WorldWideScience

Sample records for vertical wind shears

  1. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  2. Offshore vertical wind shear: Final report on NORSEWInD’s work task 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mikkelsen, Torben; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    .6 Results input into satellite maps The nature of the offshore vertical wind shear is investigated using acquired data from the NORSEWInD network of mast and wind lidar stations. The importance of the knowledge of the vertical wind speed profile and wind shear is first illustrated for the evaluation...... of power outputs. Background related to the parametrization of the vertical wind speed profile and the behavior of the vertical wind shear in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer is presented together with the application of the long-term atmospheric stability parameters for the analysis of the long......-term vertical wind speed profile. Observed vertical wind shears are illustrated for all NORSEWInD wind lidar and meteorological stations in terms of wind shear roses, distributions, and diurnal and monthly evolutions. A multi-variational correlation analysis is performed to study the vertical wind shear...

  3. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  4. The Structure of Vertical Wind Shear in Tropical Cyclone Environments: Implications for Forecasting and Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchio, Peter M.

    The vertical wind shear measured between 200 and 850 hPa is commonly used to diagnose environmental interactions with a tropical cyclone (TC) and to forecast the storm's intensity and structural evolution. More often than not, stronger vertical shear within this deep layer prohibits the intensification of TCs and leads to predictable asymmetries in precipitation. But such bulk measures of vertical wind shear can occasionally mislead the forecaster. In the first part of this dissertation, we use a series of idealized numerical simulations to examine how a TC responds to changing the structure of unidirectional vertical wind shear while fixing the 200-850-hPa shear magnitude. These simulations demonstrate a significant intensity response, in which shear concentrated in shallow layers of the lower troposphere prevents vortex intensification. We attribute the arrested development of TCs in lower-level shear to the intrusion of mid-level environmental air over the surface vortex early in the simulations. Convection developing on the downshear side of the storm interacts with the intruding air so as to enhance the downward flux of low-entropy air into the boundary layer. We also construct a two-dimensional intensity response surface from a set of simulations that sparsely sample the joint shear height-depth parameter space. This surface reveals regions of the two-parameter space for which TC intensity is particularly sensitive. We interpret these parameter ranges as those which lead to reduced intensity predictability. Despite the robust response to changing the shape of a sheared wind profile in idealized simulations, we do not encounter such sensitivity within a large set of reanalyzed TCs in the Northern Hemisphere. Instead, there is remarkable consistency in the structure of reanalyzed wind profiles around TCs. This is evident in the distributions of two new parameters describing the height and depth of vertical wind shear, which highlight a clear preference for

  5. Evaluating winds and vertical wind shear from Weather Research and Forecasting model forecasts using seven planetary boundary layer schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The existence of vertical wind shear in the atmosphere close to the ground requires that wind resource assessment and prediction with numerical weather prediction (NWP) models use wind forecasts at levels within the full rotor span of modern large wind turbines. The performance of NWP models...... regarding wind energy at these levels partly depends on the formulation and implementation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in these models. This study evaluates wind speeds and vertical wind shears simulated by theWeather Research and Forecasting model using seven sets of simulations...... with different PBL parameterizations at one coastal site over western Denmark. The evaluation focuses on determining which PBL parameterization performs best for wind energy forecasting, and presenting a validation methodology that takes into account wind speed at different heights. Winds speeds at heights...

  6. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-07

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical

  7. Uncertainty in vertical extrapolation of wind statistics: shear-exponent and WAsP/EWA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.

    for uncertainties inherent in determination of (wind) shear exponents, and subsequent vertical extrapolation of wind speeds. The report further outlines application of the theory and results of Kelly & Troen (2014-6) for gauging the uncertainty inherent in use of the European Wind Atlas (EWA) / WAsP method......This report provides formulations for estimation of uncertainties involved in vertical extrapolation of winds, as well as the total uncertainty incurred when winds observed at one height are extrapolated to turbine hub height for wind resource assessment. This includes new derivations....../푧obs); for larger extrapolations, WAsP-based extrapolation leads to smaller estimated uncertainties than the shear-extrapolation method.A primary motivation for—and part of—this work is the creation of a standard for uncertainty estimation and reporting, which is known as the IEC61400-15. The author is actively...

  8. Brief communication: On the influence of vertical wind shear on the combined power output of two model wind turbines in yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical wind shear on the total power output of two aligned model wind turbines as a function of yaw misalignment of the upstream turbine is studied experimentally. It is shown that asymmetries of the power output of the downstream turbine and the combined power of both with respect to the upstream turbine's yaw misalignment angle can be linked to the vertical wind shear of the inflow.

  9. Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders

    2017-05-01

    The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.

  10. The Structural Changes of Tropical Cyclones Upon Interaction with Vertical Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) provided a unique opportunity to observe the distributions and document the roles of important atmospheric factors that impact the development of the core asymmetries and core structural changes of tropical cyclones embedded in vertical wind shear. The state-of-the-art instruments flown on the NASA DC-8 and ER-2, in addition to those on the NOAA aircraft, provided a unique set of observations that documented the core structure throughout the depth of the tropical cyclone. These data have been used to conduct a combined observational and modeling study using a state-of-the-art, high- resolution mesoscale model to examine the role of the environmental vertical wind shear in producing tropical cyclone core asymmetries, and the effects on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones.The scientific objectives of this study were to obtain in situ measurements that would allow documentation of the physical mechanisms that influence the development of the asymmetric convection and its effect on the core structure of the tropical cyclone.

  11. Selective excitation of tropical atmospheric waves in wave-CISK: The effect of vertical wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghua; Geller, Marvin A.

    1994-01-01

    The growth of waves and the generation of potential energy in wave-CISK require unstable waves to tilt with height oppositely to their direction of propagation. This makes the structures and instability properties of these waves very sensitive to the presence of vertical shear in the basic flow. Equatorial Kelvin and Rossby-gravity waves have opposite phase tilt with height to what they have in the stratosphere, and their growth is selectively favored by basic flows with westward vertical shear and eastward vertical shear, respectively. Similar calculations are also made for gravity waves and Rossby waves. It is shown that eastward vertical shear of the basic flow promotes CISK for westward propagating Rossby-gravity, Rossby, and gravity waves and suppresses CISK for eastward propagating Kelvin and gravity waves, while westward shear of the basic flow has the reverse effects.

  12. A new paradigm for intensity modification of tropical cyclones: thermodynamic impact of vertical wind shear on the inflow layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, M.; Montgomery, M. T.; Nicholls, M. E.

    2009-05-01

    An important roadblock to improved intensity forecasts for tropical cyclones (TCs) is our incomplete understanding of the interaction of a TC with the environmental flow. In this paper we re-visit the classical idealised numerical experiment of tropical cyclones (TCs) in vertical wind shear on an f-plane. We employ a set of simplified model physics - a simple bulk aerodynamic boundary layer scheme and "warm rain" microphysics - to foster better understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics that govern the modification of TC intensity. A suite of experiments is performed with intense TCs in moderate to strong vertical shear. In all experiments the TC is resilient to shear but significant differences in the intensity evolution occur. The ventilation of the TC core with dry environmental air at mid-levels and the dilution of the upper-level warm core are two prevailing hypotheses for the adverse effect of vertical shear on storm intensity. Here we propose an alternative and arguably more effective mechanism how cooler and drier (lower θe) air - "anti-fuel" for the TC power machine - can enter the core region of the TC. Strong and persistent downdrafts flux low θe air from the lower and middle troposphere into the boundary layer, significantly depressing the θe values in the storm's inflow layer. Air with lower θe values enters the eyewall updrafts, considerably reducing eyewall θe values in the azimuthal mean. When viewed from the perspective of an idealised Carnot-cycle heat engine a decrease of storm intensity can thus be expected. Although the Carnot cycle model is - if at all - only valid for stationary and axisymmetric TCs, a strong correlation between the downward transport of low θe into the boundary layer and the intensity evolution offers further evidence in support of our hypothesis. The downdrafts that flush the inflow layer with low θe air are associated with a quasi-stationary region of convective activity outside the TC's eyewall. We show

  13. Low-level vertical wind shear effects on the gravity wave breaking over an isolated two-dimensional orography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Wei Bao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow regimes of dry, stratified flow passing over an isolated two-dimensional (2-D orography mainly concentrate at two stagnation points. One occurs on the upslope of the orography owing to flow blocking; another is related to gravity wave breaking (GWB over the leeside. Smith (1979 put forward a hypothesis that the occurring of GWB is suppressed when the low-level vertical wind shear (VWS exceeds some value. In the present study, a theoretical solution in a two-layer linear model of orographic flow with a VWS over a bell-shaped 2-D orography is developed to investigate the effect of VWS on GWB's occurring over a range of surface Froude number Fr0=U0/Nh (U0 is surface wind speed, h is orography height and N is stability parameter, over which the GWB occurs first and the upstream flow blocking is excluded. Based on previous simulations and experiments, the range of surface Froude number selected is 0.6 ≤ Fr0≤2.0. Based on this solution, the conditions of surface wind speed (U0 and one-to-one matching critical VWS (Δuc for GWB's occurring are discussed. Over the selected range of Fr0, GWB's occurring will be suppressed if the VWS (Δu is larger than Δuc at given U0. Moreover, there is a maximum value of Δuc over the selected range of Fr0, which is labelled as Δumax, and its matching surface wind speed by U0m. Once the Δu is larger than Δumax, the flow will pass over the orography without GWB's occurring. That means, over the selected range of Fr0, the flow regime of 2-D orographic flow related to GWB occurring primarily will be absent when Δu > Δumax, regardless of the value for U0. In addition, the vertical profile of atmospheric stability and height of VWS could result in different features of mountain wave, which leads to different Δuc and Δumax for the GWB's occurring. The possible inaccuracy of estimated Δuc in the present linear model is also discussed.

  14. A new paradigm for intensity modification of tropical cyclones: thermodynamic impact of vertical wind shear on the inflow layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riemer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An important roadblock to improved intensity forecasts for tropical cyclones (TCs is our incomplete understanding of the interaction of a TC with the environmental flow. In this paper we re-visit the canonical problem of a TC in vertical wind shear on an f-plane. A suite of numerical experiments is performed with intense TCs in moderate to strong vertical shear. We employ a set of simplified model physics – a simple bulk aerodynamic boundary layer scheme and "warm rain" microphysics – to foster better understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics that govern the modification of TC intensity. In all experiments the TC is resilient to shear but significant differences in the intensity evolution occur.

    The ventilation of the TC core with dry environmental air at mid-levels and the dilution of the upper-level warm core are two prevailing hypotheses for the adverse effect of vertical shear on storm intensity. Here we propose an alternative and arguably more effective mechanism how cooler and drier (lower θe air – "anti-fuel" for the TC power machine – can enter the core region of the TC. Strong and persistent, shear-induced downdrafts flux low θe air into the boundary layer from above, significantly depressing the θe values in the storm's inflow layer. Air with lower θe values enters the eyewall updrafts, considerably reducing eyewall θe values in the azimuthal mean. When viewed from the perspective of an idealised Carnot-cycle heat engine a decrease of storm intensity can thus be expected. Although the Carnot cycle model is – if at all – only valid for stationary and axisymmetric TCs, a close association of the downward transport of low θe into the boundary layer and the intensity evolution offers further evidence in support of our hypothesis.

    The downdrafts that flush the boundary layer with low

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Numerical investigation for the effects of the vertical wind shear on the cloud droplet spectra broadening at the lateral boundary of the cumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Jiming

    2014-05-01

    The vortex-structure circulation at the top of cumulus clouds can result in air entrainment at the lateral sides of them. The entrained air at the early developing stage of cumulus clouds can lead to new cloud droplet activation at their lateral sides due to its upward expansion cooling induced by the gradient force of the dynamic perturbation pressure. The vertical wind shear may strengthen such a mechanism for cloud droplet nucleation at the lateral sides of cumulus clouds. In order to investigate the impacts of the vertical wind shear on the cloud droplet spectra broadening at the lateral sides, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with an aerosol-cloud interaction bin model with a high spectrum resolution (90 bins for aerosols, 160 bins for water drops) and a high spatial resolution (25m in vertical, 50m in horizontal). We run the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) case in the Tianhe supercomputer with more than 1000 CPUs. In our simulations, a new aerosol parameterization scheme have been proposed in order to investigate the secondary activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The activated CCN will not be cleaned as the current approach. CCN coming from the evaporated cloud droplets can be explicitly determined. Our results show that the vertical wind shear can enhance the cloud droplet nucleation at the leeward lateral side.

  17. Perspectives on wind shear flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Wu, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    Wind shears originating from downbursts have been the cause of many aircraft accidents in the past two decades. In turn, this has led to considerable research on wind shear avoidance systems and wind shear recovery systems. This paper reviews recent advances in wind shear recovery systems. It summarizes the work done at Rice University on trajectory optimization and trajectory guidance for two basic flight conditions: takeoff and abort landing. It appears that, in the relatively near future, an advanced wind shear control system can be developed, that is, capable of functioning in different wind models and covering the spectrum of flight conditions having interest in a wind shear encounter.

  18. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  19. Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-

  20. Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: Role of updraft entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M.; Semie, Addisu G.

    2017-06-01

    Radiative-convective equilibrium simulations with a 2 km horizontal resolution are conducted to investigate the impact on convective organization of different parameterizations for horizontal and vertical subgrid turbulence mixing. Three standard approaches for representing horizontal diffusion produce starkly differing mixing rates, particularly for the entrainment mixing into updrafts, which differ by more than an order of magnitude between the schemes. The simulations demonstrate that the horizontal subgrid mixing of water vapor is key, with high mixing rates a necessary condition for organization of convection to occur, since entrainment of dry air into updrafts suppresses convection. It is argued that diabatic budgets, while demonstrating the role of spatially heterogeneous radiative heating rates in driving organization, can overlook the role of physical processes such as updraft entrainment. These results may partially explain previous studies that showed that organization is more likely to occur at coarser resolutions, when entrainment is solely represented by subgrid-scale turbulence schemes, highlighting the need for benchmark simulations of higher horizontal resolution. The recommendation is for the use of larger ensembles to ensure robustness of conclusions to subgrid-scale parameterization assumptions when numerically investigating convective organization, possibly through a coordinated community model intercomparison effort.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThunderstorms dry out the atmosphere since they produce rainfall. However, their efficiency at drying the atmosphere depends on how they are arranged; take a set of thunderstorms and sprinkle them randomly over the tropics and the troposphere will remain quite moist, but take that same number of thunderstorms and place them all close together in a "cluster" and the atmosphere will be much drier. Previous work has indicated that thunderstorms might start to cluster more as

  1. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  2. Effects of Vertical Wind Shear, Radiation, and Ice Clouds on Precipitation Distributions During a Landfall of Severe Tropical Storm, Bilis (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrential rainfall responses to vertical wind shear, radiation, and ice clouds during the landfall of severe Tropical Storm, Bilis (2006 are investigated via a rainfall partitioning analysis of grid-scale sensitivity experiment data. The rainfall data are partitioned into eight types based on surface rainfall budget. The largest contributions to total rainfall come from local atmospheric moistening, water vapor convergence, and hydrometeor loss/convergence (Type 3; 29% when the large-scale upward motions occurred only in the upper troposphere on 15 July 2006. When the large-scale upward motion center moved to the mid troposphere on 16 July, Type 3 hydrometeor loss/convergence (26% plus local atmospheric drying, water vapor divergence, and hydrometeor loss/convergence (Type 5; 25% show equally important contributions to total rainfall.

  3. Factors Contributing to the Interrupted Decay of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) in a Moderate Vertical Wind Shear Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    convection in the southern hemisphere of the inner-core region of Joaquin. 16 1145 UTC 2 October AMVs zoomed in around Hurricane Joaquin. Pink wind...Navy B.S., Principia College, 2006 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN METEOROLOGY ...Elsberry Second Reader Wendell Nuss Chair, Department of Meteorology iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This study

  4. Wind shear procedures and the instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of pitch rate on abort landing caused by wind shear encounters is discussed. Optimal trajectories, airspeed, and wind shear warning systems are briefly discussed. The bulk of the presentation is in viewgraph form.

  5. Design of wind shear filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerck, H.

    1984-01-01

    A number of aircraft accidents are caused by the effects of wind shear. In connection with efforts to eliminate or reduce hazards leading to such accidents, the possibility was considered to improve aircraft control systems. However, the effective implementation of the considered approaches will only be possible if suitable filters can be designed for a separation of gusts, which involve higher frequencies from low-frequency wind shear components. Filters of appropriate design should be suited for an employment in connection with all flight conditions. Feasible approaches for obtaining such filters are discussed. A survey is provided regarding the order of magnitude of the improvements which can be achieved, taking into account the performance characteristics of the A300 controller.

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  7. Continuous wave laser for wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Loren

    1991-01-01

    Details of the design and development of a continuous-wave heterodyne carbon dioxide laser which has wind shear detection capabilities are given in viewgraph form. The goal of the development was to investigate the lower cost CW (rather than pulsed) lidar option for look-ahead wind shear detection from aircraft. The device has potential utility for ground based wind shear detection at secondary airports where the high cost of a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system is not justifiable.

  8. A Study of Wind Shear Effects on Aircraft Operations and Safety in Australia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    journals: ’Wind shear is defined as a change in wind direction and/or velocity in a short distance, either vertically or horizontally.’ ( Sport Aviation...recognition of and coping with a wind shear that the aircraft is currently encountering. They are not forewarning devices. 3. QUESTIONAIRE SURVEY 3.1...A218, February 1966. 8. Walker, F. W. Education through error. Sport Aviation, 25(6), 21, June 1976. 9. Anon. Wind shear: informing the pilot. Flight

  9. EFFECTS OF WIND SHEAR ON POLLUTION DISPERSION. (R827929)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an accurate numerical method for simulating the advection and diffusion of pollution puffs, it is demonstrated that point releases of pollution grow into a shape reflecting the vertical wind shear profile experienced by the puff within a time scale less than 4 h. Fo...

  10. Flight in low-level wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of studies of wind shear hazard to aircraft operation are summarized. Existing wind shear profiles currently used in computer and flight simulator studies are reviewed. The governing equations of motion for an aircraft are derived incorporating the variable wind effects. Quantitative discussions of the effects of wind shear on aircraft performance are presented. These are followed by a review of mathematical solutions to both the linear and nonlinear forms of the governing equations. Solutions with and without control laws are presented. The application of detailed analysis to develop warning and detection systems based on Doppler radar measuring wind speed along the flight path is given. A number of flight path deterioration parameters are defined and evaluated. Comparison of computer-predicted flight paths with those measured in a manned flight simulator is made. Some proposed airborne and ground-based wind shear hazard warning and detection systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of systems are discussed.

  11. A problem formulation for glideslope tracking in wind shear using advanced robust control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert

    1992-01-01

    A formulation of the longitudinal glideslope tracking of a transport-class aircraft in severe wind shear and turbulence for application to robust control system design is presented. Mathematical wind shear models are incorporated into the vehicle mathematical model, and wind turbulence is modeled as an input disturbance signal. For this problem formulation, the horizontal and vertical wind shear gradients are treated as real uncertain parameters that vary over an entire wind shear profile. The primary objective is to examine the formulation of this problem into an appropriate design format for use in m-synthesis control system design.

  12. Wind shear and turbulence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1987-01-01

    The aviation community is increasing its reliance on flight simulators. This is true both in pilot training and in research and development. In moving research concepts through the development pipeline, there is a sequence of events which take place: analysis, ground based simulation, inflight simulation, and flight testing. Increasing fidelity as progress toward the flight testing arena is accompanied by increasing cost. The question that seems to be posed in relation to the meteorological aspects of flight simulation is, How much fidelity is enough and can it be quantified. As a part of the Langley Simulation Technology Program, there are three principal areas of focus, one being improved simulation of weather hazards. A close liaison with the JAWS project was established because of the Langley Simulation Technology interests regarding reliable simulation of severe convective weather phenomena and their impact on aviation systems. Simulation offers the only feasible approach for examining the utility of new technology and new procedures for coping with severe convective weather phenomena such as wind shear. These simulation concepts are discussed in detail.

  13. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  14. Pulsed laser Doppler measurements of wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarzio, C.; Harris, C.; Bilbro, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.; Burnham, D. C.; Hallock, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    There is a need for a sensor at the airport that can remotely detect, identify, and track wind shears near the airport in order to assure aircraft safety. To determine the viability of a laser wind-shear system, the NASA pulsed coherent Doppler CO2 lidar (Jelalian et al., 1972) was installed in a semitrailer van with a rooftop-mounted hemispherical scanner and was used to monitor thunderstorm gust fronts. Wind shears associated with the gust fronts at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) between 5 July and 4 August 1978 were measured and tracked. The most significant data collected at KSC are discussed. The wind shears were clearly visible in both real-time velocity vs. azimuth plots and in postprocessing displays of velocities vs. position. The results indicate that a lidar system cannot be used effectively when moderate precipitation exists between the sensor and the region of interest.

  15. Wind shear related research at Princeton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) real-time decision aiding-aircraft guidance for wind shear avoidance; (2) reducing the thrust-manual recovery strategies; and (3) dynamic behaviour of and aircraft encountering a single axis vortex.

  16. Profiler measurements of turbulence and wind shear in a snowstorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Leblanc, S.G. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Cohn, S.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Ecklund, W.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Carter, D.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; Wilson, J.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences

    1996-02-01

    Observations of a large and vigorous snowstorm with a UHF wind profiler were used to investigate the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and its relation to the vertical wind shear. Turbulence was estimated from the spread of the Doppler spectrum in the vertical beam of the profiler, after correcting for the contribution of the horizontal wind speed to the spread. Wind shear was computed directly from the measured wind profiles. Over the 24 h duration of the storm, shear values exceeding 0.02 s{sup -1} existed nearly continuously in the lowest few hundred meters of the atmosphere and in a broad elevated layer that slowly descended from 4 km to 2 km. The pattern of Doppler spread in time-height coordinates closely resembled the pattern of wind shear, though a detailed, point-by-point comparison of these two quantities by linear regression yielded a correlation coefficient of only 0.4. Focusing on just the observations in the lowest few hundred meters gave a higher correlation coefficient. The Richardson number as a function of height and time was computed by combining the measured wind shear values with temperature profiles generated by a mesoscale numerical model. We found evidence of weak turbulence even in regions with Ri>1, but a value close to the theoretical threshold of Ri=1/4 separates the more intense turbulence from the weaker. Estimates of the turbulent energy dissipation rate, {epsilon}, based on the Doppler spread, range as high as 500 cm{sup 2} s{sup -3}, the largest values being near the ground. (orig.)

  17. Wind shear extremes at possible offshore wind turbine locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Positive and negative short-term extreme wind shear distributions (conditioned on the mean wind speed) are determined and compared for a number of offshore sites. The analysis is based on rapidly sampled field measurements (1-8 Hz) extracted from the "Database on Wind Characteristics" (www.windda...... seems to be rather conservative for an offshore location, compared to the estimated values based on measurements....

  18. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  19. Robust Kalman filter design for predictive wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Alexander D.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Severe, low-altitude wind shear is a threat to aviation safety. Airborne sensors under development measure the radial component of wind along a line directly in front of an aircraft. In this paper, optimal estimation theory is used to define a detection algorithm to warn of hazardous wind shear from these sensors. To achieve robustness, a wind shear detection algorithm must distinguish threatening wind shear from less hazardous gustiness, despite variations in wind shear structure. This paper presents statistical analysis methods to refine wind shear detection algorithm robustness. Computational methods predict the ability to warn of severe wind shear and avoid false warning. Comparative capability of the detection algorithm as a function of its design parameters is determined, identifying designs that provide robust detection of severe wind shear.

  20. Jet transport performance in thunderstorm wind shear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Blick, E. F.; Bensch, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Several hours of three dimensional wind data were collected in the thunderstorm approach-to-landing environment, using an instrumented Queen Air airplane. These data were used as input to a numerical simulation of aircraft response, concentrating on fixed-stick assumptions, while the aircraft simulated an instrument landing systems approach. Output included airspeed, vertical displacement, pitch angle, and a special approach deterioration parameter. Theory and the results of approximately 1000 simulations indicated that about 20 percent of the cases contained serious wind shear conditions capable of causing a critical deterioration of the approach. In particular, the presence of high energy at the airplane's phugoid frequency was found to have a deleterious effect on approach quality. Oscillations of the horizontal wind at the phugoid frequency were found to have a more serious effect than vertical wind. A simulation of Eastern flight 66, which crashed at JFK in 1975, served to illustrate the points of the research. A concept of a real-time wind shear detector was outlined utilizing these results.

  1. A method of wind shear detection for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Kohei; Bando, Toshio; Tanaka, Keiji; Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1993-01-01

    A new wind shear warning system for powered-lift STOL aircraft was evaluated by using a flight simulator. Wind shear warning systems for CTOL aircraft have been designed to detect horizontal shear only. Because the approach air speed of STOL aircraft is lower than that for CTOL aircraft, STOL aircraft are more vulnerable to vertical wind due to (1) a gradient of horizontal shear that is smaller for STOL than for CTOL aircraft because of slower airspeed; (2) STOL aircraft spend longer time in a downdraft; and (3) vertical wind causes a more radical change in the STOL aircraft's flight path because of its lower airspeed. In order to detect the vertical wind, the wind shear warning system proposed calculates the difference between potential flight path measured on-board during shear traversal and trimmed flight path estimated from aircraft status. The most characteristic feature of this new system is that it utilizes only inertial information and pitot-static airspeed data; this yields a convenient means of on-board implementation. Simulation test results confirm that the new system can detect the vertical shear.

  2. An analytical study of the longitudinal response of airplanes to positive wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal response of jet transport aircraft to vertical variation of the horizontal winds is analyzed. Specific reference is given to the role of the speed (u) stability derivatives in the interaction of the airplane and its environment. The relative importance of the u stability derivatives is determined. The wind shear tolerance factor is found which can be used to determine, in a qualitative manner, the stability (tolerance) of an airplane to wind shear. A further study of the control problem shows that the criteria for good control could be reduced from two to one automatic control systems. Only a speed control system is necessary for good control in wind shear.

  3. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn

    the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear...... condition, therefore on the season and the site. It was then proposed to use an equivalent wind speed accounting for the whole speed profile in front of the turbine. The method was first tested with aerodynamic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine which demonstrated the decrease of the scatter...... ways of accounting for the turbulence were tested with the experimental data: an adaptation of the equivalent wind speed so that it also accounts for the turbulence intensity and the combination of the equivalent wind speed accounting for the wind shear only with the turbulence normalising method...

  4. Infrared low-level wind shear work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Pat

    1988-01-01

    Results of field experiments for the detection of clear air disturbance and low level wind shear utilizing an infrared airborne system are given in vugraph form. The hits, misses and nuisance alarms scores are given. Information is given on the infrared spatial resolution technique. The popular index of aircraft hazard (F= WX over g - VN over AS) is developed for a remote temperature sensor.

  5. Progress on Intelligent Guidance and Control for Wind Shear Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Low altitude wind shear poses a serious threat to air safety. Avoiding severe wind shear challenges the ability of flight crews, as it involves assessing risk from uncertain evidence. A computerized intelligent cockpit aid can increase flight crew awareness of wind shear, improving avoidance decisions. The primary functions of a cockpit advisory expert system for wind shear avoidance are discussed. Also introduced are computational techniques being implemented to enable these primary functions.

  6. Wind shear training applications for 91/135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, ED

    1991-01-01

    The requirement for wind shear training of all pilots has been demonstrated too often by the accident statistics of past years. Documents were developed to train airline crews on specific aircraft and to teach recognition of the meteorological conditions that are conducive to wind shear and microburst formation. A Wind Shear Training Aid program is discussed.

  7. Velocity shear generation of solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional incompressible MHD spectral code is used to show that shear-driven turbulence is a possible means for producing many observed properties of the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind and, in particular, the evolution of the cross helicity ('Alfvenicity') at small scales. It is shown that large-scale shear can nonlinearly produce a cascade to smaller scale fluctuations even when the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is stable, and that a roughly power law inertial range is established by this process. The evolution found is similar to that seen in some other simulations of MHD turbulence.

  8. Wind shear predictive detector technology study status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, C.

    1990-01-01

    Among the different elements to be investigated when considering the Wind Shear hazard, the Aeronautical Navigation Technical Service (STNA/3E), whose task is to participate in the development of new technologies and equipments, focused its effort on airborne and ground sensors for the detection of low-level wind shear. The first task, initiated in 1986, consists in the evaluation of three candidate techniques for forward-looking sensors: lidar, sodar, and radar. No development is presently foreseen for an infrared based air turbulence advance warning system although some flight experiments took place in the 70's. A Thomson infrared radiometer was then installed on an Air France Boeing 707 to evaluate its capability of detecting clear air turbulence. The conclusion showed that this technique was apparently able to detect cloud layers but that additional experiments were needed; on the other hand, the rarity of the phenomenon and the difficulty in operating on a commercial aircraft were also mentioned.

  9. Flight simulation for wind shear encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1990-01-01

    A real-time piloted flight simulator is under development in the Laboratory for Control and Automation at Princeton University. This facility will be used to study piloted flight through a simulated wind shear. It will also provide a testbed for real-time flight guidance laws. The hardware configuration and aerodynamic model used are discussed. The microburst model to be incorporated into the simulation is introduced, and some proposed cockpit display concepts are described.

  10. Hourly observations of the jet stream - Wind shear, Richardson number and pilot reports of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of the jet stream made on the basis of over 400 hr of wind and temperature data taken during two prolonged jet stream passages above western and central Pennsylvania during mid-November 1986 and mid-January 1987. Wind profilers are found to be far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability forecasts of turbulence based on wind profiler-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports and turbulence and wind shear is found.

  11. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... at the Danish National Test Station for Large Wind Turbines at Høvsøre in Denmark. The site represents flat, homogeneous grassland with an average gust factor of 1.4 at 10m and 1.2 at 100m level. In a typical surface-layer gust parametrization, the gust factor is composed of two components, the peak factor...

  12. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  13. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  14. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.

  15. The formation of sporadic E layers by a vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal wind shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Didebulidze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the mid-latitude sporadic E layers (Es layers by an atmospheric vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal shear flow (horizontal wind with a horizontal linear shear is investigated. A three-dimensional atmospheric vortical perturbation (atmospheric shear waves, whose velocity vector is in the horizontal plane and has a vertical wavenumber kz≠0, can provide a vertical shear of the horizontal wind. The shear waves influence the vertical transport of heavy metallic ions and their convergence into thin and dense horizontal layers. The proposed mechanism takes into account the dynamical influence of the shear wave velocity in the horizontal wind on the vertical drift velocity of the ions. It also can explain the multi-layer structure of Es layers. The pattern of the multi-layer structure depends on the value of the shear-wave vertical wavelength, the ion-neutral collision frequency and the direction of the background horizontal wind. The modelling of formation of sporadic E layers with a single and a double peak is presented. Also, the importance of shear wave coupling with short-period atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs on the variations of sporadic E layer ion density is examined and discussed.

  16. Prescribed wind shear modelling with the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Troldborg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A method for prescribing arbitrary steady atmospheric wind shear profiles combined with CFD is presented. The method is furthermore combined with the actuator line technique governing the aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine. Computation are carried out on a wind turbine exposed to a representative...... steady atmospheric wind shear profile with and without wind direction changes up through the atmospheric boundary layer. Results show that the main impact on the turbine is captured by the model. Analysis of the wake behind the wind turbine, reveal the formation of a skewed wake geometry interacting...

  17. Cockpit display of hazardous wind shear information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Information on cockpit display of wind shear information is given in viewgraph form. Based on the current status of windshear sensors and candidate data dissemination systems, the near-term capabilities for windshear avoidance will most likely include: (1) Ground-based detection: TDWR (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar), LLWAS (Low-Level Windshear Alert System), Automated PIREPS; (2) Ground-Air datalinks: Air traffic control voice channels, Mode-S digital datalink, ACARS alphanumeric datalink. The possible datapaths for integration of these systems are illustrated in a diagram. In the future, airborne windshear detection systems such as lidars, passive IR detectors, or airborne Doppler radars may also become available. Possible future datalinks include satellite downlink and specialized en route weather channels.

  18. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    different turbine components are evaluated under the full wind measurements, using the developed wind shear model and with standard wind conditions prescribed in the IEC 61400-1 ed. 3. The results display the effect of the Wöhler exponent and reveal that under moderate turbulence, the effect of wind shear...... on turbine blades. Although the influence of wind shear on extreme loads was found to be negligible, the IEC 61400-1 wind shear definition was found to result in non-conservative estimates of the 50 year extreme blade deflection toward the tower, especially under extreme turbulence conditions. Copyright...... proposed for flat terrain and that can significantly decrease the uncertainty associated with fatigue load predictions for wind turbines with large rotors. An essential contribution is the conditioning of wind shear on the 90% quantile of wind turbulence, such that the appropriate magnitude of the design...

  19. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    itself depends on the wind speed profile, especially for large turbines. Therefore, it is important to characterize the wind profile in front of the turbine, and this should be preferably achieved by measuring the wind speed over the vertical range between lower and higher rotor tips. In this paper, we...... describe an experiment in which wind speed profiles were measured in front of a multimegawatt turbine using a ground–based pulsed lidar. Ignoring the vertical shear was shown to overestimate the kinetic energy flux of these profiles, in particular for those deviating significantly from a power law profile....... As a consequence, the power curve obtained for these deviant profiles was different from that obtained for the ‘near power law’ profiles. An equivalent wind speed based on the kinetic energy derived from the measured wind speed profile was then used to plot the performance curves. The curves obtained for the two...

  20. Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Larsen, Torben J.

    Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case...... of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly......, the variations of the power output and the power curve were analysed for various turbulence intensities. Furthermore, the equivalent speed method was successfully tested on a power curve resulting from simulations cases combining shear and turbulence. Finally, we roughly simulated the wind speed measurements we...

  1. Analysis of vertical wind direction and speed gradients for data from the met. mast at Hoevsoere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, N.; Wagner, R.; Gottschall, J.

    2010-05-15

    The task of this project has been to study the vertical gradient of the wind direction from experimental data obtained with different measurement instruments at the Hoevsoere test site, located at the west coast of Denmark. The major part of the study was based on data measured by wind vanes mounted at a meteorological (met.) mast. These measurements enabled us to make an analysis of the variation of the direction with altitude, i.e. the wind direction shear. For this purpose, four years of wind direction measurements at two heights (60 m and 100 m) were analysed with special respect to the diurnal and seasonal variations of the direction gradient. The location of the test site close to the sea allowed for an investigation of specific trends for offshore and onshore winds, dependent on the considered wind direction sector. Furthermore, a comparison to lidar measurements showed the existence of an offset between the two vanes used for the analysis, which has to be considered for evaluating the significance and uncertainty of the results. Finally, the direction shear was analysed as function of wind speed and compared to the corresponding relation for the wind speed shear. Our observation from this is that the direction shear does not necessarily increase with the speed shear. (author)

  2. Airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.; Bowles, Roland L.; Robinson, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index (F-factor) was developed and evaluated in simulation and verified in flight. The algorithm was implemented on NASA's B-737-100 airplane, and tested under severe maneuvering, nonhazardous wind conditions, and normal takeoffs and landings. The airplane was flown through actual microburst conditions in Orlando, FL, where the algorithm produced wind shear measurements which were confirmed by an independent, ground-based radar measurement. Flight test results indicated that the in situ F-factor algorithm correctly measured the effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance, and produced no nuisance alerts.

  3. An experimental cockpit display for TDWR wind shear alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Daly, Peter M.; Demillo, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The first successful ground-to-air data link and cockpit display of terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) wind shear warnings in real-time are reported. During the summer of 1990, wind shear warnings generated by the TDWR testbed radar at Orlando, Florida, were transmitted in real-time to a research aircraft performing microburst penetrations. Automatic delivery of TDWR wind shear warnings potentially result in decreased controller workload and improved pilot information. Pilot responses indicate that the information provided by the cockpit displays was useful in visualizing the location of wind shear hazards. The graphical display of microburst hazards provided better information than that currently provided by ATC verbal messages and pilot reports. This information was useful in assessing the microburst hazard, deciding whether to continue the approach, and planning escape maneuvers.

  4. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Corscadden, Kenneth W.; Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty ...

  5. Lidar-Assisted Feedforward Individual Pitch Control to Compensate Wind Shear and Yawed Inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Svenja; Geisler, Jens; Konigorski, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Lidar-assisted individual pitch control (IPC) has been investigated occasionally in recent years, focusing on the compensation of (vertical) wind shear as the main disturbance. Since yawed inflow might cause significant load fluctuations too, it is worth to compensate. Load patterns caused by yawed inflow significantly differ from those caused by wind shear, requiring a more sophisticated control algorithm. In this paper a lidar-assisted cyclic pitch feedforward control to compensate wind shear and yawed inflow is presented. The main objective is the analysis of the load patterns through a simplified aerodynamic model, which among other things focuses on a reasonable representation of the skewed wake effect. Establishing a suitable structure of the feedforward controller follows. The paper concludes with a comparison of fatigue load reductions achieved by three different controllers. Firstly, a well-known feedback individual pitch control; secondly, a feedforward controller for pure wind shear compensation and thirdly, this new feedforward controller to compensate wind shear and yawed inflow. The last two controllers use ideal lidar measurement chains.

  6. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corscadden, Kenneth W; Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement.

  7. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement. PMID:27872898

  8. Synthetic atmospheric turbulence and wind shear in large eddy simulations of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A method of generating a synthetic ambient wind field in neutral atmosphere is described and verified for modelling the effect of wind shear and turbulence on a wind turbine wake using the flow solver EllipSys3D. The method uses distributed volume forces to represent turbulent fluctuations......, superimposed on top of a mean deterministic shear layer consistent with that used in the IEC standard for wind turbine load calculations. First, the method is evaluated by running a series of large-eddy simulations in an empty domain, where the imposed turbulence and wind shear is allowed to reach a fully...... developed stage in the domain. The performance of the method is verified by comparing the turbulence intensity and spectral distribution of the turbulent energy to the spectral distribution of turbulence generated by the IEC suggested Mann model. Second, the synthetic turbulence and wind shear is used...

  9. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of deriving vertical wind profiles from current satellite .... It is clear that the satellite derived winds are not sufficient by themselves for the NWP requirements, due to poor vertical resolution. In the present study we attempt to derive the ..... The solution of matrix equation (7) leads to ...

  10. Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Binrong; Wei, Sha; Wei, Kexiang; Yang, Wenxian; Peng, Zhike; Chu, Fulei

    2017-09-01

    The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines. This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine. First, wind speed models, particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model, are described in detail. The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modern large-scale wind turbines. Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory. Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow, whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear. Under steady wind conditions, power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss. Wind farm loss is constant at 3 α(3 α-1) R 2/(8 H 2). By contrast, rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed. That is, when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works, the rotor loss stabilizes around zero, but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works, the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies. The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

  11. Wind shear proportional errors in the horizontal wind speed sensed by focused, range gated lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Courtney, Michael; Parmentier, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 10-minute average horizontal wind speeds sensed with lidar and mast mounted cup anemometers, at 60 to 116 meters altitude at Hovsore, are compared. The lidar deviation from the cup value as a function of wind velocity and wind shear is studied in a 2-parametric regression analysis which reveals...... an altitude dependent relation between the lidar error and the wind shear. A likely explanation for this relation is an error in the intended sensing altitude. At most this error is estimated to 9 in which induced errors in the horizontal wind velocity of up to 0.5 m/s as compared to a cup at the intended...... for wind velocity and wind shear dependent errors are discussed. The 2-parametric regression analysis described in this paper is proven to be a better approach when acceptance testing and calibrating lidars....

  12. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  13. Doppler radar spectral width broadening due to beamwidth and wind shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nastrom

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectral width observed by Doppler radars can be due to several effects including the atmospheric turbulence within the radar sample volume plus effects associated with the background flow and the radar geometry and configuration. This study re-examines simple models for the effects due to finite beamwidth and vertical shear of the horizontal wind. Analytic solutions of 1- and 2-dimensional models are presented. Comparisons of the simple 2-dimensional model with numerical integrations of a 3-dimensional model with a symmetrical Gaussian beam show that the 2-dimensional model is usually adequate. The solution of the 2-dimensional model gives a formula that can be applied easily to large data sets. Analysis of the analytic solutions of the 2-dimensional model for off-vertical beams reveals a term that has not been included in mathematical formulas for spectral broadening in the past. This term arises from the simultaneous effects of the changing geometry due to curvature within a finite beamwidth and the vertical wind shear. The magnitude of this effect can be comparable to that of the well-known effects of beam-broadening and wind shear, and since it can have either algebraic sign, it can significantly reduce (or increase the expected spectral broadening, although under typical conditions it is smaller than the beam-broadening effect. The predictions of this simple model are found to be consistent with observations from the VHF radar at White Sands Missile Range, NM.

  14. Doppler radar spectral width broadening due to beamwidth and wind shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nastrom

    Full Text Available The spectral width observed by Doppler radars can be due to several effects including the atmospheric turbulence within the radar sample volume plus effects associated with the background flow and the radar geometry and configuration. This study re-examines simple models for the effects due to finite beamwidth and vertical shear of the horizontal wind. Analytic solutions of 1- and 2-dimensional models are presented. Comparisons of the simple 2-dimensional model with numerical integrations of a 3-dimensional model with a symmetrical Gaussian beam show that the 2-dimensional model is usually adequate. The solution of the 2-dimensional model gives a formula that can be applied easily to large data sets. Analysis of the analytic solutions of the 2-dimensional model for off-vertical beams reveals a term that has not been included in mathematical formulas for spectral broadening in the past. This term arises from the simultaneous effects of the changing geometry due to curvature within a finite beamwidth and the vertical wind shear. The magnitude of this effect can be comparable to that of the well-known effects of beam-broadening and wind shear, and since it can have either algebraic sign, it can significantly reduce (or increase the expected spectral broadening, although under typical conditions it is smaller than the beam-broadening effect. The predictions of this simple model are found to be consistent with observations from the VHF radar at White Sands Missile Range, NM.

  15. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  16. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  17. Hourly wind profiler observations of the jet stream - Wind shear and pilot reports of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Hourly wind profiler observations of the jet stream are reported on the basis of over 400 hr of wind and temperature data taken during two prolonged jet stream passages over western and central Pennsylvania during mid-November 1986 and mid-January 1987. The mean wind speed profile with error bars for the 79 hr that the Crown radar was determined to be 'under' the jet stream is shown. A mean speed of 83 m/s for the period was found. A plot of wind shear for the hours of interest is given. Typically, the shear was at a maximum from 3 to 4 km below the level of maximum wind. Thus, an aircraft would have to fly through potentially rough air to reach the fuel savings and relative smoothness of flight at the jet stream level. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found.

  18. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.

    2010-04-15

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise the wind field in front of the turbine. However, with the growing size of the turbine rotors during the last years, the effect of the variations of the wind speed within the swept rotor area, and therefore of the power output, cannot be ignored any longer. Primary effects on the power performance are from the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear condition, therefore on the season and the site. It was then proposed to use an equivalent wind speed accounting for the whole speed profile in front of the turbine. The method was first tested with aerodynamic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine which demonstrated the decrease of the scatter in the power curve. A power curve defined in terms of this equivalent wind speed would be less dependant on the shear than the standard power curve. The equivalent wind speed method was then experimentally validated with lidar measurements. Two equivalent wind speed definitions were considered both resulting in the reduction of the scatter in the power curve. As a lidar wind profiler can measure the wind speed at several heights within the rotor span, the wind speed profile is described with more accuracy than with the power law model. The equivalent wind speed derived from measurements, including at least one measurement above hub height, resulted in a smaller scatter in the power curve than the equivalent wind speed derived from profiles extrapolated from measurements

  19. Evolution and Growth Competition of Salt Fingers in Saline Lake with Slight Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ray-Yeng; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Shugan, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Since the discover of double-diffusive convection by Stommel, Arons & Blanchard (1956), 'evidence has accumulated for the widespread presence of double-diffusion throughout the ocean' and for its 'significant effects on global water-mass structure and the thermohaline convection' (Schmitt, 1998). The salt-fingering form of double-diffusion has particularly attracted interest because of salt-finger convection being now widely recognized as an important mechanism for mixing heat and salt both vertically and laterally in the ocean and saline lake. In oceanographic situations or saline lake where salt fingers may be an important mechanism for the transport of heat and salt in the vertical, velocity shears may also be present. Salt finger convection is analogous to Bénard convection in that the kinetic energy of the motions is obtained from the potential energy stored in the unstable distribution of a stratifying component. On the basis of the thermal analogy it is of interest to discover whether salt fingers are converted into two-dimensional sheets by the wind shear, and how the vertical fluxes of heat and salt are changed by the wind shear. Salt finger convection under the effect of steady wind shear is theoretically examined in this paper. The evolution of developing in the presence of a vertical density gradient disturbance and the horizontal Couette flow is considered near the onset of salt fingers in the saline lake under a moderate rate of wind shear. We use velocity as the basic variable and solve the pressure Poisson equation in terms of the associated Green function. Growth competition between the longitudinal rolls (LR) and the transverse rolls (TR), whose axes are respectively in the direction parallel to and perpendicular to the Couette flow, is investigated by the weakly nonlinear analysis of coupled-mode equations. The results show that the TR mode is characterized in some range of the effective Rayleigh number, and that the stability is dominated by

  20. Wind Velocity Vertical Extrapolation by Extended Power Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Şen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy gains more attention day by day as one of the clean renewable energy resources. We predicted wind speed vertical extrapolation by using extended power law. In this study, an extended vertical wind velocity extrapolation formulation is derived on the basis of perturbation theory by considering power law and Weibull wind speed probability distribution function. In the proposed methodology not only the mean values of the wind speeds at different elevations but also their standard deviations and the cross-correlation coefficient between different elevations are taken into consideration. The application of the presented methodology is performed for wind speed measurements at Karaburun/Istanbul, Turkey. At this location, hourly wind speed measurements are available for three different heights above the earth surface.

  1. Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntman, Daryal

    1991-01-01

    The status of Bendix research on Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capability is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the RDR-4A, a fully coherent, solid state transmitter having Doppler turbulence capability. Frequency generation data, plans, modifications, system characteristics and certification requirements are covered.

  2. Status of NASA's IR wind shear detection research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckissick, Burnell

    1991-01-01

    The status of NASA's wind shear detection research is reported in viewgraph form. Information is given on early experience, FLIR detectors, quantities measured by Airborne Warning and Avoidance System 1 (AWAS 1), the time series model for Flight 551, conclusions from NASA 737 flights, conclusions on Orlando 7-7-90, and AWAS 3 mnemonics.

  3. The relationship of an integral wind shear hazard to aircraft performance limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. S.; Robinson, P. A.; Hinton, D. A.; Bowles, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development and certification of airborne forward-looking wind shear detection systems has required a hazard definition stated in terms of sensor observable wind field characteristics. This paper outlines the definition of the F-factor wind shear hazard index and an average F-factor quantity, calculated over a specified averaging interval, which may be used to judge an aircraft's potential performance loss due to a given wind shear field. A technique for estimating airplane energy changes during a wind shear encounter is presented and used to determine the wind shear intensity, as a function of the averaging interval, that presents significant hazard to transport category airplanes. The wind shear hazard levels are compared to averaged F-factor values at various averaging intervals for four actual wind shear encounters. Results indicate that averaging intervals of about one kilometer could be used in a simple method to discern hazardous shears.

  4. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  5. The classification of wind shears from the point of view of aerodynamics and flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Fritz; Hensel, Gunter

    1987-01-01

    A study of international statistical data shows that in about three quarters of all serious accidents which occurred with jet propelled airliners wind shear was either one of the main causes of the accident or represented a major contributory cause. Wind shear related problems are examined. The necessity of a use of different concepts, definitions, and divisions is explained, and the concepts and definitions required for the division of wind and wind shear into different categories is discussed. A description of the context between meteorological and aerodynamics-flight mechanics concepts, definitions, and divisions is also provided. Attention is given to wind and wind components, general characteristics of wind shear and the meteorological terms, the basic types of wind shear for aerodynamics-flight mechanics investigations, special types of wind shear for aerodynamics-flight mechanics investigations, and possibilities regarding a change of the wind component.

  6. Experimental characterization of individual pitch controlled vertical axis wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Simao Ferreira, C.

    2017-01-01

    Research into the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has been progressing over the last few years due to
    the large shift in design constraints for large floating offshore wind turbines by leveraging tools and experience
    from research beginning in the 1970s and lasting until the HAWT

  7. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  8. Wind-shear endurance capability for powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Toshio; Tanaka, Keiji; Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1993-01-01

    The present treatment of safety margin considerations for powered-lift (upper wing surface blowing) STOL aircraft emphasizes wind shear endurance, in order to establish safety margin criteria for such aircraft that are equivalent to those of conventional transport aircraft. The simulation results obtained show that a 6.6 deg climb gradient at V(app) for STOL aircraft is required for equivalent shear endurance in approaching a long STOL airport runway, if the STOL aircraft is equipped with an elaborate control/display system and is permitted a change in configuration.

  9. Real-time decision aiding - Aircraft guidance for wind shear avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, D. A.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Modern control theory and artificial intelligence technology are applied to the Wind Shear Safety Advisor, a conceptual airborne advisory system to help flight crews avoid or survive encounter with hazardous low-altitude wind shear. Numerical and symbolic processes of the system fuse diverse, time-varying data from ground-based and airborne measurements. Simulated wind-shear-encounter scenarios illustrate the need to consider a variety of factors for optimal decision reliability. The wind-shear-encounter simulations show the Wind Shear Safety Advisor's potential for effectively integrating the available information, highlighting the benefits of the computational techniques employed.

  10. Wind Shear/Turbulence Inputs to Flight Simulation and Systems Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for industry, universities, and government to assess current status and likely future requirements for application of flight simulators to aviation safety concerns and system certification issues associated with wind shear and atmospheric turbulence. Research findings presented included characterization of wind shear and turbulence hazards based on modeling efforts and quantitative results obtained from field measurement programs. Future research thrusts needed to maximally exploit flight simulators for aviation safety application involving wind shear and turbulence were identified. The conference contained sessions on: Existing wind shear data and simulator implementation initiatives; Invited papers regarding wind shear and turbulence simulation requirements; and Committee working session reports.

  11. Wind shear and turbulence on Titan: Huygens analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2017-10-01

    Wind shear measured by Doppler tracking of the Huygens probe is evaluated, and found to be within the range anticipated by pre-flight assessments (namely less than two times the Brunt-Väisälä frequency). The strongest large-scale shear encountered was ∼5 m/s/km, a level associated with 'Light' turbulence in terrestrial aviation. Near-surface winds (below 4 km) have small-scale fluctuations of ∼0.1 m/s on 1 s timescales, indicated both by probe tilt and Doppler tracking, and the characteristics of the fluctuation, of interest for future missions to Titan, can be reproduced with a simple autoregressive (AR(1)) model. The turbulent dissipation rate at an altitude of ∼500 m is found to be ∼0.2 cm2/s3, which may be a useful benchmark for atmospheric circulation models.

  12. Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracalente, E. M. (Compiler); Delnore, V. E. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    A meeting took place at NASA Langley Research Center in February 1987 to discuss the development and eventual use of forward-looking remote sensors for the detection and avoidance of wind shear by aircraft. The participants represented industry, academia, and government. The meeting was structured to provide first a review of the current FAA and NASA wind shear programs, then to define what really happens to the airplane, and finally to give technology updates on the various types of forward-looking sensors. This document is intended to informally record the essence of the technology updates (represented here through unedited duplication of the vugraphs used), and the floor discussion following each presentation. Also given are key issues remaining unresolved.

  13. Coherent Doppler lidar signal covariance including wind shear and wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehlich, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of coherent Doppler lidar is determined by the statistics of the coherent Doppler signal. The derivation and calculation of the covariance of the Doppler lidar signal is presented for random atmospheric wind fields with wind shear. The random component is described by a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum. The signal parameters are clarified for a general coherent Doppler lidar system. There are two distinct physical regimes: one where the transmitted pulse determines the signal statistics and the other where the wind field dominates the signal statistics. The Doppler shift of the signal is identified in terms of the wind field and system parameters.

  14. Convectively generated stratospheric gravity waves - The role of mean wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, J. R.; Durran, D.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical simulation of mid-latitude squall lines is used to study the properties of storm-induced stratospheric gravity waves. Owing to the tendency for convective cells to form at the forward edge of a squall line, and then propagate toward the rear, the simulated storms preferentially generate gravity waves that propagate toward the rear of the storm. This anisotropy in gravity wave generation leads to a net vertical transfer of momentum into the stratosphere. Cases with and without stratospheric mean wind shear are compared. In the latter case Doppler shifting of the waves to lower frequencies leads to wave breaking and enhanced wave - mean-flow interaction.

  15. Characterization of a new open jet wind tunnel to optimize and test vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tourn, Silvana; Pallarès, Jordi; Cuesta, Ildefonso

    2017-01-01

    Based on the increasing interest in urban environmental technologies, the study of small scale vertical axis wind turbines shows motivating challenges. In this paper, we present the characteristics and potentials of a new open jet wind tunnel. It has a nozzle exit area of 1.5 × 1.5 m2, and it can......%. The detailed characterization of the flow carried out indicates that the wind tunnel can be used to test small scale models of wind turbines....

  16. Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: aerodynamics and starting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas the wind is very turbulent and unstable with fast changes in direction andvelocity. In these environments, the use of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT becomesincreasingly attractive due to several advantages over horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT.However, such designs have received much less attention than the more common propeller-typedesigns and the understanding of same aspects of their operation remains, to this day, incomplete.This is particularly true of their starting characteristics. Indeed, same authors heuristically maintainthat they cannot start without external assistance. This paper reviews the cause of the inability of thelow solidity fixed pitch vertical axis wind turbines to self-start, and investigates the way ofovercoming this draw back.

  17. Small-Scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Tudela, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the design of a small vertical axis wind turbine rotor with solid wood as a construction material. The aerodynamic analysis is performed implementing a momentum based model on a mathematical computer program. A three bladed wind turbine is proposed as candidate for further prototype testing after evaluating the effect of several parameters in turbine efficiency, torque and acceleration. The results obtained indicate that wood is a suitable material for rotor cons...

  18. Wind tunnel investigation of a 14 foot vertical axis windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. J.; Guillotte, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale wind tunnel investigation was made to determine the performance characteristics of a 14 ft diameter vertical axis windmill. The parameters measured were wind velocity, shaft torque, shaft rotation rate, along with the drag and yawing moment. A velocity survey of the flow field downstream of the windmill was also made. The results of these tests along with some analytically predicted data are presented in the form of generalized data as a function of tip speed ratio.

  19. Effects of wind shear and temperature inversion on sound propagation from wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Henk de [Golder Associates (Canada)], email: Henk_deHaan@golder.com

    2011-07-01

    Noise impact assessment of wind turbines usually takes into account sound speed and propagation at ground level, and those are influenced by wind shear and atmospheric temperature changes. This paper focuses on a week-long monitoring study and presents the observed and anticipated effects of wind shear and temperature on the level of ground sound emitted from a 65m high wind turbine. Working with anemometers at ground level and turbine height, it is shown that wind shear can influence sound propagation, and that atmospheric stability must be taken into account for accurate wind speed calculations to be made. Temperature must also be addressed and the heating of the earth by solar radiation and the re-radiation of that heat in a day-night cycle, resulting in temperature inversion in the atmosphere, must be taken into account. Observations of temperature changes over a week can then yield sound speed and sound power levels with respect to altitude, and show that sound power levels are higher at ground levels during the night.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Upper Ocean Time Series of Vertical Shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    SHEAR ............. 5-1 5.1 Preliminary Statistical Tests ............ 5-1 5.1.1 Autocorrelation and Run Test for Randomness .................... 5-1...parameters are based on the statistical model for S7(NTz) from Section 4. 5.1 PRELIMINARY STATISTICAL TESTS 5.1.1 Autocorrelation and Run Test for Randomness...estimating this interval directly from shear auto- correlation functions, and the second involves the use of the run test . * 5-1 In qeneral, shear in the

  1. Flight guidance research for recovery from microburst wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Research is in progress to develop flight strategy concepts for avoidance and recovery from microburst wind shears. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various strategies for recovery from wind shear encountered during the approach-to-landing, examine the associated piloting factors, and evaluate the payoff of forward-look sensing. Both batch and piloted simulations are utilized. The industry-recommended manual recovery technique is used as a baseline strategy. Two advanced strategies were selected for the piloted tests. The first strategy emulates the recovery characteristics shown by prior optimal trajectory analysis, by initially tracking the glideslope, then commanding a shallow climb. The second strategy generates a flight path angle schedule that is a function of airplane energy state and the instantaneous shear strength. All three strategies are tested with reactive sensing only and with forward-look sensing. Piloted simulation tests are in progress. Tentative results indicate that, using only reactive alerts, there appears to be little difference in performance between the various strategies. With forward-look alerts, the advanced guidance strategies appear to have advantages over the baseline strategy. Relatively short forward-look alert times, on the order of 10 or 15 seconds, produce a far greater recovery benefit than optimizing a recovery from a reactive alert.

  2. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization.

  3. Engineering and Design: Stability of Gravity Walls Vertical Shear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barber, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This engineer technical letter (ETL) provides guidance for incorporating and calculating a shear force acting along the backs of gravity earth retaining walls within the procedures for analyzing the stability of navigation structures...

  4. The Parameters Affect on Power Coefficient Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Qasim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study describes the design of a special type of vertical axis rotor wind turbine with moveable vertically positioned vanes. The novel design increases the torque in the left side of the wind turbine by increasing the drag coefficient. It also reduces the negative torque of the frame which rotates contrary to the wind in the other side. Two different types of models, having different vane shapes (flat vane and cavity shaped vane, were fabricated. Each type consisted of two models with varying number of frames (three and four frames. The models were tested in a wind tunnel with variable wind speed in order to understand the effect of shape, weight, and number of frames on the power coefficient of the wind turbine. ABSTRAK: Di dalam kajian ini, rotor turbin angin berpaksi vertikel sebagai rangka khusus telah direkabentuk dengan lokasi vertikel mudahalih oleh bilah kipas. Rekabentuk ini meningkatkan tork di bahagian kiri turbin angin dengan meningkatkan pekali seretan dan mengurangkan tork negatif rangka yang berputar berlawanan dengan angin pada bahagian lain. Dua jenis model berbentuk berlainan telah difabrikasi (bilah kipas rata dan bilah kipas berbentuk kaviti, dengan setiap jenis mempunyai dua model dengan bilangan rangka yang berlainan (berangka tiga dan berangka empat. Model-model telah diuji di dalam terowong angin dengan kelajuan angin yang berbeza bagi mendapatkan kesan rekabentuk, berat dan bilangan rangka ke atas pekali kuasa.KEYWORDS: design; wind turbine; drag coefficient; vane

  5. Orthogonal Analysis Based Performance Optimization for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT is composed of multiple structural parameters. Since there are interactions among the structural parameters, traditional research approaches, which usually focus on one parameter at a time, cannot obtain performance of the wind turbine accurately. In order to exploit overall effect of a novel VAWT, we firstly use a single parameter optimization method to obtain optimal values of the structural parameters, respectively, by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD method; based on the results, we then use an orthogonal analysis method to investigate the influence of interactions of the structural parameters on performance of the wind turbine and to obtain optimization combination of the structural parameters considering the interactions. Results of analysis of variance indicate that interactions among the structural parameters have influence on performance of the wind turbine, and optimization results based on orthogonal analysis have higher wind energy utilization than that of traditional research approaches.

  6. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple

  7. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multipl...

  8. Design analysis of vertical wind turbine with airfoil variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Qaedy, T. Masykur Al; Nawawi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    With an ever increasing electrical energy crisis occurring in the Banda Aceh City, it will be important to investigate alternative methods of generating power in ways different than fossil fuels. In fact, one of the biggest sources of energy in Aceh is wind energy. It can be harnessed not only by big corporations but also by individuals using Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). This paper presents a three-dimensional CFD analysis of the influence of airfoil design on performance of a Darrieus-type vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The main objective of this paper is to develop an airfoil design for NACA 63-series vertical axis wind turbine, for average wind velocity 2,5 m/s. To utilize both lift and drag force, some of designs of airfoil are analyzed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such us Fluent. Simulation is performed for this airfoil at different angles of attach rearranging from -12°, -8°, -4°, 0°, 4°, 8°, and 12°. The analysis showed that the significant enhancement in value of lift coefficient for airfoil NACA 63-series is occurred for NACA 63-412.

  9. NASA wind shear model: Summary of model analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A summary of an analysis of a wind shear model is presented in the form of vugraphs. Information is given on the Terminal Area Simulation System, two dimensional axisymmetric simulations, precipitation, ambient temperature and humidity profiles over Denver, and the structure of microbursts. It was concluded that the intensity of microbursts depends upon the environment temperature and humidity profile, the diameter of the microburst downdraft, the type of precipitation and the precipitation rate. The depth of the outflow layer depends primarily upon the diameter of the downdraft. Dry microbursts are more likely to be produced by precipitation initially falling as snow.

  10. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  11. Vertical-axis wind turbine with blade adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, J.

    2006-07-01

    This report discusses the results of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine experiment. In addition to that, it describes the types of the most common wind turbines and explains the basics of wind energy conversion. Wind power plants convert wind energy into mechanical work. In all cases the kinetic wind energy turns a rotor. The rotor's momentum can be used in two ways. The first way is to directly use the momentum for a machinery. In this case the wind power plant is called windmill. The second way is to use the mechanical output to drive a generator, which converts the momentum into electrical energy. Usually this electrical energy supplies the electricity network. Wind energy is one of the oldest forms of energy used by mankind. In the past windmills were used to turn a grinding stone to grind corn or to pump water. The first windmills were built in Persia, Tibet and China (pumping water). These windmills used a vertical axis. In Europe windmills have been used since the 12th century. At that time, these windmills were built with a horizontal axis. This basic principle is still used for modern wind energy plants nowadays. The development of this technique was basically influenced by aerodynamic sailing knowledge of the Nordic people. Like the Asian windmills their European equivalents were used for grinding corn and pumping water, but also for sawing. In the 19th century the westernmill was developed in America. The advantage of this windmill is that it can automatically turn itself out of wind in a storm and by doing so avoid damage. Moreover, this windmill was the first one to be produced in an industrial way, making it cheap. However, at the same time the steam-engine and the internal combustion engines were developed and replaced nearly all windmills. In 1920 the physician Albert Betz researched on the physics and aerodynamics of the wind rotor at the Aerodynamic Experimental Station at Goettingen, Germany. Betz proved that the physical utilization of kinetic

  12. Determination of performance parameters of vertical axis wind turbines in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Bang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the determination of the performance parameters of a small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT, which operate by the utilization of drag forces acting on the blades of the turbine. The performance was evaluated by investigating the electrical power output and torque moment of the wind machine. Measurements were performed on the full-scale model and the experimental data are assessed and compared to other types of wind turbines, with respect to its purpose.

  13. The 5 MW DeepWind floating offshore vertical wind turbine concept design - status and perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    2014-01-01

    Floating vertical-axis wind turbines for offshore wind energy present a concept with novelty and potentials for reducing COE. Cost reduction for offshore wind power plants is an industrial challenge, and DeepWind is - as the analysis of the current design shows-believed to be a good candidate in ......, that it is possible to achieve a competitive design ready for further industrial optimization. A preliminary analysis is provided on the emergency philosophy for this concept.......Floating vertical-axis wind turbines for offshore wind energy present a concept with novelty and potentials for reducing COE. Cost reduction for offshore wind power plants is an industrial challenge, and DeepWind is - as the analysis of the current design shows-believed to be a good candidate...... aspects of the floating hull, and new generator design embracing magnetic bearings. Two important design tools were developed which allow the industry to analyze various VAWT(vertical Axis Wind Turbine) variants for offshore applications: a main design tool “HAWC2” for aeroelastic design of VAWTs...

  14. Efficiency of the DOMUS 750 vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Kyle; Rasch, Tyler; Ju, Guoqiang; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some preliminary results on the efficiency of a wind turbine for an off-grid housing unit. To generate power, the unit uses a photovoltaic solar array and a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The existing VAWT was analysed to improve efficiency and increase power generation. There were found to be two main sources of inefficiency: 1. the 750W DC epicyclic generator performed poorly in low winds, and 2. the turbine blades wobbled, allowing for energy loss due to off-axis rotation. A 12V DC permanent magnet alternator was chosen that met the power requirements of the housing unit and would generate power at lower wind speeds. A support bracket was designed to prevent the turbine blades from wobbling.

  15. The role of total wind in the vertical dynamics of ions in the E-region at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A seasonally dependent total neutral wind model obtained from experimental data is used to evaluate the diurnal variation of the vertical ion velocity in the E-region at a high-latitude location (Tromsø, for each season, in the presence of an electric field with a typical diurnal variation for quiet auroral days. The diurnal variation and spatial locations of the vertical convergence of ions are analyzed and the effect of the total wind on the occurrence of sporadic E-layers is inferred. The results show that the structure of the wind is an important factor in controlling the vertical velocities of ions, favoring or hindering the sporadic E-layer formation. The ion convergence conditions are improved when the permanent wind is removed, which suggests that sporadic E-layers occur when the mean wind has small values, thus allowing the electric field and/or the semidiurnal tide to control the ion dynamics. We conclude that for quiet days the formation of the sporadic layers is initiated by the electric field, while their evolution and dynamics is controlled by the wind. We also find that the seasonal variation of the Es layers cannot be related to the seasonally dependent wind shear. Although we focus on sporadic E-layers, our results can be used in the analysis of other processes involving the vertical dynamics of ions in the E-region at high latitudes.

  16. AWSM. Ground and wind shear effects in aerodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    In order to design more advanced and efficient wind turbines, more accurate results coming from numerical predictions are mandatory. This need became more and more important in the last years due to the growth of wind turbines, especially for offshore scenarios. The diameter of a modern MW class wind turbine can easily be greater than 100m, on which the effect of wind shear and incoherent atmospheric structures on blade loads play a much more significant role. Most of the available codes are based on Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. The main advantage of this class of codes is the fact that they are very fast to calculate the loads and performance of a wind turbine. This makes BEM codes very convenient especially in the very extensive wind turbine design and load calculations, but due to all the hypotheses of the theory, there are several restrictions for BEM codes usage. By using full Navier-Stokes based codes, for example, there are no limitations about the geometry and no restrictive hypotheses related with the aerodynamics, so it is possible to perform both detailed fluid-dynamics studies and general performance-oriented analyses in very general conditions. The drawback is the big demand in terms of computational resources, computational time and expertise. A code, named Aerodynamic Windturbine Simulation Module (AWSM), has been developed at Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). The main scope was to keep the advantages of BEM codes in terms of calculation time and ease of use, but to obtain a superior quality, especially concerning wake and time dependent wake-related phenomena. The presence of the ground during the analyses, as well as the presence of a nonuniform wind introduce sensitive effects in the numerical predictions. These effects regard both the response of the blade and the evolution of the wake. During UpWind project, part of the research was focused on these two effects and their inclusion in the calculations. The aim of the

  17. Modulation of Atmospheric Nonisothermality and Wind Shears on the Propagation of Seismic Tsunami-Excited Gravity Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Z. G. Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the modulation of atmospheric nonisothermality and wind shears on the propagation of seismic tsunami-excited gravity waves by virtue of the vertical wavenumber, m (with its imaginary and real parts, m i and m r , respectively, within a correlated characteristic range of tsunami wave periods in tens of minutes. A generalized dispersion relation of inertio-acoustic-gravity (IAG waves is obtained by relaxing constraints on Hines’ idealized locally-isothermal, shear-free and rotation-free model to accommodate a realistic atmosphere featured by altitude-dependent nonisothermality (up to 100 K/km and wind shears (up to 100 m/s per km. The obtained solutions recover all of the known wave modes below the 200-km altitude where dissipative terms are assumed negligible. Results include: (1 nonisothermality and wind shears divide the atmosphere into a sandwich-like structure of five layers within the 200-km altitude in view of the wave growth in amplitudes: Layer I (0–18 km, Layer II (18–87 km, Layer III (87–125 km, Layer IV (125–175 km and Layer V (175–200 km; (2 in Layers I, III and V, the magnitude of m i is smaller than Hines’ imaginary vertical wavenumber ( m i H , referring to an attenuated growth in the amplitudes of upward propagating waves; on the contrary, in Layers II and IV, the magnitude of m i is larger than that of m i H , providing a pumped growth from Hines’ model; (3 nonisothermality and wind shears enhance m r substantially at an ∼100-km altitude for a tsunami wave period T t s longer than 30 min. While Hines’ model provides that the maximal value of m r 2 is ∼0.05 (1/km 2 , this magnitude is doubled by the nonisothermal effect and quadrupled by the joint nonisothermal and wind shear effect. The modulations are weaker at altitudes outside 80–140-km heights; (4 nonisothermality and wind shears expand the definition of the observation-defined “damping factor”, β: relative to Hines’ classical wave

  18. Flow-blade interaction in a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Roberto; Piedra, Saul; Ramos, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the interaction between an incoming wind and three airfoils symmetrically located, and free to rotate around a common axis. The geometrical configuration considered is a two dimensional model of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. The model is based in the conservation equations of the fluid coupled with the Newton-Lagrange equations for the interaction with the airfoils. The presence of the rigid body in the fluid is simulated using immersed boundary conditions. The interaction of the wind with the airfoil located further upstream generates a force on the airfoil and vortices that are swept downstream and collide with the other airfoils. This effect generates a complex interplay of dynamical forces whose resultant is a torque that sets the system in motion. We describe the flow around the airfoils and examine the efficiency of the system as a function of geometric variables. Our conclusions are potentially useful for the design of VAWT's.

  19. Numerical study on small scale vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Santos, Teresa; Gallegos, Armando; Uzarraga, Cristóbal N.; Rodriguez, Miguel A.

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is numerically analyzed. The set-up is Hdarrieus with three straight blades airfoils NACA attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The wind turbine has solidity equals to the unity operating with wind velocity of 7 m/s. Influence of pitch angle is tested to get design tendencies. 2D, transient, Navier Stokes equations are solved using the code Ansys-Fluent. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order MUSCL scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. More than six revolutions must be simulated to get the periodic behavior. Two models of turbulence have been contrasted Realizable k-epsilon and Transition SST concluding the last one show more realistic flow features. Pitch angles of 0º, -6º and -10º have been tested with Tip Speed Ratios ranging from 0.7 and 1.6. The no null pitch angles improve the performance of the wind turbine. Instantaneous and averaged power coefficients as well as detailed flow field around the airfoils are showed.

  20. Numerical study on small scale vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra-Santos Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT is numerically analyzed. The set-up is Hdarrieus with three straight blades airfoils NACA attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The wind turbine has solidity equals to the unity operating with wind velocity of 7 m/s. Influence of pitch angle is tested to get design tendencies. 2D, transient, Navier Stokes equations are solved using the code Ansys-Fluent. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order MUSCL scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. More than six revolutions must be simulated to get the periodic behavior. Two models of turbulence have been contrasted Realizable k-epsilon and Transition SST concluding the last one show more realistic flow features. Pitch angles of 0º, -6º and -10º have been tested with Tip Speed Ratios ranging from 0.7 and 1.6. The no null pitch angles improve the performance of the wind turbine. Instantaneous and averaged power coefficients as well as detailed flow field around the airfoils are showed.

  1. Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.

  2. Algorithms for airborne Doppler radar wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Jeff; Pockrandt, Mitch; Symosek, Peter; Benser, Earl T.

    1992-01-01

    Honeywell has developed algorithms for the detection of wind shear/microburst using airborne Doppler radar. The Honeywell algorithms use three dimensional pattern recognition techniques and the selection of an associated scanning pattern forward of the aircraft. This 'volumetric scan' approach acquires reflectivity, velocity, and spectral width from a three dimensional volume as opposed to the conventional use of a two dimensional azimuthal slice of data at a fixed elevation. The algorithm approach is based on detection and classification of velocity patterns which are indicative of microburst phenomenon while minimizing the false alarms due to ground clutter return. Simulation studies of microburst phenomenon and x-band radar interaction with the microburst have been performed and results of that study are presented. Algorithm performance indetection of both 'wet' and 'dry' microbursts is presented.

  3. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance for the newly designed cavity vane type vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffer, K. H.; Usubamatov, R.; Quadir, G. A.; Ismail, K. A.

    2015-05-01

    Research and development activities in the field of renewable energy, especially wind and solar, have been considerably increased, due to the worldwide energy crisis and high global emission. However, the available technical designs are not yet adequate to develop a reliable distributed wind energy converter for low wind speed conditions. The last few years have proved that Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are more suitable for urban areas than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs). To date, very little has been published in this area to assess good performance and lifetime of VAWTs either in open or urban areas. The power generated by vertical axis wind turbines is strongly dependent on the aerodynamic performance of the turbines. The main goal of this current research is to investigate numerically the aerodynamic performance of a newly designed cavity type vertical axis wind turbine. In the current new design the power generated depends on the drag force generated by the individual blades and interactions between them in a rotating configuration. For numerical investigation, commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software GAMBIT and FLUENT were used. In this numerical analysis the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is used which is better than the other turbulence models available as suggested by some researchers. The computed results show good agreement with published experimental results.

  4. Integrated simulation challenges with the DeepWind floating vertical axis wind turbine concept

    OpenAIRE

    Verelst, David; Aagaard Madsen , Helge; Borg, Michael; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Svendsen, Harald G.; Berthelsen, Petter Andreas

    2015-01-01

    - This paper presents the experiences and challenges with concurrently carrying out numerical model development, integrated simulations and design of a novel floating vertical axis wind turbine, the DeepWind concept. The floating VAWT modelling capabilities of the aero-hydro-elastic HAWC2 simulation tool are briefly described and the design approach adopted for such a challenging project was to independently design subsystems in parallel, apart from essential design specifications. Instabi...

  5. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  6. Estimation of Vertical Wind Shear from Infrared and Microwave Radiances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Satellite data The radiance data for this study were obtained from the Satellite Data Services Division ( SDSD ) of the National Climatic Center (NMC...horizontal resolution. The effective horizontal scales are shown on Fig. 2b. In the data set obtained from SDSD for this study, the raw MSU measurements were

  7. Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.

    2017-04-01

    We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.

  8. Design and wind tunnel experimentation of a variable blade drag type vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Samuel; Bahr, Behnam

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to propose a novel efficiency boosting design feature in a drag type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), explore practicality through design and fabrication, and test the viability of the design through wind tunnel experiments. Using adaptive control surface design and an improved blade shape can be very useful in harnessing the wind's energy in low wind speed areas. The new design is based on a series of smaller blade elements to make any shape, which changes to reduce a negative resistance as it rotates and thus maximizing the useful torque. As such, these blades were designed into a modified Savonius wind turbine with the goal of improving upon the power coefficient produced by a more conventional design. The experiment yielded some positive observations with regard to starting characteristics. Torque and angular velocity data was recorded for both the conventional configuration and the newly built configuration and the torque and power coefficient results were compared.

  9. Vertical-axis wind turbines -- The current status of an old technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical-axis wind turbine technology is not well understood, even though the earliest wind machines rotated about a vertical axis. The operating environment of a vertical-axis wind turbine is quite complex, but detailed analysis capabilities have been developed and verified over the last 30 years. Although vertical-axis technology has not been widely commercialized, it exhibits both advantages and disadvantages compared to horizontal-axis technology, and in some applications, it appears to offer significant advantages.

  10. Classifying Vertical Wind Speed Profiles for Offshore Wind Resource and Available Power Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pe, A.; Tippet, S.; Rabenhorst, S. D.; Delgado, R.

    2016-12-01

    Prior to offshore wind farm construction, an accurate estimate of preconstruction energy yield is required to optimize wind farm layout and justify the project's economic viability. Unfortunately, uncertainties exist during this stage due in-part to limited measurements to characterize the offshore wind resource and related uncertainties predicting a turbine's available power. To better understand these preconstruction energy yield uncertainties, Doppler wind lidar and other met-ocean measurements were collected offshore within Maryland's Wind Energy Area from July-August 2013. Given the diversity of vertical wind speed profile (VWP) observations, VWPs are classified based on the goodness-of-fit to several mathematical expressions. Results demonstrate on average VWP typevariability is related to the magnitude of hub-height (100m) wind speed and wind direction (i.e. offshore fetch), as power law, logarithmic-like, VWPs occur during slightly weaker, northeasterly flow, while more unexpected VWPs are associated with stronger, southwesterly flow, from land to sea. In addition, compared to power-law VWP classes, unexpected VWPs types demonstrate slightly warmer air and SSTs, as well as stable surface conditions. Classifying VWPs also provides a useful tool for relating preconstruction offshore wind resource and turbine available power uncertainties. Using an NREL 5MW offshore reference turbine's power curve, buoy extrapolated surface wind to hub-height (100m), lidar measured hub-height, and several Rotor Equivalent Wind (REW) available power estimates are compared. On average, traditional hub-height wind speed power yields the highest available power estimate, approximately 9-70 percent greater than other techniques. Further, unexpected VWPs demonstrate the greatest variability in critical superimposed meteorological controls known to impact turbine performance, thus yield greatest deviation from hub-height power and uncertainty between available power estimates

  11. Evolution of the initial hole in vertically vibrated shear thickening fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yulei; Gong, Xinglong; Sun, Yingqiang; Xuan, Shouhu; Jiang, Wanquan; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-05-01

    The apparent viscosity of shear thickening fluid (STF) changes dramatically with the applied shear rate, which is a typical rheological property of STF. Such a rheological property affects the vertically vibrated dynamic property of STF. In order to get a better understanding of the vertically vibrated dynamic properties of STF, the surface instabilities in vertically vibrated STF, which was prepared by suspending polymethylmethacrylate particles in ethylene glycol, are investigated. Above a critical driving acceleration, the surface instability transforms from the disappearance to the fission of the initial hole, which is produced by applying a finite perturbation to the surface. The time required for the initial hole to disappear can be affected by the driving acceleration, vibration frequency, volume fraction, thickness, and shape and size of the perturbation. A possible model is proposed, and the expressions of hydrostatic force and viscous dissipative force are employed to clarify the relationship between disappearance of the hole and shear thickening effect. The fission and spreading follow a hexagonal arrangement. At a higher acceleration, the holes cover the entire surface in a state of disorder. The mechanism for the initial hole's evolution in vertically vibrated shear thickening fluids is discussed.

  12. Understanding and representing the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transfer in the convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronda, R.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Pino, D.

    2012-01-01

    Goal of this study is to quantify the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transport in the dry Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Questions addressed include the effect of wind shear on the depth of the mixed layer, the effect of wind shear on the depth and structure of the capping inversion, and

  13. Estimating atmospheric stability from observations and correcting wind shear models accordingly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric stability strongly influences wind shear and thus has to be considered when performing load calculations for wind turbine design. Numerous methods exist however for obtaining stability in terms of the Obukhov length L as well as for correcting the logarithmic wind profile. It is

  14. Aerodynamic Interactions between Pairs of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John

    2017-11-01

    Increased power production has been observed in downstream vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) when positioned offset from the wake of upstream turbines. This effect was found to exist in both laboratory and field environments with pairs of co- and counter-rotating turbines. It is hypothesized that the observed power production enhancement is due to flow acceleration adjacent to the upstream turbine caused by bluff body blockage, which increases the incident freestream velocity on appropriately positioned downstream turbines. This type of flow acceleration has been observed in computational and laboratory studies of VAWTs and will be further investigated here using 3D-PTV measurements around pairs of laboratory-scale VAWTs. These measurements will be used to understand the mechanisms behind the performance enhancement effect and seek to determine optimal separation distances and angles between turbines based on turbine design parameters. These results will lead to recommendations for optimizing the power production of VAWT wind farms which utilize this effect.

  15. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  16. 3D CFD Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alaimo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the complex and unsteady aerodynamic flow associated with wind turbine functioning, computational fluid dynamics (CFD is an attractive and powerful method. In this work, the influence of different numerical aspects on the accuracy of simulating a rotating wind turbine is studied. In particular, the effects of mesh size and structure, time step and rotational velocity have been taken into account for simulation of different wind turbine geometries. The applicative goal of this study is the comparison of the performance between a straight blade vertical axis wind turbine and a helical blade one. Analyses are carried out through the use of computational fluid dynamic ANSYS® Fluent® software, solving the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. At first, two-dimensional simulations are used in a preliminary setup of the numerical procedure and to compute approximated performance parameters, namely the torque, power, lift and drag coefficients. Then, three-dimensional simulations are carried out with the aim of an accurate determination of the differences in the complex aerodynamic flow associated with the straight and the helical blade turbines. Static and dynamic results are then reported for different values of rotational speed.

  17. Vibrational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Onur

    The goal of this research is to derive a vibration model for a vertical axis wind turbine blade. This model accommodates the affects of varying relative flow angle caused by rotating the blade in the flow field, uses a simple aerodynamic model that assumes constant wind speed and constant rotation rate, and neglects the disturbance of wind due to upstream blade or post. The blade is modeled as elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam under transverse bending and twist deflections. Kinetic and potential energy equations for a rotating blade under deflections are obtained, expressed in terms of assumed modal coordinates and then plugged into Lagrangian equations where the non-conservative forces are the lift and drag forces and moments. An aeroelastic model for lift and drag forces, approximated with third degree polynomials, on the blade are obtained assuming an airfoil under variable angle of attack and airflow magnitudes. A simplified quasi-static airfoil theory is used, in which the lift and drag coefficients are not dependent on the history of the changing angle of attack. Linear terms on the resulting equations of motion will be used to conduct a numerical analysis and simulation, where numeric specifications are modified from the Sandia-17m Darrieus wind turbine by Sandia Laboratories.

  18. High-reliability vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. B.; Zvara, J.

    A review of the design and development of a 1-kW high-reliability vertical-axis small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) is presented. The SWECS is a straight-bladed version of the Darrieus design. It incorporates high-reliability components in order to obtain a design value of mean time between failures of ten years based on one maintenance day a year. Design features are described, automatic control of the turbine is discussed, and typical results from controlled velocity testing are presented.

  19. Predicting wind shear effects: A study of Minnesota wind data collected at heights up to 70 meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artig, R. [Minnesota Dept. of Public Service, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Minnesota Department of Public Service (DPS) collects wind data at carefully selected sites around the state and analyzes the data to determine Minnesota`s wind power potential. DPS recently installed advanced new monitoring equipment at these sites and began to collect wind data at 30, 50, and 70 meters above ground level, with two anemometers at each level. Previously, the Department had not collected data at heights above ground level higher than 30 meters. DPS also, with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), installed four sophisticated monitoring sites as part of a Tall Tower Wind Shear Study that is assessing the effects of wind shear on wind power potential. At these sites, wind data are being collected at the 10, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 meter heights. This paper presents the preliminary results of the analysis of wind data from all sites. These preliminary results indicate that the traditional 1/7 power law does not effectively predict wind shear in Minnesota, and the result is an underestimation of Minnesota`s wind power potential at higher heights. Using a power factor of 1/5 or 1/4 may be more accurate and provide sound justification for installing wind turbines on taller towers in Minnesota.

  20. On the Behavior of Pliable Plate Dynamics in Wind: Application to Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosse, Julia Theresa

    Numerous studies have shown that flexible materials improve resilience and durability of a structure. Several studies have investigated the behavior of elastic plates under the influence of a free stream, such as studies of the fluttering flag and others of shape reconfiguration, due to a free stream. The principle engineering contribution of this thesis is the design and development of a vertical axis wind turbine that features pliable blades which undergo various modes of behavior, ultimately leading to rotational propulsion of the turbine. The wind turbine design was tested in a wind tunnel and at the Caltech Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy. Ultimately, the flexible blade vertical axis wind turbine proved to be an effective way of harnessing the power of the wind. In addition, this body of work builds on the current knowledge of elastic cantilever plates in a free stream flow by investigating the inverted flag. While previous studies have focused on the fluid structure interaction of a free stream on elastic cantilever plates, none had studied the plate configuration where the trailing edge was clamped, leaving the leading edge free to move. Furthermore, the studies presented in this thesis establish the geometric boundaries of where the large-amplitude flapping occurs.

  1. Design Of Rotor Blade For Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Double Aerofoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention compared to horizontal wind turbines due to their suitability in urban use because they generate less noise, have bird free turbines and lower cost. There is few vertical axis wind turbines design with good power curve...

  2. Wind tunnel study of helical and straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Maryam; Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    It is hypothesized that blade curvature can serve as a passive means to control fluid entrainment and wake recovery in vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) arrays. We test this experimentally in a wind tunnel using two different VAWT configurations, one with straight blades and another with helical blades, keeping all other experimental parameters fixed. A small-scale, commercially available VAWT (15W max power) is used as the baseline wind tunnel model in each case. The commercial VAWT blades are replaced with either straight or helical blades that are 3D-printed extrusions of the same airfoil cross-section. Results from smoke flow visualization, three-component wake velocity measurements, and turbine power data are presented. These results give insight into the potential use of VAWTs with curved blades in utility-scale wind farms.

  3. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power...

  4. Vertical-axis wind turbine experiments at full dynamic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Miller, Mark; Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John; Hultmark, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    This study presents results from pressurized (upto 200 atm) wind tunnel tests of a self-spinning 5-blade model Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The model is geometrically similar (scale ratio 1:22) to a commercially available VAWT, which has a rotor diameter of 2.17 meters and blade span of 3.66 meters, and is used at the Stanford university field lab. The use of pressurized air as working fluid allows for the unique ability to obtain full dynamic similarity with field conditions in terms of matched Reynolds numbers (Re), tip-speed ratios (λ), and Mach number (M). Tests were performed across a wide range of Re and λ, with the highest Re exceeding the maximum operational field Reynolds number (Remax) by a factor of 3. With an extended range of accessible Re conditions, the peak turbine power efficiency was seen to occur roughly at Re = 2 Remax and λ = 1 . Beyond Re > 2 Remax the turbine performance is invariant in Re for all λ. A clear demonstration of Reynolds number invariance for an actual full-scale wind turbine lends novelty to this study, and overall the results show the viability of the present experimental technique in testing turbines at field conditions.

  5. Dynamic aeroelastic stability of vertical-axis wind turbines under constant wind velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Fred

    1994-05-01

    The flutter problem associated with the blades of a class of vertical-axis wind turbines called Darrieus is studied in detail. The spinning blade is supposed to be initially curved in a particular shape characterized by a state of pure tension at the blade cross section. From this equilibrium position a three-dimensional linear perturbation pattern is superimposed to determine the dynamic aeroelastic stability of the blade in the presence of free wind speed by means of the Floquet-Lyapunov theory for periodic systems.

  6. Aeroelastic equations of motion of a Darrieus vertical-axis wind-turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kvaternik, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The second-degree nonlinear aeroelastic equations of motion for a slender, flexible, nonuniform, Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine blade which is undergoing combined flatwise bending, edgewise bending, torsion, and extension are developed using Hamilton's principle. The blade aerodynamic loading is obtained from strip theory based on a quasi-steady approximation of two-dimensional incompressible unsteady airfoil theory. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity and the resulting equations are consistent with the small deformation approximation in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. These equations are suitable for studying vibrations, static and dynamic aeroelastic instabilities, and dynamic response. Several possible methods of solution of the equations, which have periodic coefficients, are discussed.

  7. NASA experimental airborne doppler radar and real time processor for wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Philip H.; Richards, Mark A.; Jones, William R.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: experimental radar system capabilities; an experimental radar system block diagram; wind shear radar signal and data processor (WRSDP); WRSDP hardware architecture; WRSDP system design goals; DSP software development tools; OS-9 software development tools; WRSDP digital signal processing; WRSDP display operational modes; WRSDP division of functions; structure of WRSDP signal and data processing algorithms; and the wind shear radar flight experiment.

  8. On the aerodynamics of a vertical axis wind turbine wake : An experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tescione, G.

    2016-01-01

    THE recent trend in wind energy industry, with the increasing deployment of offshore wind farms, has revived the interest in the concept of a vertical axis wind turbine. The scientific, technological and economical challenges of the next generation of wind turbines indicate that a transformative

  9. Scale-up of wet kneading in a novel vertical high shear kneader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watano, Satoru; Okamoto, Takumi; Sato, Yoshinobu; Ohnishi, Yoshito; Yasutomo, Teruhito; Osako, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    A novel multi-functional vertical high shear kneader has been developed and its performance in wet kneading has previously been reported [Watano et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 50(3), 341-345 (2002)]. In this study, scale-up of wet kneading in the novel vertical high shear kneader was conducted. Pharmaceutical excipients composed of lactose, cornstarch and micro-crystalline cellulose were used as powder samples. Kneading operations were conducted under various operating conditions and three different vessel scales. The dried pellets were then prepared by extruding the wet kneaded masses through a dome-type extruder and their drying by a fluidized bed. The physical properties such as strength and disintegration time of the dried pellets were evaluated. It was found that the properties of the dried pellets and their scale-up characteristics were well expressed by an agitation power per unit vessel volume and dimensionless Froude number.

  10. Numerical Investigation of the Tip Vortex of a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Double-Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. In this study, the number of blades is two and the airfoil is a NACA0021 with chord length of c = 0.265 m. To capture the tip vortex characteristics, the velocity fields are investigated by the Q-criterion iso-surface (Q = 100 with shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model at different tip speed ratios (TSRs. Then, mean velocity, velocity deficit and torque coefficient acting on the blade in the different spanwise positions are compared. The wind velocities obtained by CFD simulations are also compared with the experimental data from wind tunnel experiments. As a result, we can state that the wind velocity curves calculated by CFD simulations are consistent with Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV measurements. The distribution of the vortex structure along the spanwise direction is more complex at a lower TSR and the tip vortex has a longer dissipation distance at a high TSR. In addition, the mean wind velocity shows a large value near the blade tip and a small value near the blade due to the vortex effect.

  11. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Caccia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with thermal circulation, the

  12. Guy cable design and damping for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibrations of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed, and a technique for damping cable vibrations was mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  13. Modal Parameter Identification of New Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines have lower power efficiency than the horizontal axis wind turbines. However vertical axis wind turbines are proven to be economical and noise free on smaller scale. A new design of three bladed vertical axis wind turbine by using two airfoils in construction of each...... blade has been proposed to improve power efficiency. The purpose of two airfoils in blade design of vertical axis wind turbine is to create high lift which in turns gives higher power output. In such case the structural parameter identification is important to understand the system behavior due to its...... first kind of design before experimental analysis. Therefore a study is carried out to determine the natural frequency to avoid unstable state of the system due to rotational frequency of rotor. The present paper outlines a conceptual design of vertical axis wind turbine and a modal analysis by using...

  14. Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laituri, Tony R.

    1988-01-01

    Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.

  15. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Seyed Hossein

    Due to several design advantages and operational characteristics, particularly in offshore farms, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are being reconsidered as a complementary technology to horizontal axial turbines (HAWTs). However, considerable gaps remain in our understanding of VAWT performance since they have been significantly less studied than HAWTs. This thesis examines the performance of isolated VAWTs based on different design parameters and evaluates their characteristics in large wind farms. An actuator line model (ALM) is implemented in an atmospheric boundary layer large eddy simulation (LES) code, with offline coupling to a high-resolution blade-scale unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) model. The LES captures the turbine-to-farm scale dynamics, while the URANS captures the blade-to-turbine scale flow. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with existing experimental datasets. Subsequently, a parametric study of the flow over an isolated VAWT is carried out by varying solidities, height-to-diameter aspect ratios, and tip speed ratios. The analyses of the wake area and power deficits yield an improved understanding of the evolution of VAWT wakes, which in turn enables a more informed selection of turbine designs for wind farms. One of the most important advantages of VAWTs compared to HAWTs is their potential synergistic interactions that increase their performance when placed in close proximity. Field experiments have confirmed that unlike HAWTs, VAWTs can enhance and increase the total power production when placed near each other. Based on these experiments and using ALM-LES, we also present and test new approaches for VAWT farm configuration. We first design clusters with three turbines then configure farms consisting of clusters of VAWTs rather than individual turbines. The results confirm that by using a cluster design, the average power density of wind farms can be increased by as much as 60% relative to regular

  16. Application of Circulation Controlled Blades for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velissarios Kourkoulis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The blades of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT rotor see an inconsistent angle of attack through its rotation. Consequently, VAWT blades generally use symmetrical aerofoils with a lower lift-to-drag ratio than cambered aerofoils tailored to maximise horizontal axis wind turbine rotor performance. This paper considers the feasibility of circulation controlled (CC VAWT blades, using a tangential air jet to provide lift and therefore power augmentation. However CC blade sections require a higher trailing-edge thickness than conventional sections giving rise to additional base drag. The choice of design parameters is a compromise between lift augmentation, additional base drag as well as the power required to pump the air jet. Although CC technology has been investigated for many years, particularly for aerospace applications, few researchers have considered VAWT applications. This paper considers the feasibility of the technology, using Computational Fluid Dynamics to evaluate a baseline CC aerofoil with different trailing-edge ellipse shapes. Lift and drag increments due to CC are considered within a momentum based turbine model to determine net power production. The study found that for modest momentum coefficients significant net power augmentation can be achieved with a relatively simple aerofoil geometry if blowing is controlled through the blades rotation.

  17. Computational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremseth, J.; Duraisamy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Canonical problems involving single, pairs, and arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated numerically with the objective of understanding the underlying flow structures and their implications on energy production. Experimental studies by Dabiri (J Renew Sustain Energy 3, 2011) suggest that VAWTs demand less stringent spacing requirements than their horizontal axis counterparts and additional benefits may be obtained by optimizing the placement and rotational direction of VAWTs. The flowfield of pairs of co-/counter-rotating VAWTs shows some similarities with pairs of cylinders in terms of wake structure and vortex shedding. When multiple VAWTs are placed in a column, the extent of the wake is seen to spread further downstream, irrespective of the direction of rotation of individual turbines. However, the aerodynamic interference between turbines gives rise to regions of excess momentum between the turbines which lead to significant power augmentations. Studies of VAWTs arranged in multiple columns show that the downstream columns can actually be more efficient than the leading column, a proposition that could lead to radical improvements in wind farm productivity.

  18. Morping blade design for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, David; Beyene, Asfaw

    2015-11-01

    Wind turbines operate at peak efficiency at a certain set of operational conditions. Away from these conditions, conversion efficiency drops significantly, requiring pitch and yaw control schemes to mitigate these losses. These efforts are an example of geometric variability, allowing for increased power production but with an unfortunate increase in investment cost to the energy conversion system. In Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs), the concept of pitch control is especially complicated due to a dependence of attack angle on armature azimuth. As a result, VAWT pitch control schemes, both active and passive, are as of yet unfeasible. This study investigates a low-cost, passive pitch control system, in which VAWT blades are constructed of a flexible material, allowing for continuous shape-morphing in response to local aerodynamic loading. This design is analyzed computationally using a finite-volume fluid-structure interaction routine and compared to a geometrically identical rigid rotor. The results indicate that the flexible blade increases conversion efficiency by reducing the severity of vortex shedding, allowing for greater average torque over a complete revolution.

  19. Investigation of implementation of stators on vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Aaron; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2014-11-01

    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) have historically suffered from an inability to self-start and, especially on Savonius rotors, low efficiencies due to drag on the returning blade. A few VAWT studies have examined the use of stators to direct the flow onto the power producing side of the rotor thus preventing drag on the returning side, yet all of the designs studied allow the air to exit on the downstream side of the entering flow. This study investigates an alternative stator design for extracting more wind energy by trapping the incoming flow into a rising vortex within the stator enclosure. The flow is then allowed to exit above the stator. The current study compared the performance of a generic Savonius rotor in a 7 m/s free stream flow with the same rotor in two different stator designs. The first stator design allows the flow to escape in the downstream direction. The second stator design utilizes the same stator shape, but forces the air to remain trapped until it can exit above the stators. The initial evaluation of the results was conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package Star-CCM + set up with an unsteady k- ɛ model at a Reynolds number of about 1,400,000. Experimental comparisons with scale models will be presented.

  20. Vertical-axis wind turbine development in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, R. J.; Rangi, R. S.

    1983-12-01

    Recent Canadian progress in the development of the curved-blade Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. Cooperation between government, industry and power utilities in the conduct of field trials, over several years, has demonstrated improved performance and reliability of grid-coupled turbines of this type. The rated power of the VAWTs currently under test ranges from 30 kW, in a wind/diesel powerplant, to 230 kW, in an installation on an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Progress has also been made in understanding the basic aerodynamic behavior of the VAWT and theoretical methods for performance and load prediction have correspondingly improved. A brief description is given of 'Project EOLE', a cooperative project between the federal government and the utility Hydro-Quebec to develop and test, during the next two to three years, a 4 MW VAWT prototype, which will be coupled to the power grid at a location on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River.

  1. Design of h-Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Teresa; Vega, Carmen; Gallegos, A.; Uzarraga, N. C.; Castro, F.

    2015-05-01

    Numerical simulation is used to predict the performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) H-Darrieus. The rotor consists of three straight blades with shape of aerofoil of the NACA family attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The influence of the solidity is tested to get design tendencies. The mesh has two fluid volumes: one sliding mesh for the rotor where the rotation velocity is established while the other is the environment of the rotor. Bearing in mind the overall flow is characterized by important secondary flows, the turbulence model selected was realizable k-epsilon with non-equilibrium wall functions. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order Muscl scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. During VAWT operation, the performance depends mainly on the relative motion of the rotating blade and has a fundamental period which depends both on the rate of rotation and the number of blades. The transient study is necessary to characterise the hysteresis phenomenon. Hence, more than six revolutions get the periodic behaviour. Instantaneous flows provide insight about wake structure interaction. Time averaged parameters let obtain the characteristic curves of power coefficient.

  2. Design of h-Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation is used to predict the performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT H-Darrieus. The rotor consists of three straight blades with shape of aerofoil of the NACA family attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The influence of the solidity is tested to get design tendencies. The mesh has two fluid volumes: one sliding mesh for the rotor where the rotation velocity is established while the other is the environment of the rotor. Bearing in mind the overall flow is characterized by important secondary flows, the turbulence model selected was realizable k-epsilon with non-equilibrium wall functions. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order Muscl scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. During VAWT operation, the performance depends mainly on the relative motion of the rotating blade and has a fundamental period which depends both on the rate of rotation and the number of blades. The transient study is necessary to characterise the hysteresis phenomenon. Hence, more than six revolutions get the periodic behaviour. Instantaneous flows provide insight about wake structure interaction. Time averaged parameters let obtain the characteristic curves of power coefficient.

  3. The detection and measurement of microburst wind shear by an airborne lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A.; Bowles, Roland L.; Targ, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) employs coherent lidar technology as a basis for a forward-looking predictive wind shear detection system. Line of sight wind velocities measured ahead of the aircraft are combined with aircraft state parameters to relate the measured wind change (or shear) ahead of an aircraft to its performance loss or gain. In this way the system can predict whether a shear detected ahead of the aircraft poses a significant threat to the aircraft and provide an advance warning to the flight crew. Installed aboard NASA's Boeing 737 research aircraft, the CLASS system is flown through convective microburst wind shears in Denver, Co., and Orlando, Fl. Some preliminary flight test results are presented. It is seen that the system was able to detect and measure wind shears ahead of the aircraft in the relatively dry Denver environment, but its performance was degraded in the high humidity and heavy rain in Orlando.

  4. Improved prediction of the turbulence-shear contribution to wind noise pressure spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy; Abbott, JohnPaul

    2011-12-01

    In previous research [Raspet et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(3), 1260-1269 (2008)], predictions of the low frequency turbulence-turbulence and turbulence-mean shear interaction pressure spectra measured by a large wind screen were developed and compared to the spectra measured using large spherical wind screens in the flow. The predictions and measurements agreed well except at very low frequencies where the turbulence-mean shear contribution dominated the turbulence-turbulence interaction pressure. In this region the predicted turbulence-mean shear interaction pressure did not show consistent agreement with microphone measurements. The predicted levels were often much larger than the measured results. This paper applies methods developed to predict the turbulence-shear interaction pressure measured at the ground [Yu et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129(2), 622-632 (2011)] to improve the prediction of the turbulence-shear interaction pressure above the ground surface by incorporating a realistic wind velocity profile and realistic turbulence anisotropy. The revised prediction of the turbulence-shear interaction pressure spectra compares favorably with wind-screen microphone measurements in large wind screens at low frequency. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  5. Role of upper-level wind shear on the structure and maintenance of derecho-producing convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniglio, Michael Charles

    Common large-scale environments associated with the development of derecho-producing convective systems from a large number of events are identified using statistical clustering of the 500-mb geopotential heights as guidance. The majority of the events (72%) fall into three main patterns that include a well-defined upstream trough (40%), a ridge (20%), and a zonal, low-amplitude flow (12%), which is defined as an additional warm-season pattern that is not identified in past studies of derecho environments. Through an analysis of proximity soundings, discrepancies are found in both low-level and deep-tropospheric shear parameters between observations and the shear profiles considered favorable for strong, long-lived convective systems in idealized simulations. To explore the role of upper-level shear in derecho environments, a set of two-dimensional simulations of density currents within a dry, neutrally stable environment are used to examine the ability of a cold pool to lift environmental air within a vertically sheared flow. The results confirm that the addition of upper-level shear to a wind profile with weak to moderate low-level shear increases the vertical displacement of low-level parcels despite a decrease in the vertical velocity along the cold pool interface, as suggested by previous studies. Parcels that are elevated above the surface (1-2 km) overturn and are responsible for the deep lifting in the deep-shear environments. This deep overturning caused by the upper-level shear helps to maintain the tilt of the convective systems in more complex two-dimensional and three dimensional simulations. The overturning also is shown to greatly increase the size of the convective systems in the three-dimensional simulations by facilitating the initiation and maintenance of convective cells along the cold pool. When combined with estimates of the cold pool motion and the storm-relative hodograph, these results may best be used for the prediction of the demise of

  6. Analysis and Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance of Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Baloutaki, Mojtaba

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) with straight blades are attractive for their relatively simple structure and aerodynamic performance. Their commercialization, however, still encounters many challenges. A series of studies were conducted in the current research to improve the VAWTs design and enhance their aerodynamic performance. First, an efficient design methodology built on an existing analytical approach is presented to formulate the design parameters influencing a straight bladed-VAWT (SB-VAWT) aerodynamic performance and determine the optimal range of these parameters for prototype construction. This work was followed by a series of studies to collectively investigate the role of external turbulence on the SB-VAWTs operation. The external free-stream turbulence is known as one of the most important factors influencing VAWTs since this type of turbines is mainly considered for urban applications where the wind turbulence is of great significance. Initially, two sets of wind tunnel testing were conducted to study the variation of aerodynamic performance of a SB-VAWT's blade under turbulent flows, in two major stationary configurations, namely two- and three-dimensional flows. Turbulent flows generated in the wind tunnel were quasi-isotropic having uniform mean flow profiles, free of any wind shear effects. Aerodynamic force measurements demonstrated that the free-stream turbulence improves the blade aerodynamic performance in stall and post-stall regions by delaying the stall and increasing the lift-to-drag ratio. After these studies, a SB-VAWT model was tested in the wind tunnel under the same type of turbulent flows. The turbine power output was substantially increased in the presence of the grid turbulence at the same wind speeds, while the increase in turbine power coefficient due to the effect of grid turbulence was small at the same tip speed ratios. The final section presents an experimental study on the aerodynamic interaction of VAWTs in arrays

  7. Combined Structural Optimization and Aeroelastic Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roscher, Björn; Ferreira, Carlos Simao; Bernhammer, Lars O.

    2015-01-01

    Floating offshore wind energy poses challenges on the turbine design. A possible solution is vertical axis wind turbines, which are possibly easier to scale-up and require less components (lower maintenance) and a smaller floating structure than horizontal axis wind turbines. This paper presents...... a structural optimization and aeroelastic analysis of an optimized Troposkein vertical axis wind turbine to minimize the relation between the rotor mass and the swept area. The aeroelastic behavior of the different designs has been analyzed using a modified version of the HAWC2 code with the Actuator Cylinder...... model to compute the aerodynamics of the vertical axis wind turbine. The combined shape and topology optimization of a vertical axis wind turbine show a minimum mass to area ratio of 1.82 kg/m2 for blades with varying blade sections from a NACA 0040 at the attachment points to a NACA 0015...

  8. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mithu; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  9. Research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with a drag-type vertical axis wind turbines, one of the greatest advantages for a lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is its higher power coefficient (Cp. However, the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is not a self-starting turbine as its starting torque is very low. In order to combine the advantage of both the drag-type and the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines was designed in this article and its aerodynamics and starting performance was studied in detail with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations. Numerical results indicate that the power coefficient of this lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines declines when the distance between its drag-type blades and the center of rotation of the turbine rotor increases, whereas its starting torque can be significantly improved. Studies also show that unlike the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, this lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines could be able to solve the problem of low start-up torque. However, the installation position of the drag blade is very important. If the drag blade is mounted very close to the spindle, the starting torque of the lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines may not be improved at all. In addition, it has been found that the power coefficient of the studied vertical axis wind turbines is not as good as expected and possible reasons have been provided in this article after the pressure distribution along the surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blades of the hybrid turbine was analyzed.

  10. Integrated simulation challenges with the DeepWind floating vertical axis wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Borg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and challenges with concurrently carrying out numerical model development, integrated simulations and design of a novel floating vertical axis wind turbine, the DeepWind concept. The floating VAWT modelling capabilities of the aero-hydro-elastic HAWC2 simulation...... tool are briefly described and the design approach adopted for such a challenging project was to independently design subsystems in parallel, apart from essential design specifications. Instability issues encountered when integrating all subsystems in the unified numerical model, in particular blade...... edgewise and controller instabilities, are presented and efforts to alleviate such issues are detailed. A multidisciplinary design and optimization approach is proposed to eliminate these issues and accelerate future design cycles....

  11. Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine power performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Paulsen, U.S.

    2010-01-15

    Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly, the variations of the power output and the power curve were analysed for various turbulence intensities. Furthermore, the equivalent speed method was successfully tested on a power curve resulting from simulations cases combining shear and turbulence. Finally, we roughly simulated the wind speed measurements we may get from a LIDAR mounted on the nacelle of the turbine (measuring upwind) and we investigated different ways of deriving an equivalent wind speed from such measurements. (author)

  12. Wind-invariant saltation heights imply linear scaling of aeolian saltation flux with shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Raleigh L; Kok, Jasper F

    2017-06-01

    Wind-driven sand transport generates atmospheric dust, forms dunes, and sculpts landscapes. However, it remains unclear how the flux of particles in aeolian saltation-the wind-driven transport of sand in hopping trajectories-scales with wind speed, largely because models do not agree on how particle speeds and trajectories change with wind shear velocity. We present comprehensive measurements, from three new field sites and three published studies, showing that characteristic saltation layer heights remain approximately constant with shear velocity, in agreement with recent wind tunnel studies. These results support the assumption of constant particle speeds in recent models predicting linear scaling of saltation flux with shear stress. In contrast, our results refute widely used older models that assume that particle speed increases with shear velocity, thereby predicting nonlinear 3/2 stress-flux scaling. This conclusion is further supported by direct field measurements of saltation flux versus shear stress. Our results thus argue for adoption of linear saltation flux laws and constant saltation trajectories for modeling saltation-driven aeolian processes on Earth, Mars, and other planetary surfaces.

  13. Effect of chord-to-diameter ratio on vertical-axis wind turbine wake development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Araya, Daniel B.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2017-12-01

    The wake structure of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is strongly dependent on the tip-speed ratio, λ, or the tangential speed of the turbine blade relative to the incoming wind speed. The geometry of a turbine can influence λ, but the precise relationship among VAWT geometric parameters and VAWT wake characteristics remains unknown. To investigate this relationship, we present the results of an experiment to characterize the wakes of three VAWTs that are geometrically similar except for the ratio of the turbine diameter ( D), to blade chord ( c), which was chosen to be D/c = 3, 6, and 9. For a fixed freestream Reynolds number based on the blade chord of Re_c = 1.6× 10^3, both two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) and single-component hot-wire anemometer measurements are taken at the horizontal mid-plane in the wake of each turbine. PIV measurements are ensemble averaged in time and phase averaged with each rotation of the turbine. Hot-wire measurement points are selected to coincide with the edge of the shear layer of each turbine wake, as deduced from the PIV data, which allows for an analysis of the frequency content of the wake due to vortex shedding by the turbine.

  14. Vertical and horizontal distribution of wind speed and air temperature in a dense vegetation canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; van Boxel, J.H.; El-Kilani, R.M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Wind speed and temperature were measured within a corn row canopy to investigate horizontal and vertical variability of the mean wind speed and temperature. It appears that the mean wind speed can vary between 20% and 30% from its horizontal mean value. In the narrow row crop, the horizontal mean

  15. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão Ferreira, C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-06-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple streamtube model, a double-multiple streamtube model, the actuator cylinder model, a 2D potential flow panel model, a 3D unsteady lifting line model, and a 2D conformal mapping unsteady vortex model. The comparison covers rotor configurations with two NACA0015 blades, for several tip speed ratios, rotor solidity and fixed pitch angle, included heavily loaded rotors, in inviscid flow. The results show that the streamtube models are inaccurate, and that correct predictions of rotor power and rotor thrust are an effect of error cancellation which only occurs at specific configurations. The other four models, which explicitly model the wake as a system of vorticity, show mostly differences due to the instantaneous or time averaged formulation of the loading and flow, for which further research is needed.

  16. Blade pitch optimization methods for vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Peter

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer an inherently simpler design than horizontal-axis machines, while their lower blade speed mitigates safety and noise concerns, potentially allowing for installation closer to populated and ecologically sensitive areas. While VAWTs do offer significant operational advantages, development has been hampered by the difficulty of modeling the aerodynamics involved, further complicated by their rotating geometry. This thesis presents results from a simulation of a baseline VAWT computed using Star-CCM+, a commercial finite-volume (FVM) code. VAWT aerodynamics are shown to be dominated at low tip-speed ratios by dynamic stall phenomena and at high tip-speed ratios by wake-blade interactions. Several optimization techniques have been developed for the adjustment of blade pitch based on finite-volume simulations and streamtube models. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is evaluated and the basic architecture for a feedback control system is proposed. Implementation of variable blade pitch is shown to increase a baseline turbine's power output between 40%-100%, depending on the optimization technique, improving the turbine's competitiveness when compared with a commercially-available horizontal-axis turbine.

  17. A Monte Carlo simulation technique for low-altitude, wind-shear turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Laituri, Tony R.; Trevino, George

    1990-01-01

    A case is made for including anisotropy in a Monte Carlo flight simulation scheme of low-altitude wind-shear turbulence by means of power spectral density. This study attempts to eliminate all flight simulation-induced deficiencies in the basic turbulence model. A full-scale low-altitude wind-shear turbulence simulation scheme is proposed with particular emphasis on low cost and practicality for near-ground flight. The power spectral density statistic is used to highlight the need for realistic estimates of energy transfer associated with low-altitude wind-shear turbulence. The simulation of a particular anisotropic turbulence model is shown to be a relatively simple extension from that of traditional isotropic (Dryden) turbulence.

  18. Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedak, Waldemar; Anweiler, Stanisław; Gancarski, Wojciech; Ulbrich, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

  19. Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.

  20. Effects of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on shear performance of laminated nanocomposite bonded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Askari and Mehrdad N Ghasemi-Nejhad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to improve the most commonly addressed weakness of the laminated composites (i.e. delamination due to poor interlaminar strength using carbon nanotubes (CNTs as reinforcement between the laminae and in the transverse direction. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique has been used to grow dense vertically aligned arrays of CNTs over the surface of chemically treated two-dimensionally woven cloth and fiber tows. The nanoforest-like fabrics can be used to fabricate three-dimensionally reinforced laminated nanocomposites. The presence of CNTs aligned normal to the layers and in-between the layers of laminated composites is expected to considerably enhance the properties of the laminates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, composite single lap-joint specimens were fabricated for interlaminar shear strength testing. It was observed that the single lap-joints with through-the-thickness CNT reinforcement can carry considerably higher shear stresses and strains. Close examination of the test specimens showed that the failure of samples with CNT nanoforests was completely cohesive, while the samples without CNT reinforcement failed adhesively. This concludes that the adhesion of adjacent carbon fabric layers can be considerably improved owing to the presence of vertically aligned arrays of CNT nanoforests.

  1. Effects of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on shear performance of laminated nanocomposite bonded joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Davood; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N

    2012-08-01

    The main objective is to improve the most commonly addressed weakness of the laminated composites (i.e. delamination due to poor interlaminar strength) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement between the laminae and in the transverse direction. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique has been used to grow dense vertically aligned arrays of CNTs over the surface of chemically treated two-dimensionally woven cloth and fiber tows. The nanoforest-like fabrics can be used to fabricate three-dimensionally reinforced laminated nanocomposites. The presence of CNTs aligned normal to the layers and in-between the layers of laminated composites is expected to considerably enhance the properties of the laminates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, composite single lap-joint specimens were fabricated for interlaminar shear strength testing. It was observed that the single lap-joints with through-the-thickness CNT reinforcement can carry considerably higher shear stresses and strains. Close examination of the test specimens showed that the failure of samples with CNT nanoforests was completely cohesive, while the samples without CNT reinforcement failed adhesively. This concludes that the adhesion of adjacent carbon fabric layers can be considerably improved owing to the presence of vertically aligned arrays of CNT nanoforests.

  2. Effects of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on shear performance of laminated nanocomposite bonded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Davood; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2012-08-01

    The main objective is to improve the most commonly addressed weakness of the laminated composites (i.e. delamination due to poor interlaminar strength) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement between the laminae and in the transverse direction. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique has been used to grow dense vertically aligned arrays of CNTs over the surface of chemically treated two-dimensionally woven cloth and fiber tows. The nanoforest-like fabrics can be used to fabricate three-dimensionally reinforced laminated nanocomposites. The presence of CNTs aligned normal to the layers and in-between the layers of laminated composites is expected to considerably enhance the properties of the laminates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, composite single lap-joint specimens were fabricated for interlaminar shear strength testing. It was observed that the single lap-joints with through-the-thickness CNT reinforcement can carry considerably higher shear stresses and strains. Close examination of the test specimens showed that the failure of samples with CNT nanoforests was completely cohesive, while the samples without CNT reinforcement failed adhesively. This concludes that the adhesion of adjacent carbon fabric layers can be considerably improved owing to the presence of vertically aligned arrays of CNT nanoforests.

  3. Effect of Vertically Propagating Shear Waves on Seismic Behavior of Circular Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Akhlaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes the ovaling deformations of circular tunnels to develop, resulting in a distortion of the cross sectional shape of the tunnel lining. In this paper, seismic behavior of circular tunnels has been investigated due to propagation of shear waves in the vertical direction using quasi-static analytical approaches as well as numerical methods. Analytical approaches are based on the closed-form solutions which compute the forces in the lining due to equivalent static ovaling deformations, while the numerical method carries out dynamic, nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis. Based on comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solutions are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the axial forces determined using the analytical approaches are in acceptable agreement with numerical analysis results, while the computed bending moments are less comparable and show significant discrepancies. The differences between the analytical approaches are also investigated and addressed.

  4. Effect of vertically propagating shear waves on seismic behavior of circular tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Tohid; Nikkar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes the ovaling deformations of circular tunnels to develop, resulting in a distortion of the cross sectional shape of the tunnel lining. In this paper, seismic behavior of circular tunnels has been investigated due to propagation of shear waves in the vertical direction using quasi-static analytical approaches as well as numerical methods. Analytical approaches are based on the closed-form solutions which compute the forces in the lining due to equivalent static ovaling deformations, while the numerical method carries out dynamic, nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis. Based on comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solutions are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the axial forces determined using the analytical approaches are in acceptable agreement with numerical analysis results, while the computed bending moments are less comparable and show significant discrepancies. The differences between the analytical approaches are also investigated and addressed.

  5. A local-circulation model for Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, B.

    1986-04-01

    A new computational model for the aerodynamics of the vertical-axis wind turbine is presented. Based on the local-circulation method generalized for curved blades, combined with a wake model for the vertical-axis wind turbine, it differs markedly from current models based on variations in the streamtube momentum and vortex models using the lifting-line theory. A computer code has been developed to calculate the loads and performance of the Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine. The results show good agreement with experimental data and compare well with other methods.

  6. PREDICTION OF POWER GENERATION OF SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Md. Hossain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy from the wind turbine has been focused for the alternative source of power generation due to the following advances of the of the wind turbine. Firstly, the wind turbine is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the turbine has the ability to response for the changeable power generation based on the wind velocity and structural framework. However, the competitive efficiency of the wind turbine is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional power sources. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the wind turbine is the wind velocity and the relative turbine dimensions. Artificial intelligence systems are widely used technology that can learn from examples and are able to deal with non-linear problems. Compared with traditional approach, fuzzy logic approach is more efficient for the representation, manipulation and utilization. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between wind turbine power generation and wind velocity, and to illustrate how fuzzy expert system might play an important role in prediction of wind turbine power generation. The main purpose of the measurement over the small scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. Prediction of power generation at the different wind velocities has been tested at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL and results concerning the daily prediction have been obtained.

  7. PREDICTION OF POWER GENERATION OF SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Hossain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy from the wind turbine has been focused for the alternative source of power generation due to the following advances of the of the wind turbine. Firstly, the wind turbine is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the turbine has the ability to response for the changeable power generation based on the wind velocity and structural framework. However, the competitive efficiency of the wind turbine is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional power sources. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the wind turbine is the wind velocity and the relative turbine dimensions. Artificial intelligence systems are widely used technology that can learn from examples and are able to deal with non-linear problems. Compared with traditional approach, fuzzy logic approach is more efficient for the representation, manipulation and utilization. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between wind turbine power generation and wind velocity, and to illustrate how fuzzy expert system might play an important role in prediction of wind turbine power generation. The main purpose of the measurement over the small scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. Prediction of power generation at the different wind velocities has been tested at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL and results concerning the daily prediction have been obtained.

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shamsoddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, large eddy simulation (LES is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS stresses: (a the Smagorinsky model; and (b the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a the actuator swept-surface model (ASSM, in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e., the actuator swept surface; and (b the actuator line model (ALM, in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e., the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES has been applied and validated for the simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASSM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied, and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASSM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient.

  9. Some design aspects of high-speed vertical-axis wind turbines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Templin, R. J; South, P

    1977-01-01

    ... (rotor height to diameter ratio, solidity, number of blades, etc.) for high-speed vertical-axis wind turbines from kilowatt to megawatt sizes and shows that very large turbines are theoretically feasible...

  10. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  12. Turbulence generation by mountain wave breaking in flows with directional wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Guarino, Maria; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, wave breaking, and the potential for the generation of turbulence in the atmosphere, is investigated using high-resolution numerical simulations of idealized atmospheric flows with directional wind shear over a three-dimensional isolated mountain. These simulations, which use the WRF-ARW model, differ in degree of flow non-linearity and directional wind shear intensity, quantified through the dimensionless mountain height and the Richardson number of the incoming flow. The aim is to predict wave breaking occurrence based on large-scale variables. The simulation results have been used to produce a regime diagram representing a description of wave breaking behavior in parameter space. By selecting flow overturning occurrence as a discriminating factor, it was possible to split the regime diagram in two sub-regions representing: a non-wave breaking regime and a wave breaking regime. The regime diagram shows that in the presence of directional shear wave breaking may occur over lower mountains that in a constant-wind case. When mountain waves break, the associated convective instability can lead to turbulence generation (known as Clear Air Turbulence or CAT in a non-cloudy atmosphere), thus, regions within the simulation domain where wave breaking and potential development of CAT are expected have been identified. The extent of these regions is variable and increases with the background shear intensity. In contrast with constant-wind flows, where wave breaking occurs in the stream-wise direction aligned with the mountain, for the helical wind profiles considered in this study as prototypes of flows with directional wind shear, flow overturning regions have a more three-dimensional geometry. The analysis of the model outputs, supported by theoretical arguments, suggest the existence of a link between wave breaking and the relative orientation of the incoming wind vector and the horizontal velocity perturbation vector. In particular, in a wave breaking

  13. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel test an orientation parameter for the slat airfoil is initially obtained. Further a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double-element airfoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using ANSYS CFX software. It is observed that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved.

  14. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Caccia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001.

    Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events.

    In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations.

    United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    speed ratio - blade tip speed + wind speed. -45- CONTROLCHECVMODE NON is * AD> YES Figure~ SE 22 Molrora -46N) SECTION VI TURBINE PERFORMANCE 1...Rotors, SAND76-0131. Albuquerque: July 1977. 10. Oliver, R.C. and P.R. Nixon. "Design Procedure for Coupling Savonius and Darrieus Wind Turbines ", Air...May 17-20, 1976. -65- 16. Blackwell, B.F., R.E. Sheldahl, and L.V. Feltz. Wind Tunnel Performance Data for the Darrieus Wind Turbine with NACA 0012

  15. Fatigue behavior of vertical axis wind turbine airfoils with two weld configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. R.; Murphy, A. R.

    1989-10-01

    A series of narrowband, pseudo-random cyclic fatigue tests on sections of 6063-T651 aluminum, Darrius-type, vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) airfoils were performed. A load member was designed and constructed that was mounted within the frame of a rigid 200-kip servohydraulic, closed-loop test system to hold the VAWT section and permit cantilever bending along the shear centerline of the beam. A computer program was developed to synthesize a narrow band, pseudo-random load history with fixed root mean square (RMS) stress levels at a given bandwidth and central frequency. Six specimens each of two different weld configurations at the flange mounting plate were tested at several RMS stress levels with failure defined as visual observation of a 3 inch long crack in the VAWT. In order to test at as great a frequency as possible, a 20-kip hydraulic ram with a 10 GPM servovalve was employed with a 20 GPM pump. Tests were performed from 2 to 1.3 ksi RMS on the two-weld configurations. The conclusions are obvious that the fillet weld design is far superior to the butt weld design in the range of variables used in this program.

  16. First observation of mesospheric wind shear as high as 330 m s−1 km−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Offermann

    Full Text Available Mesospheric wind profiles with an altitude resolution of 25 m have been obtained by means of radar tracking of foil chaff clouds. Such experiments were performed during winter 1990 at Biscarrosse, France (44°N, 1°W. On one flight, a wind shear as high as 330 m s–1 km–1 at 87.4 km and a region of dynamical instability between 86 and 88 km was measured. This wind shear is believed to be the largest value ever measured in the mesosphere. The region of dynamical instability results from a superposition of two wave motions, and is found to link well with enhanced turbulence and small-scale wave activity.

  17. One Year of Vertical Wind Profiles Measurements at a Mediterranean Coastal Site of South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Gullì, Daniel; Avolio, Elenio

    2015-01-01

    To exploit wind energy both onshore and offshore in coastal area the effect of the coastal discontinuity is important. The shape of the vertical wind profiles and the related c parameter of the Weibull distribution are impacted by the atmospheric internal boundary layers developing from the coast...

  18. Advanced Fluid--Structure Interaction Techniques in Application to Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Artem

    During the last several decades engineers and scientists put significant effort into developing reliable and efficient wind turbines. As a wind power production demands grow, the wind energy research and development need to be enhanced with high-precision methods and tools. These include time-dependent, full-scale, complex-geometry advanced computational simulations at large-scale. Those, computational analysis of wind turbines, including fluid-structure interaction simulations (FSI) at full scale is important for accurate and reliable modeling, as well as blade failure prediction and design optimization. In current dissertation the FSI framework is applied to most challenging class of problems, such as large scale horizontal axis wind turbines and vertical axis wind turbines. The governing equations for aerodynamics and structural mechanics together with coupled formulation are explained in details. The simulations are performed for different wind turbine designs, operational conditions and validated against field-test and wind tunnel experimental data.

  19. Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    . The dependence of the vertical platform load to the platform level is discussed. Attention is given to the significant downward force that occur after the upward force associated with the vertical impact. The effect of the numerical resolution on the results is assessed. The position of wave overturning is found...

  1. Wind rotor with vertical axis. Vindrotor med vertikal axel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colling, J.; Sjoenell, B.

    1987-06-15

    This rotor is of dual type i.e. a paddle wheel shaped rotor close to the vertical axis and a second rotor consisting of vertical blades with wing profile and attached to radial spokes which are fixed to the axis together with the paddle wheel rotor. (L.F.).

  2. CONTROL OPTIMIZATION OF WIND UNIT WITH HELICOID VERTICALLY AXIAL WINDMILL AND SYNCHRONOUS MAGNETO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Оlеshkеvich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a helicoid vertically axial windmill geared to synchronous magneto-electric generator which operates for a power system or an independent resistive load. In order to optimize operational modes of a wind power unit a mathematical model and software have been developed and a number of calculative experiments have been carried out. The obtained law of wind unit control makes it possible to ensure maximum power output and stability in a wind unit operation.

  3. Numerical simulations of thermospheric dynamics: divergence as a proxy for vertical winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Cooper

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A local scale, time dependent three-dimensional model of the neutral thermosphere was used to test the applicability of two previously published empirical relations between thermospheric vertical wind and velocity divergence, i.e., those due to Burnside et al. (1981 and Brekke (1997. The model self-consistently solves for vertical winds driven by heat and momentum deposited into the neutral atmosphere by high latitude ion convection. The Brekke condition accurately mimicked the overall "shape" of the three-dimensional model vertical wind field although, as written, it consistently overestimated the vertical wind magnitude by a factor of approximately 5/3, for the heating scenarios that we considered. This same general behavior was observed regardless of whether the forcing was static or rapidly changing with time. We discuss the likely reason for the Brekke condition overestimating the magnitude of our vertical winds, and suggest an alternative condition that should better describe vertical winds that are driven by local heating. The applicability of the Burnside condition was, by contrast, quite variable. During static heating, both the magnitude and the sign of the model vertical winds were predicted reliably at heights above those of maximum energy and momentum deposition per unit mass. However, below the thermal forcing, the Burnside condition predicted vertical winds of the wrong sign. It also introduced significant artefacts into the predicted vertical wind field when the forcing changed suddenly with time. If these results are of general applicability (which seems likely, given the way these relations are derived then the Burnside condition could usually be used safely at altitudes above hmF2. But it should be avoided below this height at all times, and even at high altitudes during periods of dynamic forcing. While the Brekke condition (or our modified version of it could likely be used in all circumstances

  4. Numerical investigations on the influence of wind shear and turbulence on aircraft trailing vortices; Numerische Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Windscherung und Turbulenz auf Flugzeugwirbelschleppen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, T.

    2003-07-01

    In several aspects, the behaviour of aircraft wake vortices under situations of vertical wind shear is significantly different from non-shear scenarios and its operational real-time forcast is challenging. By means of numerical investigations of idealized scenarios, the influence of wind shear on the lateral and vertical transport of vortices is analysed both, phenomenologically as well as in the scope of a sensitivity study. The results allow for the verification of controversial views and the benchmark of modelling approaches. Case studies of turbulent shear flows focus on the persistence of vortices. A detailed analysis of the flow fields evidence that unequal vortex decay rates can be attributed to the asymmetric distribution of secondary vorticity structures. The results moreover suggest that extended vortex lifespans can be expected under situations of wind shear. The unusual vortex behaviour observed by means of a LIDAR measurement is reproduced by realistic simulations and permits to reveal potential causes. (orig.) [German] Das Wirbelschleppenverhalten unterscheidet sich in Situationen vertikaler Windscherung in mehrfacher Hinsicht signifikant von scherungsfreien Szenarien und stellt eine besondere Herausforderung fuer eine operationelle Echtzeitvorhersage dar. Mittels numerischer Untersuchungen idealisierter Szenarien wird zunaechst der Einfluss von Windscherung auf den lateralen und vertikalen Wirbeltransport sowohl phaenomenologisch als auch quantitativ im Rahmen einer Sensitivitaetsstudie analysiert. Anhand der gewonnenen Ergebnisse werden auseinandergehende Erklaerungsansaetze geprueft und Modellierungsansaetze bewertet. Fallstudien turbulenter Scherstroemungen zur Wirbelpersistenz stellen einen weiteren Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit dar. Durch die ausfuehrliche Analyse der Stroemungsfelder wird der Nachweis erbracht, dass sich unterschiedliche Zerfallsraten der Wirbel auf die asymmetrische Verteilung von sekundaeren Vorticity-Strukturen zurueckfuehren

  5. Evaluation of wind regimes and their impact on vertical mixing and coupling in a moderately dense forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Tobias; Ehrnsperger, Laura; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades much attention has been devoted to improving our understanding of organized motions in plant canopies. Particularly the impact of coherent structures on turbulent flows and vertical mixing in near-neutral conditions has been the focus of many experimental and modeling studies. Despite this progress, the weak-wind subcanopy airflow in concert with stable or weak-wind above-canopy conditions remains poorly understood. In these conditions, evidence is mounting that larger-scale motions, so called sub-meso motions which occupy time scales from minutes to hours and spatial scales from tens of meters to kilometers, dominate transport and turbulent mixing particularly in the subcanopy, because of generally weaker background flow as a result of the enhanced friction due to the plant material. We collected observations from a network of fast-response sensor across the vertical and horizontal dimensions during the INTRAMIX experiment at the Fluxnet site Waldstein/ Weidenbrunnen (DE-Bay) in a moderately dense Norway spruce (Picea Abies) forest over a period of ten weeks. Its main goal was to investigate the role of the submeso-structures on the turbulent wind field and the mixing mechanisms including coherent structures. In a first step, coupling regimes differentiating between weak and strong flows and day- and nighttime-conditions are determined. Subsequently, each of the regimes is analyzed for its dominant flow dynamics identified by wavelet analysis. It is hypothesized that strong vertical wind directional shear does not necessarily indicate a decoupling of vertical layers, but on the contrary may create situations of significant coupling of the sub-canopy with the canopy layers above. Moreover, rapid changes of wind direction or even reversals may generate substantial turbulence and induce intermittent coupling on a variety of time scales. The overarching goal is to improve diagnostics for vertical mixing in plant canopies incorporating turbulence

  6. Influences of some parameters on the performance of a small vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrache Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various parameters on the performance of a straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine, using the vortex model, have been numerically investigated. A vortex model has been used to evaluate the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine, by means of aerodynamic characteristics of different airfoils for Reynolds numbers between 105 and 106. Parameters such as the thickness and the camber of the blade airfoil, the solidity, the type of blade profile, the number of blades and the pitch angle, which influence the power coefficient, CP, and the start-up regime. This study can be used in the designing an optimal vertical axis wind turbine in a specific location, when the prevailed wind regime is known.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...... axis wind turbine were carried out for emergency shutdown cases over a range of environmental conditions based on correlated wind and wave data. When generator failure happens, a brake should be applied to stop the acceleration of the rotor to prevent the rotor from overspeeding and subsequent disaster...... the hydrodynamic brake and mechanical brake was also investigated. The application of the hydrodynamic brake is expected to be efficient for rotor shutdown and for reducing the platform motions and structural loads....

  8. Transient Performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onol, Aykut; Yesilyurt, Serhat

    2016-11-01

    A coupled CFD/rotor dynamics modeling approach is presented for the analysis of realistic transient behavior of a height-normalized, three-straight-bladed VAWT subject to inertial effects of the rotor and generator load which is manipulated by a feedback control under standardized wind gusts. The model employs the k- ɛ turbulence model to approximate unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and is validated with data from field measurements. As distinct from related studies, here, the angular velocity is calculated from the rotor's equation of motion; thus, the dynamic response of the rotor is taken into account. Results include the following: First, the rotor's inertia filters large amplitude oscillations in the wind torque owing to the first-order dynamics. Second, the generator and wind torques differ especially during wind transients subject to the conservation of angular momentum of the rotor. Third, oscillations of the power coefficient exceed the Betz limit temporarily due to the energy storage in the rotor, which acts as a temporary buffer that stores the kinetic energy like a flywheel in short durations. Last, average of transient power coefficients peaks at a smaller tip-speed ratio for wind gusts than steady winds. This work was supported by the Sabanci University Internal Research Grant Program (SU-IRG-985).

  9. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  10. Conceptual Design of a Floating Support Structure and Mooring System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Petter Andreas; Fylling, Ivar; Vita, Luca

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptual design of a floating support structure and mooring system for a 5MW vertical axis offshore wind turbine. The work is carried out as part of the DeepWind project, where the main objective is to investigate the feasibility of a floating vertical axis offshore wind...... turbine. The DeepWind concept consists of a Darrieus rotor mounted on a spar buoy support structure. The conceptual design is carried out in an iterative process, involving the different subcomponents. The present work is part of the first design iteration and the objective is to find a feasible floating...... support structure and mooring system for the DeepWind concept. The conceptual design is formulated as an optimization problem: Starting with an initial configuration, the optimization procedure tries to find a cheaper solution while satisfying a set of design requirements. This approach utilizes available...

  11. A Vertical-Axis Off-Grid Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifeng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the limited utilization range of wind power and improve the charging and discharging control performance of the storage battery in traditional small wind power generation systems, a wind power system based on a vertical-axis off-grid induction generator is proposed in this paper. The induction generator not only can run in a wide wind speed range but can also assist the vertical-axis wind turbine to realize self-starting at low wind speed. Combined with the maximum power point tracking method, the slip frequency control strategy is employed to regulate the pulse width modulation (PWM converter to control the output power of the proposed system when the wind speed and load change. The charge and discharge of the storage battery is realized by the segmented current-limiting control strategy by means of an electric power unloader device connected to the DC bus. All these implement a balanced and stable operation of the proposed power generation system. The experimental research on the 5.5 kW prototype system is developed, and the corresponding results verify the correctness and feasibility of the system design and control strategy. Some comparison experiments with a magnetic suspension permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG demonstrate the application prospect of the proposed vertical-axis off-grid induction generator wind power system.

  12. Turbulent structure above wind-sheared air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Kamran; Uddin, Nasir

    2006-11-01

    The flow dynamics immediately above and below the air-water interface in the presence of wind and waves is very challenging. The understanding of flow dynamics in near-interfacial regions is vital to improve our knowledge of the physical mechanisms responsible for the heat, mass and momentum transport across the interface. The measurement of airside velocity field close to the fluctuating water surface in the presence of waves is very challenging. The difficulty arises in the region between the wave crest and trough, where any particular spatial location lies sometimes in water and sometimes in air, which is the main obstacle in using point measurement techniques in this region. We report on a series of laboratory experiments conducted to investigate the airflow structure above the wavy water surface using PIV. The results have shown that the flow characteristics in the crest-trough region above the waves are significantly different from that at greater heights. The results showing the turbulent structure in this region will be presented and discussed.

  13. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  14. Aerodynamics of small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Desy, P.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various rotor parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a small-scale Darrieus wind turbine. To do this, a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor is calculated by using the double-multiple-streamtube model including the streamtube expansion effects through the rotor (CARDAAX computer code) and the dynamicstall effects. The straight-bladed Darrieus turbine is as expected more efficient with respect the curved-bladed rotor but for a given solidity is operates at higher wind speeds.

  15. Design of multi-energy Helds coupling testing system of vertical axis wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion efficiency of wind energy is the focus of researches and concerns as one of the renewable energy. The present methods of enhancing the conversion efficiency are mostly improving the wind rotor structure, optimizing the generator parameters and energy storage controller and so on. Because the conversion process involves in energy conversion of multi-energy fields such as wind energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy, the coupling effect between them will influence the overall conversion efficiency. In this paper, using system integration analysis technology, a testing system based on multi-energy field coupling (MEFC) of vertical axis wind power system is proposed. When the maximum efficiency of wind rotor is satisfied, it can match to the generator function parameters according to the output performance of wind rotor. The voltage controller can transform the unstable electric power to the battery on the basis of optimizing the parameters such as charging times, charging voltage. Through the communication connection and regulation of the upper computer system (UCS), it can make the coupling parameters configure to an optimal state, and it improves the overall conversion efficiency. This method can test the whole wind turbine (WT) performance systematically and evaluate the design parameters effectively. It not only provides a testing method for system structure design and parameter optimization of wind rotor, generator and voltage controller, but also provides a new testing method for the whole performance optimization of vertical axis wind energy conversion system (WECS).

  16. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A 1/3 SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Altab Hossain; A.K.M.P. Iqbal; Ataur Rahman; M. Arifin; M. Mazian

    2007-01-01

    This research describes the electrical power generation in Malaysia by the measurement of wind velocity acting on the wind turbine technology. The primary purpose of the measurement over the 1/3 scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. The electrical power produced by the wind turbine is influenced by its two major part, wind power and belt power transmission system. The blade and the drag...

  17. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: First Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the first year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-looking technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of FAA certification requirements and the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment.

  18. Dynamic Calculation Design of Vertical Wind Turbine | Okhueleigbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigeria power system is facing shortage of power due to poor generation. The country is now trying to shift to the utilization of renewable energy in the production of electrical power so as to have a mix energy generation system. One of the renewable energies is the kinetic energy of wind. For this energy to be properly ...

  19. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  20. The effect of wind induced bottom shear stress and salinity on Zostera noltii replanting in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, E.; Roux, B.; Fougere, D.; Chen, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The paper concerns the wind influence on bottom shear stress and salinity levels in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal lagoon (Etang de Berre), with respect to a replanting program of Zostera noltii. The MARS3D numerical model is used to analyze the 3D current, salinity and temperature distribution induced by three meteorological, oceanic and anthropogenic forcings in this lagoon. The numerical model has been carefully validated by comparison with daily observations of the vertical salinity and temperature profiles at three mooring stations, for one year. Then, two modelling scenarios are considered. The first scenario (scen.#1), starting with a homogeneous salinity of S = 20 PSU and without wind forcing, studies a stratification process under the influence of a periodic seawater inflow and a strong freshwater inflow from a hydropower plant (250 m3/s). Then, in the second scenario (scen.#2), we study how a strong wind of 80 km/h can mix the haline stratification obtained at the end of scen.#1. The most interesting results concern four nearshore replanting areas; two are situated on the eastern side of EB and two on the western side. The results of scen.#2 show that all these areas are subject to a downwind coastal jet. Concerning bottom salinity, the destratification process is very beneficial; it always remains greater than 12 PSU for a N-NW wind of 80 km/h and an hydropower runoff of 250 m3/s. Special attention is devoted to the bottom shear stress (BSS) for different values of the bottom roughness parameter (for gravels, sands and silts), and to the bottom salinity. Concerning BSS, it presents a maximum near the shoreline and decreases along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. There exists a zone, parallel to the shoreline, where BSS presents a minimum (close to zero). When comparing the BSS value at the four replanting areas with the critical value, BSScr, at which the sediment mobility would occur, we see that for the smaller roughness values (ranging

  1. Estimating a wind shear detection range for different altitude levels in the troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A so-called wind shear (a vector difference of wind speeds in two points of the space referred to the distance between them is of essential practical interest to air force. The wind shear is a hidden and cliffhanging phenomenon. The growth of aircraft incidents at their taking off and landing have drawn attention to this phenomenon.Laser methods are one of the advanced remote techniques to measure a speed and detect a wind shear. Remote laser methods of wind speed measurement are divided into Doppler and correlation ones. More simple (and, respectively, demanding less expensive equipment are correlation methods and near to them non-Doppler techniques.Today almost all existing wind correlation lidars run in the visible range. However, in terms of safety for an eye, other ranges: near infrared (IK and ultra-violet (UF ones are also of interest.The work assesses a sounding range of the aircraft lidar in UF, visible, and near IK spectral ranges to solve a problem of wind shear detection for different altitude levels in the troposphere.Results of calculations show that the sounding ranges decrease with increasing flight altitude (at lidar parameters used in calculations to be in range from ~ 2.7-3.3 km (the lowest atmospheric layer height ~ 0 to ~ 200 - 300 m (a flight altitude of 10 km. And the main reduction of the sounding range vs height is within the range of heights of 5-10 km. Such dependence is caused by the strong reduction of aerosol extinction and atmosphere scattering with the altitude increase in this altitude range.In a ground layer of the terrestrial atmosphere (height ~ 0 the greatest sounding range is realized for a wave length of 0.532 microns. With increasing flight altitude a difference in sounding ranges for the wave lengths of 0.355; 9.532 and 1.54 microns decreases, and at big heights the greatest range of sounding is realized for a wave length of 1.54 microns.

  2. Variable speed control for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.

    and used after a first order low pass filtering with a certain time-constant. The controller has been developed and coded by Torben Larsen and it is compiled as an external DLL file. The simulations are done in the HAWC2 aero-servo-elastic code using a 3-bladed H-type VAWT which has been built within...... response on rotor speed and the produced power with a small overshoot in the power when the rated wind speed is reached for a wide range of PI gains for both the deterministic and the turbulent wind field. Lastly, it is not affected from the inherent variation in blade loading of VAWTs for each rotor...

  3. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the QC and splicing methodology for KSC's 50- and 915-MHz DRWP measurements that generates an extensive archive of vertically complete profiles from 0.20-18.45 km. The concurrent POR from each archive extends from April 2000 to December 2009. MSFC NE applies separate but similar QC processes to each of the 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives. DRWP literature and data examination provide the basis for developing and applying the automated and manual QC processes on both archives. Depending on the month, the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives retain 52-65% and 16-30% of the possible data, respectively. The 50- and 915-MHz DRWP QC archives retain 84-91% and 85-95%, respectively, of all the available data provided that data exist in the non- QC'ed archives. Next, MSFC NE applies an algorithm to splice concurrent measurements from both DRWP sources. Last, MSFC NE generates a composite profile from the (up to) five available spliced profiles to effectively characterize boundary layer winds and to utilize all possible 915-MHz DRWP measurements at each timestamp. During a given month, roughly 23,000-32,000 complete profiles exist from 0.25-18.45 km from the composite profiles' archive, and approximately 5,000- 27,000 complete profiles exist from an archive utilizing an individual 915-MHz DRWP. One can extract a variety of profile combinations (pairs, triplets, etc.) from this sample for a given application. The sample of vertically complete DRWP wind measurements not only gives launch vehicle customers greater confidence in loads and trajectory assessments versus using balloon output, but also provides flexibility to simulate different DOL situations across applicable altitudes. In addition to increasing sample size and providing more flexibility for DOL simulations in the vehicle design phase, the spliced DRWP database provides any upcoming launch vehicle program with the capability to utilize DRWP profiles on DOL to compute vehicle steering

  4. Frequency-domain characteristics of aerodynamic loads of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Michael; Collu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency......-domain characteristics of floating vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic loads. The impact of platform induced motion on aerodynamic loads is discussed in detail, with results indicating an increase in aerodynamic loads of several orders of magnitude over the range of frequencies usually containing significant wave...... energy. The subsequent impacts of these observations on system component design are elaborated. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Design of rotor blade for vertical axis wind turbine using double aerofoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chougule, P.D.; Ratkovich, N.; Kirkegaard, P.H.; Nielsen, Soeren R.K. [Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention compared to horizontal wind turbines due to their suitability in urban use,because they generate less noise, have bird free turbines and lower cost. There are few vertical axis wind turbines design with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology in practice for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double aerofoil elements mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work, two aerofoils are used to design a rotor blade for a vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency on the rotor. Double aerofoil blade design consists of a main aerofoil and a slat aerofoil. The parameters related to position and orientation of the slat aerofoil with respect to the main aerofoil defines the high lift. Orientation of slat aerofoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double aerofoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using Star CCM+ v7.04 (CD-adapco, UK) software. Aerofoils used in this work are selected from standard aerofoil shapes. (Author)

  6. Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Madani, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Different types of permanent magnet generators for wind power application have been subject of research during last two decades. In this thesis different topologies of electrical generators have been investigated for small scale vertical axis wind turbine application. A two stage induction generator is proposed as a alternative solution with respect to the cost of such a system. However, a biggest emphasis in the report has been put on the design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMS...

  7. Aerofoil profile modification effects for improved performance of a vertical axis wind turbine blade

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Md. Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing need of sustainable energy technologies, wind energy is gaining more popularity day by day. For micro power generation vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is preferred due to its simplicity and easy to install characteristics. This study investigates the effects of profile-modification on a NACA0015 aerofoil used in VAWTs. The profile-modifications being investigated consist of a combination of inward semi-circular dimple and Gurney flap at the lower surface of the aerofoil. ...

  8. Automated electric control of a vertical axis wind turbine in island operation

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    At the Division of Electricity at Uppsala University, a wind power concept has been developed. The concept uses a vertical axis wind turbine with a direct driven generator. The turbine has fixed blades, making speed control the only way to regulate power absorption. The speed is controlled with the electric load. The turbine is not self-starting, but can be started using the generator as a motor. In this project, an unsupervised electric system with automatic control is designed and construct...

  9. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-06-01

    Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500 Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model.

  10. Alignment of stress, mean wind, and vertical gradient of the velocity vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Patton, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications in the atmospheric surface layer the turbulent-viscosity hypothesis is applied, i.e. the stress vector can be described through the vertical gradient of velocity. In the atmospheric surface layer, where the Coriolis force and baroclinic effects are considered negligible...... of atmospheric boundary layer modeling. The measurements are from the Danish wind turbine test sites at Høvsøre. With theWindCube lidar we are able to reach heights of 250 meters and hence capture the entire atmospheric surface layer both in terms of wind speed and the direction of the mean stress vector....

  11. Modal analysis of a small vertical axis wind turbine (Type DARRIEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion NILA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief study on free vibration analysis for determining parameters such as natural frequencies and mode shapes for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT for an urban application. This study is focused on numerical work using available finite element software. For further understanding of the wind turbine dynamic analysis, two vibration parameters of dynamic response have been studied, namely natural frequencies and mode shapes.Block Lanczos method has been used to analyze the natural frequency while wind turbine mode shapes have been utilized because of their accuracy and faster solution. In this problem 12 modes of structure have been extracted.

  12. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES USED IN HARBOURS AND SHORE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the wind turbine solutions implemented in harbours and on shore areas. Also a thorough study of the blade design solutions for small power Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs has been conducted, with their advantages and disadvantages, in order to find the best solution that minimises the loads and helps with the self-starting capabilities of the wind turbine. First are presented all the solutions, next are discussed several research results for each solution and, in the end, a combination of solutions is chosen for our new small power VAWT with a pre-dimensioning analysis.

  13. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Travis J.; Dennis, Brian H.; Han, Zhen X.; Wang, Bo P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and demonstrate a fully automated process for optimizing the airfoil cross-section of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The objective is to maximize the torque while enforcing typical wind turbine design constraints such as tip speed ratio, solidity, and blade profile. By fixing the tip speed ratio of the wind turbine, there exists an airfoil cross-section and solidity for which the torque can be maximized, requiring the development of an iterative...

  14. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved....... been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade...

  15. Numerical results in a vertical wind axis turbine with relative rotating blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayeul-Laine, Annie-Claude; Dockter, Aurore; Simonet, Sophie; Bois, Gerard [Arts et Metiers PARISTECH (France)

    2011-07-01

    The use of wind energy to produce electricity through wind turbines has spread world-wide. The quantity of electricity produced is affected by numerous factors such as wind speed and direction and turbine design; the aim of this paper is to assess the influence of different blades on the performance of a turbine. This study was performed on a turbine in which the blades have a rotating movement, each around its own axis and around the turbine's axis. Unsteady simulations were carried out with several blade stagger angles and one wind speed and 2 different blade geometries were used for 4 rotational speeds. Results showed that the studied turbine gave better performance than vertical axis wind turbines and that blade sketch, blade speed ratios, and blade stagger angle were important influences on the performance. This study showed that this kind of turbine has the potential to achieve good performance but that further work needs to be done.

  16. Wind-Sculpted Vicinity After Opportunity's Sol 1797 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 111 meters (364 feet) on the 1,797th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 12, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. Tracks from the drive recede northward across dark-toned sand ripples in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. Patches of lighter-toned bedrock are visible on the left and right sides of the image. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics based Fault Simulations of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-seon; Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh

    2012-05-01

    Due to depleting fossil fuels and a rapid increase in the fuel prices globally, the search for alternative energy sources is becoming more and more significant. One of such energy source is the wind energy which can be harnessed with the use of wind turbines. The fundamental principle of wind turbines is to convert the wind energy into first mechanical and then into electrical form. The relatively simple operation of such turbines has stirred the researchers to come up with innovative designs for global acceptance and to make these turbines commercially viable. Furthermore, the maintenance of wind turbines has long been a topic of interest. Condition based monitoring of wind turbines is essential to maintain continuous operation of wind turbines. The present work focuses on the difference in the outputs of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) under different operational conditions. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique has been used for various blade configurations of a VAWT. The results indicate that there is significant degradation in the performance output of wind turbines as the number of blades broken or missing from the VAWT increases. The study predicts the faults in the blades of VAWTs by monitoring its output.

  18. Test plan for the 34 meter vertical axis wind turbine test bed located at Bushland, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, W.A.

    1986-12-01

    A plan is presented for the testing and evaluation of a new 500 kw vertical axis wind turbine test bed. The plan starts with the initial measurements made during construction, proceeds through evaluation of the design, the development of control methods, and finally to the test bed phase where new concepts are evaluated and in-depth studies are performed.

  19. Creating a benchmark of vertical axis wind turbines in dynamic stall for validating numerical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelein, D.; Ragni, D.; Tescione, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental campaign using Particle Image Velocimetry (2C-PIV) technique has been conducted on a H-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) to create a benchmark for validating and comparing numerical models. The turbine is operated at tip speed ratios (TSR) of 4.5 and 2, at an average chord...

  20. Aerodynamic modeling of floating vertical axis wind turbines using the actuator cylinder flow method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Recently the interest in developing vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) for offshore application has been increasing. Among the aerodynamic models of VAWTs, double multi-streamtube (DMST) and actuator cylinder (AC) models are two favorable methods for fully coupled modeling and dynamic analysis...

  1. DECREASING THE COST OF WIND TURBINE WITH VERTICALLY INSTALLED ROTOR WHEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov V.K.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cost dependence of the most expensive parts of the vertical rotor windmill and their sizes (height and diameter was studied. The formulae were obtained allowing determining the optimum value of such dependence for different modifications of a windmill: with or without wind concentrator.

  2. Recent Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments contributing to the understanding of the aerodynamics of airfoils operating in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) environment are described. These experiments are ultimately intended to reduce VAWT cost of energy and increase system reliability. They include chordwise pressure surveys, circumferential blade acceleration surveys, effects of blade camber, pitch and offset, blade blowing, and use of sections designed specifically for VAWT application.

  3. Recent darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine aerodynamical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.

    The aerodynamics of airfoils operating in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) environment were examined. The experiments are intended to reduce VAWT cost of energy an increase system reliability. The experiments include: (1) chordwise pressure surveys; (2) circumferential blade acceleration surveys; (3) effects of blade camber; (4) pitch and offset; (5) blade blowing; and (6) use of sections designed specifically for VAWT application.

  4. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwill, T. D.; Leonard, T. M.

    1986-09-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a buildable blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and increase fatigue life.

  5. First observation of mesospheric wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Fu; Widdel, H.-U.; Offermann, D.

    1995-09-01

    Mesospheric wind profiles with an altitude resolution of 25 m have been obtained by means of radar tracking of foil chaff clouds. Such experiments were performed during winter 1990 at Biscarrosse, France (44°N, 1°W). On one flight, a wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1 at 87.4 km and a region of dynamical instability between 86 and 88 km was measured. This wind shear is believed to be the largest value ever measured in the mesosphere. The region of dynamical instability results from a superposition of two wave motions, and is found to link well with enhanced turbulence and small-scale wave activity. Acknowledgements. I thank D. R. McDiarmid of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Canada, for important ideas and discussions during the development of this work. I thank the referees for useful comments which have improved the paper. I also thank E.M. Poulter of NIWA for helpful suggestions, and for reading the manuscript and making useful comments. The work was supported by contract CO1309 of the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Topical Editor C.-G. Fälthammar thanks K. Mursula and W. J. Hughes for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: W. Allan-->

  6. Wave-induced bottom shear stress estimation in shallow water exemplified by using deep water wind statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a simple and analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the wave-induced bottom shear stress for very rough beds and mud beds in shallow water based on wind statistics in deep water. This is exemplified by using long-term wind statistics from the northern North Sea, and by providing examples representing realistic field conditions. Based on, for example, global wind statistics, the present results can be used to make estimates of the bottom shear stress in shallow water.

  7. Active Blade Pitch Control for Straight Bladed Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine of New Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    at low rotational speed producing very less noise during operation, although these are less efficient than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The efficiency of a VAWT has been significantly improved by H-Darrieus VAWT design based on double airfoil technology as demonstrated by the authors......As Development of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) for urban use is becoming an interesting topic both within industry and academia. However, there are few new designs of vertical axis turbines which are customized for building integration. These are getting importance because they operate...... in a previous publication. Further, it is well know that the variation of the blade pitch angle during the rotation improves the power efficiency. A blade pitch variation is implemented by active blade pitch control, which operates as per wind speed and position of the blade with respect to the rotor. A double...

  8. Numerical modeling and preliminary validation of drag-based vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysiński Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to verify and validate the mathematical description of the airflow around a wind turbine with vertical axis of rotation, which could be considered as representative for this type of devices. Mathematical modeling of the airflow around wind turbines in particular those with the vertical axis is a problematic matter due to the complex nature of this highly swirled flow. Moreover, it is turbulent flow accompanied by a rotation of the rotor and the dynamic boundary layer separation. In such conditions, the key aspects of the mathematical model are accurate turbulence description, definition of circular motion as well as accompanying effects like centrifugal force or the Coriolis force and parameters of spatial and temporal discretization. The paper presents the impact of the different simulation parameters on the obtained results of the wind turbine simulation. Analysed models have been validated against experimental data published in the literature.

  9. A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino De Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.

  10. Numerical simulation on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Feng, F.; He, Q. B.; Wang, N. X.

    2016-08-01

    To improve the starting performance of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) at low wind speed, and the output characteristics at high wind speed, a flexible, scalable auxiliary vane mechanism was designed and installed into the rotor of SB-VAWT in this study. This new vertical axis wind turbine is a kind of lift-to-drag combination wind turbine. The flexible blade expanded, and the driving force of the wind turbines comes mainly from drag at low rotational speed. On the other hand, the flexible blade is retracted at higher speed, and the driving force is primarily from a lift. To research the effects of the flexible, scalable auxiliary module on the performance of SB-VAWT and to find its best parameters, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical calculation was carried out. The calculation result shows that the flexible, scalable blades can automatic expand and retract with the rotational speed. The moment coefficient at low tip speed ratio increased substantially. Meanwhile, the moment coefficient has also been improved at high tip speed ratios in certain ranges.

  11. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  12. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  13. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  14. Reliability Estimation of Parameters of Helical Wind Turbine with Vertical Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Adela-Eliza; Lepadatescu, Badea; Dumitrascu, Dorin-Ion; Nedelcu, Anisor; Ciobanu, Doina Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Due to the prolonged use of wind turbines they must be characterized by high reliability. This can be achieved through a rigorous design, appropriate simulation and testing, and proper construction. The reliability prediction and analysis of these systems will lead to identifying the critical components, increasing the operating time, minimizing failure rate, and minimizing maintenance costs. To estimate the produced energy by the wind turbine, an evaluation approach based on the Monte Carlo simulation model is developed which enables us to estimate the probability of minimum and maximum parameters. In our simulation process we used triangular distributions. The analysis of simulation results has been focused on the interpretation of the relative frequency histograms and cumulative distribution curve (ogive diagram), which indicates the probability of obtaining the daily or annual energy output depending on wind speed. The experimental researches consist in estimation of the reliability and unreliability functions and hazard rate of the helical vertical axis wind turbine designed and patented to climatic conditions for Romanian regions. Also, the variation of power produced for different wind speeds, the Weibull distribution of wind probability, and the power generated were determined. The analysis of experimental results indicates that this type of wind turbine is efficient at low wind speed. PMID:26167524

  15. Reliability Estimation of Parameters of Helical Wind Turbine with Vertical Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela-Eliza Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prolonged use of wind turbines they must be characterized by high reliability. This can be achieved through a rigorous design, appropriate simulation and testing, and proper construction. The reliability prediction and analysis of these systems will lead to identifying the critical components, increasing the operating time, minimizing failure rate, and minimizing maintenance costs. To estimate the produced energy by the wind turbine, an evaluation approach based on the Monte Carlo simulation model is developed which enables us to estimate the probability of minimum and maximum parameters. In our simulation process we used triangular distributions. The analysis of simulation results has been focused on the interpretation of the relative frequency histograms and cumulative distribution curve (ogive diagram, which indicates the probability of obtaining the daily or annual energy output depending on wind speed. The experimental researches consist in estimation of the reliability and unreliability functions and hazard rate of the helical vertical axis wind turbine designed and patented to climatic conditions for Romanian regions. Also, the variation of power produced for different wind speeds, the Weibull distribution of wind probability, and the power generated were determined. The analysis of experimental results indicates that this type of wind turbine is efficient at low wind speed.

  16. Reliability Estimation of Parameters of Helical Wind Turbine with Vertical Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Adela-Eliza; Lepadatescu, Badea; Dumitrascu, Dorin-Ion; Nedelcu, Anisor; Ciobanu, Doina Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Due to the prolonged use of wind turbines they must be characterized by high reliability. This can be achieved through a rigorous design, appropriate simulation and testing, and proper construction. The reliability prediction and analysis of these systems will lead to identifying the critical components, increasing the operating time, minimizing failure rate, and minimizing maintenance costs. To estimate the produced energy by the wind turbine, an evaluation approach based on the Monte Carlo simulation model is developed which enables us to estimate the probability of minimum and maximum parameters. In our simulation process we used triangular distributions. The analysis of simulation results has been focused on the interpretation of the relative frequency histograms and cumulative distribution curve (ogive diagram), which indicates the probability of obtaining the daily or annual energy output depending on wind speed. The experimental researches consist in estimation of the reliability and unreliability functions and hazard rate of the helical vertical axis wind turbine designed and patented to climatic conditions for Romanian regions. Also, the variation of power produced for different wind speeds, the Weibull distribution of wind probability, and the power generated were determined. The analysis of experimental results indicates that this type of wind turbine is efficient at low wind speed.

  17. Ground-Based Remote or In Situ Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Wind in the Lower Troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer

    2017-02-24

    Knowledge of winds in the lower troposphere is essential for a range of applications, including weather forecasting, transportation, natural hazards, and wind energy. This presentation focuses on the measurement of vertical profiles of wind in the lower troposphere for wind energy applications. This presentation introduces the information that wind energy site development and operations require, how it used, and the benefits and problems of current measurements from in-situ measurements and remote sensing. The development of commercial Doppler wind lidar systems over the last 10 years are shown, along with the lessons learned from this experience. Finally, potential developments in wind profiling aimed at reducing uncertainty and increasing data availability are introduced.

  18. Structural Dynamic Analysis of Semi-Submersible Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Ishie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The strong and stable wind at offshore locations and the increasing demand for energy have made the application of wind turbines in deeper water surge. A novel concept of a 5 MW baseline Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (FVAWT and a 5 MW optimised FVAWT with the DeepWind Darrieus rotor and the optimised DeepWind Darrieus rotor, respectively, were studied extensively. The structural responses, fatigue damages, platform global motions and mooring line dynamics of the FVAWTs were investigated comprehensively during normal operating conditions under steady wind and turbulent wind conditions, using a coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic code (the Simo-Riflex-DMS code which was developed by Wang et al. for modeling FVAWTs. This coupled code incorporates the models for the turbulent wind field, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, and generator controller. The simulation is performed in a fully coupled manner in time domain. The comparison of responses under different wind conditions were used to demonstrate the effect of turbulence on both FVAWTs dynamic responses. The turbulent wind condition has the advantage of reducing the 2P effects. Furthermore, comparative studies of the FVAWTs responses were undertaken to explore the advantages of adopting the optimised 5 MW DeepWind Darrieus rotor over the baseline model. The results identified the 5 MW optimised FVAWT to having: lower Fore-Aft (FA but higher lower Side-Side (SS bending moments of structural components; lower motions amplitude; lower short-term fatigue equivalent loads and a further reduced 2P effects.

  19. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500...... Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model.......Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis...

  20. Vertical axis wind rotors: Status and potential. [energy conversion efficiency and aerodynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, W.

    1973-01-01

    The design and application of a vertical axis wind rotor is reported that operates as a two stage turbine wherein the wind impinging on the concave side is circulated through the center of the rotor to the back of the convex side, thus decreasing what might otherwise be a high negative pressure region. Successful applications of this wind rotor to water pumps, ship propulsion, and building ventilators are reported. Also shown is the feasibility of using the energy in ocean waves to drive the rotor. An analysis of the impact of rotor aspect ratio on rotor acceleration shows that the amount of venting between rotor vanes has a very significant effect on rotor speed for a given wind speed.

  1. Numerical study on aerodynamic damping of floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Harvesting offshore wind energy resources using floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) has attracted an increasing interest in recent years. Due to its potential impact on fatigue damage, the aerodynamic damping should be considered in the preliminary design of a floating VAWT based...... on the frequency domain method. However, currently the study on aerodynamic damping of floating VAWTs is very limited. Due to the essential difference in aerodynamic load characteristics, the aerodynamic damping of a floating VAWT could be different from that of a floating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT...... to four were considered. The aerodynamic damping under steady and turbulent wind conditions were estimated using fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic time domain simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic damping ratio of the considered floating VAWTs ranges from 1.8% to 5.3%. Moreover...

  2. Tsunami-driven gravity waves in the presence of vertically varying background and tidal wind structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughman, B.; Fritts, D. C.; Lund, T. S.

    2017-05-01

    Many characteristics of tsunami-driven gravity waves (TDGWs) enable them to easily propagate into the thermosphere and ionosphere with appreciable amplitudes capable of producing detectable perturbations in electron densities and total electron content. The impact of vertically varying background and tidal wind structures on TDGW propagation is investigated with a series of idealized background wind profiles to assess the relative importance of wave reflection, critical-level approach, and dissipation. These numerical simulations employ a 2-D nonlinear anelastic finite-volume neutral atmosphere model which accounts for effects accompanying vertical gravity wave (GW) propagation such as amplitude growth with altitude. The GWs are excited by an idealized tsunami forcing with a 50 cm sea surface displacement, a 400 km horizontal wavelength, and a phase speed of 200 ms-1 consistent with previous studies of the tsunami generated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake. Results indicate that rather than partial reflection and trapping, the dominant process governing TDGW propagation to thermospheric altitudes is refraction to larger and smaller vertical scales, resulting in respectively larger and smaller vertical group velocities and respectively reduced and increased viscous dissipation. Under all considered background wind profiles, TDGWs were able to attain ionospheric altitudes with appreciable amplitudes. Finally, evidence of nonlinear effects is observed and the conditions leading to their formation is discussed.

  3. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar

  4. Wind Shear, Gust, and Yaw-Induced Dynamic Stall on Wind-Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    laBastide, B. P.; Wong, J. G.; Rival, D. E.

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the effect of a spanwise angle of attack gradient on the growth and stability of a dynamic stall vortex on a rotating blade. It was found that a spanwise angle of attack gradient induces a corresponding spanwise vorticity gradient, which, in combination with spanwise flow, results in a redistribution of circulation along the blade. Specifically, when replicating the angle of attack gradient experienced by a wind turbine at the 30% span position during a gust event, the spanwise vorticity gradient was aligned such that circulation was transported from areas of high circulation to areas of low circulation. This in turn increased the local dynamic stall vortex growth rate, which corresponds to an increase in the lift coefficient, and a decrease in the local vortex stability at this point. Reversing the relative alignment of the spanwise vorticity gradient and spanwise flow results in circulation transport from towards areas of high circulation generation, which acted to reduce local circulation and thereby stabilize the vortex. This circulation redistribution behaviour describes a mechanism by which the fluctuating loads on a wind turbine are magnified, which is detrimental to turbine lifetime and performance.

  5. The Orlando TDWR testbed and airborne wind shear date comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steven; Berke, Anthony; Matthews, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this talk is on comparing terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne wind shear data in computing a microburst hazard index called the F factor. The TDWR is a ground-based system for detecting wind shear hazards to aviation in the terminal area. The Federal Aviation Administration will begin deploying TDWR units near 45 airports in late 1992. As part of this development effort, M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory operates under F.A.A. support a TDWR testbed radar in Orlando, FL. During the past two years, a series of flight tests has been conducted with instrumented aircraft penetrating microburst events while under testbed radar surveillance. These tests were carried out with a Cessna Citation 2 aircraft operated by the University of North Dakota (UND) Center for Aerospace Sciences in 1990, and a Boeing 737 operated by NASA Langley Research Center in 1991. A large data base of approximately 60 instrumented microburst penetrations has been obtained from these flights.

  6. Speed and Torque Control Strategies for Loss Reduction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Michael; McDonald, Alasdair; Leithead, Bill; Giles, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    This paper builds on the work into modelling the generator losses for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines from their intrinsic torque cycling to investigate the effects of aerodynamic inefficiencies caused by the varying rotational speed resulting from different torque control strategies to the cyclic torque. This is achieved by modelling the wake that builds up from the rotation of the VAWT rotor to investigate how the wake responds to a changing rotor speed and how this in turn affects the torque produced by the blades as well as the corresponding change in generator losses and any changes to the energy extracted by the wind turbine rotor.

  7. Spectrum characteristics of Denver and Philadelphia ground clutter and the problem of distinguishing wind shear targets from moving clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis of 1991 wind shear flight data has provided information about the power spectral density, spectral width, and velocity of ground clutter detected by the wind shear radar at several major airports. Ground clutter must be recognized and separated from weather targets before wind shear can be computed. Information will be presented characterizing and comparing ground clutter and weather target spectra. The information includes (1) spectral widths of stationary ground clutter seen at various scan and tilt angles, (2) power spectral density and velocity of moving ground clutter relative to the stationary ground clutter, and (3) spectral widths and velocities of weather targets. A summary of numerical results in the form of histograms and example numerical results in the form of spectral plots are presented.

  8. Numerical investigations of passive flow control elements for vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we numerically investigate the possibilities to control the dynamic stall phenomenon, with application to vertical axis wind turbines. The dynamic stall appears at low tip speed ratio (TSRCFD 2D analysis of the dynamic stall phenomenon around NACA 0012 airfoil equipped with a passive flow control device, in pitching motion at relative low Reynolds number (˜105). Three passive flow control devices are numerically investigated: a turbulence promoter mounted on the leading edge, a thin channel and a step on the upper surface of the airfoil. For the present studies, the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is the suitable approach to perform the dynamic stall simulations with an acceptable computational cost and reasonable accuracy. The results are compared to those of an existing experimental case test for unmodified NACA 0012 airfoil. The capability of this device was investigated numerically on a vertical axis wind turbine (2D model), where blades are generated with NACA 0018 airfoil.

  9. Development and Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Model for a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shires

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vertical axis wind turbines which have several inherent attributes that offer some advantages for offshore operations, particularly their scalability and low over-turning moments with better accessibility to drivetrain components. This paper describes an aerodynamic performance model for vertical axis wind turbines specifically developed for the design of a novel offshore V-shaped rotor with multiple aerodynamic surfaces. The model is based on the Double-Multiple Streamtube method and includes a number of developments for alternative complex rotor shapes. The paper compares predicted results with measured field data for five different turbines with both curved and straight blades and rated powers in the range 100–500 kW. Based on these comparisons, the paper proposes modifications to the Gormont dynamic stall model that gives improved predictions of rotor power for the turbines considered.

  10. Evaluation of the shear force of single cancer cells by vertically aligned carbon nanotubes suitable for metastasis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahad, M; Mohajerzadeh, S; Janmaleki, M; Taghinejad, H; Taghinejad, M

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have been demonstrated as probes for rapid quantifying of cancer cell deformability with high resolution. Through entrapment of various cancer cells on CNT arrays, the deflections of the nanotubes during cell deformation were used to derive the lateral cell shear force using a large deflection mode method. It is observed that VACNT beams act as sensitive and flexible agents, which transfer the shear force of cells trapped on them by an observable deflection. The metastatic cancer cells have significant deformable structures leading to a further cell traction force (CTF) than primary cancerous one on CNT arrays. The elasticity of different cells could be compared by their CTF measurement on CNT arrays. This study presents a nanotube-based methodology for quantifying the single cell mechanical behavior, which could be useful for understanding the metastatic behavior of cells.

  11. A shear sensitive monomer-polymer liquid crystal system for wind tunnel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of a liquid crystal system, comprised of a shear-sensitive cholesteric-monomer liquid crystal thin-film coated on a liquid-crystal polymer substrate, are described. The system provides stable Grandjean texture, a desirable feature for shear-stress measurements using selective reflection from the monomer liquid-crystal helix structure. Impingement of gas or air flow on the monomer liquid-crystal free surface changes the wavelength of the selective reflection for an incident white light from red toward blue with increase in the rate of gas flow. The contrast of the selectively reflected light improves considerably by providing a thin black coating of about 5 microns at the monomer-polymer interface. The coating thickness is such that the steric interactions are still sufficiently strong to maintain Grandjean texture. For a small angle of incidence of a monochromatic light, the measurement of the reflected light intensity normal to the monomer-polymer liquid-crystal interface enables the determination of the wavelength for selective reflection as a function of the gas-flow differential pressure applied in the plane of the interface. The variation of the wavelength with the pressure is linear with a slope of about 2 nm/mmHg. Furthermore, the shear-stress effects are reversible unlike for monomer liquid crystal-metal systems used for flow visualization on wind-tunnel model surfaces. The present system offers a suitable method for direct on-line measurement of shear stress field from measurements of the wavelength for selective reflection for an incident white light.

  12. Magnetic Geared Radial Axis Vertical Wind Turbine for Low Velocity Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Teow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, every country is seeking an alternative source of energy especially the renewable sources. There are considerable developments in the wind energy technology in recent years and in more particular on the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT as they are modular, less installation cost and portable in comparison with that of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT systems. The cut-in speed of a conventional wind turbine is 3.5 m/s to 5 m/s. Mechanical geared generators are commonly found in wind technology to step up power conversion to accommodate the needs of the generator. Wind turbine gearboxes suffer from overload problem and frequent maintenance in spite of the high torque density produced. However, an emerging alternative to gearing system is Magnetic Gear (MG as it offers significant advantages such as free from maintenance and inherent overload protection. In this project, numerical analysis is done on designed magnetic gear greatly affects the performance of the generator in terms of voltage generation. Magnetic flux density is distributed evenly across the generator as seen from the uniform sinusoidal output waveform. Consequently, the interaction of the magnetic flux of the permanent magnets has shown no disturbance to the output of the generator as the voltage generated shows uniform waveform despite the rotational speed of the gears. The simulation is run at low wind speed and the results show that the generator starts generating a voltage of 240 V at a wind speed of 1.04 m/s. This shows great improvement in the operating capability of the wind turbine.

  13. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design Load Cases Investigation and Comparison with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    and parked situations, from cut-in to cut-out and extreme wind conditions. The ultimate and 1 Hz equivalent fatigue loads of the blade root and turbine base bottom are extracted and compared in order to give an insight of the load levels between the two concepts. According to the analysis the IEC 61400-1 ed......The paper studies the applicability of the IEC 61400-1 ed.3, 2005 International Standard of wind turbine minimum design requirements in the case of an onshore Darrieus VAWT and compares the results of basic Design Load Cases (DLCs) with those of a 3-bladed HAWT. The study is based on aeroelastic...... computations using the HAWC2 aero-servo-elastic code A 2-bladed 5 MW VAWT rotor is used based on a modified version of the DeepWind rotor For the HAWT simulations the NREL 3-bladed 5 MW reference wind turbine model is utilized Various DLCs are examined including normal power production, emergency shut down...

  14. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A 1/3 SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Hossain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the electrical power generation in Malaysia by the measurement of wind velocity acting on the wind turbine technology. The primary purpose of the measurement over the 1/3 scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. The electrical power produced by the wind turbine is influenced by its two major part, wind power and belt power transmission system. The blade and the drag area system are used to determine the powers of the wind that can be converted into electric power as well as the belt power transmission system. In this study both wind power and belt power transmission system has been considered. A set of blade and drag devices have been designed for the 1/3 scaled wind turbine at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL. Test has been carried out on the wind turbine with the different wind velocities of 5.89 m/s, 6.08 m/s and 7.02 m/s. From the experiment, the wind power has been calculated as 132.19 W, 145.40 W and 223.80 W. The maximum wind power is considered in the present study.

  15. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A 1/3 SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Md. Hossain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the electrical power generation in Malaysia by the measurement of wind velocity acting on the wind turbine technology. The primary purpose of the measurement over the 1/3 scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. The electrical power produced by the wind turbine is influenced by its two major part, wind power and belt power transmission system. The blade and the drag area system are used to determine the powers of the wind that can be converted into electric power as well as the belt power transmission system. In this study both wind power and belt power transmission system has been considered. A set of blade and drag devices have been designed for the 1/3 scaled wind turbine at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL. Test has been carried out on the wind turbine with the different wind velocities of 5.89 m/s, 6.08 m/s and 7.02 m/s. From the experiment, the wind power has been calculated as 132.19 W, 145.40 W and 223.80 W. The maximum wind power is considered in the present study.

  16. Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Möllerström

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The noise emission from a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT has been investigated. A noise measurement campaign on a 200 kW straight-bladed VAWT has been conducted, and the result has been compared to a semi-empirical model for turbulent-boundary-layer trailing edge (TBL-TE noise. The noise emission from the wind turbine was measured, at wind speed 8 m/s, 10 m above ground, to 96.2 dBA. At this wind speed, the turbine was stalling as it was run at a tip speed lower than optimal due to constructional constraints. The noise emission at a wind speed of 6 m/s, 10 m above ground was measured while operating at optimum tip speed and was found to be 94.1 dBA. A comparison with similar size horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs indicates a noise emission at the absolute bottom of the range. Furthermore, it is clear from the analysis that the turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise, as modeled here, is much lower than the measured levels, which suggests that other mechanisms are likely to be important, such as inflow turbulence.

  17. Aeroelastic Stability Investigations for Large-scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B. C.; Griffith, D. T.

    2014-06-01

    The availability of offshore wind resources in coastal regions, along with a high concentration of load centers in these areas, makes offshore wind energy an attractive opportunity for clean renewable electricity production. High infrastructure costs such as the offshore support structure and operation and maintenance costs for offshore wind technology, however, are significant obstacles that need to be overcome to make offshore wind a more cost-effective option. A vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor configuration offers a potential transformative technology solution that significantly lowers cost of energy for offshore wind due to its inherent advantages for the offshore market. However, several potential challenges exist for VAWTs and this paper addresses one of them with an initial investigation of dynamic aeroelastic stability for large-scale, multi-megawatt VAWTs. The aeroelastic formulation and solution method from the BLade Aeroelastic STability Tool (BLAST) for HAWT blades was employed to extend the analysis capability of a newly developed structural dynamics design tool for VAWTs. This investigation considers the effect of configuration geometry, material system choice, and number of blades on the aeroelastic stability of a VAWT, and provides an initial scoping for potential aeroelastic instabilities in large-scale VAWT designs.

  18. Improved double-multiple streamtube model for the Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. E.

    Double streamtube codes model the curved blade (Darrieus-type) vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) as a double actuator fish arrangement (one half) and use conservation of momentum principles to determine the forces acting on the turbine blades and the turbine performance. Sandia National Laboratories developed a double multiple streamtube model for the VAWT which incorporates the effects of the incident wind boundary layer, nonuniform velocity between the upwind and downwind sections of the rotor, dynamic stall effects and local blade Reynolds number variations. The theory underlying this VAWT model is described, as well as the code capabilities. Code results are compared with experimental data from two VAWT's and with the results from another double multiple streamtube and a vortex filament code. The effects of neglecting dynamic stall and horizontal wind velocity distribution are also illustrated.

  19. A comparison of selected vertical wind measurement techniques on basis of the EUCAARI IMPACT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabas, S.; Baehr, C.; Boquet, M.; Dufournet, Y.; Pawlowska, H.; Siebert, H.; Unal, C.

    2009-04-01

    The poster presents a comparison of selected methods for determination of the vertical wind in the boundary layer used during the EUCAARI IMPACT campaign that took place in May 2008 in The Netherlands. The campaign covered a monthlong intensified ground-based and airborne measurements in the vicinity of the CESAR observatory in Cabauw. Ground-based vertical wind remote sensing was carried out using the Leosphere WindCube WLS70 IR Doppler lidar, Vaisala LAP3000 radar wind-profiler and the TUDelft TARA S-band radar. In-situ airborne measurements were performed using an ultrasonic anemometer (on the ACTOS helicopter underhung platform) and a 5-hole pressure probe (on the SAFIRE ATR-42 airplane radome). Several in-situ anemometers were deployed on the 200-meter high tower of the CESAR observatory. A summary of the characteristics and principles of the considered techniques is presented. A comparison of the results obtained from different platforms depicts the capabilities of each technique and highlights the time, space and velocity resolutions.

  20. A study of rotor and platform design trade-offs for large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D. Todd; Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew J.; Fowler, Matthew J.; Bull, Diana; Owens, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines are receiving significant attention for offshore siting. In general, offshore wind offers proximity to large populations centers, a vast & more consistent wind resource, and a scale-up opportunity, to name a few beneficial characteristics. On the other hand, offshore wind suffers from high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and in particular high balance of system (BoS) costs owing to accessibility challenges and limited project experience. To address these challenges associated with offshore wind, Sandia National Laboratories is researching large-scale (MW class) offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The motivation for this work is that floating VAWTs are a potential transformative technology solution to reduce offshore wind LCOE in deep-water locations. This paper explores performance and cost trade-offs within the design space for floating VAWTs between the configurations for the rotor and platform.

  1. Model improvements for evaluating the effect of tower tilting on the aerodynamics of a vertical axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2015-01-01

    be investigated to more accurately predict the aerodynamic loads. This paper proposes certain modifications to the double multiple-streamtube (DMS) model to include the component of wind speed parallel to the rotating shaft. The model is validated against experimental data collected on an H-Darrieus wind turbine......If a vertical axis wind turbine is mounted offshore on a semi-submersible, the pitch motion of the platform will dominate the static pitch and dynamic motion of the platform and wind turbine such that the effect of tower tilting on the aerodynamics of the vertical axis wind turbine should...... in skewed flow conditions. Three different dynamic stall models are also integrated into the DMS model: Gormont's model with the adaptation of Strickland, Gormont's model with the modification of Berg and the Beddoes-Leishman dynamic stall model. Both the small Sandia 17m wind turbine and the large DeepWind...

  2. Counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wake of a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Despite the rising popularity of vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs, the wakes behind these machines is much less well understood than those behind horizontal axis wind turbines, or HAWTs. A thorough understanding of wakes is important as they can cause turbines in wind farms to produce less power than anticipated and increase the fatigue loading on turbines due to vibrations. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the wake behind a vertical axis wind turbine in atmospheric flow stereo-PIV is implemented in a boundary-layer wind tunnel to produce snapshots of the 3-component velocity field in the wake at various downstream positions. The boundaries of the wake are readily observed due to the high velocity gradients and turbulence present here. Two pairs of counter-rotating vortices similar to those in the wake of yawed HAWTs are also observed. An examination of the momentum fluxes behind the turbine demonstrates that the mean flow induced by these vortices entrains a large quantity of momentum from the unperturbed boundary layer flow above the wake. This effect proves to play an even more significant role than turbulence in reintroducing momentum into the wake. In order to comprehend why the VAWT produces these vortices we modify the double-multiple stream-tube model typically used to predict VAWT performance to incorporate crosswind forces. The similarity between VAWT and yawed HAWT wakes is found not to be coincidental as both cases feature rotors which exert a lateral thrust on the incoming wind which leads to the creation of counter-rotating vortex pairs.

  3. [Distribution of Regional Pollution and the Characteristics of Vertical Wind Field in the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wu, Dui; Fan, Shao-jia

    2015-11-01

    Based on the data of hourly PM2.5 concentration of 56 environmental monitoring stations and 9 cities over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, the distributions of PM2.5 pollution in PRD region were analyzed by systematic cluster analysis and correlational analysis. It was found that the regional pollution could be divided into 3 types. The first type was the pollution occurred in Dongguan, Guangzhou, Foshan and Jiangmen (I type), and the second type was the pollution occurred in Zhongshan, Zhuhai, Shenzhen and Huizhou (II type), while the last type was the pollution only occurred in Zhaoqing (III type). During the study period, they occurred 47, 7 and 128 days, respectively. During events of pollution type I, except Zhuhai, Shenzhen and Huizhou, the PM2.5 concentrations of other cities were generally high, while the PM2.5 concentration in whole PRD region was over 50.0 μg x m(-3) during events of pollution type II. The regions with higher PM2.5 concentration was mainly concentrated in Zhaoqing, Guangzhou and Foshan during events of pollution type III. The wind data from 4 wind profile radars located in PRD region was used to study the characteristics of vertical wind field of these 3 pollution types. It was found that the wind profiles of type I and III were similar that low layer and high layer were controlled by the southeast wind and the southwest wind, respectively. For type II, the low layer and high layer were influenced by northerly wind and westerly wind, respectively. Compared with other types, the wind speed and ventilation index of type II. were much higher, and the variation of wind direction at lower-middle-layer was much smaller. When PRD region was influenced by northerly winds, the PM2.5 concentration in the entire PRD region was higher. When PRD region was controlled by southeast wind, the PM2.5 concentrations of I and II areas were relatively lower, while the pollution in III area was relatively heavier.

  4. Proceedings of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Technology Workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 18--20, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    Separate abstracts are included for twenty-nine of the thirty papers presented concerning vertical axis wind turbines. One paper has previously been abstracted and included in the ERDA Energy Data Base and Energy Research Abstracts journal.

  5. Design of a vertical-axis wind turbine: how the aspect ratio affects the turbine’s performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brusca, S; Lanzafame, R; Messina, M

    2014-01-01

    .... Since the aspect ratio variations of a vertical-axis wind turbine cause Reynolds number variations, any changes in the power coefficient can also be studied to derive how aspect ratio variations...

  6. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  7. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  8. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  9. Nonresonant absorption of shear Alfven waves. [in solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Resonant absorption of shear Alfven waves is thought to be a likely candidate to explain heating of the solar corona and acceleration of the solar wind. A difficulty with the theory is that the absorption process is slow. Moreover, heating occurs in a very thin layer. A faster absorption mechanism is nonresonant absorption by compressional viscosity, in a curved magnetic field. Heating is nonresonant and is not localized to a narrow layer. The effect could be quite important where the solar coronal magnetic field is strongly curved, in the chromosphere. It could also be important on open field lines in the upper corona, where the compressional viscosity is large. It might imply that a significant part of outgoing Alfven waves are absorbed in the corona.

  10. Evaluation of drag forcing models for vertical axis wind turbine farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brian; Moin, Parviz; Dabiri, John

    2013-11-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have the potential to produce more power per unit area than horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) in a wind farm setting (Kinzel et al. J. Turb. [2012]), but further understanding of the flow physics is required to design such farms. In this study we will model a large wind farm of VAWTs as an array of 100 circular cylinders which will allow a comparison with a laboratory experiment (Craig et al. DFD 2013). The geometric complexity and high Reynolds numbers necessitate phenomenological modeling of the interaction of the turbine with the fluid, which is done through point drag models similar to those found in canopy flow simulations (e.g. Dupont et al. J. Fluid Mech. [2010]). We will present a detailed study of the point drag model performance for flow over one cylinder, providing an evaluation of the model's fidelity as it relates to quantities of interest for the VAWT farm. Next we will present results for flow through the cylinder array, emphasizing validation of the model and insight into VAWT wind farm dynamics. We will also discuss the effect of wall modeling on the calculations, as the Reynolds number of the problem requires the application of wall modeling of the turbulent boundary layer above the ground to keep the cost manageable. Brian Pierce acknowledges support from the Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  11. A comparison between the dynamics of horizontal and vertical axis offshore floating wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Collu, M

    2015-02-28

    The need to further exploit offshore wind resources in deeper waters has led to a re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) for floating foundation applications. However, there has been little effort to systematically compare VAWTs to the more conventional horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). This article initiates this comparison based on prime principles, focusing on the turbine aerodynamic forces and their impact on the floating wind turbine static and dynamic responses. VAWTs generate substantially different aerodynamic forces on the support structure, in particular, a potentially lower inclining moment and a substantially higher torque than HAWTs. Considering the static stability requirements, the advantages of a lower inclining moment, a lower wind turbine mass and a lower centre of gravity are illustrated, all of which are exploitable to have a less costly support structure. Floating VAWTs experience increased motion in the frequency range surrounding the turbine [number of blades]×[rotational speed] frequency. For very large VAWTs with slower rotational speeds, this frequency range may significantly overlap with the range of wave excitation forces. Quantitative considerations are undertaken comparing the reference NREL 5 MW HAWT with the NOVA 5 MW VAWT. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OPERATING PARAMETERS OF THE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR THE SELECTED WIND SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czyż

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining a wind turbine on the vertical axis of rotation. The study was conducted in an open circuit wind tunnel Gunt HM 170 in the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Aviation Propulsion Systems in Lublin University of Technology. The subject of research was a rotor based on the patent PL 219985. The research object in the form of rotor consists of blades capable of altering the surface of the active area (receiving kinetic energy of the wind. The study was performed on appropriately scaled and geometrically similar models with maintaining, relevant to the type of research, the criterion numbers. Research objects in the form of rotors with different angles of divergence of blades were made using a 3D powder printer ZPrinter® 450. The results of the research conducted were carried out at the selected flow velocity of 6.5 m/s for three angles of divergence, ie. 30°, 60°, and 90° at variable rotational speed. The applied research station allows braking of the turbine to the required speed, recording velocity and torque, which allows to obtain characteristics of torque and power as a function of rotor speed.

  13. NASA airborne radar wind shear detection algorithm and the detection of wet microbursts in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Charles L.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the NASA experimental wind shear radar system for detection, characterization, and determination of windshear hazard are discussed. The performance of the algorithms in the detection of wet microbursts near Orlando is presented. Various suggested algorithms that are currently being evaluated using the flight test results from Denver and Orlando are reviewed.

  14. Dynamic vibrations in wind energy systems: Application to vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Imen Bel; El Hami, Abdelkhalak; Walha, Lassâad; Zghal, Bacem; Haddar, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic analysis of Darrieus turbine bevel spur gear subjected to transient aerodynamic loads is carried out in the present study. The aerodynamic torque is obtained by solving the two dimensional unsteady incompressible Navies Stocks equation with the k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model. The results are presented for several values of tip speed ratio. The two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is validated with experimental results. The optimum tip speed ratio is achieved, giving the best overall performance. In this study, we developed a lamped mass dynamic model with 14 degrees of freedom. This model is excited by external and internal issues sources. The main factors of these excitations are the periodic fluctuations of the gear meshes' stiffness and the unsteady aerodynamic torque oscillations. The vibration responses are obtained in time and frequency domains. The originality of our work is the correlation between the complexity of the aerodynamic phenomenon and the non-stationary dynamics vibration of the mechanical gearing system. The effect of the rotational speed on the dynamic behavior of the Darrieus turbine is also discussed. The present study shows that the variation of rotor rotational speed directly affects the torque production. However, there is a small change in the dynamic vibration of the studied gearing system.

  15. Aerodynamic performance of a small vertical axis wind turbine using an overset grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangga, Galih; Solichin, Mochammad; Daman, Aida; Sa'adiyah, Devy; Dessoky, Amgad; Lutz, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    The present paper aims to asses the aerodynamic performance of a small vertical axis wind turbine operating at a small wind speed of 5 m/s for 6 different tip speed ratios (λ=2-7). The turbine consists of two blades constructed using the NACA 0015 airfoil. The study is carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods employing an overset grid approach. The (URANS) SST k - ω is used as the turbulence model. For the preliminary study, simulations of the NACA 0015 under static conditions for a broad range of angle of attack and a rotating two-bladed VAWT are carried out. The results are compared with available measurement data and a good agreement is obtained. The simulations demonstrate that the maximum power coefficient attained is 0.45 for λ=4. The aerodynamic loads hysteresis are presented showing that the dynamic stall effect decreases with λ.

  16. Torque Characteristics Simulation on Small Scale Combined Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fang; Li, Shengmao; Li, Yan; Xu, Dan

    The straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) receives more attentions recently for its goodness of simple design, low cost and good maintenance. However, its starting performance is poor. To increase its starting torque, Savonius rotor was combined on the SB-VAWT in this study because Savonius rotor has good starting torque coefficient. Based on the wind tunnel tests data, a small scaled combined type SB-VAWT (CSB-VAWT) which has 50W rated power output was designed. The starting torque coefficient, dynamic torque and power performance were analyzed. Both the starting and dynamic torque performance of the CSB-VAWT have been greatly improved according to the simulation results.

  17. Model tests of wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation type Lenz 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Laski, Pawel Andrzej; Blasiak, Slawomir; Takosoglu, Jakub Emanuel; Pietrala, Dawid Sebastian; Bracha, Gabriel Filip; Nowakowski, Lukasz

    A building design of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) was presented in the article. The construction and operating principle of a wind turbine were described therein. Two VAWT turbine models were compared, i.a. Darrieus and Lenz2, taking their strengths and weaknesses into consideration. 3D solid models of turbine components were presented with the use of SolidWorks software. Using CFD methods, the air flow on two aerodynamic fins, symmetrical and asymmetrical, at different angles of attack were tested. On the basis of flow simulation conducted in FlowSimulation, an asymmetrical fin was chosen as the one showing greater load bearing capacities. Due to the uncertainty of trouble-free operation of Darrieus turbine on construction elements creating the basis thereof, a 3D model of Lenz2 turbine was constructed, which is more reliable and makes turbine self-start possible. On the basis of the research, components were designed and technical docu mentation was compiled.

  18. Adjoint Airfoil Optimization of Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Roman; Nordborg, Henrik

    2012-11-01

    We present the feasibility of using an adjoint solver to optimize the torque of a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). We start with a 2D cross section of a symmetrical airfoil and restrict us to low solidity ratios to minimize blade vortex interactions. The adjoint solver of the ANSYS FLUENT software package computes the sensitivities of airfoil surface forces based on a steady flow field. Hence, we find the torque of a full revolution using a weighted average of the sensitivities at different wind speeds and angles of attack. The weights are computed analytically, and the range of angles of attack is given by the tip speed ratio. Then the airfoil geometry is evolved, and the proposed methodology is evaluated by transient simulations.

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine power regulation through centrifugally pumped lift spoiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.; Sladky, J. F., Jr.

    This paper describes an approach for lowering the rated windspeeds of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) whose blades are hollow aluminum extrusions. The blades, which when rotating act as centrifugal pumps, are fitted with a series of small perforations distributed along a portion of the blades' span. By valving the ends of the hollow blades, flow into the blade ends and out of the perforations may be controlled. This flow can induce premature aerodynamic stall on the blade elements, thereby reducing both the rated power of the turbine and its cost-of-energy. The concept has been proven on the Sandia National Laboratories 5-m diameter research VAWT and force balance and flow visualization wind tunnel tests have been conducted using a blade section designed for the VAWT application.

  20. Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Energy Harvester in A Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E. M.; Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.

    2017-07-01

    The wind speed in the southern beach of West Java Indonesia is quite promising for wind energy harvesting. A field survey reported that the wind speed reached 10 m/s, while the average recorded in a year is about 4.7 m/s. In this study, two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) were compared to be used in that area through calculation as well as experiments. The experiments measured that the turbines can produce about 7.82W and 2.33W of electricity respectively. These experiments are compared with theoretical calculation to obtain the performance of both turbines used. The coefficient of performance (cp) experimentally is 0.09 for Turbine 1 (hybrid Savonius-Darrieus rotor) and 0.14 for Turbine 2 (Savonius rotor). While, rotor’s mechanical performance Cpr, obtained theoritically through calculation, is 0.36 for Turbine 1 and 0.12 for Turbine 2. These results are analysed from mechanical and electrical view.

  1. Numerical and Computational Analysis of a New Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Named KIONAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Douvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on a new configuration for a wind turbine, named KIONAS. The main purpose is to determine the performance and aerodynamic behavior of KIONAS, which is a vertical axis wind turbine with a stator over the rotor and a special feature in that it can consist of several stages. Notably, the stator is shaped in such a way that it increases the velocity of the air impacting the rotor blades. Moreover, each stage’s performance can be increased with the increase of the total number of stages. The effects of wind velocity, the various numbers of inclined rotor blades, the rotor diameter, the stator’s shape and the number of stages on the performance of KIONAS were studied. A FORTRAN code was developed in order to predict the power in several cases by solving the equations of continuity and momentum. Subsequently, further knowledge on the flow field was obtained by using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. Based on the results, it can be concluded that higher wind velocities and a greater number of blades produce more power. Furthermore, higher performance was found for a stator with curved guide vanes and for a KIONAS configuration with more stages.

  2. Fish schooling as a basis for vertical axis wind turbine farm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Robert W; Liska, Sebastian; Dabiri, John O

    2010-09-01

    Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighboring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbors, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooling fish is shown to significantly increase the array performance coefficient based upon an array of 16 x 16 wind turbines. The results suggest increases in power output of over one order of magnitude for a given area of land as compared to HAWTs.

  3. Large eddy simulations of vertical axis wind turbines to optimize farm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Seyed Hossein; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2013-11-01

    Wind energy production, and research have expanded considerably in the past decade. These efforts aim to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with current modes of energy production. However, with expanding wind farms, the land areas occupied by such farms become a limitation. Recently, interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) has increased due to key advantages of this technology: compared to horizontal axis turbines, VAWTs can be built with larger scales, their performance is not sensitive to wind direction, and the ability to place their generators at the bottom of the mast can make them more stable offshore. In this study, we focus on how the Aspheric Boundary Layer (ABL) will react to the presence of large VAWT farms. We present a state-of-art representation of VAWTs using an actuator line model in a Large Eddy Simulations code for the ABL. Validations are made against several experimental datasets, which include flow details and power coefficient curves, the wake of an individual turbine is visualized and analyzed, and the interaction of adjacent turbines is investigated in view of optimizing their interactions and the configuration of VAWT farms.

  4. Numerical study on aerodynamic damping of floating vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-09-01

    Harvesting offshore wind energy resources using floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) has attracted an increasing interest in recent years. Due to its potential impact on fatigue damage, the aerodynamic damping should be considered in the preliminary design of a floating VAWT based on the frequency domain method. However, currently the study on aerodynamic damping of floating VAWTs is very limited. Due to the essential difference in aerodynamic load characteristics, the aerodynamic damping of a floating VAWT could be different from that of a floating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). In this study, the aerodynamic damping of floating VAWTs was studied in a fully coupled manner, and its influential factors and its effects on the motions, especially the pitch motion, were demonstrated. Three straight-bladed floating VAWTs with identical solidity and with a blade number varying from two to four were considered. The aerodynamic damping under steady and turbulent wind conditions were estimated using fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic time domain simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic damping ratio of the considered floating VAWTs ranges from 1.8% to 5.3%. Moreover, the aerodynamic damping is almost independent of the rotor azimuth angle, and is to some extent sensitive to the blade number.

  5. Simulations of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Farms in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Seyed Hossein; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Lohry, Mark; Martinelli, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    Wind power is an abundant and clean source of energy that is increasingly being tapped to reduce the environmental footprint of anthropogenic activities. The vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology is now being revisited due to some important advantages over horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTS) that are particularly important for farms deployed offshore or in complex terrain. In this talk, we will present the implementation and testing of an actuator line model (ALM) for VAWTs in a large eddy simulation (LES) code for the atmospheric boundary layer, with the aim of optimizing large VAWT wind farm configurations. The force coefficients needed for the ALM are here obtained from blade resolving RANS simulations of individual turbines for each configuration. Comparison to various experimental results show that the model can very successfully reproduce observed wake characteristic. The influence of VAWT design parameters such as solidity, height to radius ratio, and tip speed ratio (TSR) on these wake characteristics, particularly the velocity deficit profile, is then investigated.

  6. Kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine with a variable pitch angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Mateusz; Starosta, Roman; Fritzkowski, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    A computational model for the kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented. A H-type rotor turbine with a controlled pitch angle is considered. The aim of this solution is to improve the VAWT productivity. The discussed method is related to a narrow computational branch based on the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM theory). The paper can be regarded as a theoretical basis and an introduction to further studies with the application of BEM. The obtained torque values show the main advantage of using the variable pitch angle.

  7. A method of calculation on the airloading of vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, A.; Kimura, S.

    A new method of analyzing the aerodynamic characteristics of the Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) by applying the local circulation method is described. The validity of this method is confirmed by analyzing the air load acting on a curved blade. The azimuthwise variation of spanwise airloading, torque, and longitudinal forces are accurately calculated for a variety of operational conditions. The results are found to be in good agreement with experimental ones obtained elsewhere. It is concluded that the present approach can calculate the aerodynamic characteristics of the VAWT with much less computational time than that used by the free vortex model.

  8. Optimal placement of horizontal - and vertical - axis wind turbines in a wind farm for maximum power generation using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the Wind Farm layout optimization problem using a genetic algorithm. Both the Horizontal –Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are considered. The goal of the optimization problem is to optimally position the turbines within the wind farm such that the wake effects are minimized and the power production is maximized. The reasonably accurate modeling of the turbine wake is critical in determination of the optimal layout of the turbines and the power generated. For HAWT, two wake models are considered; both are found to give similar answers. For VAWT, a very simple wake model is employed.

  9. Modes of vertical thermodynamic and wind variability over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Jennie; Posselt, Derek J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.

    2017-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is an exceedingly complex region from the perspective of both its meteorology and its aerosol characteristics. Convection in the MC is ubiquitous and assumes a wide variety of forms under the influence of an evolving large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic context. Understanding the interaction between convective systems and their environment, both individually and in the aggregate, requires knowledge of the dominant patterns of spatial and temporal variability. Ongoing cloud model ensemble studies require realistic perturbations to the atmospheric thermodynamic state to devise system sensitivities. Apart from modeling studies, evanescent signals in the tropical system are obscured by the underlying broad-scale meteorological variability, which if constrained could illuminate fine-scale physical processes. To this end, radiosonde observations from 2008 to 2016 are examined from three upper-air sounding sites within the MC for the purpose of exploring the dominant vertical temperature, humidity, and wind structures in the region. Principal component analysis is applied to the vertical atmospheric column to transform patterns present in radiosonde data into canonical thermodynamic and wind profiles for the MC. Both rotated and non-rotated principal components are considered, and the emerging structure functions reflect the fundamental vertical modes of short-term tropical variability. The results indicate that while there is tremendous spatial and temporal variability across the MC, the primary modes of vertical thermodynamic and wind variability in the region can be represented in a lower-dimensional subspace. In addition, the vertical structures are very similar among different sites around the region, though different structures may manifest more strongly at one location than another. The results indicate that, while different meteorology may be found in various parts of the MC at any given time, the processes themselves are remarkably

  10. Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Zeoli, S.; Buffin, S.; Caprace, D.-G.; Winckelmans, G.; Bricteux, L.

    2017-05-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.

  12. Development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis wind turbine, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekitsch, A.; Etzler, C. C.; Fritzsche, A.; Lorch, G.; Mueller, W.; Rogalla, K.; Schmelzle, J.; Schuhwerk, W.; Vollan, A.; Welte, D.

    1982-06-01

    In continuation of development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis windmill that consists in conception, building, and wind tunnel testing, a Darrieus rotor windpowered generator feeding an isolated network under different wind velocity conditions and with optimal energy conversion efficiency was designed built, and field tested. The three-bladed Darrieus rotor tested in the wind tunnel was equiped with two variable pitch Savonius rotors 2 m in diameter. By means of separate measures of the aerodynamic factors and the energy consumption, effect of revisions and optimizations on different elements was assessed. Pitch adjustement of the Savonius blades, lubrication of speed reducer, rotor speed at cut-in of generator field excitation, time constant of field excitation, stability conditions, switch points of ohmic resistors which combined with a small electric battery simulated a larger isolated network connected with a large storage battery, were investigated. Fundamentals for the economic series production of windpowered generators with Darrieus rotors for the control and the electric conversion system are presented.

  13. First wind shear observation in PMSE with the tristatic EISCAT VHF radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I.; Häggström, I.; Tjulin, A.; Rostami, S.; Anyairo, C. C.; Dalin, P.

    2016-11-01

    The Polar Summer Mesosphere has the lowest temperatures that occur in the entire Earth system. Water ice particles below the optically observable size range participate there in the formation of strong radar echoes (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes, PMSE). To study PMSE we carried out observations with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) VHF and EISCAT UHF radar simultaneously from a site near Tromsø (69.58°N, 19.2272°E) and observed VHF backscattering also with the EISCAT receivers in Kiruna (67.86°N, 20.44°E) and Sodankylä (67.36°N, 26.63°E). This is one of the first tristatic measurements with EISCAT VHF, and we therefore describe the observations and geometry in detail. We present observations made on 26 June 2013 from 7:00 to 13:00 h UT where we found similar PMSE patterns with all three VHF receivers and found signs of wind shear in PMSE. The observations suggest that the PMSE contains sublayers that move in different directions horizontally, and this points to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability possibly playing a role in PMSE formation. We find no signs of PMSE in the UHF data. The electron densities that we derive from observed incoherent scatter at UHF are at PMSE altitudes close to the noise level but possibly indicate reduced electron densities directly above the PMSE.

  14. A New Approach for Modeling Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Equivalent Circuit Analogy: Basis of Theoretical Formulations and Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre Tchakoua; Rene Wamkeue; Mohand Ouhrouche; Tommy Andy Tameghe; Gabriel Ekemb

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, models can significantly reduce design, development and optimization costs. This paper proposes a novel equivalent electrical model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (DTVAWTs...

  15. Is tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Bruntz, Robert; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel; Pastirčák, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    (Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 31-57, 2009). It is primarily the energy provided by release of latent heat that leads to intensification of storms. These results indicate that vertical coupling in the atmosphere exerts downward control from solar wind to the lower atmospheric levels influencing tropospheric weather development.

  16. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seralathan Sivamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s. Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Lenz type, Performance, Two-stage, Open environment measurement

  17. Comparative analysis of turbulence models for flow simulation around a vertical axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Saha, U.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Guwahati (India)

    2012-07-01

    An unsteady computational investigation of the static torque characteristics of a drag based vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been carried out using the finite volume based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Fluent 6.3. A comparative study among the various turbulence models was conducted in order to predict the flow over the turbine at static condition and the results are validated with the available experimental results. CFD simulations were carried out at different turbine angular positions between 0 deg.-360 deg. in steps of 15 deg.. Results have shown that due to high static pressure on the returning blade of the turbine, the net static torque is negative at angular positions of 105 deg.-150 deg.. The realizable k-{epsilon} turbulent model has shown a better simulation capability over the other turbulent models for the analysis of static torque characteristics of the drag based VAWT. (Author)

  18. The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Morét-Ferguson, S.; Meyer, D. W.; Law, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    Micro-plastic marine debris is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant. The fate and transport of plastic marine debris is governed by poorly understood geophysical processes, such as ocean mixing within the surface boundary layer. Based on profile observations and a one-dimensional column model, we demonstrate that plastic debris is vertically distributed within the upper water column due to wind-driven mixing. These results suggest that total oceanic plastics concentrations are significantly underestimated by traditional surface measurements, requiring a reinterpretation of existing plastic marine debris data sets. A geophysical approach must be taken in order to properly quantify and manage this form of marine pollution.

  19. Field test report of the Department of Energy's 100-kW vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellums, R. O.

    1985-02-01

    Three second generation Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbines of approximately 120 kW capacity per unit were installed in 1980-1981. Through March 1984, over 9000 hours of operation had been accumulated, including 6600 hours of operation on the unit installed in Bushland, Texas. The turbines were heavily instrumented and have yielded a large amount of test data. Test results of this program, including aerodynamic, structural, drive train, and economic data are presented. Among the most favorable results were an aerodynamic peak performance coefficient of 0.41; fundamental structural integrity requiring few repairs and no major component replacements as of March 1984; and an average prototype fabrication cost of approximately $970 per peak kilowatt of output. A review of potential design improvements is presented.

  20. Aerodynamic Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Trailing Edge Flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertem, Sercan; Ferreira, Carlos Simao; Gaunaa, Mac

    2016-01-01

    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are competitive concepts for very large scale (10-20 MW)floating ofshore applications. Rotor circulation control (loading control) opens a wide design space to enhance the aerodynamic and operational features of VAWT. The modied linear derivation of the Actuator...... Cylinder Model (Mod-Lin ACM) is used as the aerodynamic model to assess VAWT performance throughout the work. As the rst step, optimum aerodynamic loadings of a VAWT with innite number of blades are studied. Next, for the case of nite number of blades, direct and inverse optimization approaches are used....... The direct method is coupled with a hybrid numerical optimizer to serve as a global method for designingap sequences. The efectiveness of trailing edgeap on VAWT is investigated for three aerodynamic objectives which lead to improved power effciency, rated power control and peak load control. The aerodynamic...

  1. Investigation of the two-element airfoil with flap structure for the vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Li, C.

    2013-12-01

    The aerodynamic performance of Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is not as simple as its structure because of the large changing range of angle of attack. We have designed a new kind of two-element airfoil for VAWT on the basis of NACA0012. CFD calculation has been confirmed to have high accuracy by comparison with the experiment data and Xfoil result. The aerodynamic parameter of two-element airfoil has been acquired by CFD calculation in using the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model and the Simple scheme. The relationship between changings of angle of attack and flap's tilt angle has been found and quantified. The analysis will lay the foundation for further research on the control method for VAWT.

  2. A free wake vortex lattice model for vertical axis wind turbines: Modeling, verification and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanzhong; Schwarze, Holger; Vorpahl, Fabian; Strobel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1970s several research activities had been carried out on developing aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). In order to design large VAWTs of MW scale, more accurate aerodynamic calculation is required to predict their aero-elastic behaviours. In this paper, a 3D free wake vortex lattice model for VAWTs is developed, verified and validated. Comparisons to the experimental results show that the 3D free wake vortex lattice model developed is capable of making an accurate prediction of the general performance and the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the blades. The comparison between momentum method and the vortex lattice model shows that free wake vortex models are needed for detailed loads calculation and for calculating highly loaded rotors.

  3. Simulating Dynamic Stall Effects for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Applying a Double Multiple Streamtube Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dyachuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex unsteady aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT poses significant challenges to the simulation tools. Dynamic stall is one of the phenomena associated with the unsteady conditions for VAWTs, and it is in the focus of the study. Two dynamic stall models are compared: the widely-used Gormont model and a Leishman–Beddoes-type model. The models are included in a double multiple streamtube model. The effects of flow curvature and flow expansion are also considered. The model results are assessed against the measured data on a Darrieus turbine with curved blades. To study the dynamic stall effects, the comparison of force coefficients between the simulations and experiments is done at low tip speed ratios. Simulations show that the Leishman–Beddoes model outperforms the Gormont model for all tested conditions.

  4. Strain gauge validation experiments for the Sandia 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1988-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has erected a research oriented, 34- meter diameter, Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine near Bushland, Texas. This machine, designated the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed, is equipped with a large array of strain gauges that have been placed at critical positions about the blades. This manuscript details a series of four-point bend experiments that were conducted to validate the output of the blade strain gauge circuits. The output of a particular gauge circuit is validated by comparing its output to equivalent gauge circuits (in this stress state) and to theoretical predictions. With only a few exceptions, the difference between measured and predicted strain values for a gauge circuit was found to be of the order of the estimated repeatability for the measurement system.

  5. Automatic detection of low altitude wind shear due to gust fronts in the terminal Doppler weather radar operational demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingle-Wilson, Diana

    1990-01-01

    A gust front is the leading edge of the cold air outflow from a thunderstorm. Wind shears and turbulence along the gust front may produce potentially hazardous conditions for an aircraft on takeoff or landing such that runway operations are significantly impacted. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has therefore determined that the detection of gust fronts in the terminal environment be an integral part of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system. Detection of these shears by the Gust Front Algorithm permits the generation of warnings that can be issued to pilots on approach and departure. In addition to the detection capability, the algorithm provides an estimate of the wind speed and direction following the gust front (termed wind shift) and the forecasted location of the gust front up to 20 minutes before it impacts terminal operations. This has shown utility as a runway management tool, alerting runway supervisors to approaching wind shifts and the possible need to change runway configurations. The formation and characteristics of gust fronts and their signatures in Doppler radar data are discussed. A brief description of the algorithm and its products for use by Air Traffic Control (ATC), along with an assessment of the algorithm's performance during the 1988 Operational Test and Evaluation, is presented.

  6. Model tests of wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation type Lenz 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowski Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A building design of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT was presented in the article. The construction and operating principle of a wind turbine were described therein. Two VAWT turbine models were compared, i.a. Darrieus and Lenz2, taking their strengths and weaknesses into consideration. 3D solid models of turbine components were presented with the use of SolidWorks software. Using CFD methods, the air flow on two aerodynamic fins, symmetrical and asymmetrical, at different angles of attack were tested. On the basis of flow simulation conducted in FlowSimulation, an asymmetrical fin was chosen as the one showing greater load bearing capacities. Due to the uncertainty of trouble-free operation of Darrieus turbine on construction elements creating the basis thereof, a 3D model of Lenz2 turbine was constructed, which is more reliable and makes turbine self-start possible. On the basis of the research, components were designed and technical docu mentation was compiled.

  7. The horizontal planar structure of kinetic energy in a model vertical-axis wind turbine array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Anna; Zeller, Robert; Zarama, Francisco; Weitzman, Joel; Dabiri, John; Koseff, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) could potentially harvest significantly more power per unit land area than arrays composed of conventional horizontal axis wind turbines. However, to design VAWT arrays for optimal power conversion, a more comprehensive understanding of inter-turbine energy transfer is needed. In the presented study, a geometrically scaled array of rotating circular cylinders is used to model a VAWT array. The horizontal inter-cylinder mean fluid velocities and Reynolds stresses are measured on several cross-sections using 2D particle image velocimetry in a flume. Two orientations of the array relative to the incoming flow are tested. The results indicate that cylinder rotation drives asymmetric mean flow patterns within and above the array, resulting in non-uniform distributions of turbulent kinetic energy. The variability is observed to be directly related to the ratio of the cylinder rotation speed to the streamwise water velocity. Emphasis is placed on the implications of the asymmetries for power production. Work supported by a Stanford Graduate Fellowship to A.E.C, by funding to J.O.D. from ONR N000141211047 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF2645, and by funding from the Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Stanford University.

  8. Flow measurement behind a pair of vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Hummels, Raymond; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2017-11-01

    The wake from a pair of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The VAWT models are mounted in a low-speed wind tunnel and driven using a motor control system. The rotation of the turbines is synced using a proportional controller that allows the turbine's rotational position to be set relative to each other. The rotation of the turbines is also synced with the PIV system for taking phase averaged results. The VAWTs are tested for both co- and counter-rotating cases over a range of relative phase offsets. Time averaged and phase averaged results are measured at the horizontal mid-plane in the near wake. The time-averaged results compare the bulk wake profiles from the pair of turbines. Phase averaged results look at the vortex interactions in the near wake of the turbines. By changing the phase relation between the turbines we can see the impact of the structure interactions in both the phase and time averaged results.

  9. Frequency spectra and vertical profiles of wind fluctuations in the summer Antarctic mesosphere revealed by MST radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kaoru; Kohma, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Continuous observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes at heights from 81-93 km were performed using the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter radar in the Antarctic over the three summer periods of 2013/2014, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016. Power spectra of horizontal and vertical wind fluctuations, and momentum flux spectra in a wide-frequency range from (8 min)-1 to (20 days) -1 were first estimated for the Antarctic summer mesosphere. The horizontal (vertical) wind power spectra obey a power law with an exponent of approximately -2 (-1) at frequencies higher than the inertial frequency of (13 h)-1 and have isolated peaks at about 1 day and a half day. In addition, an isolated peak of a quasi-2 day period is observed in the horizontal wind spectra but is absent from the vertical wind spectra, which is consistent with the characteristics of a normal-mode Rossby-gravity wave. Zonal (meridional) momentum flux spectra are mainly positive (negative), and large fluxes are observed in a relatively low-frequency range from (1 day)-1 to (1 h)-1. A case study was performed to investigate vertical profiles of momentum fluxes associated with gravity waves and time mean winds on and around 3 January 2015 when a minor stratospheric warming occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. A significant momentum flux convergence corresponding to an eastward acceleration of 200 m s-1 d-1 was observed before the warming and became stronger after the warming when mean zonal wind weakened. The strong wave forcing roughly accorded with the Coriolis force of mean meridional winds.

  10. Stochastic dynamic response analysis of a floating vertical-axis wind turbine with a semi-submersible floater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Moan, Torgeir; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2016-01-01

    Floating vertical-axis wind turbines (FVAWTs) provide the potential for utilizing offshore wind resources in moderate and deep water because of their economical installation and maintenance. Therefore, it is important to assess the performance of the FVAWT concept. This paper presents a stochastic...... dynamic response analysis of a 5MW FVAWT based on fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations. The studied FVAWT, which is composed of a Darrieus rotor and a semi-submersible floater, is subjected to various wind and wave conditions. The global motion, structural response and mooring line tension...... on the response is demonstrated by comparing the floating wind turbine with the equivalent land-based wind turbine. Additionally, by comparing the behaviour of FVAWTs with flexible and rigid rotors, the effect of rotor flexibility is evaluated. Furthermore, the FVAWT is also investigated in the parked condition...

  11. Gusts and Shear Within Hurricane Eyewalls Can Exceed Offshore Wind-Turbine Design Standards

    CERN Document Server

    Worsnop, Rochelle P; Bryan, George H; Damiani, Rick; Musial, Walt

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than a Category 2. We examine the most turbulent portion of a hurricane (the eyewall) using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1 (CM1). Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall exceed the current design threshold of 50 m s-1 mean wind and 70 m s-1 gusts for Class I turbines. Gust factors are greatest at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction at wind turbine hub height suggest turbines must rotate into the wind faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15-50 deg) suggest that veer should be considered in design standards.

  12. Aerodynamic Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine in a Diffuser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, B.M.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    Wind energy in the urban environment faces complex and often unfavorable wind conditions. High turbulence, lower average wind velocities and rapid changes in the wind direction are common phenomena in the complex built environments. A possible way to improve the cost-efficiency of urban wind

  13. Numerical Analysis of a Small-Size Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance and Averaged Flow Parameters Around the Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines can be used as a source of electricity in rural and urban environments. According to the authors’ knowledge, there are no validated simplified aerodynamic models of these wind turbines, therefore the use of more advanced techniques, such as for example the computational methods for fluid dynamics is justified. The paper contains performance analysis of the small-scale vertical-axis wind turbine with a large solidity. The averaged velocity field and the averaged static pressure distribution around the rotor have been also analyzed. All numerical results presented in this paper are obtained using the SST k-ω turbulence model. Computed power coeffcients are in good agreement with the experimental results. A small change in the tip speed ratio significantly affects the velocity field. Obtained velocity fields can be further used as a base for simplified aerodynamic methods.

  14. Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80–120 km deduced from the WINDII observations on board UARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fauliot

    Full Text Available The WINDII interferometer placed on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite measures temperature and wind from the O(1S green-line emission in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It is a remote-sensing instrument providing the horizontal wind components. In this study, the vertical winds are derived using the continuity equation. Mean wind annually averaged at equinoxes and solstices is shown. Ascendance and subsidence to the order of 1–2 cm s–1 present a seasonal occurrence at the equator and tropics. Zonal Coriolis acceleration and adiabatic heating and cooling rate associated to the mean meridional and vertical circulations are evaluated. The line emission rate measured together with the horizontal wind shows structures in altitude and latitude correlated with the meridional and vertical wind patterns. The effect of wind advection is discussed.

  15. Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80–120 km deduced from the WINDII observations on board UARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fauliot

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The WINDII interferometer placed on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite measures temperature and wind from the O(1S green-line emission in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It is a remote-sensing instrument providing the horizontal wind components. In this study, the vertical winds are derived using the continuity equation. Mean wind annually averaged at equinoxes and solstices is shown. Ascendance and subsidence to the order of 1–2 cm s–1 present a seasonal occurrence at the equator and tropics. Zonal Coriolis acceleration and adiabatic heating and cooling rate associated to the mean meridional and vertical circulations are evaluated. The line emission rate measured together with the horizontal wind shows structures in altitude and latitude correlated with the meridional and vertical wind patterns. The effect of wind advection is discussed.

  16. Competing mechanisms of plasma transport in inhomogeneous configurations with velocity shear: the solar-wind interaction with earth's magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faganello, M; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-11

    Two-dimensional simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an inhomogeneous compressible plasma with a density gradient show that, in a transverse magnetic field configuration, the vortex pairing process and the Rayleigh-Taylor secondary instability compete during the nonlinear evolution of the vortices. Two different regimes exist depending on the value of the density jump across the velocity shear layer. These regimes have different physical signatures that can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma.

  17. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Tan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the interconnected system is weak. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical analysis are validated through time domain simulations conducted in the two-area four-generator system and the Western Electric Coordinating Council 127 bus system.

  18. Simultaneous multi-band valley-protected topological edge states of shear vertical wave in two-dimensional phononic crystals with veins

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Shao-yong; Chen, Jiu-jiu; Huang, Hong-bo; Huang, Guo-Liang

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of valley pseudospin to phononic crystals has made a remarkable topologically protected interface transport of sound, which opens a novel research area referred to as valley Hall topological insulators. Here, we demonstrate the simultaneous multi-band edge states of shear vertical waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with veins. The multi-band edge states are topologically valley-protected and are obtained by simultaneously gapping multiple Dirac points a...

  19. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Rochelle P.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Bryan, George H.; Damiani, Rick; Musial, Walt

    2017-06-01

    Offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s-1 mean wind and 70 m s-1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15-50°) suggest that veer should be considered.

  20. Aerodynamic Performance Prediction of Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Based on CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. X. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation had become an attractive method to carry out researches on structure design and aerodynamic performance prediction of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, while the prediction accuracy was the major concern of CFD. Based on the present two-dimensional CFD model, a series of systematic investigations were conducted to analyze the effects of computational domain, grid number, near-wall grid, and time step on prediction accuracy. And then efforts were devoted into prediction and analysis of the overall flow field, dynamic performance of blades, and its aerodynamic forces. The calculated results agree well with experimental data, and it demonstrates that RNG k-ε turbulent model is great to predict the tendency of aerodynamic forces but with a high estimate value of turbulence viscosity coefficient. Furthermore, the calculated tangential force is more dependent on near-wall grid and prediction accuracy is poor within the region with serious dynamic stall. In addition, blades experience mild and deep stalls at low tip speed ratio, and thus the leading edge separation vortex and its movement on the airfoil surface have a significant impact on the aerodynamic performance.

  1. Numerical study on a single bladed vertical axis wind turbine under dynamic stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangga, Galih [Institute of Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Hutomo, Go; Sasongko, Herman [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya (Indonesia); Wiranegara, Raditya [School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the flow development of a single bladed vertical axis wind turbine using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The blade is constructed using the NACA 0012 profile and is operating under stalled conditions at tip speed ratio of 2. Two dimensional simulations are performed using a commercial CFD package, ANSYS Fluent 15.0, employing the Menter-SST turbulence model. For the preliminary study, simulations of the NACA 0012 airfoil under static conditions are carried out and compared with available measurement data and calculations using the boundary layer code XFOIL. The CFD results under the dynamic case are presented and the resulting aerodynamic forces are evaluated. The turbine is observed to generate negative power at certain azimuth angles which can be divided into three main zones. The blade vortex interaction is observed to strongly influence the flow behavior near the blade and contributes to the power production loss. However, the impact is considered small since it covers only 6.4 % of the azimuth angle range where the power is negative compared to the dynamic stall impact which covers almost 22 % of the azimuth angle range.

  2. Vortex-Induced Vibration of an Airfoil Used in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Bridget; Carlson, Daniel; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-11-01

    In Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), when the blades are placed at high angles of attack with respect to the incoming flow, they could experience flow-induced oscillations. A series of experiments in a re-circulating water tunnel was conducted to study the possible Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a fully-submerged, flexibly-mounted NACA 0021 airfoil, which is used in some designs of VAWTs. The airfoil was free to oscillate in the crossflow direction, and the tests were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 600

  3. Panel method for the wake effects on the aerodynamics of vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Udit; Rempfer, Dietmar

    2011-11-01

    A formulation based on the panel method is implemented for studying the unsteady aerodynamics of straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbines. A combination of source and vortex distributions is used to represent an airfoil in Darrieus type motion. Our approach represents a low-cost computational technique that takes into account the dynamic changes in angle of attack of the blade during a cycle. A time-stepping mechanism is introduced for the wake convection, and its effects on the aerodynamic forces on the blade are discussed. The focus of the study is to describe the effect of the trailing wakes on the upstream flow conditions and coefficient of performance of the turbines. Results show a decrease in Cp until the wake structure develops and assumes a quasi-steady behavior. A comparison with other models such as single and multiple streamtubes is discussed, and optimization of the blade pitch angle is performed to increase the instantaneous torque and hence the power output from the turbine.

  4. On the role of horizontal wind shears in the generation of F0.5 layers over the dip equatorial location of Thiruvananthapuram: A numerical simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, N.; Pant, Tarun Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A numerical simulation is carried out to estimate the rate of convergence of ionization required to produce a F0.5 layer with peak plasma frequency (foF0.5) of 3.2 MHz from three different background layer densities, over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N; 77°E; dip latitude 0.5°N), a dip equatorial station in India. Further the simulation study is extended to understand the convergences required by considering the seasonal mean peak F0.5 layer frequencies also. One possible mechanism by which this convergence can be produced is by a horizontal shear in the meridional wind. The corresponding shears required to generate the layer with the above convergence conditions are estimated. It is found that gravity waves are capable of generating wind shears, leading to the pooling of ionization and the generation of the layer over the dip equator. A meridional wind with the gravity wave induced wind shear is numerically estimated. Finally, the short scale gravity waves of periods around 3-23 min have been inferred to be more efficient in generating the wind shear when compared to large scale horizontal waves leading to the generation of F0.5 layer.

  5. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  6. CFD simulations of power coefficients for an innovative Darrieus style vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary straight blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, F.; Cortellessa, G.; Dell’Isola, M.; Scungio, M.; Focanti, V.; Profili, M.; Rotondi, M.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources such as wind energy. Amongst the different typologies of wind generators, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds. In the present work, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed in order to investigate the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds. The micro turbine under investigation is composed of three pairs of airfoils, consisting of a main and auxiliary blades with different chord lengths. The simulations were made using the open source finite volume based CFD toolbox OpenFOAM, considering different turbulence models and adopting a moving mesh approach for the turbine rotor. The simulated data were reported in terms of dimensionless power coefficients for dynamic performance analysis. The results from the simulations were compared to the data obtained from experiments on a scaled model of the same VAWT configuration, conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM). From the proposed analysis, it was observed that the most suitable model for the simulation of the performances of the micro turbine under investigation is the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras, even if under the conditions analysed in the present work and for TSR values higher than 1.1, some discrepancies between numerical and experimental data can be observed.

  7. An investigation on the aerodynamic performance of a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, Etesh

    Scope and Method of Study. The two dimensional unsteady flow around a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) comprising three rotating symmetric airfoils (NACA0018) was studied numerically with the consideration of the near wake. The flow around the wind turbine was simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 12.0.16 at Reynolds number of 106. ICEM CFD was used as a pre-processor to generate hexahedral grid and arbitrary sliding mesh technique was implemented to create a moving mesh. SST k-o turbulence model was employed for the analysis and simulation was set to run at several tip speed ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The variation of the performance coefficient (Cp) as a function of tip speed ratio (lambda) was investigated by plotting a graph between them. A validation was made by comparing CFD results with experimental results. Maximum Cp of 0.34 was obtained at lambda of 3.8. In addition, the effect of the rotor diameter on the VAWT's performance was investigated. In this regard, rotor diameter was halved and the angular velocity was doubled to keep the tip speed ratio constant. Furthermore, the effect of laminar boundary layer separation on Cp of a VAWT was studied by comparing the results of Laminar viscous model and RANS turbulence model. Apart from that, the effect of solidity on Cp was investigated by comparing the Cp obtained from six bladed turbine with the three bladed turbine. Findings and Conclusions. Influence of rotor diameter on the aerodynamic performance of a VAWT was investigated and found that Cp remained almost constant at the same value of lambda ranging from 1 to 5. This was due to the fact that the ratio of the chord length and the rotor radius were kept the same in both cases. For Laminar flow at low Reynolds number, Cp was found to be low due to the presence of leading edge separation bubble and reduced lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, in order to increase Cp of a VAWT at low Reynolds numbers (e.g. small VAWT), different blade geometry (e.g. cambered) and

  8. Generation of intermediately-long sea waves by weakly sheared winds

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavski, V M; Golbraikh, E; Mond, M

    2010-01-01

    The present work concerns the numeric modeling of the sea-wave instability under the effect of the logarithmic wind at hurricane conditions (ignoring non-linear effects, such as wave breaking, foam production, etc. Powell et al. (2003)^1, Shtemler et al. (2003)^2. The central point of the study is the calculation of the growth rate, which is proportional to the fractional input energy from the wind to the wave exponentially varied with time. The present modeling demonstrates that the Miles-type model applying Charnock's formula Charnock (1955)^3 for roughness to the hurricane -wind parameters underestimates the growth rate of the wind waves 5-40 times as compared with the model employing the roughness and friction velocity adopted from experimental data for hurricane winds.^1 This occurs due to Charnock's formula fails at large wind speeds. The stability characteristics obtained on the base of the hurricane-wind experimental parameters are self-consistent with the other results of the observations. A maximum ...

  9. VHF radar observation of atmospheric winds, associated shears and C2n at a tropical location: interdependence and seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jain

    Full Text Available The turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n is an important parameter of the atmosphere. VHF radars have been used extensively for the measurements of C2n. Presently, most of such observations are from mid and high latitudes and only very limited observations are available for equatorial and tropical latitudes. Indian MST radar is an excellent tool for making high-resolution measurements of atmospheric winds, associated shears and turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n. This radar is located at Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, a tropical station in India. The objective of this paper is to bring out the height structure of C2n for different seasons using the long series of data (September 1995 – August 1999 from Indian MST radar. An attempt is also made to understand such changes in the height structure of C2n in relation to background atmospheric parameters such as horizontal winds and associated shears. The height structure of C2n, during the summer monsoon and post-monsoon season, shows specific height features that are found to be related to Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ winds. It is important to examine the nature of the radar back-scatterers and also to understand the causative mechanism of such scatterers. Aspect sensitivity of the received radar echo is examined for this purpose. It is observed that radar back-scatterers at the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric heights are more anisotropic, with horizontal correlation length of 10–20 m, as compared to those observed at lower and middle tropospheric heights.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; tropical meteorology; turbulence

  10. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  11. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Seralathan; T, Micha Premkumar; Sohail, Mohammed; T, Mohan; V, Hariram

    2017-12-01

    Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E) are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s.

  12. The Influence of Rotor Configurations on the Energy Production in an Array of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the flow field within an array of 18 vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) at full-scale and under natural wind conditions. The emphasis is on the energy flux into the turbine array and the energy extraction by the turbines. The wind velocities throughout the turbine array are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically-staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. These measurements yield a detailed insight into the turbine wakes and the recovery of the flow. A high planform kinetic energy flux is detected, which enables the flow velocities to return to 95% of the upwind value within six rotor diameters downwind from a turbine row. This is significantly faster than the recovery behind a typical horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Presentation will compare the results for different rotor configurations. Conclusions will be drawn about the influence of these configurations on the power production of the individual turbines as well as the turbine array as a whole. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability program (Grant No. CBET-0725164) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  13. Aerodynamic Response of a Pitching Airfoil with Pulsed Circulation Control for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panther, Chad C.

    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) have experienced a renewed interest in development for urban, remote, and offshore applications. Past research has shown that VAWTs cannot compete with Horizontals Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) in terms of energy capture efficiency. VAWT performance is plagued by dynamic stall (DS) effects at low tip-speed ratios (lambda), where each blade pitches beyond static stall multiple times per revolution. Furthermore, for lambdadesign was generated from the augmentation of a NACA0018 airfoil to include CC capabilities. Static wind tunnel data was collected for a range of steady jet momentum coefficients (0.01≤ Cmu≤0.10) for analytical vortex model performance projections. Control strategies were developed to optimize CC jet conditions throughout rotation, resulting in improved power output for 2≤lambda≤5. However, the pumping power required to produce steady CC jets reduced net power gains of the augmented turbine by approximately 15%. The goal of this work was to investigate pulsed CC jet actuation to match steady jet performance with reduced mass flow requirements. To date, no experimental studies have been completed to analyze pulsed CC performance on a pitching airfoil. The research described herein details the first study on the impact of steady and pulsed jet CC on pitching VAWT blade aerodynamics. Both numerical and experimental studies were implemented, varying Re, k, and +/-alpha to match a typical VAWT operating environment. A range of reduced jet frequencies (0.25≤St≤4) were analyzed with varying Cmu, based on effective ranges from prior flow control airfoil studies. Airfoil pitch was found to increase the baseline lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) by up to 50% due to dynamic stall effects. The influence of dynamic stall on steady CC airfoil performance was greater for Cmu=0.05, increasing L/D by 115% for positive angle-of-attack. Pulsed actuation was shown to match, or improve, steady jet lift performance while reducing

  14. Generation of intermediately-long sea waves by weakly sheared winds

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavski, V M; Golbraikh, E; Mond, M

    2010-01-01

    The present work concerns the numeric modeling of the sea-wave instability under the effect of the logarithmic-wind profile at hurricane conditions. Non-linear effects, such as wave breaking, foam production, etc. Powell et al. (2003), Shtemler et al. (2010) are ignored. The central point of the study is the calculation of the wave growth rate, which is proportional to the fractional input energy from the wind to the wave exponentially varied with time. The present modeling demonstrates that the Miles-type model applying Charnock's formula for roughness to the hurricane-wind parameters underestimates the growth rate from 5 to 40 times as compared with the model employing the roughness and friction velocity adopted from experimental data for hurricane winds.1 This occurs due to Charnock's formula fails at large wind speeds. The stability characteristics found on the base of the hurricane-wind experimental parameters are consistent with the other results of the observations. Obtained in the present study a maxi...

  15. Study of large-scale vertical axis wind turbine wake through numerical modelling and fullscale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immas, Alexandre; Kluczewska-Bordier, Joanna; Beneditti, Pascal

    Offshore wind capacity is increasing exponentially over the years in Europe, taking advantage of the strong winds available over the ocean and of the political incentives to reduce greenhouse gases. The technology is however not yet competitive when compared to fossil fuels or onshore wind. One key...... improvement that could make offshore wind more attractive is the reduction of the wake effect [1]. The latter corresponds to the velocity deficit generated by each wind turbine wake which affects the production of the others. This effect accounts for approximately 10% of the energy losses for a typical...

  16. Wind-resistant design for high-rise buildings. Pt. 1. Vertical distribution of strong wind in typhoons captured by Doppler sodar; Chokoso kenchikubutsu no taifu sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Kyofuji no fusoku no enchoku bunpu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Kawaguchi, A. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-10

    Wind structure in the lower atmosphere is studied observationally by using Doppler sodar. Observations have been carried out in Okinawa since 1994, focusing on the vertical profiles of the mean wind speed under strong wind conditions and comparing the differences of characteristics of wind structures between typhoon and non-typhoon conditions. It is found that the lower atmosphere tends to have a two-layered structure on typhoon days, where the layer with nearly constant wind speed is embedded in the other layer and has a vertical distribution of wind speed that is represented well by power laws. In the layer of nearly constant wind speed, the mean wind speed observed by the Doppler sodar corresponds well with that observed by rawin sonde. At the same time, it shows a good correspondence with the gradient wind speed derived from a theoretical typhoon model. Vertical profiles of mean wind speed under strong, but non-typhoon conditions, have similar profiles to those of the AIJ recommendation, while the lower boundary of the constant velocity layer often has an altitude of less than one hundred meters under typhoon conditions, which is significantly lower than the empirically known gradient height. Application of the results of this study to wind-resistant design of high-rise buildings is also discussed. (author)

  17. Shear-wave reflection imaging using a MEMS-based 3C landstreamer and a vertical impact source - an esker study in SW Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodic, Bojan; Malehmir, Alireza; Maries, Georgiana; Ahokangas, Elina; Mäkinen, Joni; Pasanen, Antti

    2017-04-01

    Higher resolution of S-wave seismic data compared to the P-wave ones are attractive for the researches working with the seismic methods. This is particularly true for near-surface applications due to significantly lower shear-wave velocities of unconsolidated sediments. Shear-wave imaging, however, poses certain restrictions on both source and receiver selections and also processing strategies. With three component (3C) seismic receivers becoming more affordable and used, shear-wave imaging from vertical sources is attracting more attention for near-surface applications. Theoretically, a vertical impact source will always excite both P- and S-waves although the excited S-waves are radially polarized (SV). There is an exchange of seismic energy between the vertical and radial component of the seismic wavefield. Additionally, it is theoretically accepted that there is no energy conversion or exchange from vertical into the transverse (or SH) component of the seismic wavefield, and the SH-waves can only be generated using SH sources. With the objectives of imaging esker structure (glacial sediments), water table and depth to bedrock, we conducted a seismic survey in Virttaankangas, in southwestern Finland. A bobcat-mounted vertical drop hammer (500 kg) was used as the seismic source. To obtain better source coupling, a 75×75×1.5 cm steel plate was mounted at the bottom of the hammer casing and all the hits made on this plate after placing it firmly on the ground at every shot point. For the data recording, we used a state-of-the-art comprising of 100 units, 240 m-long, 3C MEMS (micro electro-mechanical system) based seismic landstreamer developed at Uppsala University. Although the focus of the study was on the vertical component data, careful inspection of the transverse (SH) component of the raw data revealed clear shear wave reflections (normal moveout velocities ranging from 280-350 m/s at 50 m depth) on several shot gathers. This indicated potential for their

  18. A Note on the Effect of Wind Waves on Vertical Mixing in Franks Tract, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional numerical model that simulates the effects of whitecapping waves was used to investigate the importance of whitecapping waves to vertical mixing at a 3-meter-deep site in Franks Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta over an 11-day period. Locally-generated waves of mean period approximately 2 s were generated under strong wind conditions; significant wave heights ranged from 0 to 0.3 m. A surface turbulent kinetic energy flux was used to model whitecapping waves during periods when wind speeds > 5 m s-1 (62% of observations. The surface was modeled as a wind stress log-layer for the remaining 38% of the observations. The model results demonstrated that under moderate wind conditions (5–8 m s-1 at 10 m above water level, and hence moderate wave heights, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy to only the top 10% of the water column. Under stronger wind (> 8 m s-1, and hence larger wave conditions, whitecapping waves provided the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over a larger portion of the water column; however, this region extended to the bottom half of the water column for only 7% of the observation period. The model results indicated that phytoplankton concentrations close to the bed were unlikely to be affected by the whitecapping of waves, and that the formation of concentration boundary layers due to benthic grazing was unlikely to be disrupted by whitecapping waves. Furthermore, vertical mixing of suspended sediment was unlikely to be affected by whitecapping waves under the conditions experienced during the 11-day experiment. Instead, the bed stress provided by tidal currents was the dominant source of turbulent kinetic energy over the bottom half of the water column for the majority of the 11-day period.

  19. Design, Analysis, Hybrid Testing and Orientation Control of a Floating Platform with Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Samuel Adam Chinman

    The design and operation of two counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbines on a floating, semi-submersible platform is studied. The technology, called the Multiple Integrated and Synchronized Turbines (MIST) platform has the potential to reduce the cost of offshore wind energy per unit of installed capacity. Attached to the platform are closely-spaced, counter-rotating turbines, which can achieve a higher power density per planform area because of synergistic interaction effects. The purpose of the research is to control the orientation of the platform and rotational speeds of the turbines by modifying the energy absorbed by each of the generators of the turbines. To analyze the various aspects of the platform and wind turbines, the analysis is drawn from the fields of hydrodynamics, electromagnetics, aerodynamics and control theory. To study the hydrodynamics of the floating platform in incident monochromatic waves, potential theory is utilized, taking into account the slow-drift yaw motion of the platform. Steady, second-order moments that are spatially dependent (i.e., dependent on the platform's yaw orientation relative to the incident waves) are given special attention since there are no natural restoring yaw moment. The aerodynamics of the counter-rotating turbines are studied in collaboration with researchers at the UC Berkeley Mathematics Department using a high-order, implicit, large-eddy simulation. An element flipping technique is utilized to extend the method to a domain with counter-rotating turbines and the effects from the closely-spaced turbines is compared with existing experimental data. Hybrid testing techniques on a model platform are utilized to prove the controllability of the platform in lieu of a wind-wave tank. A 1:82 model-scale floating platform is fabricated and tested at the UC Berkeley Physical-Model Testing Facility. The vertical-axis wind turbines are simulated by spinning, controllable actuators that can be updated in real-time of

  20. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  1. Classification of Rotor Induced Shearing Events in the Near Wake of a Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah; Viggiano, Bianca; Ali, Naseem; Cal, Raul Bayoan

    2017-11-01

    Flow perturbation induced by a turbine rotor imposes considerable turbulence and shearing effects in the near wake of a turbine, altering the efficiency of subsequent units within a wind farm array. Previous methods have characterized near wake vorticity of a turbine and recovery distance of various turbine array configurations. This study aims to build on previous analysis with respect to a turbine rotor within an array and develop a model to examine stress events and energy contribution in the near wake due to rotational effects. Hot wire anemometry was employed downstream of a turbine centrally located in the third row of a 3x3 array. Data considered points planar to the rotor and included simultaneous streamwise and wall-normal velocities as well as concurrent streamwise and transverse velocities. Conditional analysis of Reynolds stresses induced by the rotor agree with former near wake research, and examination of stresses in terms of streamwise and transverse velocity components depicts areas of significant rotational effects. Continued analysis includes spectral decomposition and conditional statistics to further characterize shearing events at various points considering the swept area of the rotor.

  2. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  3. Wind shear and wet and dry thermodynamic indices as predictors of thunderstorm motion and severity and application to the AVE 4 experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. R.; Ey, L.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of parameters are computed and mapped for use in assessing their individual merits as predictors of occurrence and severity of thunderstorms. The first group is comprised of equivalent potential temperature, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and wind speed. Equivalent potential temperature maxima and strong gradients of equivalent potential temperature at the surface correlate well with regions of thunderstorm activity. The second type, comprised of the energy index, shear index, and energy shear index, incorporates some model dynamics of thunderstorms, including nonthermodynamic forcing. The energy shear index is found to improve prediction of tornadic and high-wind situations slightly better than other indices. It is concluded that further development and refinement of nonthermodynamic aspects of predictive indices are definitely warranted.

  4. How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kochendorfer; Tilden P. Meyers; John Frank; William J. Massman; Mark W. Heuer

    2012-01-01

    Sonic anemometers are capable of measuring the wind speed in all three dimensions at high frequencies (10­50 Hz), and are relied upon to estimate eddy-covariance-based fluxes of mass and energy over a wide variety of surfaces and ecosystems. In this study, wind-velocity measurement errors from a three-dimensional sonic anemometer with a nonorthogonal transducer...

  5. Progressive failure of composite wind blades with a shear-web spar subjected to static testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, T. Y.; Chiu, Y. H.

    2017-06-01

    Composite wind blades of 1m long comprising glass-fabric/epoxy skins and a sandwich plate-type spar were designed and fabricated for static testing. In the composite wind blades, the spar supports the top and bottom skins to form the airfoil shape of NACA4418. The blades were tested to failure and the failure modes were identified at different loading stages. A structural failure analysis method which consists of a geometrically nonlinear finite element (FE) model and appropriate phenomenological failure criteria is used to study the progressive failure behaviours of the blades subjected to different types of quasi-static loads. The experimental load-displacement curves as well as failure loads and locations for different failure modes are used to validate the suitability of the proposed failure analysis method.

  6. Effect of the number of blades on the dynamics of floating straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are promising solutions for exploiting the wind energy resource in deep waters due to their potential cost-of-energy reduction. The number of blades is one of the main concerns when designing a VAWT for offshore application. In this paper, the effect...... of blade number on the performance of VAWTs and dynamic behavior of floating VAWTs was comprehensively studied in a fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic way. Three VAWTs with straight and parallel blades, with identical solidity and with a blade number varying from two to four, were designed using...... the actuator cylinder method and adapted to a semi-submersible platform. A generator torque controller was also designed based on a PI control algorithm. Time domain simulations demonstrated that the aerodynamic loads and structural responses are strongly dependent on the number of blades. In particular...

  7. Measurements of the Aerodynamic Normal Forces on a 12-kW Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dyachuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of unsteady forces is necessary when designing vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. Measurement data for turbines operating at an open site are still very limited. The data obtained from wind tunnels or towing tanks can be used, but have limited applicability when designing large-scale VAWTs. This study presents experimental data on the normal forces of a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT operated at an open site north of Uppsala, Sweden. The normal forces are measured with four single-axis load cells. The data are obtained for a wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.7 to 4.6. The behavior of the normal forces is analyzed. The presented data can be used in validations of aerodynamic models and the mechanical design for VAWTs.

  8. A 225 kW Direct Driven PM Generator Adapted to a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator has been designed and constructed. Results from simulations as well as from the first experimental tests are presented. The generator has been specifically designed to be directly driven by a vertical axis wind turbine and has an unusually low reactance. Generators for wind turbines with full variable speed should maintain a high efficiency for the whole operational regime. Furthermore, for this application, requirements are placed on high generator torque capability for the whole operational regime. These issues are elaborated in the paper and studied through simulations. It is shown that the generator fulfils the expectations. An electrical control can effectively substitute a mechanical pitch control. Furthermore, results from measurements of magnetic flux density in the airgap and no load voltage coincide with simulations. The electromagnetic simulations of the generator are performed by using an electromagnetic model solved in a finite element environment.

  9. Implementation and application of the actuator line model by OpenFOAM for a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, L.; Giljarhus, K.-E.; Hjertager, B.; Kalvig, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    University of Stavanger has started The Smart Sustainable Campus & Energy Lab project, to gain knowledge and facilitate project based education in the field of renewable and sustainable energy and increase the research effort in the same area. This project includes the future installation of a vertical axis wind turbine on the campus roof. A newly developed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model by OpenFOAM have been implemented to study the wind behavior over the building and the turbine performance. The online available wind turbine model case from Bachant, Goude and Wosnik from 2016 is used as the starting point. This is a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) case set up that uses the Actuator Line Model. The available test case considers a water tank with controlled external parameters. Bachant et al.’s model has been modified to study a VAWT in the atmospheric boundary layer. Various simulations have been performed trying to verify the models use and suitability. Simulation outcomes help to understand the impact of the surroundings on the turbine as well as its reaction to parameters changes. The developed model can be used for wind energy and flow simulations for both onshore and offshore applications.

  10. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    established from the on-site distribution functions of the horizontal mean wind speeds, the 90% quantile of turbulence along with average values of vertical wind shear and air density and the maximum flow inclination. This paper investigates the accuracy of fatigue loads estimated using this equivalent wind...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...... and Høvsøre in Denmark have been used to estimate the natural variation in the wind conditions between 10 min time periods. The structural wind turbine loads have been simulated using the aero-elastic model FAST. The results show that using a 90% quantile for the turbulence leads to an accurate assessment...

  11. Generation of the lower-thermospheric vertical wind estimated with the EISCAT KST radar at high latitudes during periods of moderate geomagnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower-thermospheric winds at high latitudes during moderately-disturbed geomagnetic conditions were studied using data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Kiruna-Sodankylä-Tromsø (KST ultrahigh frequency (UHF radar system on 9–10 September 2004. The antenna-beam configuration was newly designed to minimize the estimated measurement error of the vertical neutral-wind speed in the lower thermosphere. This method was also available to estimate the meridional and zonal components. The vertical neutral-wind speed at 109 km, 114 km, and 120 km heights showed large upward motions in excess of 30 m s−1 in association with an ionospheric heating event. Large downward speeds in excess of −30 m s−1 were also observed before and after the heating event. The meridional neutral-wind speed suddenly changed its direction from equatorward to poleward when the heating event began, and then returned equatorward coinciding with a decrease in the heating event. The magnetometer data from northern Scandinavia suggested that the center of the heated region was located about 80 km equatorward of Tromsø. The pressure gradient caused the lower-thermospheric wind to accelerate obliquely upward over Tromsø in the poleward direction. Acceleration of the neutral wind flowing on a vertically tilted isobar produced vertical wind speeds larger by more than two orders of magnitude than previously predicted, but still an order of magnitude smaller than observed speeds.

  12. Generation of the lower-thermospheric vertical wind estimated with the EISCAT KST radar at high latitudes during periods of moderate geomagnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower-thermospheric winds at high latitudes during moderately-disturbed geomagnetic conditions were studied using data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Kiruna-Sodankylä-Tromsø (KST ultrahigh frequency (UHF radar system on 9–10 September 2004. The antenna-beam configuration was newly designed to minimize the estimated measurement error of the vertical neutral-wind speed in the lower thermosphere. This method was also available to estimate the meridional and zonal components. The vertical neutral-wind speed at 109 km, 114 km, and 120 km heights showed large upward motions in excess of 30 m s−1 in association with an ionospheric heating event. Large downward speeds in excess of −30 m s−1 were also observed before and after the heating event. The meridional neutral-wind speed suddenly changed its direction from equatorward to poleward when the heating event began, and then returned equatorward coinciding with a decrease in the heating event. The magnetometer data from northern Scandinavia suggested that the center of the heated region was located about 80 km equatorward of Tromsø. The pressure gradient caused the lower-thermospheric wind to accelerate obliquely upward over Tromsø in the poleward direction. Acceleration of the neutral wind flowing on a vertically tilted isobar produced vertical wind speeds larger by more than two orders of magnitude than previously predicted, but still an order of magnitude smaller than observed speeds.

  13. Concept Testing of a Simple Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    The wind energy community is researching new concepts for deeper sea offshore wind turbines. One such concept is the DeepWind concept. The concept is being assessed in a EU-FP7 project, called DeepWind. Objectives of this project are to assess large size wind turbines (5-20MW) based on the concept....... One task in the project is to test a 1kW concept rotor (not a scaled down MW size rotor) partly under field conditions in a fjord in Denmark, partly in a water tank under controlled conditions in Netherlands. The objective of testing the 1kW concept turbine is to verify the dynamical behaviour under...... varying wind and wave conditions, and to compare such behaviour with computer code calculations. The concept turbine was designed and constructed by the project task partners, and all parts were assembled and installed at sea in the Roskilde fjord right next to DTU Risø campus. The turbine is under...

  14. On the asymmetric distribution of shear-relative typhoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Si; Zhai, Shunan; Li, Tim; Chen, Zhifan

    2018-02-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 precipitation, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final analysis and the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo best-track data during 2000-2015 are used to compare spatial rainfall distribution associated with Northwest Pacific tropical cyclones (TCs) with different vertical wind shear directions and investigate possible mechanisms. Results show that the maximum TC rainfall are all located in the downshear left quadrant regardless of shear direction, and TCs with easterly shear have greater magnitudes of rainfall than those with westerly shear, consistent with previous studies. Rainfall amount of a TC is related to its relative position and proximity from the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the intensity of water vapor transport, and low-level jet is favorable for water vapor transport. The maximum of vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (MFC) are located on the downshear side regardless of shear direction, and the contribution of wind convergence to the total MFC is far larger than that of moisture advection. The cyclonic displacement of the maximum rainfall relative to the maximum MFC is possibly due to advection of hydrometeors by low- and middle-level cyclonic circulation of TCs. The relationship between TC rainfall and the WPSH through water vapor transport and vertical wind shear implies that TC rainfall may be highly predictable given the high predictability of the WPSH.

  15. The vertical structure of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds from nonlinear simulations of major vortices and planetary-scale disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Melendo, E.; Legarreta, J.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2012-12-01

    Direct measurements of the structure of the zonal winds of Jupiter and Saturn below the upper cloud layer are very difficult to retrieve. Except from the vertical profile at a Jupiter hot spot obtained from the Galileo probe in 1995 and measurements from cloud tracking by Cassini instruments just below the upper cloud, no other data are available. We present here our inferences of the vertical structure of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind across the upper troposphere (deep down to about 10 bar level) obtained from nonlinear simulations using the EPIC code of the stability and interactions of large-scale vortices and planetary-scale disturbances in both planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] García-Melendo E., Sánchez-Lavega A., Dowling T.., Icarus, 176, 272-282 (2005). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez-Lavega A., Hueso R., Icarus, 191, 665-677 (2007). [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 451, 437- 440 (2008). [4] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011).

  16. Effect of the number of blades and solidity on the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafin, PL; Nishino, T.; Wang, L.; Kolios, A.

    2016-09-01

    Two, three and four bladed ϕ-shape Vertical Axis Wind Turbines are simulated using a free-wake vortex model. Two versions of the three and four bladed turbines are considered, one having the same chord length as the two-bladed turbine and the other having the same solidity as the two-bladed turbine. Results of the two-bladed turbine are validated against published experimental data of power coefficient and instantaneous torque. The effect of solidity on the power coefficient is presented and the instantaneous torque, thrust and lateral force of the two-, three- and four-bladed turbines are compared for the same solidity. It is found that increasing the number of blades from two to three significantly reduces the torque, thrust and lateral force ripples. Adding a fourth blade further reduces the ripples except for the torque at low tip speed ratio. This work aims to help choosing the number of blades during the design phase of a vertical axis wind turbine.

  17. 75 FR 27583 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ...Pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR part 1500-08) implementing procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Department of Labor, Office of the Secretary (OSEC), in accordance with 29 CFR 11.11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small vertical axis wind turbine and solar cells at the Paul Simon Job Corps Center, and that this project will not have a significant adverse impact on the environment. In accordance with 29 CFR 11.11(d) and 40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2), a preliminary Environmental Assessment was presented through a public meeting held on 5/4/2010 at the Paul Simon Job Corps Center. No comments were received regarding the Environmental Assessment (EA). OSEC has reviewed the conclusion of the EA, and agrees with the finding of no significant impact. This notice serves as the Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and Solar Installation at the Paul Simon Job Corps Center located at 3348 South Kedzie Avenue, Chicago, IL 60623. The preliminary EA are adopted in final with no change.

  18. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-06-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three dimensional

  19. Innovative Design of a Darrieus Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine by using Multi Element Airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougle, Prasad Devendra

    with supplying electricity for livelihood alongside with urban demand. The price of electricity is increasing every day as well. With this immense opportunity for off-grid electricity production in energy field new renewable energy and technological devices are getting lots of attention around the world. A wind...

  20. Design Optimization of a 5 MW Floating Offshore Vertical-axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    calculations in ANSYS software. The selected profiles are used in the aero dynamic simulation. Furthermore the simulation code will be demonstrated to show the fully development model, integrating the simulation of turbulent wind inflow, actuator cylinder flow model, power controls, hydraulic floater...

  1. The vertical-axis wind turbine - Unsteady aerodynamic forces on a Darrieus rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezlepretre, B.

    1980-11-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic forces on a Darrieus wind turbine can give rise to fatigue cracking and vibrations in the rotor blades. The present paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of aerodynamic forces during blade rotation. Measurements of pressure differences between homologous points on either side of the rotor were obtained for a two-bladed Darrieus wind turbine with NACA 0012 profiles operating at speeds up to 600 rotations/min. Pressure fluctuation spectra and normal aerodynamic forces were then computed for various rotor tip speed/wind speed ratios. Calculations were also performed in terms of a quasi-steady multitude model of the flow traversing the upstream and downstream sections of the wind turbine treated separately. Good agreement between predicted and observed values of peak pressure and the development of aerodynamic forces on the upstream side is obtained, while less good agreement is obtained on the downstream side, due to uncertainties associated with the operation of this side in the wake of the upstream side. Results also demonstrate that the centripetal forces exceed the centrifugal forces by a factor of 2 to 3, and the presence of nonnegligible levels of harmonic vibrations.

  2. Effect of horizontal and vertical resolution for wind resource assessment in Metro Manila, Philippines using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Jerome T.; Rejuso, Ma. Victoria; Inocencio, Loureal Camille; Ang, Ma. Rosario Concepcion; Bagtasa, Gerry

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy is one of the best options for renewable energy such that, many researchers work on wind resource assessment, specifically using numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to forecast atmospheric behavior on a given domain. In addition, every combination of parameterization configuration influences wind assessment. At the same time, choosing the optimum vertical and horizontal resolution may affect its output and processing time. Regardless of available researches, most of them focuses on mid-latitude area but not in tropical areas like the Philippines. In the study, sensitivity analysis of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with 4 configurations was performed. The duration of the simulation was from January 1, 2014 00:00 to December 31, 2014 23:00. The parameters involved were horizontal resolution and vertical levels. Also, meteorological input data from NCEP Final Analysis with 1 degree resolution every 6 hours was used. For validation, wind speed measurements at 10 m height from NOAA Integrated Surface Database (ISD) were utilized, of which, the 3 weather stations are located in Manila, Science Garden and Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA). The results show that increasing horizontal resolution from 4 km to 1 km have no significant increase to wind speed accuracy. In majority, higher vertical levels tend to increase its accuracy. Moreover, the model has higher accuracy during the rainy season and months of April and May. Overall, the model overestimated the observed wind speed but the diurnal cycle of wind speed follows all the simulation.

  3. Mars vertical axis wind machines: The design of a tornado vortex machine for use on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Daun; Dyhr, Amy; Kelly, Jon; Schmirler, J. Eric; Carlin, Mike; Hong, Won E.; Mahoney, Kamin

    1994-01-01

    Ever since Viking 1 and 2 landed on the surface of Mars in the summer of 1976, man has yearned to go back. But before man steps foot upon the surface of Mars, unmanned missions such as the Martian Soft Lander and Martian Subsurface Penetrator will precede him. Alternative renewable power sources must be developed to supply the next generation of surface exploratory spacecraft, since RTG's, solar cells, and long-life batteries all have their significant drawbacks. One such alternative is to take advantage of the unique Martian atmospheric conditions by designing a small scale, Martian wind power generator, capable of surviving impact and fulfilling the long term (2-5 years), low-level power requirements (1-2 Watts) of an unmanned surface probe. After investigation of several wind machines, a tornado vortex generator was chosen based upon its capability of theoretically augmenting and increasing the available power that may be extracted from average Martian wind speeds of approximately 7.5 m/s. The Martian Tornado Vortex Wind Generator stands 1 meter high and has a diameter of 0.5 m. Martian winds enter the base and shroud of the Tornado Vortex Generator at 7.5 m/s and are increased to an exit velocity of 13.657 m/s due to the vortex that is created. This results in a rapid pressure drop of 4.56 kg/s(exp 2) m across the vortex core which aids in producing a net power output of 1.1765 Watts. The report contains the necessary analysis and requirements needed to feasibly operate a low-level powered, unmanned, Martian surface probe.

  4. Motion and interaction of decaying trailing vortices in spanwise shear wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Lu, T.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation is presented of the drift of trailing vortices in a cross-wind near the ground by an unsteady, two-dimensional, rotational flow field with a concentration of large vorticity in vortical spots (having a finite but small effective size and finite total strength). The problem is analyzed by a combination of the method of matched asymptotic analyses for the decay of the vortical spots and the Euler solution for the unsteady rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, a special numerical method is developed in which the grid size and time step depend only on the length and velocity scales of the background flow and are independent of the effective core size of a vortical spot. The core size can be much smaller than the grid size, whereas the peak velocity in the core is inversely propertional to the spot size. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the strong interaction between the trajectories of the vortical spots and the change of the vorticity distribution in the background flow field.

  5. Radiation and porosity effects on the magnetohydrodynamic flow near a vertical plate that applies shear stress to the fluid with mass diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    This article studies the radiation and porosity effects on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an infinite vertical plate that applies a shear stress f(t) to the fluid. Conjugate phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. General solutions of the dimensionless governing equations along with imposed initial and boundary conditions are determined using Laplace transform technique. The solution of velocity is presented as a sum of mechanical and non mechanical parts. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. The results for embedded parameters are shown graphically. Numerical results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and presented in tabular forms.

  6. Numerical Validation of a Vortex Model against ExperimentalData on a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dyachuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic blade motion during operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs imposes challenges on the simulations models of the aerodynamics of VAWTs. A two-dimensional vortex model is validated against the new experimental data on a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT, which is operated at an open site. The results on the normal force on one blade are analyzed. The model is assessed against the measured data in the wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.8 to 4.6. The predicted results within one revolution have a similar shape and magnitude as the measured data, though the model does not reproduce every detail of the experimental data. The present model can be used when dimensioning the turbine for maximum loads.

  7. Ocean Turbulence. Part 4; Mesoscale Modeling in Isopycnal Coordinates the role of the Spectrum of Vertical Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    We study the tracer subgrid term in isopycnal coordinates, S(sub I). We employ two ingredients: the experimental data on vertical spectra of ocean turbulence measured by Gargett et al.(1981) and the stochastic approach recently developed by Dukowicz and Smith (1997). Our result confirms that S(sub I) is made of two parts: an advection and a diffusion term. However, the tracer bolus velocity u** consists of two terms u** = u(sub 1) + u(sub 2) while in the GM model there is only a term related to u(sub 1) which is shown to be: u(sub 1) = k(bar-q)(sup -1)(delta)(sub rho) where bar-q is the thickness weighted average potential vorticity, a result in agreement with the recent suggestions by Treguier et al. (1997), Lee et al. (1997) and Greatbatch (1998). The second component u(sub 2) IS new. We compute it in the geostrophic approximation using the Gargett et al. data (1981) on ocean vertical turbulence. We find that u(sub 2) much greater than u(sub 1) and that u(sub 2) is orthogonal to u(sub 1).

  8. Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Jenna; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves J. Charland * **, J. Touboul **, V. Rey ** jenna.charland@univ-tln.fr * Direction Générale de l'Armement, CNRS Délégation Normandie ** Université de Toulon, 83957 La Garde, France Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille, France CNRS/INSU, IRD, MIO, UM 110 In the nearshore area, both wave propagation and currents are influenced by the bathymetry. For a better understanding of wave - current interactions in the presence of a 3D bathymetry, a large scale experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin FIRST, Toulon, France. The 3D bathymetry consisted of two symmetric underwater mounds on both sides in the mean wave direction. The water depth at the top the mounds was hm=1,5m, the slopes of the mounds were of about 1:3, the water depth was h=3 m elsewhere. For opposite current conditions (U of order 0.30m/s), a huge focusing of the wave up to twice its incident amplitude was observed in the central part of the basin for T=1.4s. Since deep water conditions are verified, the wave amplification is ascribed to the current field. The mean velocity fields at a water depth hC=0.25m was measured by the use of an electromagnetic current meter. The results have been published in Rey et al [4]. The elliptic form of the "mild slope" equation including a uniform current on the water column (Chen et al [1]) was then used for the calculations. The calculated wave amplification of factor 1.2 is significantly smaller than observed experimentally (factor 2). So, the purpose of this study is to understand the physical processes which explain this gap. As demonstrated by Kharif & Pelinovsky [2], geometrical focusing of waves is able to modify significantly the local wave amplitude. We consider this process here. Since vertical velocity profiles measured at some locations have shown significant

  9. Investigation of the aerodynamics of an innovative vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludzinska, K.; Tesch, K.; Doerffer, P.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary three dimensional analysis of the transient aerodynamic phenomena occurring in the innovative modification of classic Savonius wind turbine. An attempt to explain the increased efficiency of the innovative design in comparison with the traditional solution is undertaken. Several vorticity measures such as enstrophy, absolute helicity and the integral of the velocity gradient tensor second invariant are proposed in order to evaluate and compare designs. Discussed criteria are related to the vortex structures and energy dissipation. These structures are generated by the rotor and may affect the efficiency. There are also different vorticity measure taking advantage of eigenvalues of the velocity gradient tensor.

  10. Design and Aero-elastic Simulation of a 5MW Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    technology, which can be improved in the future with new dedicated technological solutions. The rotor uses curved blades, which are designed in order to minimize the gravitational loads and to be produced by the pultrusion process. The floating platform is a slender cylindrical structure rotating along......-DTU. The numerical simulations take into account the fully coupled aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads on the structure, due to wind, waves and currents. The turbine is tested in operative conditions, at different sea states, selected according to the international offshore standards. The research is part...

  11. Analogy between a flapping wing and a wind turbine with a vertical axis of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.

    2009-03-01

    Based on an analysis of available experimental data, the hypothesis about an analogy between a flapping wing and a wind turbine of the Darrieus rotor type is justified. It is demonstrated that the torque on the shaft of the Darrieus rotor is generated by thrust forces acting on the blades in a pulsed flow. A conclusion is drawn that it is necessary to perform aerodynamic calculations of blades on the basis of the nonlinear theory of the wing in an unsteady flow with allowance for the airfoil thickness.

  12. High Resolution Modeling of the Orographically Forced Vertical Motion on the Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    The weather on Oahu is dictated in large part by the orographic forcing by the Ko'olau Mountain range. Using a high-resolution vertical motion diagnostic model with 0.0005° grid spacing, vertical wind speeds are calculated over the island. The model initialization is done with uniform 10 m s-1 winds, with the wind direction gradually varied. The results show that increased vertical motion occurs for winds from 145° in the valleys along the south shore of Oahu and the Waianae Mountains. For northeast trade winds, the Ko'oalu Range ridgeline produces a maximum vertical motion enhancement. As the winds become more northerly, easterly, or southerly, the geometry of the orography increases in importance and preferential locations of upward motion are observed. Comparing the winds from 145° and 25°, the concave headwall structures of the Ko'olaus are shown to play a critical role in the vertical motion. The southerly wind causes enhanced vertical motion along the southern facing arms of the headwalls, and the northerly winds have an identical effect on the northern facing arms. These results are not limited to when the wind is perpendicular to the ridgeline. By forcing the model with sounding winds taken during the Hawaiian Educational Radar Opportunity, the results are consistent with rain showers occurring over the mountains down shear from locations of strongest updrafts.

  13. A model for the response of vertical axis wind turbines to turbulent flow: Parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, D. R.

    1988-07-01

    This report describes a project intended to incorporate the effects of atmospheric turbulence into the structural response of Darrieus rotor, vertical axis wind turbines. The basis of the technique is the generation of a suitable time series of wind velocities, which are passed through a double multiple streamtube aerodynamic representation of the rotor. The aerodynamic loads are decomposed into components of the real eigenvectors of the rotor and subsequently into full-power and cross-spectral densities. These modal spectra are submitted as input to a modified NASTRAN random load analysis and the power spectra of selected responses are obtained. This procedure appears to be successful. Results at zero turbulence agree with alternative solutions, and when turbulence is included, the predicted stress spectra for the Indal 6400 rotor are in good agreement with field data. The model predicts that the effect of turbulence on harmonic frequency peaks and on all lead-lag bending will not be great. However, it appears that only 11 percent turbulence intensity can almost double the rms of cyclic flatwise blade bending.

  14. A Large-Eddy Simulation Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    In a future sustainable energy vision, in which diversified conversion of renewable energies is essential, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) exhibit some potential as a reliable means of wind energy extraction alongside conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Nevertheless, there is currently a relative shortage of scientific, academic and technical investigations of VAWTs as compared to HAWTs. Having this in mind, in this work, we aim to, for the first time, study the wake of a single VAWT placed in the atmospheric boundary layer using large-eddy simulation (LES). To do this, we use a previously-validated LES framework in which an actuator line model (ALM) is incorporated. First, for a typical three- and straight-bladed 1-MW VAWT design, the variation of the power coefficient with both the chord length of the blades and the tip-speed ratio is analyzed by performing 117 simulations using LES-ALM. The optimum combination of solidity (defined as Nc/R, where N is the number of blades, c is the chord length and R is the rotor radius) and tip-speed ratio is found to be 0.18 and 4.5, respectively. Subsequently, the wake of a VAWT with these optimum specifications is thoroughly examined by showing different relevant mean and turbulence wake flow statistics. It is found that for this case, the maximum velocity deficit at the equator height of the turbine occurs 2.7 rotor diameters downstream of the center of the turbine, and only after that point, the wake starts to recover. Moreover, it is observed that the maximum turbulence intensity (TI) at the equator height of the turbine occurs at a distance of about 3.8 rotor diameters downstream of the turbine. As we move towards the upper and lower edges of the turbine, the maximum TI (at a certain height) increases, and its location moves relatively closer to the turbine. Furthermore, whereas both TI and turbulent momentum flux fields show clear vertical asymmetries (with larger magnitudes at the upper wake edge

  15. A Large-Eddy Simulation Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shamsoddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a future sustainable energy vision, in which diversified conversion of renewable energies is essential, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs exhibit some potential as a reliable means of wind energy extraction alongside conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs. Nevertheless, there is currently a relative shortage of scientific, academic and technical investigations of VAWTs as compared to HAWTs. Having this in mind, in this work, we aim to, for the first time, study the wake of a single VAWT placed in the atmospheric boundary layer using large-eddy simulation (LES. To do this, we use a previously-validated LES framework in which an actuator line model (ALM is incorporated. First, for a typical three- and straight-bladed 1-MW VAWT design, the variation of the power coefficient with both the chord length of the blades and the tip-speed ratio is analyzed by performing 117 simulations using LES-ALM. The optimum combination of solidity (defined as N c / R , where N is the number of blades, c is the chord length and R is the rotor radius and tip-speed ratio is found to be 0.18 and 4.5, respectively. Subsequently, the wake of a VAWT with these optimum specifications is thoroughly examined by showing different relevant mean and turbulence wake flow statistics. It is found that for this case, the maximum velocity deficit at the equator height of the turbine occurs 2.7 rotor diameters downstream of the center of the turbine, and only after that point, the wake starts to recover. Moreover, it is observed that the maximum turbulence intensity (TI at the equator height of the turbine occurs at a distance of about 3.8 rotor diameters downstream of the turbine. As we move towards the upper and lower edges of the turbine, the maximum TI (at a certain height increases, and its location moves relatively closer to the turbine. Furthermore, whereas both TI and turbulent momentum flux fields show clear vertical asymmetries (with larger magnitudes at the

  16. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahs, A.; Urbaha, M.; Carjova, K.

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT) and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  17. Reply to comment by Mauder on "How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kochendorfer; Tilden P. Meyers; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; Mark W. Heuer

    2013-01-01

    In Kochendorfer et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 145:383-398, 2012, hereafter K2012) the vertical wind speed (w) measured by a non-orthogonal three-dimensional sonic anemometer was shown to be underestimated by 12%. Turbulent statistics and eddycovariance fluxes estimated using w were also affected by this underestimate in w. Methodologies used in K2012 are clarified...

  18. Nonlinear model predictive control of floating wind turbines with individual pitch control

    OpenAIRE

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Sandner, Frank; Matha, Denis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    In this work a nonlinear model predictive controller with individual pitch control for a floating offshore wind turbine is presented. An aerodynamic model of the collective pitch control approach is extended by describing pitching and yawing moments based on rotor disk theory. This extension is implemented in a reduced nonlinear model of the floating wind turbine including disturbance preview of wind speed, linear vertical and horizontal wind shear, and wave height to compute optimal input tr...

  19. Extracting and Applying SV-SV Shear Modes from Vertical Vibrator Data Across Geothermal Prospects Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob [Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-07-01

    This 3-year project was terminated at the end of Year 1 because the DOE Geothermal project-evaluation committee decided one Milestone was not met and also concluded that our technology would not be successful. The Review Panel recommended a ?no-go? decision be implemented by DOE. The Principal Investigator and his research team disagreed with the conclusions reached by the DOE evaluation committee and wrote a scientifically based rebuttal to the erroneous claims made by the evaluators. We were not told if our arguments were presented to the people who evaluated our work and made the ?no-go? decision. Whatever the case regarding the information we supplied in rebuttal, we received an official letter from Laura Merrick, Contracting Officer at the Golden Field Office, dated June 11, 2013 in which we were informed that project funding would cease and instructed us to prepare a final report before September 5, 2013. In spite of the rebuttal arguments we presented to DOE, this official letter repeated the conclusions of the Review Panel that we had already proven to be incorrect. This is the final report that we are expected to deliver. The theme of this report will be another rebuttal of the technical deficiencies claimed by the DOE Geothermal Review Panel about the value and accomplishments of the work we did in Phase 1 of the project. The material in this report will present images made from direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources using the software and research findings we developed in Phase 1 that the DOE Review Panel said would not be successful. We made these images in great haste when we were informed that DOE Geothermal rejected our rebuttal arguments and still regarded our technical work to be substandard. We thought it was more important to respond quickly rather than to take additional time to create better quality images than what we present in this Final Report.

  20. Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Turner, David D. [Global Systems Division, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

    2017-09-01

    One year of Coherent Doppler Lidar (CDL) data collected at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma is analyzed to provide profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis for cases of cloud-free convective boundary layers. The variance was scaled by the Deardorff convective velocity scale, which was successful when the boundary layer depth was stationary but failed in situations when the layer was changing rapidly. In this study the data are sorted according to time of day, season, wind direction, surface shear stress, degree of instability, and wind shear across the boundary-layer top. The normalized variance was found to have its peak value near a normalized height of 0.25. The magnitude of the variance changes with season, shear stress, and degree of instability, but was not impacted by wind shear across the boundary-layer top. The skewness was largest in the top half of the boundary layer (with the exception of wintertime conditions). The skewness was found to be a function of the season, shear stress, wind shear across the boundary-layer top, with larger amounts of shear leading to smaller values. Like skewness, the vertical profile of kurtosis followed a consistent pattern, with peak values near the boundary-layer top (also with the exception of wintertime data). The altitude of the peak values of kurtosis was found to be lower when there was a large amount of wind shear at the boundary-layer top.

  1. Vertical gust response prediction of cable-stayed bridges in yawed wind; Shachokyo no shafu ni yoru enchoku gust oto no yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S.; Nagamachi, K.; Kawai, Y. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, K.; Fujino, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, H.

    1996-03-01

    This paper outlines the vertical gust response analysis method in a yawed wind, gives an analytic example, and compares the experimental result with the analytic result to investigate the application of an analysis method and the validity of assumption and approximation. The vertical gust response to two cable-stayed bridges under construction in a yawed wind was predicted by applying assumption and approximation to the gust response prediction method in a yawed wind with the cantilever model having a plate cross-section manipulated. In this case, the wind velocity component perpendicular to the leading edge was defined as an effective wind velocity, and a bridge axis and the component perpendicular to a bridge axis were separately calculated in response. Moreover, some aerodynamic coefficients of a bridge girder cross-section were approximately obtained from the characteristics of the flat blades with same aspect ratio. The obtained analytic result was compared with the wind tunnel test result based on all bridge models. The result showed that the former almost coincides with the latter, the assumption and approximation of this time are verified in validity, and this analysis method can be used for cable-stayed bridges under construction. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Wind shear hazard determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: F-factor relationship with aircraft performance; F-factor formulations; the F-bar index; F-factor hazard limit; F-bar with Doppler sensors; and F-bar profile composite.

  3. Characteristics of wind waves in shallow tidal basins and how they affect bed shear stress, bottom erosion, and the morphodynamic evolution of coupled marsh and mudflat landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Laura; Carniello, Luca; Goodwin, Guillaume; Mudd, Simon M.; Matticchio, Bruno; D'Alpaos, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Wind-wave induced erosion is one of the main processes controlling the morphodynamic evolution of shallow tidal basins, because wind waves promote the erosion of subtidal platforms, tidal flats and salt marshes. Our study considered zero-, one-and two-dimensional wave models. First, we analyzed the relations between wave parameters, depth and bed shear stress with constant and variable wave period considering two zero-dimensional models based on the Young and Verhagen (1996), and Carniello et al. (2005, 2011) approaches. The first one is an empirical method that computes wave height and the variable wave period from wind velocity, fetch and water depth. The second one is based on the solution of wave action conservation equation, we use this second approach for computing the bottom shear stress and wave height, considering variable and constant (t=2s) wave period. Second, we compared the wave spectral model SWAN with a fully coupled Wind-Wave Tidal Model applied to a 1D rectangular domain. These models describe both the growth and propagation of wind waves. Finally, we applied the two-dimensional Wind Wave Tidal Model (WWTM) to six different configurations of the Venice lagoon considering the same boundary conditions and we evaluated the spatial variation of mean wave power density. The analysis with zero-dimensional models show that the effects of the different model assumptions on the wave period and on the wave height computation cannot be neglected. In particular, the relationships between bottom shear stress and water depth have different shapes. Two results emerge: first, the differences are higher for small depths, and then the maximum values reached with the Young and Verhagen (1996) approach are greater than the maximum values obtained with WWTM approach. The results obtained with two-dimensional models suggest that the wave height is different in particular for small fetch, this could be due to the different formulation of the wave period. Finally, the

  4. A probability index for surface zonda wind occurrence at Mendoza city through vertical sounding principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Federico; Norte, Federico; Araneo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain an index for predicting the probability of occurrence of zonda event at surface level from sounding data at Mendoza city, Argentine. To accomplish this goal, surface zonda wind events were previously found with an objective classification method (OCM) only considering the surface station values. Once obtained the dates and the onset time of each event, the prior closest sounding for each event was taken to realize a principal component analysis (PCA) that is used to identify the leading patterns of the vertical structure of the atmosphere previously to a zonda wind event. These components were used to construct the index model. For the PCA an entry matrix of temperature ( T) and dew point temperature (Td) anomalies for the standard levels between 850 and 300 hPa was build. The analysis yielded six significant components with a 94 % of the variance explained and the leading patterns of favorable weather conditions for the development of the phenomenon were obtained. A zonda/non-zonda indicator c can be estimated by a logistic multiple regressions depending on the PCA component loadings, determining a zonda probability index \\widehat{c} calculable from T and Td profiles and it depends on the climatological features of the region. The index showed 74.7 % efficiency. The same analysis was performed by adding surface values of T and Td from Mendoza Aero station increasing the index efficiency to 87.8 %. The results revealed four significantly correlated PCs with a major improvement in differentiating zonda cases and a reducing of the uncertainty interval.

  5. A probability index for surface zonda wind occurrence at Mendoza city through vertical sounding principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Federico; Norte, Federico; Araneo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain an index for predicting the probability of occurrence of zonda event at surface level from sounding data at Mendoza city, Argentine. To accomplish this goal, surface zonda wind events were previously found with an objective classification method (OCM) only considering the surface station values. Once obtained the dates and the onset time of each event, the prior closest sounding for each event was taken to realize a principal component analysis (PCA) that is used to identify the leading patterns of the vertical structure of the atmosphere previously to a zonda wind event. These components were used to construct the index model. For the PCA an entry matrix of temperature (T) and dew point temperature (Td) anomalies for the standard levels between 850 and 300 hPa was build. The analysis yielded six significant components with a 94 % of the variance explained and the leading patterns of favorable weather conditions for the development of the phenomenon were obtained. A zonda/non-zonda indicator c can be estimated by a logistic multiple regressions depending on the PCA component loadings, determining a zonda probability index widehat{c} calculable from T and Td profiles and it depends on the climatological features of the region. The index showed 74.7 % efficiency. The same analysis was performed by adding surface values of T and Td from Mendoza Aero station increasing the index efficiency to 87.8 %. The results revealed four significantly correlated PCs with a major improvement in differentiating zonda cases and a reducing of the uncertainty interval.

  6. Three-dimensional flow field around and downstream of a subscale model rotating vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin J.; Coletti, Filippo; Elkins, Christopher J.; Dabiri, John O.; Eaton, John K.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional, three-component mean velocity fields have been measured around and downstream of a scale model vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) operated at tip speed ratios (TSRs) of 1.25 and 2.5, in addition to a non-rotating case. The five-bladed turbine model has an aspect ratio (height/diameter) of 1 and is operated in a water tunnel at a Reynolds number based on turbine diameter of 11,600. Velocity fields are acquired using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) at an isotropic resolution of 1/50 of the turbine diameter. Mean flow reversal is observed immediately behind the turbine for cases with rotation. The turbine wake is highly three-dimensional and asymmetric throughout the investigated region, which extends up to 7 diameters downstream. A vortex pair, generated at the upwind-turning side of the turbine, plays a dominant role in wake dynamics by entraining faster fluid from the freestream and aiding in wake recovery. The higher TSR case shows a larger region of reverse flow and greater asymmetry in the near wake of the turbine, but faster wake recovery due to the increase in vortex pair strength with increasing TSR. The present measurement technique also provides detailed information about flow in the vicinity of the turbine blades and within the turbine rotor. The details of the flow field around VAWTs and in their wakes can inform the design of high-density VAWT wind farms, where wake interaction between turbines is a principal consideration.

  7. Offshore coastal wind speed gradients: Issues for the design and development of large offshore windfarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Badger, Jake; Pryor, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Simulations, from mesoscale numerical models, and analyses of in-situ and remote sensing data from offshore wind farms in Denmark, are used to examine both horizontal and vertical gradients of wind speeds in the coastal zone. Results suggest that the distance from the coastline over which wind...... and 70 km. The width of the coastal zone, and the wind's vertical (shear) and horizontal gradients within the coastal zone, depend on atmospheric stability. Although vertical wind speed profiles above 50 m are likely responding to additional factors such as the height of the boundary-layer, using...... a stability correction improves predictions of wind speed compared with the logarithmic profile. Modelling indicates that within the coastal zone, wind speeds at typical turbine hub-heights can change by 2 m/s over the horizontal extent of a large wind farm, depending on stability. However, if the fetch...

  8. Numerical Investigation of Capability of Self-Starting and Self-Rotating of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chen; Colonius, Tim

    2015-11-01

    The immersed boundary method is used to simulate the incompressible flow around two-dimensional airfoils at low Reynolds numbers in order to investigate the self-starting and self-rotating capability of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA 0018 blades. By examining the torque generated by a three-bladed VAWT fixed at various orientations, a stable equilibrium and the optimal starting orientation that produces the largest torque have been observed. When Reynolds number is below a critical value, the VAWT oscillates around a stable equilibrium. However, the VAWT goes into continuous rotation from the optimal orientation when Reynolds number is above this critical value. It is also shown that VAWT with more blades is easier to self-start due to a wilder range of positive starting torques. Moreover, with a proper choice of load model, a VAWT is able to self-rotate and generate a designed averaged power. This project is supported by Caltech FLOWE center/Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  9. Adjoint-Baed Optimal Control on the Pitch Angle of a Single-Bladed Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chen; Colonius, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Optimal control on the pitch angle of a NACA0018 single-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is numerically investigated at a low Reynolds number of 1500. With fixed tip-speed ratio, the input power is minimized and mean tangential force is maximized over a specific time horizon. The immersed boundary method is used to simulate the two-dimensional, incompressible flow around a horizontal cross section of the VAWT. The problem is formulated as a PDE constrained optimization problem and an iterative solution is obtained using adjoint-based conjugate gradient methods. By the end of the longest control horizon examined, two controls end up with time-invariant pitch angles of about the same magnitude but with the opposite signs. The results show that both cases lead to a reduction in the input power but not necessarily an enhancement in the mean tangential force. These reductions in input power are due to the removal of a power-damaging phenomenon that occurs when a vortex pair is captured by the blade in the upwind-half region of a cycle. This project was supported by Caltech FLOWE center/Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  10. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part I: from the airfoil performance to the very far wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Marichal, Yves; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    A vortex particle-mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES) of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied with respect to the VAWT geometry and its operating point. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.

  11. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  12. Experimental study of the effect of a slat angle on double-element airfoil and application in vertical axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2015-01-01

    angles at various Reynolds numbers to measure the aerodynamic characteristics, so as to study the slat angle effects. The variation in the slat angle causes a change in the lift coefficient of the double-element airfoil considerably. Therefore, an optimum value of slat angle is determined for the double......-element airfoil system designed in this paper. Further, the performance of new design of a vertical axis wind turbine shows considerable increase in the power coefficient and the total power output as compared to the reference wind turbine...

  13. Electric Circuit Model for the Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of a Three-Blade Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine: The Tchakoua Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Tchakoua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex and unsteady aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs pose significant challenges for simulation tools. Recently, significant research efforts have focused on the development of new methods for analysing and optimising the aerodynamic performance of VAWTs. This paper presents an electric circuit model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (DT-VAWT rotors. The novel Tchakoua model is based on the mechanical description given by the Paraschivoiu double-multiple streamtube model using a mechanical‑electrical analogy. Model simulations were conducted using MATLAB for a three-bladed rotor architecture, characterized by a NACA0012 profile, an average Reynolds number of 40,000 for the blade and a tip speed ratio of 5. The results obtained show strong agreement with findings from both aerodynamic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD models in the literature.

  14. Estimates of the low-level wind shear and turbulence in the vicinity of Kennedy International Airport on 24 June 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, W. S.; Williamson, G. G.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the type of wind and turbulence distributions which may have existed at the time of the crash of Eastern Airlines Flight 66 while attempting to land. A number of different wind and turbulence profiles are predicted for the site and date of the crash. The morning and mid-afternoon predictions are in reasonably good agreement with magnitude and direction as reported by the weather observer. Although precise predictions cannot be made during the passage of the thunderstorm which coincides with the time of the accident, a number of different profiles which might exist under or in the vicinity of a thunderstorm are presented. The profile that is most probable predicts the mean headwind shear over 100 m (300 feet) altitude change and the average fluctuations about the mean headwind distribution. This combination of means and fluctuations leads to a reasonable probability that the instantaneous headwind shear would equal the maximum value reported in the flight recorder data.

  15. A study of principal hull parameters for a Spar buoy foundation for a vertical axis wind turbine in the MW-class

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Sølve

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology: Marine and subsea technology This thesis analyses a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) in the MW-class used in relation with a floating Spar buoy. The objective was to study the effect of varying principal hull parameters including diameter and draft on the overall system’s hydrostatic and hydrodynamic performance. First, a spreadsheet was constructed, containing certain engineering simplifications to evaluate a number of floating geometries ...

  16. Use of Dual-Polarization Radar Variables to Assess Low-Level Wind Shear in Severe Thunderstorm Near-storm Environments in the Tennessee Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Christina C.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Kumjian, Matthew; Carey, Lawerence D.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the National Weather Service (NWS) network of S ]band dual-polarization radars is currently underway, and the incorporation of polarimetric information into the real ]time forecasting process will enhance the forecaster fs ability to assess thunderstorms and their near ]storm environments. Recent research has suggested that the combination of polarimetric variables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) can be useful in the assessment of low level wind shear within a thunderstorm. In an environment with strong low ]level veering of the wind, ZDR values will be largest along the right inflow edge of the thunderstorm near a large gradient in horizontal reflectivity (indicative of large raindrops falling with a relative lack of smaller drops), and take the shape of an arc. Meanwhile, KDP values, which are proportional to liquid water content and indicative of a large number of smaller drops, are maximized deeper into the forward flank precipitation shield than the ZDR arc as the smaller drops are being advected further from the updraft core by the low level winds than the larger raindrops. Using findings from previous work, three severe weather events that occurred in North Alabama were examined in order to assess the utility of these signatures in determining the potential for tornadic activity. The first case is from October 26, 2010, where a large number of storms indicated tornadic potential from a standard reflectivity and velocity analysis but very few storms actually produced tornadoes. The second event is from February 28, 2011, where tornadic storms were present early on in the event, but as the day progressed, the tornado threat transitioned to a high wind threat. The third case is from April 27, 2011, where multiple rounds of tornadic storms ransacked the Tennessee Valley. This event provides a dataset including multiple modes of tornadic development, including QLCS and supercell structures. The overarching goal

  17. Characterization of a New Open Jet Wind Tunnel to Optimize and Test Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Using Flow Visualization and Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tourn, S.; Gilabert, R.; Sánchez, V.

    Characterize a new open jet wind tunnel and define the uniform test section where performance studies of small VAWTs will be carried out.......Characterize a new open jet wind tunnel and define the uniform test section where performance studies of small VAWTs will be carried out....

  18. Taylor dispersion in wind-driven current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Li; Li, Zhi; Chen, G. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Taylor dispersion associated with wind-driven currents in channels, shallow lakes and estuaries is essential to hydrological environmental management. For solute dispersion in a wind-driven current, presented in this paper is an analytical study of the evolution of concentration distribution. The concentration moments are intensively derived for an accurate presentation of the mean concentration distribution, up to the effect of kurtosis. The vertical divergence of concentration is then deduced by Gill's method of series expansion up to the fourth order. Based on the temporal evolution of the vertical concentration distribution, the dispersion process in the wind-driven current is concretely characterized. The uniform shear leads to a special symmetrical distribution of mean concentration free of skewness. The non-uniformity of vertical concentration is caused by convection and smeared out gradually by the effect of diffusion, but fails to disappear even at large times.

  19. 2013-2014 Lidar Campaign: Measurements of Inflow at a Northern Oklahoma Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Newman, Jennifer [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Irons, Zack [Enel Green Power North America, Inc., Andover, MA (United States); Miller, Wayne O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-25

    In November 2013, LLNL deployed two vertically-profiling, Doppler Laser Detection and Ranging (lidar) instruments at Enel Green Power North America’s 235 MW wind farm in Northern Oklahoma to collect wind measurements. The lidars were used to measure wake-free observations of the free-stream wind flow (i.e., inflow) for purposes of quantifying rotor-disk wind characteristics under varying atmospheric conditions. The measurements included horizontal wind speed, vertical wind speed, wind direction, and turbulence intensity, taken at a ~1 Hz sampling rate and averaged over 10-minute intervals. From these measurements we also calculated wind shear across the turbine rotor disk and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE).

  20. Implementation of the Actuator Cylinder Flow Model in the HAWC2 code for Aeroelastic Simulations on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of the Actuator Cylinder (AC) flow model in the HAWC2 aeroelastic code originally developed for simulation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) aeroelasticity. This is done within the DeepWind project where the main objective is to explore the competitivene...

  1. Comparison of wind turbine wake properties in non‐sheared inflow predicted by different computational fluid dynamics rotor models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2015-01-01

    The wake of the 5MW reference wind turbine designed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is simulated using computational fluid dynamics with a fully resolved rotor geometry, an actuator line method and an actuator disc method, respectively. Simulations are carried out prescribing...

  2. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    (PDF) of turbulence driven short-term extreme wind shear events, conditioned on the mean wind speed, for an arbitrary recurrence period. The model is based on an asymptotic expansion, and only a few and easily accessible parameters are needed as input. The model of the extreme PDF is supplemented...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of seven symmetrical airfoil sections through 180-degree angle of attack for use in aerodynamic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldahl, R E; Klimas, P C

    1981-03-01

    When work began on the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) program at Sandia National Laboratories, it was recognized that there was a paucity of symmetrical airfoil data needed to describe the aerodynamics of turbine blades. Curved-bladed Darrieus turbines operate at local Reynolds numbers (Re) and angles of attack (..cap alpha..) seldom encountered in aeronautical applications. This report describes (1) a wind tunnel test series conducted at moderate values of Re in which 0 less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 180/sup 0/ force and moment data were obtained for four symmetrical blade-candidate airfoil sections (NACA-0009, -0012, -0012H, and -0015), and (2) how an airfoil property synthesizer code can be used to extend the measured properties to arbitrary values of Re (10/sup 4/ less than or equal to Re less than or equal to 10/sup 7/) and to certain other section profiles (NACA-0018, -0021, -0025).

  4. Technical feasibility study for the development of a large capacity wind powered electrical generating system. [by using vertical airfoil motion along track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering feasibility of developing a basic mechanical system necessary for extracting large amounts of power (on the order of 10 to 20 MW) from the wind is considered using the concept of vertical airfoils moving along a closed horizontal track system. Attention is focused on those components necessary for the conversion of wind energy to mechanical energy, although the general characteristics and critical aspects of other components are also considered. The four phases of this program are: (1) Establishment of component specifications and interface requirements for major system components; (2) formulation of alternative sets of conceptual designs for major system components; (3) engineering analysis of various components and systems; and (4) re-examination of basic concept and identification of any desirable follow-up work.

  5. LIDAR wind speed measurements at a Taiwan onshore wind park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fei; Tai, Tzy-Hwan; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wind speed and wind direction were carried out using a Leosphere Windcube LIDAR system at a Taiwan onshore wind park. The Lidar shot a total of five laser beams to the atmosphere to collect the light-of-sight (LOS) velocity. Four beams were sent successively in four cardinal directions along a 28° scanning cone angle, followed by a fifth, vertical beam. An unchangeable sampling rate of approximately 1.2 Hz was set in the LIDAR system to collect the LOS velocity. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data from two GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near the LIDAR deployment site were acquired for the whole measuring period from February 4 to February 16 of 2015. The SCADA data include the blade angular velocity, the wind velocity measured at hub height from an anemometer mounted on the nacelle, the wind turbine yaw angle, and power production; each parameter was recorded as averages over 1-min periods. The data analysis involving the LIDAR measurements and the SCADA data were performed to obtain the turbulent flow statistics. The results show that the turbine power production has significant dependence to the wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity and wind shear.

  6. Features of vertical axis wind turbine and development of airfoils sections; Chokusen yokugata suichoku jiku fusha no tokucho to yokugata ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Yasui, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakayama, H. [Oriental Kiden Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Features of a straight wing type vertical axis wind turbine (VAW) and its airfoil sections were studied. The wind turbine in which various aerodynamic work components are mounted on the rotation axis normal to the ground surface is named VAW. Like the airfoil section of aircraft, in lift type VAW, wind turbines were driven by lift 70-90 times as large as drag in some cases. Features of the VAW airfoil section which is a straight wing in plan and a fixed pitch wing (with a fixed angle to a blade support arm) in cross section, and those of wind turbines were studied. Some factors affecting the features, work principle and performance of VAW were clarified. On airfoil sections, products of each weight function and each corresponding aerodynamic factor (lift, drag and pitching moment factors) were plotted on an attack angle ({alpha}) axis. From the conditions for increasing the total sum of areas drawn by the products on the {alpha} axis, various characteristics required for airfoil sections were clarified. Such characteristics nearly agreed between an airfoil section for favorable starting characteristics and that for high efficiency. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Detection of nocturnal coherent turbulence in the US Great Plains and effects on wind turbine fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Wiersema, D. J.; Zhou, B.; Chow, F. K.

    2012-12-01

    Strong low-level jet winds that develop in the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL) create some of the most energetic wind energy resources in Great Plains of North America. These stratified flows, however, can cause strong wind shear and veer across wind turbine rotors. Additionally, turbulent bursting events triggered by strong vertical wind shear can lead to fatigue and damage of wind turbine blades and components, increasing maintenance costs and reducing wind turbine power production. Coherent structures which are the signature of turbulent bursting events can be observed in heavily instrumented wind farms and in high-resolution simulations. Large-scale adoption of wind energy will benefit from the ability to predict these turbulence events with limited in-situ data. By identifying signatures of these bursting events, new turbine control technologies could be used to reduce wind turbine damage and increase overall wind farm energy yield (for example using algorithms with the ability to proactively and independently pitch blades). This research analyzes SBL turbulence in the Great Plains to develop methods to identify these structures at wind farms. Nested large-eddy simulations down to about 20m horizontal resolution are performed and compared to high-resolution Doppler wind LIDAR data (1 Hz) to determine if the model is able to create similar wind and turbulence conditions. Wavelet analysis of the LIDAR and model wind fields is used to detect coherent turbulent structures at frequencies that could be potentially damaging for wind turbines and provide guidance for design of turbine control technologies.

  8. Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Surface Porosity and Vertical Tail Placement on Slender Wing Vortex Flow Aerodynamics at Supersonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the effects of passive surface porosity and vertical tail placement on vortex flow development and interactions about a general research fighter configuration at supersonic speeds. Optical flow measurement and flow visualization techniques were used that featured pressure sensitive paint (PSP), laser vapor screen (LVS), and schlieren, These techniques were combined with conventional electronically-scanned pressure (ESP) and six-component force and moment measurements to quantify and to visualize the effects of flow-through porosity applied to a wing leading edge extension (LEX) and the placement of centerline and twin vertical tails on the vortex-dominated flow field of a 65 cropped delta wing model. Test results were obtained at free-stream Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.1 and a Reynolds number per foot of 2.0 million. LEX porosity promoted a wing vortex-dominated flow field as a result of a diffusion and weakening of the LEX vortex. The redistribution of the vortex-induced suction pressures contributed to large nose-down pitching moment increments but did not significantly affect the vortex-induced lift. The trends associated with LEX porosity were unaffected by vertical tail placement. The centerline tail configuration generally provided more stable rolling moments and yawing moments compared to the twin wing-mounted vertical tails. The strength of a complex system of shock waves between the twin tails was reduced by LEX porosity.

  9. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  10. Wind lidar profile measurements in the coastal boundary layer: comparison with WRF modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Vincent, Claire Louise

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from a pulsed wind lidar to study the wind speed profile in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) up to 600 m above the surface at a coastal site. Due to the high availability and quality of wind lidar data and the high vertical range of the measurements, it is possible to study...... WRF is compared to the wind lidar data combined with measurements from a tall meteorological mast, it is found that the model surface layer fluxes are largely overestimated and that the vertical wind speed profile does not have enough shear in the lower part of the PBL, partly as a consequence...... in the amount of observed low level jet. The wind speed predicted by WRF does not improve when a higher resolution is used. Therefore, both the inhomogeneous (westerly) and homogeneous (easterly) flow contribute to a large negative bias in the mean wind speed profile at heights between 100 and 200 m....

  11. A comparative study of structure of vertical motions in the lower troposphere over Pune, a tropical Indian station in March 2004 and 2005 using Wind Profiler data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Deshpande

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available An extended heat wave condition affected Pune (18.31° N, 73.58° E, India and surrounding region during the pre-monsoon month of March 2004, when surface temperatures were observed to be above normal. In contrast, March 2005 showed a long spell of below normal temperatures. The vertical velocity measurements from UHF (404 MHz Wind Profiler at Pune have been used to understand the role of vertical motions in the lower troposphere in maintenance of long spells of above (in March 2004 and below (in March 2005 normal surface temperatures over the station. The altitude profiles of vertical wind velocities showed different behavior in the two contrasting years 2004 and 2005. It is observed that for a major part of the month and at all heights, downward motions (subsidence dominate during March 2004. Strong downward motions persisted for spells of 2 to 3 days when high surface temperatures (above 38°C were recorded over this station. A positive relation between surface temperature anomalies and depth of subsidence points to the role of subsidence. March 2005 showed the persistence of upward motion for longer time duration during morning hours which prevented the surface temperatures from reaching high values with weak subsidence during afternoon hours. This is supported by observation of more frequent and organized thermal plumes extending right into the free troposphere. There are distinct episodes of advective warmings during March 2004 while March 2005 showed weak or absence of temperature advection from north. Hence a combination of meridional transport of heat and persistent subsidence in the lower troposphere seemed to have led to recording of above normal surface temperatures during March 2004 over the station.

  12. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-I: 3D thermo-chemical process simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    novel three dimensional thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process is presented. A simulation is performed for the pultrusion of a NACA0018 blade profile having a curved geometry, as a part of the DeepWind project. The finite element/nodal control volume (FE/NCV) technique is used. Firs...

  13. Dynamic behaviour studies of a vertical axis wind turbine blade using Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) and Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Belloni, F.

    it is excited by random and wind forces. The cameras are programmed in LabView to take pictures at the same time with 180 fps and store them on a high speed hard disk. The output deflection will be investigated in frequency domain by peak picking method, and then AR (Autoregressive) model is applied to describe...

  14. Dynamic behaviour studies of a vertical axis wind turbine blade using Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) and Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Belloni, F.

    2014-01-01

    it is excited by random and wind forces. The cameras are programmed in LabView to take pictures at the same time with 180 fps and store them on a high speed hard disk. The output deflection will be investigated in frequency domain by peak picking method, and then AR (Autoregressive) model is applied to describe...

  15. Tilting Shear Layers in Coastal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    term goals of this research are to explore the evolution of flows with strong horizontal shear and horizontal density gradients (see Figure 1). These...converting horizontal shear to vertical shear. The horizontal shear leads to the growth of vertical vortices that are subsequently tilted, stretched...small-scale flows influence the water properties within the lagoons and merge with the larger scale flows around the islands. Specific targets are: 1

  16. Long-term global response analysis of a vertical axis wind turbine supported on a semi-submersible floating platform: Comparison between operating and non-operating wind turbine load cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collu, Maurizio; Manuel, Lance; Borg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study continues [1] the examination of the long-term global response of a floating vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) situated off the Portuguese coast in the Atlantic Ocean. The VAWT, which consists of a 5-MW 3-bladed H-type rotor developed as part of the EU-FP7 H2OCEAN project, is assumed...... to be mounted on the OC4 semi-submersible floating platform. Adding a non-operational load case (wind speed 35m/s), the sea states identified are used to carry out coupled dynamics simulations using the FloVAWT design tool, for which an improved wave elevation and relative force/moment time signals approach...... is adopted, as well as also taking into account the drag generated by the wind turbine tower. Short-term turbine load and platform motion statistics are established for individual sea states that are analysed. The long-term reliability yields estimates of 50-year loads and platform motions that takes...

  17. Vertical axis wind turbine turbulent response model. Part 2: Response of Sandia National laboratories' 34-meter VAWT with aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic response of Sandia National Laboratories' 34-m Darrieus rotor wind turbine at Bushland, Texas, is presented. The formulation used a double-multiple streamtube aerodynamic model with a turbulent airflow and included the effects of linear aeroelastic forces. The structural analysis used established procedures with the program MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of aeroelastic forces on the damping of natural modes agree well with previous results at operating rotor speeds, but show some discrepancies at very high rotor speeds. A number of alternative expressions for the spectrum of turbulent wind were investigated. The model loading represented by each does not differ significantly; a more significant difference is caused by imposing a full lateral coherence of the turbulent flow. Spectra of the predicted stresses at various locations show that without aeroelastic forces, very severe resonance is likely to occur at certain natural frequencies. Inclusion of aeroelastic effects greatly attenuates this stochastic response, especially in modes involving in-plane blade bending.

  18. A New Approach for Modeling Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Equivalent Circuit Analogy: Basis of Theoretical Formulations and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Tchakoua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Models are crucial in the engineering design process because they can be used for both the optimization of design parameters and the prediction of performance. Thus, models can significantly reduce design, development and optimization costs. This paper proposes a novel equivalent electrical model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (DTVAWTs. The proposed model was built from the mechanical description given by the Paraschivoiu double-multiple streamtube model and is based on the analogy between mechanical and electrical circuits. This work addresses the physical concepts and theoretical formulations underpinning the development of the model. After highlighting the working principle of the DTVAWT, the step-by-step development of the model is presented. For assessment purposes, simulations of aerodynamic characteristics and those of corresponding electrical components are performed and compared.

  19. ROTOR DESIGN FOR VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES, SUITABLE FOR URBAN SEASHORE ENVIRONMENT OR NAVAL INDUSTRY IMPLEMENTATION (NUMERICAL METHODS AND ANALYTHICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is investigated the best solution for a new Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT design that has as objective the augmentation of power with minimum changes and without movable parts. It is investigated a classical Darrieus rotor with SANDIA shape, to which are studied both the influence of different aspect ratios as well as the influence of aerodynamic profile. Hence are used a NACA0012 and NACA0018 blade profile, aiming to improve the rotor characteristics. It is concluded that both the aspect ratio as well as the aerodynamic profile have a substantial importance on the power curve and thus, it encourages the further studies regarding their effect on the turbine performance.

  20. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  1. Investigation of the Optimal Omni-Direction-Guide-Vane Design for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Based on Unsteady Flow CFD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shahizare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With soaring energy demands, the desire to explore alternate and renewable energy resources has become the focal point of various active research fronts. Therefore, the scientific community is revisiting the notion to tap wind resources in more rigorous and novel ways. In this study, a two-dimensional computational investigation of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT with omni-direction-guide-vane (ODGV is proposed to determine the effects of this guide vane. In addition, the mesh and time step (dt size dependency test, as well as the effect of the different turbulence models on results accuracy are investigated. Eight different shape ratios (R of the omni-direction-guide-vane were also examined in this study. Further, the CFD model is validated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. Validation results show a good agreement in terms of shape and trend in CFD simulation. Based on these results, all the shape ratios, except two ratios including 0.3 and 0.4 at TSR of 1.3 to 3, have a positive effect on the power and torque coefficient improvement. Moreover, results show that the best case has a shape ratio of 0.55, which improves the power coefficient by 48% and the torque coefficient up to 58%.

  2. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  3. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  4. Superposed epoch analysis of vertical ion velocity, electron temperature, field-aligned current, and thermospheric wind in the dayside auroral region as observed by DMSP and CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervalishvili, G.; Lühr, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study reports on the results obtained by a superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method applied to the electron temperature, vertical ion velocity, field-aligned current (FAC), and thermospheric zonal wind velocity at high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA study is performed in a magnetic latitude versus magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. The obtained results are based on observations collected during the years 2001-2005 by the CHAMP and DMSP (F13 and F15) satellites. The dependence on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations is also investigated using data from the NASA/GSFC's OMNI database. Further, the obtained results are subdivided into three Lloyd seasons of 130 days each, which are defined as follows: local winter (1 January ± 65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April and 1 October ± 32days), and local summer (1 July ± 65 days). A period of 130 days is needed by the CHAMP satellite to pass through all local times. The time and location of the electron temperature peaks from CHAMP measurements near the cusp region are used as the reference parameter for the SEA method to investigate the relationship between the electron temperature and other ionospheric quantities. The SEA derived MLat profiles of the electron temperature show a seasonal dependence, increasing from winter to summer, as expected. But, the temperature rise (difference between the reference temperature peak and the background electron temperature) strongly decreases towards local summer. The SEA derived MLat profiles of the ion vertical velocity at DMSP altitude show the same seasonal behaviour as the electron temperature rice. There exists a clear linear relation between these two variables with a quiet large correlation coefficient value, >0.9. The SEA derived MLat profiles of both, thermospheric zonal wind velocity and FAC, show a clear IMF By orientation dependence for all local seasons. The zonal wind velocity is prominently directed towards west in the MLat-MLT frame

  5. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  6. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  7. A Study about the Influence of Plateau Shear Line on Abnormal Precipitation in the Area to the East of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, T.; Wang, L.; Jia, L.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the activity characteristics of 571 Tibetan plateau shear line processes in 1998-2013, this paper studies the difference of circulation feature between the plateau shear line which has and has not moved out of the plateau area, and the relationship between it and plateau atmospheric low-frequency signal transmission,water vapor channel, energy transmission and conversion due to the influence of eastward-moving of plateau shear line on abnormal precipitation in Sichuan Basin. (1) The 571 plateau shear lines include 519 transverse shear lines and 52 vertical shear lines, of which 92 shear lines move out of the plateau area.Composite analysis discovered that the circulation feature of two-through and one-ridge type is in favor of moving-out of transverse plateau shear lines; the multiple fluctuations circulation type are in favor of moving-out of vertical plateau shear lines. Deepening of Baikal deep trough, weakening of high ridge before the deep trough, weakening of East Asia deep trough, invasion of warm advection and positive vorticity advection, western extension of subtropical high and reinforcement of south Asia high are all in favor of reinforcement and moving-out of vertical plateau shear lines. The Butterworth band-pass filtering signal shows that the plateau shear lines mainly appear in the place near peaks and troughs with zonal wind oscillatory for 30-60d. (2) By using HYSPLIT backward trajectory model to track the water vapor transmission path of precipitation in Sichuan Basin which is formed by eastward-moving of transverse plateau shear lines and vertical plateau shear lines, it shows that the influence of transverse plateau shear lines on the basin is from two water vapor channels,the influence of vertical plateau shear lines is from a channel. Plateau shear lines are different in water vapor convergence and and divergence and trajectory in different phases and at different altitudes. (3)the wave-packet propagation diagnosis shows that

  8. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    wind causes the bladed -rotor turbine to rotate at low speed about the hori- zontal drive shaft that is always parallel to the force of the wind . The...current meter. Another form of a vertical axis wind turbine is a vertically straight- bladed wind turbine with cyclically pitched blades (see Figure 4.15...The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine

  9. A call for conservation scientists to evaluate opportunities and risks from operation of vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    A new conservation paradigm (Kareiva and Marvier, 2012) emphasizes the need for scientists to embrace a holistic approach taking into account the social and natural dimensions of conservation in human-dominated landscapes. While there is heavy debate over the new approach (Tallis and Lubchenco, 2014), most conservation scientists seem to agree on to the need to cooperate with corporations when such interaction can benefit people and the environment (Miller et al., 2014;Tallis and Lubchenco, 2014). Cooperation can be most productive when established in the early phases of development, but this requires a high capacity for forward looking pre-emptive action (i.e., anticipating potential forthcoming issues before they arise; Sutherland and Woodroof, 2009). This framework is particularly salient for rapidly developing and expanding technologies such as those for harvesting renewable energy sources. Here the stakes are very high, as they concern mitigating negative consequences to global climate while generating energy without impacting wildlife. In this vein, past experience is instructional. The environmental impacts of biofuels and wind, among others, have been identified and evaluated rather late (Sutherland and Woodroof, 2009), so that implementation of best management practices on existing facilities is now often prohibitively expensive.

  10. Global composites of surface wind speeds in tropical cyclones based on a 12 year scatterometer database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Bradley W.; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-10-01

    A 12 year global database of rain-corrected satellite scatterometer surface winds for tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to produce composites of TC surface wind speed distributions relative to vertical wind shear and storm motion directions in each TC-prone basin and various TC intensity stages. These composites corroborate ideas presented in earlier studies, where maxima are located right of motion in the Earth-relative framework. The entire TC surface wind asymmetry is down motion left for all basins and for lower strength TCs after removing the motion vector. Relative to the shear direction, the motion-removed composites indicate that the surface wind asymmetry is located down shear left for the outer region of all TCs, but for the inner-core region it varies from left of shear to down shear right for different basin and TC intensity groups. Quantification of the surface wind asymmetric structure in further stratifications is a necessary next step for this scatterometer data set.

  11. Metric of the 2–6 day sea-surface temperature response to wind stress in the Tropical Pacific and its sensitivity to the K-Profile Parameterization of vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Wagman, Benjamin M.

    2014-05-04

    Uncertainty in wind forcing has long hampered direct tests of ocean model output against observations for the purpose of refining the boundary layer K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) of oceanic vertical mixing. Considered here is a short-term metric that could be sensitive to the ways in which the KPP directly affects the adjustment of sea surface temperatures for a given change in wind stress. In particular a metric is developed based on the lagged correlation between the 2–6 day filtered wind stress and sea surface temperature. The metric is normalized by estimated observational and model uncertainties such that the significance of differences may be assessed. For this purpose multiple wind reanalysis products and their blended combinations were used to represent the range of forcing uncertainty, while perturbed KPP parameter model runs explore the sensitivity of the metric to the parameterization of vertical mixing. The correlation metric is sensitive to perturbations to most KPP parameters, in ways that accord with expectations, although only a few parameters show a sensitivity on the same order as the sensitivity to switching between wind products. This suggests that uncertainties in wind forcing continue to be a significant limitation for applying direct observational tests of KPP physics. Moreover, model correlations are biased high, suggesting that the model lacks or does not resolve sources of variability on the 2–6 day time scale.

  12. Validation of mixing height determined from vertical profiles of wind and temperature from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model in comparison with readiosoundings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, J.H.; Nielsen, N.W. [Danish Meteorological Inst., DMI, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A sensitivity study is performed of vertical profiles from the numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (DMI-HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). The study involves profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere up to 2500 meter. Detailed comparisons of analysed as well as forecast profiles are made with measured data from several radio-sonde stations throughout Europe. Methods for estimating the Mixing Height (MH) based on a bulk Richardson number method, the Vogelezang and Holtslag method and parcel methods are also studied. The methods are inter-compared, and MH based on data from DMI-HIRLAM are compared with the corresponding MH based on radiosonde data. For convective conditions the MH estimates are also compared with subjective estimates of the MH. In this paper preliminary results mainly based on data from Jaegersborg (Copenhagen) are presented. Results based on data from 1994-95 show that the resemblance between measured profiles and the DMI-HIRLAM profiles is fairly good in general. Also the estimates of the MH based on DMI-HIRLAM data is in general of nearly the same quality as estimations based on observed data. However, especially in convective conditions there is a tendency by DMI-HIRLAM to underestimate the strength of the mixing and thereby relatively large errors in the estimates of the MH can occur. (au)

  13. On the length-scale of the wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of simultaneous sonic anemometer observations of wind speed and velocity spectra over flat and homogeneous terrain from 10 up to 160 m height performed at the National Test Station for Wind Turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The mixing length, l, derived from...... the wind speed profile, is found to be linearly proportional to the length-scale of turbulence, derived either from the peak of the vertical velocity spectrum, (λm)w, or from a three-dimensional turbulence spectral model, for a range of atmospheric stability conditions, friction Rossby numbers, and within...... the range of observational heights ((λm)w ∼ 7l). Under very unstable conditions and above 100 m, the local wind shear is low, and the relation between both length-scales is slightly nonlinear. Mixing-length and wind profile models, which depend on both atmospheric stability and friction Rossby number...

  14. Directional Shear in the Nocturnal Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2017-10-01

    We examine the potential importance of wind-directional shear in the surface layer of the stable nocturnal boundary layer by analyzing two tower datasets with eddy-correlation measurements at multiple levels. Directional shear is a major contributor to the total vector shear for weak winds due primarily to frequent shallow drainage flows at one site and due primarily to non-stationary modes at the second site. For weak winds, the turbulence intensity is more related to the wind-directional shear than to the wind speed or stratification, at least for these two datasets.

  15. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    agreement with the reference data. A quantitative comparison between the mean flow field of the DWM model with and without the suggested improvements, to that of the AL model, shows that the root-mean-square difference in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity is reduced on the order of 30% and 40......%, respectively, by including the proposed corrections for a row of eight turbines. Furthermore, it is found that the root-mean-square difference between the AL model and the modified DWM model in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity does not increase over a row of turbines compared with the root-mean-square...... shear on the wake deficit evolution by including a strain-rate contribution in the wake turbulence calculation. The method to account for the increased turbulence at a wake-affected turbine by basing the wake-added turbulence directly on the Reynolds stresses of the oncoming wake. This also allows...

  16. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  17. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  18. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    (PDF) of turbulence driven short-term extreme wind shear events, conditioned on the mean wind speed, for an arbitrary recurrence period. The model is based on an asymptotic expansion, and only a few and easily accessible parameters are needed as input. The model of the extreme PDF is supplemented...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate......In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...

  19. Possible ionospheric preconditioning by shear flow leading to equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical shear in the zonal plasma drift speed is apparent in incoherent and coherent scatter radar observations of the bottomside F region ionosphere made at Jicamarca from about 1600–2200 LT. The relative importance of the factors controlling the shear, which include competition between the E and F region dynamos as well as vertical currents driven in the E and F regions at the dip equator, is presently unknown. Bottom-type scattering layers arise in strata where the neutral and plasma drifts differ widely, and periodic structuring of irregularities within the layers is telltale of intermediate-scale waves in the bottomside. These precursor waves appear to be able to seed ionospheric interchange instabilities and initiate full-blown equatorial spread F. The seed or precursor waves may be generated by a collisional shear instability. However, assessing the viability of shear instability requires measurements of the same parameters needed to understand shear flow quantitatively - thermospheric neutral wind and off-equatorial conductivity profiles. Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (Waves and instabilities

  20. Shear and Turbulence Effects on Lidar Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Sathe, Ameya; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. It is known that lidar wind speed measure-ments are affected by both turbulence and wind shear. This report explains the mechanisms behind these sensitivities. For turbulence, it is found that errors in the scalar mean speed...... are usually only small. However, particularly in re-spect of a lidar calibration procedure, turbulence induced errors in the cup anemometer speed are seen to be signifi-cantly larger. Wind shear is shown to induce measurement errors both due to possible imperfections in the lidar sensing height and due...... to the averaging of a non-linear speed profile. Both effects in combination have to be included when modelling the lidar error. Attempts to evaluate the lidar error from ex-perimental data have not been successful probably due to a lack of detailed knowledge of both the wind shear and the actual lidar sensing...

  1. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    based on combined efficiency of the rotor and the reciprocating pump was used to estimate the performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, ...

  2. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Højstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.

    2003-04-01

    The first large offshore wind farms are in the planning phase in several countries in Europe. Their economic viability depends on the favourable wind conditions compared to sites on land. The higher energy yield has to compensate the additional installation and maintenance cost. For project planning and siting a reliable prediction of the wind resource is therefore crucial. For turbine design the wind shear of the marine surface layer is an important design parameter, especially since the growing rotor diameter makes turbines more vulnerable for spatial wind speed variations. Compared to land surfaces the roughness of water is very low. It is commonly described either as a constant (as in the wind resource estimation program WAsP) or by means of the Charnock approach, relating sea surface roughness and friction velocity. While this relation works well for the open oceans it has been found inappropriate for coastal areas where waves are not fully developed. Information about the wave field is needed to model the sea surface roughness more accurately (see e.g. Johnson et al. (1998)). The atmospheric stability differs greatly between land and water areas. It is more important offshore compared to land sites due to the low surface roughness of water. The main influence of the atmospheric stability is on the vertical momentum transport, which is reflected in the vertical wind speed profile. It is usually described with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, other effects not described by this approach might also play an important role: For offshore flow the flow regime at coastal sites is affected by the land-sea discontinuity (Højstrup, 1999). An internal boundary layer develops at the coastline and an inhomogeneous flow field might develop in the coastal zone, especially in stable stratification (see e.g. (Smedman et al. (1997)) Recent data from the measurement at Rødsand, 10 km off the Danish coast in the Baltic Sea, include simultaneous wind and wave data from

  3. On the reality of the Venus winds. [Venera satellite and Mariner space probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, J. E.; Herman, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Venera measurements of wind speed along with the Mariner measurements of lower-region of strong turbulence are evidence for a wide band of variable high speed retrograde horizontal winds which girdle Venus at the equator. In one interpretation of the Mariner 10 UV photographs, the 20km region above the top of the visible cloud is characterized by variable high-speed retrograde horizontal winds which orbit Venus with an average period of 4 earth days, and by many features indicating vertical convection. This suggests that the Venera-Mariner band of winds at 45km extends to the top of the UV cloud and beyond, and that the upper-region of strong turbulence detected by the Mariners may result from vertical convection currents carried along by high speed horizontal winds. In another interpretation, the predominate motions are attributed to wavelike disturbances with a 4-day period. For this case the upper-region of strong turbulence may be due in large part to vertical wind-shear resulting from a rapid decrease in wind speed within a relatively short distance about the Venera-Mariner band of high speed winds.

  4. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  5. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  6. Vertical shaft windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  7. Vertical cross-spectral phases in atmospheric flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    . The phase angle of the cross-wind component is observed to be significantly greater than the phase for the along-wind component, which in turn is greater than the phase for the vertical component. The cross-wind and along-wind phases increase with stream-wise wavenumber and vertical separation distance...

  8. Current observations from a looking down vertical V-ADCP: interaction with winds and tide? The case of Giglio Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cutroneo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the environmental monitoring of the Concordia wreck removal project, measurements of currents, winds and sea level height were made along the eastern coast of the Giglio Island, Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy, during 2012–2013. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of atmospheric forcing and periodic sea-level changes on the coastal currents. Normalised Cross-Correlation Function analysis allowed us to correlate these observations. A marked inter-seasonal variability was found in both current and local wind velocity observations but a significant level of correlation between the data was only found during strong wind events. Current and wind directions appeared to be uncorrelated and current measurements showed a predominant NW–SE direction, presumably linked to the shape and orientation of Giglio Island itself. During strong winds from the SSE, current flow was towards the NNW but it suddenly switched from the NNW to the SE at the end of wind events. The results show that, at Giglio Island, currents are principally dominated by the general cyclonic Tyrrhenian circulation, and, secondly, by strong wind events. The sea level had no effects on the current regime.

  9. Wind Regimes above and below a Temperate Deciduous Forest Canopy in Complex Terrain: Interactions between Slope and Valley Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermally driven wind over mountainous terrains challenges the estimation of CO2 exchange between forests and the atmosphere when using the eddy covariance technique. In this study, the wind regimes were investigated in a temperate deciduous forested valley at the Maoershan site, Northeast China. The wind direction above the canopy was preferentially up-valley in the daytime and down-valley in the nighttime, corresponding to the diurnal patterns of above-canopy temperature gradient and stability parameter. In both leaf-on and -off nighttime, a down-valley flow with a maximum velocity of 1~3 m∙s−1 was often developed at 42 m above the ground (2.3-fold of the canopy height. However, the below-canopy prevailing wind was down-slope in the night, contrast to the below-canopy temperature lapse and unstable conditions. This substantial directional shear illustrated shallow slope winds were superimposed on larger-scale valley winds. As a consequence, the valley-wind component becomes stronger with increasing height, indicating a clear confluence of drainage flow to the valley center. In the daytime, the below-canopy wind was predominated down-slope due to the temperature inversion and stable conditions in the leaf-on season, and was mainly up-valley or down-slope in the leaf-off season. The isolation of momentum flux and radiation by the dense canopy played a key role in the formation of the below-canopy unaligned wind and inverse stability. Significant lateral kinematic momentum fluxes were detected due to the directional shear. These findings suggested a significant interaction between slope and valley winds at this site. The frequent vertical convergence / divergence above the canopy and horizontal divergence/convergence below the canopy in the nighttime / daytime is likely to induce significant advections of trace gases and energy flux.

  10. A weakly nonlinear model for multi-modal evolution of wind-generated long internal waves in a closed basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sakai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A weakly nonlinear evolution model that accounts for multi-modal interaction in a small, continuously stratified lake of variable depth is derived. In particular, an evolution model for the first two vertical modes in a lake that is subject to wind stress forcing is numerically simulated. Defining modal energies, energy transfer between the first and the second vertical modes is calculated for several different forms of the density stratification. Modal energy transfer mainly occurs during reflection of mode-one waves at the vertical end walls, and it is shown that the amount of energy transfer from the first to the second mode is greatly dependent on the shape of the stratification profile. Also, the initial modal energy partition at the wind setup is shown to depend significantly on the penetration depth of the internal shear stress induced by the wind stress, especially if the stress distribution extends into the upper levels of the metalimnion.

  11. Shear effects on crystalline structures of poly(L-lactide)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Peitao; Li, Hongfei; Huang, Shaoyong

    2013-01-01

    with different shear temperature or under the same shear strain but different shear rate were investigated. The mesophase of polymer melts and shearing effects on their pre-ordered phase turned out to be the key factor affecting the crystal structure of PLLA under different shearing conditions.......The shearing effects of sheared polymer melts on their finally formed crystalline structures of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) were investigated by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The results of WAXD prove that shear has no effects on the crystal...... structure of PLLA. The SAXS results demonstrate that both of the long period and the thickness of crystalline lamellae increase with rising shear rates when vertical to the shear direction, but remains constant when being parallel to the shear direction. The structural changes for samples prepared...

  12. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  13. Wind turbine rotor aerodynamics : The IEA MEXICO rotor explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbines are operating under very complex and uncontrolled environmental conditions, including atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric boundary layer effects, directional and spatial variations in wind shear, etc. Over the past decades, the size of a commercial wind turbine has increased

  14. Vertical and Interfacial Transport in Wetlands (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluxes connecting the water column, substrate, and atmosphere in wetland environments. To do this, analytical, numerical, and laboratory models have been used to quantify the hydrodynamic contributions to vertical fluxes. A key question is whether the hydrodynamic transport can be modeled as a diffusivity, and, if so, what the vertical structure of this diffusivity is. This question will be addressed in a number of flow types and for a number of fluxes. The fluxes of interest are heat, sediment, dissolved gases (such as methane and oxygen) and other dissolved solutes (such as nutrients and pollutants). The flows of interest include: unidirectional current, reversing flow (under waves, seiches, and tides), wind-sheared surface flows, and thermal convection. Rain and bioturbation can be important, but are not considered in the modeling work discussed herein. Specifically, we will present results on gas transport at wind-sheared free surface, sediment transport in unidirectional flow, and heat transfer in an oscillating flow cause by a seiche. All three of these will be used to consider the question of appropriate analytical models for vertical transport. The analytic models considered here are all 1D models that assume homogeneity in the horizontal plane. The numerical models use finite element methods and resolve the flow around individual vegetation stems in an idealized geometry. Laboratory models discussed herein also use an idealized geometry. Vegetation is represented by an array of cylinders, whose geometry is modeled after Scirpus spp. wetlands in Northern California. The laboratory model is constructed in a way that allows optical access to the flow, even in dense vegetation and far from boundaries. This is accomplished by using fluoropolymer plastics to construct vegetation models. The optical access allows us to employ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure

  15. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-II: combining the manufacturing process simulation with a subsequent loading scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2015-01-01

    This paper in particular deals with the integrated modeling of a pultruded NACA0018 blade profile being a part of EU funded DeepWind project. The manufacturing aspects of the pultrusion process are associated with the preliminary subsequent service loading scenario. A 3D thermochemical analysis o...

  16. Influence of a roughness length error on vertical wind speed extrapolation for 2D ideal hills using an OpenFOAM® RANS simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav-Levy Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modelling wind flow over a flat and complex terrain, the choice of roughness-length-distribution is critical for accurate wind speed predications. This choice is often made based on the Davenport scale [1]. A satellite or aerial image of the location is used [2–4] and subjective or objective measures are used for translating the image into roughness length - z0 - based on the Davenport scale. The choice of a Davenport table value is generally regarded as within an error of plus or minus one table value, leading to a ±6% error in wind speed predictions for a flat terrain in neutral conditions [5]. In the paper this error is studied for a non-flat terrain, using a series of CFD simulations for 2D hills of various combinations of aspect ratio and steepness. Results show that the wind speed prediction error as a result of a “wrong” parameterization decreases with hill steepness until separation occurs. As a result of separation the error increases slightly, and then decreases again with a further increase in hill steepness.

  17. The Re-invention of the Tower House for the Construction of Green Buildings NZEB, Integrated With the Vertical Axis Small Wind System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Francesco Paolo R.

    Nowadays the cultural and economic context aims to create a sustainable "carbon zero" society through energy-efficient green buildings NZEB, but it has so far overlooked a construction type widely spread throughout Europe, especially in the Middle Ages, and that in Italy still characterizes the most beautiful landscapes of Tuscany and other cities: the tower-house. The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of reinventing the type of the familiar tower-house, which is intrinsically directed to conquer the height and therefore higher wind conditions, assuming the installation on the top of a small wind system to use wind energy, to make the building energetically self-sufficient. This building is designed from a wooden structure of a deciduous tree widespread in the Italian region of Basilicata, the Turkish Oak, which, subject to processes of hygrothermal conditioning, can be transformed into the base material to compose laminated timber beams and pillars, able to guarantee a load of exercise, to bending stress, equal to 40.9 N/mm2, as followed by tests in the Laboratory of Engineering of the University of Basilicata, Potenza. With normal wind conditions in the city of Potenza (average of 6.5 m/s), a 5 kW wind turbine mounted at 25 m tall on a 13 m high building is able to provide all the energy the building needs, with its attractive tapered oval top that minimizes turbulence. Entirely made with structures, finishes and natural insulation, the building is a sign in the landscape, history and future together.

  18. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  19. Comparison of Beijing MST radar and radiosonde horizontal wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yufang; Lü, Daren

    2017-01-01

    To determine the performance and data accuracy of the 50 MHz Beijing Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar, comparisons of radar measured horizontal winds in the height range 3-25 km with radiosonde observations were made during 2012. A total of 427 profiles and 15 210 data pairs were compared. There was very good agreement between the two types of measurement. Standard deviations of difference (mean difference) for wind direction, wind speed, zonal wind and meridional wind were 24.86° (0.77°), 3.37 (-0.44), 3.33 (-0.32) and 3.58 (-0.25) m s-1, respectively. The annual standard deviations of differences for wind speed were within 2.5-3 m s-1 at all heights apart from 10-15 km, the area of strong winds, where the values were 3-4 m s-1. The relatively larger differences were mainly due to wind field variations in height regions with larger wind speeds, stronger wind shear and the quasi-zero wind layer. A lower MST radar SNR and a lower percentage of data pairs compared will also result in larger inconsistencies. Importantly, this study found that differences between the MST radar and radiosonde observations did not simply increase when balloon drift resulted in an increase in the real-time distance between the two instruments, but also depended on spatiotemporal structures and their respective positions in the contemporary synoptic systems. In this sense, the MST radar was shown to be a unique observation facility for atmospheric dynamics studies, as well as an operational meteorological observation system with a high temporal and vertical resolution.

  20. On the relative importance of loads acting on a floating vertical axis wind turbine system when evaluating the global system response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collu, Maurizio; Borg, Michael; Manuel, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Interest in offshore floating wind turbines has been growing over the last decade. While a number of studies have been conducted to model the dynamics of offshore floating HAWT systems (e.g. OC3-Phase IV, OC4-Phase II), relatively few studies have been conducted on floating VAWT systems, despite...... offshore floating VAWT, considering a turbulent wind field and stochastically generated waves, to assess the more critical loads and distinguish them from those with negligible effect, when estimating the global system response. The floating VAWT system considered is comprised of a 5MW rotor supported...... their potential advantages. Due to the substantial differences between HAWT and VAWT systems, analysis procedures employed for a floating HAWT analyses cannot be extended to use for floating VAWT systems. Here, the main aim is to provide a systematic analysis and comparison of the forces acting on a reference...

  1. Current observations from a looking down vertical V-ADCP: interaction with winds and tide? The case of Giglio Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Cutroneo; Gabriele Ferretti; Davide Scafidi; Gian Domenico Ardizzone; Greta Vagge; Marco Capello

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the environmental monitoring of the Concordia wreck removal project, measurements of currents, winds and sea level height were made along the eastern coast of the Giglio Island, Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy), during 2012–2013. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of atmospheric forcing and periodic sea-level changes on the coastal currents. Normalised Cross-Correlation Function analysis allowed us to correlate these observations. A marked inter-seasonal variability wa...

  2. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  3. Impact of Coherent Turbulence on Wind Turbine Aeroelastic Response and Its Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Scott, G. N.; Bialasiewicz, J. T.; Redmond, L. S.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we present a brief overview of our recent research results regarding the impact of organized or coherent inflow turbulence on the dynamic response of operating wind turbines. Previous field experimentation has demonstrated that the greatest structural fatigue damage tends to occur during the nighttime hours from coherent turbulence that develops in the stable, nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer. We have found that under such conditions, intense vertical wind shear and temperature gradients create resonant flow fields that are capable of imparting short-period loading and vibrational energy as wind turbine rotor blades pass through regions of organized or coherent turbulence. This energy is subsequently propagated throughout the remainder of the structure, where it is often locally dissipated. We also briefly discuss our recent progress in developing a numerical simulation that includes such coherent inflow conditions that can be used to excite wind turbine design codes.

  4. The influence of the Wind Speed Profile on Wind Turbine Performance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Antoniou, Ioannis; Pedersen, Søren M.

    2009-01-01

    . Assuming a certain turbine hub height, the profiles with hub-height wind speeds between 6 m s-1 and 8 m s-1 are normalized at 7 m s-1 and grouped to a number of mean shear profiles. The energy in the profiles varies considerably for the same hub-height wind speed. These profiles are then used as input......To identify the influence of wind shear and turbulence on wind turbine performance, flat terrain wind profiles are analysed up to a height of 160 m. The profiles' shapes are found to extend from no shear to high wind shear, and on many occasions, local maxima within the profiles are also observed...... to a Blade Element Momentum model that simulates the Siemens 3.6 MW wind turbine. The analysis is carried out as time series simulations where the electrical power is the primary characterization parameter. The results of the simulations indicate that wind speed measurements at different heights over...

  5. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  6. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow

    OpenAIRE

    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity ω in an axial background shear of magnitude Ω by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector Ω and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lat...

  7. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  8. Application of wind-profiling radar data to the analysis of dust weather in the Taklimakan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Wei, Wenshou; Ruan, Zheng; He, Qing; Ge, Runsheng

    2013-06-01

    The Urumqi Institute of Desert Meteorology of the China Meteorological Administration carried out an atmospheric scientific experiment to detect dust weather using a wind-profiling radar in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert in April 2010. Based on the wind-profiling data obtained from this experiment, this paper seeks to (a) analyze the characteristics of the horizontal wind field and vertical velocity of a breaking dust weather in a desert hinterland; (b) calculate and give the radar echo intensity and vertical distribution of a dust storm, blowing sand, and floating dust weather; and (c) discuss the atmosphere dust counts/concentration derived from the wind-profiling radar data. Studies show that: (a) A wind-profiling radar is an upper-air atmospheric remote sensing system that effectively detects and monitors dust. It captures the beginning and ending of a dust weather process as well as monitors the sand and dust being transported in the air in terms of height, thickness, and vertical intensity. (b) The echo intensity of a blowing sand and dust storm weather episode in Taklimakan is about -1~10 dBZ while that of floating dust -1~-15 dBZ, indicating that the dust echo intensity is significantly weaker than that of precipitation but stronger than that of clear air. (c) The vertical shear of horizontal wind and the maintenance of low-level east wind are usually dynamic factors causing a dust weather process in Taklimakan. The moment that the low-level horizontal wind field finds a shear over time, it often coincides with the onset of a sand blowing and dust storm weather process. (d) When a blowing sand or dust storm weather event occurs, the atmospheric vertical velocity tends to be of upward motion. This vertical upward movement of the atmosphere supported with a fast horizontal wind and a dry underlying surface carries dust particles from the ground up to the air to form blown sand or a dust storm.

  9. Glass Masonry - Experimental Verification of Bed Joint under Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fíla, J.; Eliášová, M.; Sokol, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Glass is considered as a traditional material for building industry but was mostly used for glazing of the windows. At present, glass is an integral part of contemporary architecture where glass structural elements such as beams, stairs, railing ribs or columns became popular in the last two decades. However, using glass as structural material started at the beginning of 20th century, when masonry from hollow glass blocks were used. Using solid glass brick is very rare and only a few structures with solid glass bricks walls have been built in the last years. Pillars and walls made from solid glass bricks are mainly loaded by compression and/or bending from the eccentricity of vertical load or wind load. Due to high compressive strength of glass, the limiting factor of the glass masonry is the joint between the glass bricks as the smooth surface requires another type of mortar / glue compared to traditional masonry. Shear resistance and failure modes of brick bed joint was determined during series of tests using various mortars, two types of surface treatment and different thickness of the mortar joint. Shear tests were completed by small scale tests for mortar – determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar.

  10. Multiple-LiDAR measurements of wind turbine wakes: effect of the atmospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Aerodynamic design and optimization of a wind farm layout are mainly based on the evaluation of wind turbine wake recovery by moving downstream, and on the characterization of wake interactions within a wind farm. Indeed, the power production of downstream wind turbine rows is strictly affected by the cumulative wake produced by the turbines deployed upstream. Wind turbine wakes are dependent on their aerodynamic features, and being immersed in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), they are also affected by surface heterogeneity, e.g. site topography and surface coverage, and atmospheric stability. The ABL stability is typically classified as neutral, convective or stable. In a neutral ABL the mechanical turbulent production is the dominating phenomenon. Conversely, for a convective ABL the turbulent kinetic energy and vertical transport phenomena are enhanced by positive buoyancy. Finally, for a stable ABL, a lower turbulence level is typically observed with an increased wind shear. For the present campaign convective ABL was typically observed during day-time, and neutral ABL for early morning and sunset periods. The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the influence of the ABL stability on downstream evolution of wind turbine wakes, which is mainly controlled by different ABL turbulence characteristics. Field measurements of the wake produced from a 2 MW Enercon E-70 wind turbine were performed with three scanning Doppler wind LiDARs. The wind and atmospheric conditions were characterized through a sonic anemometer deployed in proximity of the wind turbine. One LiDAR was placed at a distance about 12 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine in order to characterize the incoming wind. Two additional LiDARs were typically used to perform wake measurements. Tests were performed over the wake vertical symmetry plane in order to characterize wake recovery. Measurements were also carried out over conical surfaces in order to investigate the wind turbine wake

  11. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  12. Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Gregory R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

  13. Forward looking wind shear detection program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian; Selogie, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Delco Systems' Forward Looking Windshear Detection program is reviewed in viewgraph form. Topics covered include extinction of radiance by absorbing and scattering media, atmospheric absorption in the far infrared region, an inframetrics imaging radiometer, a basic radiance signal equation, and tower and flight test plans.

  14. Wind Shear radar program future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the Windshear Radar Program at the Collins Air Transport Division of Rockwell International is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include goals, modifications to the WXR-700 system, flight test plans, technical approaches, design considerations, system considerations, certification, and future plans.

  15. Advanced technology wind shear prediction system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The program overviews: (1) American Airline (AA)/Turbulence Prediction Systems (TPS), which have installed forward looking infrared predictive windshear system on 3 MD-80 aircraft; (2) AA/TPS AWAS III evaluation, which is a joint effort and is installed in the noise landing gear (NLG) area and a data recorder installed in the E/E compartment.

  16. WindVisions: first phase final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to develop a Wind and Visibility Monitoring System (WindVisions) at Mainport Schiphol. WindVisions will consist of a crosswind scintillometer, which is a horizontal long range wind and visibility sensor, and a SODAR (Sound Detecting And Ranging), a vertical

  17. Surface boundary layer evolution and near-inertial wind power input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, B. F.; Girton, J. B.

    2015-11-01

    Deep weakly stratified surface layers in the Southern Ocean complicate the identification of the mixed-layer base, which is critical in estimating the wind power input through the ocean surface. Typically used mixed-layer depth criteria often ignore weak stratification, which traps momentum near the surface and significantly enhances the near-inertial-band wind power input. The thickness of the active mixing-layer, the turbulent layer in contact with wind stress, is needed to accurately estimate wind power input. A fine-density-threshold criterion of 0.005 kg m-3, just above the noise floor of most autonomous instruments, was applied to observed profiles of potential density to estimate the thickness of the actively mixing-layer. Vertical shear, Langmuir cells, and buoyant convection are investigated as possible mechanisms maintaining turbulence within the mixing-layer. Over 90% of the observed variance of the mixing-layer thickness is explained by either shear-driven entrainment, which is simulated using the Price-Weller-Pinkel model, or by a parameterization of downwelling plumes due to Langmuir cell convergence. In general, surface buoyancy fluxes are too weak to drive mixed-layer turbulence. Comparison of National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) climatological mixed-layer thickness to those determined using the 0.005 kg m-3 density threshold suggests a multiplicative seasonally varying correction of 1.5-3.5 should be applied to wind work estimates made using the NODC climatological mixed-layer thickness in the Southern Ocean.

  18. Estudo da ocorrência de fluxos no perfil vertical do vento na baixa atmosfera com análise das componentes principais (ACP e a sua relação com a precipitação no Rio Grande do Sul Vertical wind profile uses a principal component analysis, and of their relation to precipitation in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Souza Corrêa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo busca-se entender as relações dos Jatos de Nível Baixo (JNB e dos fluxos no perfil vertical do vento na geração de convecção em escala sinótica e a sua associação com a precipitação, observa-se o perfil vertical do vento através de radiossondagens realizadas no Aeroporto Internacional Salgado Filho em Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estimam-se características predominantes da dinâmica dos fluxos dentro da baixa atmosfera, descrevendo a interação dos JNB e fluxos na geração da precipitação. Os JNB associados neste intenso transporte apresentam uma tendência de estarem ligados a eventos convectivos noturnos e na geração de Sistemas Convectivos de Mesoescala (SCM, que geram elevados índices pluviométricos que podem causar importante influência econômica. Utiliza-se a técnica da Análise das Componentes Principais para realização deste estudo, comparando suas componentes com a precipitação de sessenta e quatro estações pluviométricas sobre Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O emprego desta metodologia facilita o entendimento da complexidade das interações das diferentes escalas meteorológicas envolvidas nos processos sinóticos de macro e mesoescala, mostrando neste método uma melhor representação das características dinâmicas dos processos baroclínicos na convecção. Em tal complexidade, o trabalho realizado pelos JNB e os fluxos nesta interação são o de serem uma escala efetiva de transporte de vapor de água na baixa atmosfera ao nível de mesoescala e de escala continental.This study analyses the relation between Low-Level Jets (LLJ and Flows in the vertical wind profiles generating convection at the synoptic scale, and associated events of rainfall, using vertical wind profiles obtained by radiosonde at the Salgado Filho International Airport in Porto Alegre, the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The LLJs involved in this large-scale transport tend to be associated with

  19. Southern California Wind Power Sensitivity to Turbine Hub Height, Rotor Radius and Rated Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. B.; Hall, A. D.; Hughes, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Using hourly output from a 6km resolution mesoscale model and hypothetical wind turbine power curves, we quantify the sensitivity of wind power throughout Southern California to three key attributes of wind turbines: hub height, rotor radius and rated power. Changes in rotor diameter influence power in the variable speed region of the turbine power curve (wind speeds between the cut-in and rated speeds). For most Southern California regions, the bulk (>50%) of the wind speed distribution is contained between these two speeds. Rated power changes affect wind power for winds between the rated and cut-out speeds. Only offshore and mountain pass regions contain >40% of the wind speed distribution affected by rated power changes. Hub height changes can result in a wind distribution shift to the right, the magnitude of the shift dependent upon vertical wind shear. Thus, well-mixed boundary layer regions including offshore are less sensitive to hub height changes. All of these sensitivities fluctuate diurnally and seasonally with the amplitude dependent upon location. Using a turbine component cost scaling model, we compute total cost increments associated with each of the three turbine attribute changes. Among the three turbine characteristics explored, rotor radius provides the largest wind power change per dollar cost increment. Area averaged and maximum power change per dollar cost increment for rotor radius is 1.42 and 2.73 Watts/dollar, respectively. Although area averaged power change per dollar cost increment for rated power and hub height are similar (0.23 and 0.24 Watts/dollar), spatial variability of power sensitivity to rated power is greater. As much as 1 Watt/dollar cost increment in rated power is gained for offshore and mountain regions. Regions most insensitive to all three turbine characteristic changes include the coastal basin (Los Angeles to San Diego) and the southern San Joaquin Valley. Mountain passes are most sensitive to rated power and rotor

  20. Take-Off and Landing Characteristics of a 0.13-Scale Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane in Steady Winds, TED No. NACA DE 368

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Robert O.; Smith, Charles C., Jr.; Lovell, P. M., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the stability and control characteristics of a 0.13-scale free-flight model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane during take-offs and landings in steady winds. The tests indicated that take-offs in headwinds up to at least 20 knots (full scale) will be fairly easy to perform although the airplane may be blown downstream as much as 3 spans before a trim condition can be established. The distance that the airplane will be blown down-stream can be reduced by restraining the upwind landing gear until the instant of take-off. The tests also indicated that spot landings in headwinds up to at least 30 knots (full scale) and in crosswinds up to at least 20 knots (full scale) can be accomplished with reasonable accuracy although, during the landing approach, there will probably be an undesirable nosing-up tendency caused by ground effect and by the change in angle of attack resulting from vertical descent. Some form of arresting gear will probably be required to prevent the airplane from rolling downwind or tipping over after contact. This rolling and tipping can be prevented by a snubbing line attached to the tip of the upwind' wing or tail or by an arresting gear consisting of a wire mesh on the ground and hooks on the landing gear to engage the mesh.