and the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The depths and locations of earthquakes reveal the geometry of the subducting Nubian plate NE of the Florence Rise, a bathymetric high that is probably formed by deformation of sediment at the surface projection of the Anatolia-Nubia subduction interface. In SW Turkey, the presence of a strike-slip shear zone has often been inferred despite an absence of strike-slip earthquakes. We show that the GPS-derived strain-rate field is consistent with extension on the orthogonal systems of normal faults observed in the region and that strike-slip faulting is not required to explain observed GPS velocities. Further SW, the Pliny and Strabo Trenches are also often interpreted as strike-slip shear zones, but almost all nearby earthquakes have either reverse-faulting or normal-faulting focal mechanisms. Oblique convergence across the trenches may be accommodated either by a partitioned system of strike-slip and reverse faults or by oblique slip on the Aegean-Nubia subduction interface. The observed late-Quaternary vertical motions of coastlines close to the subduction zone are influenced by the interplay between: (1) thickening of the material overriding the subduction interface associated with convergence, which promotes coastal uplift; and (2) subsidence due to extension and associated crustal thinning. Long-wavelength gravity data suggest that some of the observed topographic contrasts in the eastern

  15. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  16. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  17. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  18. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  19. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  20. Vertical integration increases opportunities for patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoccia, R A; Benvenuto, J A; Blancett, L

    1991-08-01

    New sources of patients will become more and more important in the next decade as hospitals continue to feel the squeeze of a competitive marketplace. Vertical integration, a distribution tool used in other industries, will be a significant tool for health care administrators. In the following article, the authors explain the vertical integration model that shows promise for other institutions.

  1. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  2. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  3. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  4. Aerial Surveys of the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone in 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Andersen, R.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) of the Beaufort Sea aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights were made monthly from May 2012 to October 2012, June 2013 to August 2013, and June 2014 to October 2014. In 2012 sea ice extent reached a record minimum and the SIZRS sampling ranged from complete ice cover to open water; in addition to its large spatial coverage, the SIZRS program extends temporal coverage of the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) beyond the traditional season for ship-based observations, and is a good set of measurements for model validation and climatological comparison. The SIZ, where ice melts and reforms annually, encompasses the marginal ice zone (MIZ). Thus SIZRS tracks interannual MIZ conditions, providing a regional context for smaller-scale MIZ processes. Observations with Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) reveal two near-surface warm layers: a locally-formed surface seasonal mixed layer and a layer of Pacific origin at 50-60m. Temperatures in the latter differ from the freezing point by up to 2°C more than climatologies. To distinguish vertical processes of mixed layer formation from Pacific advection, vertical heat and salt fluxes are quantified using a 1-D Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) model adapted for ice-covered seas. This PWP simulates mixing processes in the top 100m of the ocean. Surface forcing fluxes are taken from the Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System MIZMAS. Comparison of SIZRS observations with PWP output shows that the ocean behaves one-dimensionally above the Pacific layer of the Beaufort Gyre. Despite agreement with the MIZMAS-forced PWP, SIZRS observations remain fresher to 100m than do outputs from MIZMAS and ECCO.2. The shapes of seasonal cycles in SIZRS salinity and temperature agree with MIZMAS and ECCO.2 model outputs despite differences in the values of each. However, the seasonal change of surface albedo is not high enough resolution to accurately drive the PWP. Use of ice albedo

  5. Surface and subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of groundwater recharge processes through the karst vadose zone at Rochefort Cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Triantafyllou, A.; Delforge, D.; Quinif, Y.; Van Ruymbeke, M.; Kaufmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based gravimetry is a non-invasive and integrated tool to characterize hydrological processes in complex environments such as karsts or volcanoes. A problem in ground-based gravity measurements however concerns the lack of sensitivity in the first meters below the topographical surface, added to limited infiltration below the gravimeter building (umbrella effect). Such limitations disappear when measuring underground. Coupling surface and subsurface gravity measurements therefore allow isolating hydrological signals occurring in the zone between the two gravimeters. We present a coupled surface/subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of 2 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium). The gravity record includes surface measurements of a GWR superconducting gravimeter and subsurface measurements of a Micro-g LaCoste gPhone gravimeter, installed in a cave 35 m below the surface station. The recharge of karstic aquifers is extremely complex to model, mostly because karst hydrological systems are composed of strongly heterogeneous flows. Most of the problem comes from the inadequacy of conventional measuring tools to correctly sample such heterogeneous media, and particularly the existence of a duality of flow types infiltrating the vadose zone: from rapid flows via open conduits to slow seepage through porous matrix. Using the surface/subsurface gravity difference, we were able to identify a significant seasonal groundwater recharge within the karst vadose zone. Seasonal or perennial perched reservoirs have already been proven to exist in several karst areas due to the heterogeneity of the porosity and permeability gradient in karstified carbonated rocks. Our gravimetric experiment allows assessing more precisely the recharge processes of such reservoirs. The gravity variations were also compared with surface and in-cave hydrogeological monitoring (i.e. soil moisture, in-cave percolating water discharges, water levels of the saturated zone). Combined

  6. Variation in the diel vertical distributions of larvae and transforming stages of oceanic fishes across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Contreras, Tabit; Hulley, P. Alexander; Emelianov, Mikhail; López-Pérez, Cristina; Tuset, Víctor; Castellón, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    The vertical distributions of early developmental stages of oceanic fishes were investigated across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, from oligotrophic waters close to the Brazilian coast to more productive waters close to the Mauritanian Upwelling Region. Stratification of the water column was observed throughout the study region. Fishes were caught with a MOCNESS-1 net with mouth area of 1 m2 at 11 stations. Each station was sampled both during the day and at night within a single 24-h period. The investigation covered both larvae and transforming stages from the surface to 800 m depth. Distribution patterns were analysed, and weighted mean depths for the larvae and transforming stages of each species were calculated for day and night conditions. Forty-seven different species were found. The highest number of species occurred in the three stations south of Cape Verde Islands, characterized by a mixture of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW). There was a marked drop in species richness in the three stations closer to the African upwelling, dominated by ENACW. The highest abundances occurred in the families Myctophidae, Sternoptychidae, Gonostomatidae and Phosichthyidae. Day and night vertical distributions of larvae and transforming stages showed contrasting patterns, both in the depths of the main concentration layers in the water column, and in the diel migration patterns (where these were observed). Larvae generally showed a preference for the upper mixed layer (ca. 0-50 m) and upper thermocline (ca. 50-100 m), except for sternoptychids, which were also abundant in the lower thermocline layer (100-200 m) and even extended into the mesopelagic zone (down to 500 m). Transforming stages showed a more widespread distribution, with main concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200-800 m). Larvae showed peak concentrations in the more illuminated and zooplankton-rich upper mixed layers during the day and a wider

  7. Prediction of critical heat flux in vertical pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.; Healzer, J.M.; Abdollahian, D.

    1981-01-01

    A previously developed semi-empirical model for adiabatic two-phase annular flow ix extended to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical pipe. The model exhibits a sharply declining curve of CHF versus steam quality (X) at low X, and is relatively independent of the heat flux distribution. In this region, vaporization of the liquid film controls. At high X, net deposition upon the liquid film becomes important and CHF versus X flattens considerably. In this zone, CHF is dependent upon the heat flux distribution. Model predictions are compared to test data and an empirical correlation. The agreement is generally good if one employs previously reported mass transfer coefficients. (orig.)

  8. Small scale denitrification variability in riparian zones: Results from a high-resolution dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Knöller, Kay; Musolff, Andreas; Popp, Felix; Lüders, Tillmann; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Riparian zones are important compartments at the interface between groundwater and surface water where biogeochemical processes like denitrification are often enhanced. Nitrate loads of either groundwater entering a stream through the riparian zone or streamwater infiltrating into the riparian zone can be substantially reduced. These processes are spatially and temporally highly variable, making it difficult to capture solute variabilities, estimate realistic turnover rates and thus to quantify integral mass removal. A crucial step towards a more detailed characterization is to monitor solutes on a scale which adequately resemble the highly heterogeneous distribution and on a scale where processes occur. We measured biogeochemical parameters in a spatial high resolution within a riparian corridor of a German lowland river system over the course of one year. Samples were taken from three newly developed high-resolution multi-level wells with a maximum vertical resolution of 5 cm and analyzed for major ions, DOC and N-O isotopes. Sediment derived during installation of the wells was analyzed for specific denitrifying enzymes. Results showed a distinct depth zonation of hydrochemistry within the shallow alluvial aquifer, with a 1 m thick zone just below the water table with lower nitrate concentrations and EC values similar to the nearby river. Conservative parameters were consistent inbetween the three wells, but nitrate was highly variable. In addition, spots with low nitrate concentrations showed isotopic and microbial evidence for higher denitrification activities. The depth zonation was observed throughout the year, with stronger temporal variations of nitrate concentrations just below the water table compared to deeper layers. Nitrate isotopes showed a clear seasonal trend of denitrification activities (high in summer, low in winter). Our dataset gives new insight into river-groundwater exchange processes and shows the highly heterogeneous distribution of

  9. Numerical study of the structure of thermal plume in a vertical channel: Effect of the height of canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouini Belgacem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to study numerically, by means of a software Named Calculation FDS, a thermal plume evolve from a source at the entrance to of a vertical channel. In the literature, there are researchers who interested in the interaction of plume with his the confinement medium. These studies are based on the determination of the global structure of plume confined. They found that this plume consists of three distinct zones. A first zone near source (instability zone followed by a second zone, such as the development of plume, and a third zone which is the zone of turbulence, Comparing the overall structure of the plume confined to that of the free plume, we can identify the presence of a third zone (zone of instability. The aim is firstly to determine the height of the instability zone located above of source, and secondly, to make a spectral study frequencies exhaust. Thus, effects of the geometrical parameters on frequencies of these escapements and the height an instability zone. The final aim is to establish correlations between the dimensionless numbers of Strouhal and Grashof.

  10. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  11. Flow Reversal of Fully-Developed Mixed MHD Convection in Vertical Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.; Hashim, I.

    2010-01-01

    The present analysis is concerned with flow reversal phenomena of the fully-developed laminar combined free and forced MHD convection in a vertical parallel-plate channel. The effect of viscous dissipation is taken into account. Flow reversal adjacent to the cold (or hot) wall is found to exist within the channel as Gr/Re is above (or below) a threshold value. Parameter zones for the occurrence of reversed flow are presented. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  12. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  13. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  14. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  15. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  16. Vertical distribution and isotopic composition of living planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, R.G.; Wiebe, P.H.; Be, A.W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen species of planktonic foraminifera collected with vertically stratified zooplankton tows in the slope water, Gulf Stream cold core ring, and northern Sargasso Sea show significant differences in their vertical distributions in the upper 200 meters of these different hydrographic regimes. Gulf Stream cold core rings may be responsible for a southern displacement of the faunal boundary associated with the Gulf Stream when reconstructed from the deep-sea sediment record. Oxygen isotope analyses of seven species reveal that nonspinose species (algal symbiont-barren) apparently calcify in oxygen isotope equilibrium, whereas spinose species usually calcify out of oxygen isotope equilibrium by approximately -0.3 to -0.4 per mil in delta 18 O values. The isotope data indicate that foraminifera shells calcify in depth zones that are significantly narrower than the overall vertical distribution of a species would imply

  17. Zone fluidics for measurement of octanol-water partition coefficient of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanasin, Panwadee; Saetear, Phoonthawee; Wilairat, Prapin; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Teerasong, Saowapak

    2015-02-20

    A novel zone fluidics (ZF) system for the determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient (Pow) of drugs was developed. The ZF system consisted of a syringe pump with a selection valve, a holding column, a silica capillary flow-cell and an in-line spectrophotometer. Exact microliter volumes of solvents (octanol and phosphate buffer saline) and a solution of the drug, sandwiched between air segments, were sequentially loaded into the vertically aligned holding column. Distribution of the drug between the aqueous and octanol phases occurred by the oscillation movement of the syringe pump piston. Phase separation occurred due to the difference in densities. The liquid zones were then pushed into the detection flow cell. In this method, absorbance measurements in only one of the phase (octanol or aqueous) were employed, which together with the volumes of the solvents and pure drug sample, allowed the calculation of the Pow. The developed system was applied to the determination of the Pow of some common drugs. The log (Pow) values agreed well with a batch method (R(2)=0.999) and literature (R(2)=0.997). Standard deviations for intra- and inter-day analyses were both less than 0.1log unit. This ZF system provides a robust and automated method for screening of Pow values in the drug discovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    soil properties are studied by varying the unsaturated parameters α and n over a wide range. ... Keywords. Unsaturated zone; capillary fringe; finite element method. ... and radioactive wastes. Several .... The length (L) of the soil sample is 1 m.

  19. Definition of a critical confining zone using surface geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.; Harthill, N.; Blohm, M.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Definition of the hydrogeologic framework in layered sediments of fluvial and deltaic origin is a difficult challenge for environmental characterization and remediation programs due to the lithologic and stratigraphic heterogeneities inherent in these settings. These heterogeneties often control contaminant transport and the effectiveness of remediation alternatives, Surface geophysical surveys can be cost-effective methods for characterization, but individual methods have inherent limitations in resolution and sensitivity. A synergistic approach, utilizing two geophysical survey methods was applied, to define and examine the nature and extent of a deep confining zone of regulatory importance, the Crouch Branch Confining Unit, in Coastal Plain sediments at the Savannah River Site. TDEM accurately maps the overall conductance (product of thickness and electrical conductivity) of a confining zone clay facies; from variation in conductance, changes in lithology of the conforming zone can be inferred. Shear wave seismic reflection surveys map the depth to the clay layers, and the clay layer thickness, but provides little information on the lithologic nature of the confining zone. Integrated interpretation of the combined data set (including all available borehole logs) allows for delineation of the lateral and vertical extent of clay-dominated zones, sand-dominated zones, key stratigraphic horizons, and erosional features associated with unconformities. This approach has resulted in the collection of critical information that will be used to optimize remedial system design, representing a significant cost savings to environmental restoration programs at the Savannah River Site

  20. Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşoiu, C. I.; Georgescu, A. M.; Degeratu, M.; Haşegan, L.; Hlevca, D.

    2012-11-01

    The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.

  1. Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coşoiu, C I; Georgescu, A M; Degeratu, M; Haşegan, L; Hlevca, D

    2012-01-01

    The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.

  2. COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vroublevski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.

  3. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  4. Special zone territory decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  6. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  7. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  8. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  9. Sampling Large Graphs for Anticipatory Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    low. C. Random Area Sampling Random area sampling [8] is a “ snowball ” sampling method in which a set of random seed vertices are selected and areas... Sampling Large Graphs for Anticipatory Analytics Lauren Edwards, Luke Johnson, Maja Milosavljevic, Vijay Gadepally, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...systems, greater human-in-the-loop involvement, or through complex algorithms. We are investigating the use of sampling to mitigate these challenges

  10. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  11. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  12. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, A.

    2016-01-21

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  13. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, A.; Landeira, J.M.; Escá nez, A.; Wienerroither, R.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, S.; Herná ndez-Leó n, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  14. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  15. Late Quaternary strike-slip along the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone and its tectonic implications in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-xing; Zheng, Wen-jun; Zhang, Pei-zhen; Lei, Qi-yun; Wang, Xu-long; Wang, Wei-tao; Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Ning

    2017-11-01

    The Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan are composed of discontinuous a set of active faults with various strikes and slip motions that are located to the north of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Despite growing understanding of the geometry and kinematics of these active faults, the late Quaternary deformation pattern in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan remains controversial. The active E-W trending Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone is located in the southern Gobi Alashan. Study of the geometry and nature of slip along this fault zone holds crucial value for better understanding the regional deformation pattern. Field investigations combined with high-resolution imagery show that the Taohuala Shan fault and the E-W trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F2 and F5) are left-lateral strike-slip faults, whereas the NW or WNW-trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F1 and F3) are reverse faults. We collected Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and cosmogenic exposure age dating samples from offset alluvial fan surfaces, and estimated a vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr, and a strike-slip rate of 0.14-0.93 mm/yr for the Taohuala Shan fault. Strata revealed in a trench excavated across the major fault (F5) in the Ayouqi fault zone and OSL dating results indicate that the most recent earthquake occurred between ca. 11.05 ± 0.52 ka and ca. 4.06 ± 0.29 ka. The geometry and kinematics of the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone enable us to build a deformation pattern for the entire Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, which suggest that this region experiences northeastward oblique extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. These left-lateral strike-slip faults in the region are driven by oblique compression but not associated with the northeastward extension of the Altyn Tagh fault.

  16. Measuring of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke in the forthcoming decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    I first introduce the importance of measuring V ub precisely. Then, from a theoretician's point of view, I review (a) past history, (b) present trials, and (c) possible future alternatives on measuring vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke and/or vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke. As of my main topic, I introduce a model-independent method, which predicts Γ(B→X u lν)/Γ(B→X c lν)≡(γ u /γ c ) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 ≅(1.83±0.28) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 and vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke ≡(γ c /γ u ) 1/2 x [B(B→X u lν)/B(B→ X c lν]) 1/2 ≅(0.74±0.06) x [B(B→X u lν/)B(B→X c lν)] 1/2 , based on the heavy quark effective theory I also explore the possible experimental options to separate B→X u lν from the dominant B→X c lν: the measurement of inclusive hadronic invariant mass distributions, and the 'D-π' (and 'K-π') separation conditions I also clarify the relevant experimental backgrounds. (orig.)

  17. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  18. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding airspace activity is essential for airspace control. Being able to detect vertical activity in aircraft allows prediction of aircraft intent, thereby allowing more accurate situation awareness and correspondingly more appropriate...

  19. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  20. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  1. Vertical Integration, Exclusivity and Game Sales Performance in the U.S. Video Game Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Richard; Warzynski, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relation between vertical integration and video game performance in the U.S. video game industry. For this purpose, we use a widely used data set from NPD on video game montly sales from October 2000 to October 2007. We complement these data with handly collected information on video game developers for all games in the sample and the timing of all mergers and acquisitions during that period. By doing this, we are able to separate vertically integrated ...

  2. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  3. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  4. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  5. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  6. Regional variability of nitrate fluxes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant

    2018-01-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3− fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3− reactive transport processes make implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3− in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3−, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3−, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3− front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g. limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  7. Regional Variability of Nitrate Fluxes in the Unsaturated Zone and Groundwater, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-01-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3- reactive transport processes makes implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3- in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams, (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3-, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3- front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g., limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  8. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...

  9. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  10. Natural radon as a limnological tracer for the study of vertical and horizontal eddy diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imboden, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radon-222 (half-life 3.8 d) has been used successfully as a geochemical tracer for vertical near bottom mixing in the ocean. The parent nuclide radium-226 (half-life 1600 a) occurs in far greater quantities in sediments than in the water column, thus providing a boundary source for emanation of radon. Vertical mixing in lakes may be of central importance for the evolution of chemical and biological processes. Most lakes pass through a stagnation period during which the euphotic zone continuously loses nutrients by sedimentation of plankton through the thermocline. The return flux of nutrients from the sediments through the hypolimnion and thermocline to the euphotic layer can only be understood and quantified if vertical mixing processes are known. The traditional means by which vertical eddy diffusion is calculated is the temperature method. However, temperature changes near the bottom of deep lakes are often too small to be measured. Among various (natural or man-made) geochemical tracers radon-222 seems to be especially suitable for the study of vertical mixing since its 'memory' of about one week very often allows measured activities to be interpreted in terms of a relatively simple steady-state model

  11. The effect of vertical earthquake component on the uplift of the nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    During a strong earthquake, the base mat of a nuclear reactor building may be lifted partially by the response overturning moment. And it causes geometrical nonlinear interaction between the base mat and rock foundation beneath it. In order to avoid this uplift phenomena, the base mat and/or plan of the building is enlarged in some cases. These special design need more cost and/or time in construction. In the evaluation of the uplift phenomena, a parameter ''η'' named ''contact ratio'' is used defined as the ratio of compression stress zone area of base mat for total area of base mat. Usually this contact ratio is calculated under the combination of the maximum overturning moment obtained by the linear earthquake response analysis and the normal force by the gravity considering the effect of the vertical earthquake component. In this report, the effect of vertical earthquake component for the uplift phenomena is studied and it concludes that the vertical earthquake component gives little influence on the contact ratio. In order to obtain more reasonable contact retio, the nonlinear rocking analysis subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions simultaneously is proposed in this report. As the second best method, the combination of the maximum overturning moment obtained by linear analysis and the normal force by only the gravity without the vertical earthquake effect is proposed. (author)

  12. Experimental investigation on enhanced heat transfer of vertical condensers with trisection helical baffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Jiahao; Chen, Yaping; Wang, Mingchao; Dong, Cong; Guo, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Trisection helical baffles are introduced for vertical condenser enhancement. • Condensation in short-section and intermediate drainage is applied in new schemes. • Helical baffles with liquid dam and drainage gaps can promote condenser performance. • Dual-thread baffle scheme is superior to that of single-thread one by about 19%. • Condensation enhancement ratio of helical schemes is 1.5–2.5 over segment one. - Abstract: The vertical condensers have advantages of small occupation area, convenient in assemble or dismantle tube bundle and simple structure etc. However, the low heat transfer performance limits their applications. To enhance the heat transfer, a novel type of vertical condensers was designed by introducing trisection helical baffles with liquid dams and gaps for facilitating condensate drainage. Four configurations of vertical condensers with trisection helical baffle are experimentally studied and compared to a traditional segment baffle condenser. The enhancement ratio of trisection helical baffle schemes is about 1.5–2.5 and the heat transfer coefficient of the dual-thread trisection helical baffle scheme is superior to that of the single-thread one by about 19%. Assistant by the theoretical study, the experimental data is simulated and the condensation enhancement mechanisms by applying trisection helical baffle in vertical condenser are summarized as condensate drainage, short tube construct and reduce steam dead zone functions of the helical baffles.

  13. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  14. Grey zones of welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Harboe Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the ‘grey zones of welfare’ in rural Lithuania whereby I point to the inherent ambiguities that lies in a system where people to a high degree rely on networks and normative solutions to everyday shortcomings, rather than on the state. I argue that we in the period after socialism witness an increased degree of informal economies and social arrangements, as the formal sector of social security is perceived as unreliable. This results in a model where liberalism and individual ethics co-exist with a strong morality to support the poorest in society.

  15. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  16. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  17. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Serin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of different stretching exercises on vertical jump performance. A total of 14 national male athletes sporting in the elite level took part in the study. The age average of the participants was 20.25±1.03 year, the average height was 1.80±.08 m, the average body weight was 77.14±18.91 kg, average of sporting age was 9.87±3.31 year and the average number of participation in international games was 10.0±3.31. As stretching protocol: Method 1 (5 minutes of jogging and 2 minutes of active rest followed by Method 2 (static stretching for 4 different muscle groups 3 repetitions for 15 seconds of static stretching, rest for 10 seconds between groups and then consecutively, Method 3 (Dynamic stretching exercises with 3 repetitions for 15 seconds and 10 seconds rest between different muscle groups were applied in the study. The vertical jump performance before and after different stretching exercises of the participants was determined by means of the vertical jump test using the smart speed lite system. Before and after the training of all athletes, HR was recorded with a heart rate monitor (RS 800, Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Finland with 5 seconds intervals. Before the study, the chest band of the heartbeat monitor was placed on the chest of the athlete and the HR was recorded from the monitor. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program was used for evaluation and calculation of the data. In this study in addition to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation paired samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the vertical jump performance of the participants before and after different stretching exercises. As a result, this study showed that; applying the dynamic and static stretching exercises consecutively affected the vertical jump performance 4.5 cm positively (p<.05. It is suggested that different dynamic and static stretching exercises should be included in the vertical jump.

  19. Improvement of train-track interaction in transition zones via reduction of ballast damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the vertical stiffness of the rail support. Typically they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts, tunnels and level crossings. In such locations, the differential settlement always exists and

  20. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  1. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  2. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2012-06-05

    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  3. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  4. Managed care, vertical integration strategies and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B B; Wan, T T; Clement, J; Begun, J

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of managed care with hospital vertical integration strategies, as well as to observe the relationships of different types of vertical integration with hospital efficiency and financial performance. The sample consists of 363 California short-term acute care hospitals in 1994. Linear structure equation modeling is used to test six hypotheses derived from the strategic adaptation model. Several organizational and market factors are controlled statistically. Results suggest that managed care is a driving force for hospital vertical integration. In terms of performance, hospitals that are integrated with physician groups and provide outpatient services (backward integration) have better operating margins, returns on assets, and net cash flows (p < 0.01). These hospitals are not, however, likely to show greater productivity. Forward integration with a long-term-care facility, on the other hand, is positively and significantly related to hospital productivity (p < 0.001). Forward integration is negatively related to financial performance (p < 0.05), however, opposite to the direction hypothesized. Health executives should be responsive to the growth of managed care in their local market and should probably consider providing more backward integrated services rather than forward integrated services in order to improve the hospital's financial performance in today's competitive health care market.

  5. Behavior of 226Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel G.; Scott, Martha R.

    1986-12-01

    The behavior of 226Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone is strongly nonconservative and includes desorption similar to that reported for the Hudson, Pee Dee, and Amazon rivers. However, dissolved and desorbed 226Ra concentrations in the Mississippi are 2 to 5 times greater than in the other rivers at the same salinity. Radium concentrations vary inversely with the water discharge rate. The 226Ra desorption maximum occurs at a salinity of 5.0, much lower than the 18 to 28 salinity values for the maxima of the other three rivers. High concentrations of dissolved 226Ra (up to 82 dpm per 100 L) and the low salinity values for the desorption maximum in the Mississippi River result from three major factors. Suspended sediments include a large fraction of montmorillonite, which gives the sediment a high cation exchange capacity, 0.54 meq/g. The average suspended sediment load is large, about 510 mg/L, and contains 1.9 dpm/g desorbable 226Ra. The dissolved 226Ra river water end-member (9.6 dpm per 100 L) is higher than in surface seawater. The annual contribution of 226Ra to the ocean from the Mississippi River is 3.7 × 1014 dpm/yr, based on data from three cruises. Evidence of flux of 226Ra from estuarine and shelf sediments is common in vertical profile sampling of the deltaic waters but is not reflected in calculations made with an "apparent" river water Ra value extrapolated to zero salinity.

  6. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  7. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Upper Ocean Evolution Across the Beaufort Sea Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Rainville, L.; Gobat, J. I.; Perry, M. J.; Freitag, L. E.; Webster, S.

    2016-12-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g., the relatively warm Pacific Summer and Atlantic waters), and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice. Spatial and temporal variability in ice properties and open water fraction impact these processes. To investigate how upper ocean structure varies with changing ice cover, how the balance of processes shift as a function of ice fraction and distance from open water, and how these processes impact sea ice evolution, a network of autonomous platforms sampled the atmosphere-ice-ocean system in the Beaufort, beginning in spring, well before the start of melt, and ending with the autumn freeze-up. Four long-endurance autonomous Seagliders occupied sections that extended from open water, through the marginal ice zone, deep into the pack during summer 2014 in the Beaufort Sea. Gliders penetrated up to 200 km into the ice pack, under complete ice cover for up to 10 consecutive days. Sections reveal strong fronts where cold, ice-covered waters meet waters that have been exposed to solar warming, and O(10 km) scale eddies near the ice edge. In the pack, Pacific Summer Water and a deep chlorophyll maximum form distinct layers at roughly 60 m and 80 m, respectively, which become increasingly diffuse late in the season as they progress through the MIZ and into open water. Stratification just above the Pacific Summer Water rapidly weakens near the ice edge and temperature variance increases, likely due to mixing or energetic vertical exchange associated with strong

  9. The influence of train running direction and track supports position on the behaviour of transition zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sañudo Ortega, R.; Miranda Manzanares, M.; Markine, V.; Dell' Olio, L.

    2016-07-01

    Different types of track infrastructure can be found along railway lines. Separation zones between these different types of structures are the source of a lot of problems. Transition zones on a railway line represent a gradual solution for the problems between conventional railway structure and singular structures located at different points along the line. The different nature, positioning and geometry used with the materials generate changes in the stiffness on both sides of these singular zones leading to an increase in wear and a loss of geometry, with the associated maintenance costs. This article describes the use of mathematical modelling to represent the behaviour of these zones as a function of train running direction and track supports. Available research into transition zones has not studied these separation points where high increases in load are generated for very short periods of time. Finite elements are used to model two types of track (conventional ballasted track and slab track), using a vehicle to dynamically simulate the behaviour in these zones as a function of train running direction and the position of track supports. The magnitudes analysed were the vertical stresses and the vertical displacements under the sleepers and the supports in both types of structure. The results show increased stresses at the separation zone between both structures which varied in magnitude and position depending most of track supports’ location than the train running direction. (Author)

  10. Vertical distribution and fluxes of ammonia at Great Dun Fell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M. A.; Perthue, E.; Fowler, D.; Storeton-West, R. L.; Cape, J. N.; Arends, B. G.; Möls, J. J.

    As part of the study of the ammonia budget over Great Dun Fell, measurements of fluxes of gaseous ammonia (NH 3) with the hill surface (grass moorland and blanket bog) were made using micrometeorological techniques, to provide information on NH 3 removal by the hill surface and on vertical concentration gradients. Measurements of vertical concentration, χ, profiles of NH 3 concentration were coupled with turbulent diffusivities to determine fluxes, Fg deposition velocities, and canopy resistances, Rc to uptake by the ground. Consistent with published measurements for this site, NH 3 was generally found to deposit efficiently to the vegetation canopy, with mean Rc of 5 and 27 s m - for example days shown. However, short periods of NH 3 emission from the moorland were also observed at small χ (cloud processing: depletion of χ by in-cloud reaction would be expected to favour NH 3 emission from down-wind agricultural land and moorland, though emission from the hill itself during immersion in cloud is unlikely. Comparison of two measurement techniques to determine air concentrations (batch wet rotating denuder, inlet 0.5 m height; continuous wet denuder, inlets 0.3, 2 m heights) showed acceptable agreement, although because vertical concentration gradients were large (small Rc) the height of sampling had a substantial effect. Vertical gradients are also relevant to the use of the measured concentrations as estimates of NH 3 in the air mass passing over the hill, for modelling atmospheric budgets. Where NH 3 deposition occurs at the maximum rate, concentrations measured at 1 m require a 35% correction in neutral conditions when scaling to a reference height of 10 m.

  11. Eat and run? The hunger/satiation hypothesis in vertical migration: history, evidence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearre, Sifford

    2003-02-01

    The study of vertical migrations in aquatic organisms has a long and colourful history, much of it to do with the effects of changing sampling technology on our understanding of the phenomenon. However, the overwhelming majority of such studies carried out today still depend on detecting differences in vertical distribution profiles during some course of time, or acoustic echoes of migrating bands of organisms. These can not distinguish migratory activity of individual organisms, but can only assess net results of mass transfers of populations, which may integrate many individual migrations. This is an important distinction, for without knowing the actual movements of individuals it seems unlikely that we will be able to understand their causes, nor the effects of vertical migrations on the environment or on the migrators themselves. This review examines evidence for individual vertical movements gathered from 'tracers', mainly gut contents, and reviews the evidence for the hypothesis that such movements are in fact driven by hunger and satiation. The more recently appreciated vertical migrations of phytoplankters and their similarities in form and driving forces to those of zooplankton and nekton are also discussed. Finally, the role of vertical migrators in vertical fluxes of materials is discussed, along with the consequences of satiation-driven descent for such estimates.

  12. Vertical characteristics and source identification of PM10 in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimei Xiao; Jianhui Wu; Suqin Han; Yufen Zhang; Hong Xu; Xiaoyong Zhang; Guoliang Shi; Yinchang Feng

    2012-01-01

    Ambient PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm) concentrations were measured on a 255 meter tower in Tianjin,China.The samples were collected at four vertical levels (10,40,120 and 220 m).Vertical characteristics for PM10 samples were studied.The results showed that the concentrations of PM10 and constituent species had a negative correlation with the sampling height.The highest concentrations of PM10 and species were obtained at the 10 m level,and the lowest concentrations were measured at the 220 m level.For the fractions of species to total mass,SO42- and NO3- had higher values (fraction) at greater height; while Ca had a higher fraction at lower height.Possible source categories for the PM10 ambient dataset were identified by the principal component analysis method.The possible source categories included crustal dust,vehicles,cement dust,and incineration as well as secondary sulfate and nitrate sources.Analysis of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations indicated that wind speed and inversion may be the main factors contributing to different concentrations of PM10 at different heights.

  13. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  14. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  15. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  16. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Device for radioactivity measurement of liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaziere, J.

    1983-01-01

    The device for low activity gamma measurements comprises an automatic changer for sample transfer from a conveyor to a measuring chamber. The conveyor includes a horizontal table were are regularly distributed sample holders. A lift allows a vertical motion of a plate for the exposition in front of a detector [fr

  18. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    Full Text Available The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  19. Ocean stratification reduces melt rates at the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, C. B.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Marsh, O.; Mikucki, J.; Stanton, T. P.; Hodson, T. O.; Siegfried, M. R.; Powell, R. D.; Christianson, K. A.; King, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean-driven melting of ice shelves is often invoked as the primary mechanism for triggering ice loss from Antarctica. However, due to the difficulty in accessing the sub-ice-shelf ocean cavity, the relationship between ice-shelf melt rates and ocean conditions is poorly understood, particularly near the transition from grounded to floating ice, known as the grounding zone. Here we present the first borehole oceanographic observations from the grounding zone of Antarctica's largest ice shelf. Contrary to predictions that tidal currents near grounding zones should mix the water column, driving high ice-shelf melt rates, we find a stratified sub-ice-shelf water column. The vertical salinity gradient dominates stratification over a weakly unstable vertical temperature gradient; thus, stratification takes the form of a double-diffusive staircase. These conditions limit vertical heat fluxes and lead to low melt rates in the ice-shelf grounding zone. While modern grounding zone melt rates may presently be overestimated in models that assume efficient tidal mixing, the high sensitivity of double-diffusive staircases to ocean freshening and warming suggests future melt rates may be underestimated, biasing projections of global sea-level rise.

  20. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...... situation was observed. Mean ambient temperatures, calculated from the predicted vertical distributions of the eggs and used for the computation of egg developmental times, were overestimated by 0.05 degrees C on average. This corresponds to an error in prediction of egg developmental time of less than 1%...

  1. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  2. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, A.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  3. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  4. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  5. The zone of alienation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagorski, A.

    1996-04-23

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl`s toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can`t afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills.

  6. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  7. Measurement of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke at the Z energy from B mesons exclusive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Recent ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL measurements of the form factors in the exclusive decay modes anti B 0 → D *+ l - anti ν l and anti B 0 →D + l - anti ν l are reviewed here. The values obtained allow an almost model-independent determination of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke in the HQET framework. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke using b hadron semileptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbiendi, G.; Aakesson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined by measuring the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of beauty hadrons at OPAL based on b → X u lν event topology and kinematics. This analysis uses OPAL data collected between 1991 and 1995, which correspond to about four million hadronic Z decays. We measure Br(b → X u lν) to be (1.63 ±0.53 +0.55 -0.62 ) x 10 -3 . The first uncertainty is the statistical error and the second is the systematic error. From this analysis, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined to be: vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke =(4.00±0.65(stat) +0.67 -0.76 (sys)±0.19(HQE)) x 10 -3 . The last error represents the theoretical uncertainties related to the extraction of vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke from Br(b→X u l ν) using the Heavy Quark Expansion. (orig.)

  9. A global vertical reference frame based on four regional vertical datums

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 493-502 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotentinal * local vertical datums * global vertical reference frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  10. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  11. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... and the turbulence intensity, of which the turbulence intensity was found to dominate over the peak factor in determining the effects of stability and height above the surface on the gust factor. The peak factor only explained 15% or less of the vertical decrease of the gust factor, but determined the effect of gust...... duration on the gust factor. The statistical method to estimate the peak factor did not reproduce the observed vertical decrease in near-neutral and stable conditions and near-constant situation in unstable conditions. Despite this inconsistency, the theoretical method provides estimates for the peak...

  12. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  13. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  14. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  15. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  16. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  17. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  18. Study on characteristics of vertical strong motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Y.; Katukura, H.; Fukushima, S.; Mizutani, M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistic properties of vertical strong ground motions from near-field earthquakes are discussed in comparison with that of horizontal motions. It is a feature of this analysis that time history of each observed record is divided into direct P- and S-wave segments from a seismological viewpoint. Following results are obtained. Vertical motion energy excited by direct S-waves is about 0.6 times of horizontal ones at deep underground, and it approaches to 1.0 at shallow place. Horizontal motion energy excited by direct P-waves becomes 0.2 times (at deep) or more (at shallow) of vertical one. These results can be available in modeling of input motions for aseismic design. (author)

  19. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  20. VT Data - Zoning 20170712, Westminster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Westminster, Vermont. Overlay districts (Agricultural Land, Ridgeline Protection, and Historical Preservation) are in separate shapefiles. Data...

  1. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  2. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation κ, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q ∼1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs

  3. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  4. Vertical seismic profile data from well Mallik 2L-38 for gas hydrate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Y [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Walia, R [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada) School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Hyndman, R [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada) Pacific Geoscience Centre

    1999-07-01

    A gas hydrate research well was drilled in the Canadian Arctic to study gas hydrates in a permafrost setting in a collaborative research project between the Japan National Oil Corp., the Geological Survey of Canada and other agencies. The multidisciplinary study included an electromagnetic survey, permafrost and gas hydrate coring, comprehensive downhole geophysical logging and measurement. Laboratory studies concerned studies on recovered cuttings and core including sedimentology, physical properties, geochemistry, and reservoir characteristics of the Mallik gas accumulation. As part of the Mallik 2L-38 field program, a vertical seismic profiling survey was conducted at zero and other offset source positions with three component receiver tools and horizontal and vertical vibration sources. A special effort was made to record shear wave data, which will be used to estimate the effect of gas hydrate on formation velocities and to determine gas hydrate concentration as a function of the Mallik gas accumulation. From the initial VSP analysis, certain conclusions follow: 1) zero offset vertical vibration component Z and horizontal X component data give reliable velocity determination within the gas hydrate formation zone. P wave velocities from offset VSP data show an excellent consistency with that from offset data and with the sonic log. And 2) the VSP data permit reliable identification of gas hydrate bearing zones. Abstract only included.

  5. Vertical seismic profile data from well Mallik 2L-38 for gas hydrate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Y [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Walia, R [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Hyndman, R D; Sakai, A

    1999-01-01

    A gas hydrate research well was drilled in the Canadian Arctic to determine gas hydrates in a permafrost setting in a collaborative research project between the Japan National Oil Corp., and the Geological Survey of Canada with the participation of other agencies. The multidisciplinary study included an electromagnetic survey, permafrost and gas hydrate coring, and comprehensive downhole geophysical logging and measurement. Laboratory studies on recovered cores and cuttings included sedimentology, physical properties, geochemistry, and reservoir characteristics of the Mallik gas accumulation. As part of the field program, a vertical seismic profiling survey was conducted at zero and offset source positions with 3 component receiver tools and horizontal and vertical vibration sources. A special effort was made to record shear wave data, and results from this work were combined with down hole logs and regional surface seismic data. The data will be used also to determine the effect of gas hydrates on formation velocities and to measure gas hydrate concentrations as a function of depth in the formation penetrated by the well. Certain conclusions followed from the initial VSP analysis. 1) Zero offset vertical vibration Z component and horizontal X component data give reliable velocity estimation within the gas hydrate formation zone, and P wave velocities from offset data indicate excellent consistency with that from zero offset data and with the sonic log. 2) The VSP data permitted reliable identification of gas hydrate bearing zones. 4 refs.

  6. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  7. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  8. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  9. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  10. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1999-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  11. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  12. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 . The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W + W - b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 . To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K 0 s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 <1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 , provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  13. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  14. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  15. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  16. Exclusion of pituitary homeobox 2 gene polymorphism in vertical mandibular asymmetry patients: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyanti, Ervina; Boel, Trelia; Soegiharto, Benny; Ilyas, Syafruddin; Irani Nainggolan, Lidya; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    Pituitary Homeobox 2 (PITX2), is an active gene as a paired-related homeobox gene that encodes multiple isoforms. Its Nodal pathway in determination of left-right patterning during embryogenesis has been reported in satellite cells and expressed in adult human skeletal muscle. PITX2A and PITX2B are produced by alternative splicing and used of different promoters. PITX2C uses an alternative promoter located upstream of exon 4. PITX2D is produced by PITX2C alternative promoter and differential splicing. The 5’-primers and 3’- antisense primer were unique for each isoforms. Variability measurement in vertical dimension showed stronger genetic component than sagittal. This study aims to obtain the genotype marker of vertical mandibular asymmetry related to PITX2A and PITX2D isoform by visualization of the amplified product on stained gel to allele specific oligonucleotide between the case and control with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Determination of vertical mandibular asymmetry based on condylar height asymmetry index of pre-treatment panoramic radiograph using Kjellberg’s technique whilst vertical mandibular growth pattern using lateral cephalogram. The differences of condylar height asymmetry in case-control based on vertical growth pattern was compared using Pearson’s chi-squared test. DNA extraction of 129 out-coming orthodontic patients in Universitas Sumatera Utara Dental Hospital were obtained from Buccal swab. Then DNA samples were amplified by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with NciI restriction enzyme prior to electrophoresis visualization. There was no significant statistical difference in vertical mandibular asymmetry compared to vertical mandibular growth pattern. The RFLP analysis did not show any polymorphism for PITX2A and PITX2D isoform. All of the samples showed wild type homozygote. Further analysis method, except RFLP, were required to understand the genetic factor in the variance of vertical mandibular

  17. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  18. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  19. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  20. Vertical distribution of the sound-scattering layer in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungbeen; La, Hyoung Sul; Kang, Donhyug; Lee, SangHoon

    2018-03-01

    Mid-trophic level at high-latitude coastal water in the Southern Ocean reside unique geographical condition with sea ice, coastal polynya, and ice shelf. To investigate the regional differences in their vertical distribution during summer, we examined acoustic backscatter data from scientific echo sounder, collected in the three representative regions in the Amundsen Sea: pack ice zone, coastal polynya zone, and ice shelf zone. The weighted mean depths (WMDs) representing zooplankton were calculated with the high resolution acoustic backscatter (1-m depth) to identify the vertical variability of the sound-scattering layer (SSL). WMDs were mainly distributed between 50 and 130 m exhibiting clear regional differences. The WMDs were detected in the shallow depth ranged between 48 and 84 m within the pack ice and coastal polynya, whereas they were observed at deeper depths around near ice shelf ranged between 117 and 126 m. WMDs varied with changing the stratification of water column structure representing strong linear relationship with the mixed layer depth (r = 0.69). This finding implies that understanding the essential forcing of zooplankton behavior will improve our ability to assess the coastal ecosystem in the Southern Ocean facing dramatic change.

  1. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  2. Vertical Distribution of Structural Components in Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. F. Johnson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, corn (Zea mays L. stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg−1, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ−1, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha−1, but it would be only 1000 L ha−1 if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  3. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane M. F. Johnson; Douglas L. Karlen; Garold L. Gresham; Keri B. Cantrell; David W. Archer; Brian J. Wienhold; Gary E. Varvel; David A. Laird; John Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Jeff M. Novak; Ardell D. Halvorson; Francisco Arriaga; David T. Lightle; Amber Hoover; Rachel Emerson; Nancy W. Barbour

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg?¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha?¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  4. Field emission from vertically aligned few-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malesevic, Alexander; Kemps, Raymond; Vanhulsel, Annick; Chowdhury, Manish Pal; Volodin, Alexander; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The electric field emission behavior of vertically aligned few-layer graphene was studied in a parallel plate-type setup. Few-layer graphene was synthesized in the absence of any metallic catalyst by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with gas mixtures of methane and hydrogen. The deposit consists of nanostructures that are several micrometers wide, highly crystalline stacks of four to six atomic layers of graphene, aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high density network. The few-layer graphene is found to be a good field emitter, characterized by turn-on fields as low as 1 V/μm and field amplification factors up to several thousands. We observe a clear dependence of the few-layer graphene field emission behavior on the synthesis parameters: Hydrogen is identified as an efficient etchant to improve field emission, and samples grown on titanium show lower turn-on field values and higher amplification factors when compared to samples grown on silicon

  5. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J.; Mansy, J.L.; Piwakowski, B.

    2005-01-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  7. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  8. Modelling of Condensation in Vertical Tubes for Passive Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, D.; Ricotti, M.; Santini, L.; Grgic, D.

    2008-01-01

    Condensation in vertical tubes plays an important role in the performance of heat exchangers in passive safety systems, widely adopted in next generation reactors. Vertical pipe condensers are implemented in the GE-SBWR1000 Isolation Condenser as well as in the Emergency Heat Removal System (EHRS) of the IRIS reactor. The transient and safety analysis is usually carried out by means of best-estimate, thermalhydraulic codes, as RELAP. Suitable heat transfer correlations are required to duly model the two-phase processes. As far as the condensation process is concerned, RELAP5/MOD3.3 adopts the Nusselt correlation to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in laminar conditions and the Shah correlation for turbulent conditions; the maximum of the predictions from laminar and turbulent regimes is used to calculate the condensation heat transfer coefficient. Shah correlation is generally considered as the best empirical correlation for turbulent annular film condensation, but suitable in proper ranges of the various parameters. Nevertheless, recent investigations have pointed out that its validity is highly questionable for high pressure and large diameter tube applications with water, as should be for the utilization for vertical tube condensers in passive safety systems. Thus, a best-estimate model, based on the theory of film condensation on a plain wall, is proposed. Condensate velocity, expressed in terms of Reynolds number, governs the development of three different regime zones: laminar, laminar wavy and turbulent. The best correlation for each regime (Nusselt's for laminar, Kutateladze's for laminar wavy and Chen's for turbulent) is considered and then implemented in RELAP code. Comparison between the Nusselt-Shah and the proposed model shows substantial differences in heat transfer coefficient prediction. Especially, a trend of increasing value of the heat transfer coefficient with tube abscissa (and quality decreasing) is predicted, when turbulence

  9. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  10. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  11. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  12. The Design Philosophy for a Vertical Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijling, J. K.; Burcharth, H. F.; Voortman, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent risk-based design philosophy for vertical breakwaters is proposed. The design philosophy consists of a two-step approach. The first step is the definition of the main function of the breakwater, which leads to a definition of failure. The second step is the choice of the acceptable...

  13. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  14. A Comparison of Methods of Vertical Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Brenda H.; Hoover, H. D.

    Rasch model vertical equating procedures were applied to three mathematics computation tests for grades six, seven, and eight. Each level of the test was composed of 45 items in three sets of 15 items, arranged in such a way that tests for adjacent grades had two sets (30 items) in common, and the sixth and eighth grades had 15 items in common. In…

  15. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  16. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  17. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  18. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  19. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  20. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite

  1. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  2. Vertical integration as organizational strategy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper contributes to research into the strategy—environment relationship, especially looking at the issue of vertical integration. It aims at a synthesis of process and content approaches to strategic change on the level of the organization’s dominant group. The key factor is uncertainty, which

  3. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  4. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  5. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  6. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  7. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  8. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length) is ...

  9. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  10. Vertical field and equilibrium calculation in ETE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Antonio; Shibata, Carlos Shinya.

    1996-01-01

    The free-boundary MHD equilibrium code HEQ is used to study the plasma behaviour in the tokamak ETE, with optimized compensations coils and vertical field coils. The changes on the equilibrium parameters for different plasma current values are also investigated. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  12. Environmental Zoning: Some methodological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Voogd, Henk

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss some methodological problems of environmental zoning. The principle of environmental zoning will be elaborated. In addition an overview is given of a number of approaches that have been followed in practice to arrive at an integral judgement. Finally some

  13. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  14. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  15. Growth with Time Zone Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Kikuchi; Sugata Marjit

    2010-01-01

    We propose a two-country growth model of intermediate business-services trade that captures the role of time zone differences. It is shown that a time-saving improvement in intermediate business-services trade involving production in different time zones can have a permanent impact on productivity.

  16. On the coupled unsaturated–saturated flow process induced by vertical, horizontal, and slant wells in unconfined aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liang

    2017-03-01

    established with special consideration of the coupled unsaturated–saturated flow process and the well orientation. Groundwater flow in the saturated zone is described by a three-dimensional governing equation and a linearized three-dimensional Richards' equation in the unsaturated zone. A solution in the Laplace domain is derived by the Laplace–finite-Fourier-transform and the method of separation of variables, and the semi-analytical solutions are obtained using a numerical inverse Laplace method. The solution is verified by a finite-element numerical model. It is found that the effects of the unsaturated zone on the drawdown of a pumping test exist at any angle of inclination of the pumping well, and this impact is more significant in the case of a horizontal well. The effects of the unsaturated zone on the drawdown are independent of the length of the horizontal well screen. The vertical well leads to the largest water volume drained from the unsaturated zone (W during the early pumping time, and the effects of the well orientation on W values become insignificant at the later time. The screen length of the horizontal well does not affect W for the whole pumping period. The proposed solutions are useful for the parameter identification of pumping tests with a general well orientation (vertical, horizontal, and slant in unconfined aquifers affected from above by the unsaturated flow process.

  17. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  18. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  19. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  20. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate