WorldWideScience

Sample records for vertical water movement

  1. Multi-Joint Coordination of Vertical Arm Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Seth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the human arm was developed to study coordination of multi-joint movement in the vertical plane. The arm was represented as a two-segment, two-degree of freedom dynamic system with net muscle torques acting at the shoulder and elbow. Kinematic data were collected from a subject who performed unrestrained vertical movements with only the initial and final hand elevations prescribed. Movements were performed with and without a hand-held load. The method of computed torques was implemented to obtain net muscle torques, which enables position and velocity feedback to be used to estimate joint angular accelerations that produce a more stable simulation of arm movement. The model simulation was then used to calculate the contributions of the net muscle torques, gravitational torques and velocity-interaction torques to the angular accelerations of the shoulder and elbow and also to the vertical acceleration of the hand. The net muscle torques and gravity were the prime movers of the arm. The velocity-dependent effects contributed little to the dynamics of arm movement and were, in fact, insignificant when the hand was loaded. The muscles of the shoulder and elbow acted synergistically to elevate the arm in the sagittal plane. The hand was accelerated upward by the elbow first, until the point of maximum elbow flexion, after which the shoulder became the prime mover. Gravity acted consistently to accelerate the hand downward. Coordination was notably invariant to changes in external load. Some compensation for load was observed in the control, and these differences were attributed mainly to an increase in system inertia.

  2. LEP Vertical Tunnel Movements Lessons for Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Pitthan, R

    1999-01-01

    The data from 10 years of vertical surveys verify for all of LEP the previous observation, localized to region P1, that LEP floor movements are predominantly deterministic. This rules out the ATL model as being correct for this tunnel. If generalized, for yearly movements a random ATL model underestimates the possible maximum long-term motions. In contrast, extrapolation of the LEP vertical data to the short-term (hours and days) time-scale shows that the random approach predicts larger short-term movements than the deterministic model. This means that simulations using the ATL hypothesis are overly pessimistic with regard to the frequency of operational re-alignments required. Depending on the constants chosen in the models these differences can be large, of the order of a magnitude and more.This paper deals solely with the direct measured months-to-years tunnel motions in rock, and the extrapolation of such ground motions to hourly or daily time-spans. It does not address the important question of the contr...

  3. Improving vertical jump profiles through prescribed movement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, John K; Patterson, Bryce; Wagner, Phil

    2017-09-11

    Developing practical, reliable, and valid methods for monitoring athlete wellness and injury risk is an important goal for trainers, athletes, and coaches. Previous studies have shown that the countermovement vertical jump test (CMJ) is both a reliable and valid metric for evaluating an athlete's condition. This study examines the effectiveness of prescribed workouts on improving quality of movement during CMJ. The dataset consists of 2425 pairs of CMJ scans for high school, college, and professional athletes training at a privately owned facility. During each scan, a force plate recorded three ground reaction force (GRF) measurements known to impact CMJ performance: Eccentric Rate of Force Development (ERFD), Average Vertical Concentric Force (AVCF), and Concentric Vertical Impulse (CVI). After an initial scan, coaches either assigned the athlete a specific 1- or 2- strength movement plan (treatment group) or instructed the athlete to choose their own workouts (control group) before returning for a follow-up scan. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed significant differences in changes to GRF measurements between athletes in the two groups after adjusting for the covariates gender, sport, time between scans, and rounds of workout completed. A Principal Component Analysis of GRF measurements further identified four primary groups of athlete needs and the results provide recommendations for effective workout plans targeting each group. In particular, split squats increase CVI and decrease ERFD/AVCF; deadlifts increase AVCF and decrease CVI; alternating squats/split squats increase ERFD/CVI and decrease AVCF; and alternating squats/deadlifts increase ERFD/AVCF and decrease CVI.

  4. Tracking the exact vertical movement of freestanding graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pijush; Thompson, Josh; Thibado, Paul; Neek-Amal, Mehdi; Peeters, Francois

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsic ripples in freestanding graphene have, unsurprisingly, been exceedingly difficult to study with common experimental methods. In notable breakthroughs, individual ripple geometry was recently imaged using transmission electron microscopy as well as scanning tunneling microscopy, but these measurements are thus far limited to static graphene configurations. Thermally-activated flexural phonon modes could generate dynamic changes in curvature which would be of great interest to observe. Here, we present how to track the exact vertical movement of a one-square-angstrom region of freestanding graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy. This allows a direct measurement of the out-of-plane time trajectory and fluctuations at one point in space over long periods of time. Based on these data, we also present a model from elasticity theory to explain the unusual very-low frequency oscillations that are observed. Unexpectedly, we sometimes detect a sudden colossal jump, which we interpret as due to mirror buckling. This innovative technique provides a much needed atomic-scale probe for the time-dependent behaviors of intrinsic ripples in freestanding graphene. Financial support was provided, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0181, the National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-0855358.

  5. Vertical crustal movements in Southern California, 1974 to 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, R.O.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    An extensive resurvey of most of the first-order leveling network in southern California, known as the Southern California Releveling Program (SCRP), was carried out during the first 5 months of 1978. The primary scientific purpose of these measurements was to rapidly update the vertical control record throughout a recently uplifted region of southern California in order to more thoroughly document the vertical component of tectonic movement and to provide a reliable base for comparison with future levelings. Analyses of historic first-order leveling results have clearly demonstrated that a broad crustal upwarping, largely contained within a region consisting of the Transverse Ranges province and an area along the intervening section of the San Andreas fault system, had developed between about 1959 and 1974. Unfortunately, there is strong evidence that parts of the 1978 SCRP data are contaminated by the effects of intrasurvey tectonic deformation, limited surficial failures, and, less certainly, magnetically induced systematic error associated with the use of automatic levels. However, any distortions in leveling results caused by these or other factors are not so serious as to render the SCRP data useless. In fact, the bulk of these data can be accepted at face value, and most of the remaining data can be incorporated with some caution to augment the more reliable parts of the network. The evaluation of the 1978 leveling is based on a combination of circuit-misclosures, local timing of the field observations, analysis of profiles of apparent height changes derived from comparisons with previous levelings, and an analysis of the position and orientation of the various routes in relation to the regional structural grain and the gradients of differential vertical motion established by previous investigations. Comparisons of the 1978 SCRP results with the latest of the previous surveys along each route retained in the analysis show that all but about one-third of the

  6. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  7. Study of Vertical Movements of the European Crust Using Tide Gauge and Gnss Observations

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    Tretyak Kornyliy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to the study of vertical movements of the European crust on the basis of two independent methods, namely tide gauge and GNSS observations results. The description and classification of factors affecting sea level change has been made. The precision with which the movement of the earth's crust according to the results of tide gauge observations can be explored has been calculated . A methodology to identify the duration of tide gauge observations required for studies of vertical movements of the earth 's crust has been presented. Approximation of tide gauge time series with the help of Fourier series has been implemented, the need for long-term observations in certain areas has been explained. The diagram of the velocities of the vertical movements of the European crust on the basis of the tide gauge data and GNSS observations has been built and the anomalous areas where the observations do not coincide have been identified.

  8. IMU: inertial sensing of vertical CoM movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken

    2009-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to use a quaternion rotation matrix in combination with an integration approach to transform translatory accelerations of the centre of mass (CoM) from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) during walking, from the object system onto the global frame. Second, this paper utilises double integration to determine the relative change in position of the CoM from the vertical acceleration data. Five participants were tested in which an IMU, consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers was attached on the lower spine estimated centre of mass. Participants were asked to walk three times through a calibrated volume at their self-selected walking speed. Synchronized data were collected by an IMU and an optical motion capture system (OMCS); both measured at 100 Hz. Accelerations of the IMU were transposed onto the global frame using a quaternion rotation matrix. Translatory acceleration, speed and relative change in position from the IMU were compared with the derived data from the OMCS. Peak acceleration in vertical axis showed no significant difference (p> or =0.05). Difference between peak and trough speed showed significant difference (pIMU and OMCS did not show any significant difference (p> or =0.05). These results indicate that quaternions, in combination with Simpsons rule integration, can be used in transforming translatory acceleration from the object frame to the global frame and therefore obtain relative change in position, thus offering a solution for using accelerometers in accurate global frame kinematic gait analyses.

  9. Horizontal and vertical movements of Caribbean reef sharks (Carcharhinus perezi): conservation implications of limited migration in a marine sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Lucy A.; Tolentino, Emily R.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Ruppert, Jonathan L. W.; Brooks, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi), little data exist regarding the movements and habitat use of this predator across its range. We deployed 11 pop-up satellite archival tags on Caribbean reef sharks captured in the northeast Exuma Sound, The Bahamas, to assess their horizontal and vertical movements throughout the water column. Sharks showed high site fidelity to The Bahamas suggesting Bahamian subpopulations remain protected within the Bahamian Shark Sanctuary. Depth data indicate that Caribbean reef sharks spent a significant proportion (72–91%) of their time above 50 m in narrow vertical depth bands, which varied considerably on an individual basis. This may be indicative of high site fidelity to specific bathymetric features. Animals exhibited three broadly categorized sporadic off-bank excursions (more than 50 m excursions) down to a depth of 436.1 m, which were more frequent during the night. These deeper excursions during night may be indicative of foraging in relation to prey on mesophotic reefs, as well as diel-vertically migrating prey from the deeper meso- and bathypelagic zones. These vertical movements suggest that Caribbean reef sharks can be significant vectors of ecosystem connectivity further warranting holistic multi-system management and conservation approaches. PMID:28386422

  10. A Unified Global Reference Frame of Vertical Crustal Movements by Satellite Laser Ranging

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    Xinhui Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Crustal movement is one of the main factors influencing the change of the Earth system, especially in its vertical direction, which affects people’s daily life through the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, geological disasters, and so on. In order to get a better study and application of the vertical crustal movement,as well as its changes, the foundation and prerequisite areto devise and establish its reference frame; especially, a unified global reference frame is required. Since SLR (satellite laser ranging is one of the most accurate space techniques for monitoring geocentric motion and can directly measure the ground station’s geocentric coordinates and velocities relative to the centre of the Earth’s mass, we proposed to take the vertical velocity of the SLR technique in the ITRF2008 framework as the reference frame of vertical crustal motion, which we defined as the SLR vertical reference frame (SVRF. The systematic bias between other velocity fields and the SVRF was resolved by using the GPS (Global Positioning System and VLBI (very long baseline interferometry velocity observations, and the unity of other velocity fields and SVRF was realized,as well. The results show that it is feasible and suitable to take the SVRF as a reference frame, which has both geophysical meanings and geodetic observations, so we recommend taking the SLR vertical velocity under ITRF2008 as the global reference frame of vertical crustal movement.

  11. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at aggregation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Gabriel M S; Meekan, Mark G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Speed, Conrad W

    2013-01-01

    We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females) of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies.

  12. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos at aggregation sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M S Vianna

    Full Text Available We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies.

  13. Diel and vertical movements of preflexion fish larvae assemblage associated with Posidonia oceanica beds

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    Yoana del Pilar Ruso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity is a strong determinant of fish assemblage structure. Enhanced food resources and protection from predators are generally considered the main benefits of vegetated areas. We investigated the diel and vertical movements of preflexion fish larvae within and above the leaf canopy of Posidonia oceanica to determine if it acts as an important habitat for larval stage fish. Samples were taken with moored plankton nets during the night and day at two depths (13 and 15 m over five consecutive days in July 2000 in the Marine Protected Area off Tabarca Island (Spain, SW Mediterranean Sea. In total, 353 fish larvae were captured. The most abundant taxa were Sardinella aurita, Sparidae, Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. Sparidae were more abundant within the leaf canopy during the day but increased in waters 2 m above the canopy at night. In contrast, Sardinella aurita were present throughout the entire water column during both the day and night. We conclude that the P. oceanica leaf canopy is important as a transitional shelter for the early stage larvae of some demersal fish species.

  14. Late orogenic vertical movements within the arc of the SW Alps and Ligurian Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertotti, G.V.; Mosca, P.

    2009-01-01

    Mainly on the basis of seismic data, we reconstruct magnitude and timing of Miocene to Present vertical movements in the region of the Savigliano basin, an up to 4 km thick succession of Neogene to Quaternary sediments accumulated inside the Alpine arc at the western termination of the Po Plain. We

  15. Modelling the Diel Vertical Movement of Swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 Based on Temperature and Depth Recorder Data

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    Bram Setyadji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical distribution of large pelagic fish, swordfish in particular, could improve our knowledge on its fisheries strategy, management and resource conservation. However the methods often require expensive tools and resources, which probably most scientists from the development countries couldn’t afford. Thus developing model on the diel vertical movement behavior of swordfish using number of hook between float (HBF and complete-set temperature and depth recorder (TDR data could be an alternative. In general context, capture depth distributions are a good indicator of the natural depth distribution of the fish if the entire depth range of the species is targeted by longline gear. The proposed sinusoidal model suggested that swordfish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, marked by remained in the surface and mixed layer waters at night and dived into deeper waters during the day. Keywords: swordfish, behavior, HBF, TDR, sinusoidal model

  16. Optimal integration of gravity in trajectory planning of vertical pointing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    The planning and control of motor actions requires knowledge of the dynamics of the controlled limb to generate the appropriate muscular commands and achieve the desired goal. Such planning and control imply that the CNS must be able to deal with forces and constraints acting on the limb, such as the omnipresent force of gravity. The present study investigates the effect of hypergravity induced by parabolic flights on the trajectory of vertical pointing movements to test the hypothesis that motor commands are optimized with respect to the effect of gravity on the limb. Subjects performed vertical pointing movements in normal gravity and hypergravity. We use a model based on optimal control to identify the role played by gravity in the optimal arm trajectory with minimal motor costs. First, the simulations in normal gravity reproduce the asymmetry in the velocity profiles (the velocity reaches its maximum before half of the movement duration), which typically characterizes the vertical pointing movements performed on Earth, whereas the horizontal movements present symmetrical velocity profiles. Second, according to the simulations, the optimal trajectory in hypergravity should present an increase in the peak acceleration and peak velocity despite the increase in the arm weight. In agreement with these predictions, the subjects performed faster movements in hypergravity with significant increases in the peak acceleration and peak velocity, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the movement duration. This suggests that movement kinematics change in response to an increase in gravity, which is consistent with the hypothesis that motor commands are optimized and the action of gravity on the limb is taken into account. The results provide evidence for an internal representation of gravity in the central planning process and further suggest that an adaptation to altered dynamics can be understood as a reoptimization process.

  17. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  18. Estimation of vertical tuber coxae movement in the horse from a single inertial measurement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Thilo; Starke, Sandra D; Tröster, Susanne; Roepstorff, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic movement is altered in hind limb lame horses. A simple method using one inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the sacrum, which objectively measures 'hip hike', will help detecting hind limb lameness in large scale studies. In this study, IMUs over the sacrum and the left and right tuber coxae (TC) quantified vertical movement symmetry (MS) in 10 clinically lame horses. A simple geometrical model was used to estimate TC movement from the sacrum IMU. The differences between measured and estimated MS values (mean±SD) and MS changes during different exercise conditions (straight, circle, flexion) were quantified using established MS parameters to assess the performance of the sacral IMU for estimating TC movement. Mean differences between measured and estimated MS values were variable between horses and ranged from 5 to 30 mm, SD of differences ranged from 7 to 14 mm. However, the difference between measured and estimated change in MS induced by lungeing or flexion test, was lower, with a value measure, which assesses differences between left and right TC movement. Estimating TC movement from sacral movement does not accurately quantify the true state of TC MS since limits of agreement (LoA) overlap the decision boundaries for detecting mild lameness. The LoA of changes in vertical TC movement between exercises compared favourably with the average changes between exercise conditions. While in moderate to severe cases, changes in TC movement may be estimated from a single sensor over the sacrum, in mildly lame horses it should be measured with additional sensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Tanzanian waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of zooplankton was studied in the Southern part of Lake Victoria in January and July 2002. A van dorn water sampler was used to collect zooplankton. In January 2002, zooplankton showed a pronounced diel vertical migration whereby zooplankton were moving upward at around sunset and ...

  20. Effect of viewing distance on the generation of vertical eye movements during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. T.; Hirasaki, E.; Cohen, B.; Raphan, T.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical head and eye coordination was studied as a function of viewing distance during locomotion. Vertical head translation and pitch movements were measured using a video motion analysis system (Optotrak 3020). Vertical eye movements were recorded using a video-based pupil tracker (Iscan). Subjects (five) walked on a linear treadmill at a speed of 1.67 m/s (6 km/h) while viewing a target screen placed at distances ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 m at 0. 25-m intervals. The predominant frequency of vertical head movement was 2 Hz. In accordance with previous studies, there was a small head pitch rotation, which was compensatory for vertical head translation. The magnitude of the vertical head movements and the phase relationship between head translation and pitch were little affected by viewing distance, and tended to orient the naso-occipital axis of the head at a point approximately 1 m in front of the subject (the head fixation distance or HFD). In contrast, eye velocity was significantly affected by viewing distance. When viewing a far (2-m) target, vertical eye velocity was 180 degrees out of phase with head pitch velocity, with a gain of 0. 8. This indicated that the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was generating the eye movement response. The major finding was that, at a close viewing distance (0.25 m), eye velocity was in phase with head pitch and compensatory for vertical head translation, suggesting that activation of the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (lVOR) was contributing to the eye movement response. There was also a threefold increase in the magnitude of eye velocity when viewing near targets, which was consistent with the goal of maintaining gaze on target. The required vertical lVOR sensitivity to cancel an unmodified aVOR response and generate the observed eye velocity magnitude for near targets was almost 3 times that previously measured. Supplementary experiments were performed utilizing body-fixed active head pitch rotations at 1 and 2 Hz

  1. Recovery pattern of mandibular movement by active physical therapy after bilateral transoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwi-Dong; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Jin Hoo; Park, Hyung-Sik

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an active physical therapy (PT) protocol after transoral vertical ramus osteotomy and to investigate the rehabilitation patterns of mandibular movement. The study included 187 patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with or without facial asymmetry who had undergone bilateral transoral vertical ramus osteotomy from 2001 to 2009. The subjects were evaluated preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively in terms of the periods of PT and range of mandibular movement. The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (significance level, P mandibular hypomobility. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vertical eye movements during horizontal head impulse test: a new clinical sign of superior vestibular neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    D'Onofrio, F

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In some patients suffering from acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit, the head impulse test performed towards the affected side reveals the typical catch-up saccade in the horizontal plane, and an oblique, mostly vertical, upward catch-up saccade after the rotation of the head towards the healthy side. Three cases are reported herein, which have been studied using slow motion video analysis of the eye movements captured by a high-speed webcam (90 fps). The clinical evidence ...

  3. Relationships Between Reactive Agility Movement Time and Unilateral Vertical, Horizontal, and Lateral Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Greg J; Dawson, Brian; Lay, Brendan S; Young, Warren B

    2016-09-01

    Henry, GJ, Dawson, B, Lay, BS, and Young, WB. Relationships between reactive agility movement time and unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral jumps. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2514-2521, 2016-This study compared reactive agility movement time and unilateral (vertical, horizontal, and lateral) jump performance and kinetics between dominant and nondominant legs in Australian rules footballers (n = 31) to investigate the role of leg strength characteristics in reactive agility performance. Jumps involved jumping forward on 1 leg, then for maximum height or horizontal or lateral distance. Agility and movement time components of reactive agility were assessed using a video-based test. Correlations between each of the jumps were strong (r = -0.62 to -0.77), but between the jumps and agility movement time the relationships were weak (r = -0.25 to -0.33). Dominant leg performance was superior in reactive agility movement time (4.5%; p = 0.04), lateral jump distance (3%; p = 0.008), and lateral reactive strength index (4.4%; p = 0.03) compared with the nondominant leg. However, when the subjects were divided into faster and slower performers (based on their agility movement times) the movement time was significantly quicker in the faster group (n = 15; 12%; p agility performance seems limited, factors involved in producing superior lateral jump performance in the dominant leg may also be associated with advantages in agility performance in that leg. However, because reactive strength as measured by unilateral jumps seems to play a limited role in reactive agility performance and other factors such as skill, balance, and coordination, and also cognitive and decision-making factors, are likely to be more important.

  4. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  5. VERTICAL INTEGRATION OF THREE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHT HYDROCARBON PLUME MOVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

  6. Tracking Vertical Movement of the Moon Jelly Aurelia aurita using a Micro Data Logger

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Hideki; Kajikawa, Yoritake

    2011-01-01

    Vertical movement of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita was investigated in the southwestern area (5.8〜9.4m deep) of Omura Bay, Nagasaki. We examined the influence of attaching micro data loggers on the behavior of six moon jellies in an aquarium. No significant difference was observed in mean bell pulse frequencies in experimental animals vs. controls (p>;0.05). In addition, micro data loggers remained attached to the bells for at least 5h. From June to July and October to November, 2009, the ver...

  7. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

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    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  8. Discriminant analysis of maintaining a vertical position in the water

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    Bratuša Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water polo is the only sports game that takes place in the water. During the outplay, a vertical body position with the two basic mechanisms of the leg work - a breaststroke leg kick and an eggbeater leg kick, prevails. Starting from the significance of a vertical position during the game play, the methods of assessing physical preparedness of the athletes of all the categories also include the evaluation of maintaining a vertical position and consequently the load of the leg muscles. The measurements are performed during the maintenance of a vertical position (swimming in place through one of the specified mechanisms of leg work, i.e. a vertical position technique. The aim of this paper was to determine the application of different mechanisms of the leg kicks in maintaining a vertical position with young water polo players in relation to their position. The study included 29 selected junior water polo players (age_15.8 ± 0.8 years; BH_185.2 ± 5.3cm and BW_81.7 ± 7.7kg. The measurements were performed during the tests of swimming in place at the maximum intensity lasting 10 seconds, by the breaststroke and eggbeater leg kicks. The isometric tensiometry tests were used for the measurements. The results were analysed by the application of descriptive statistics, and the kinetic selection characteristic was defined by the application of discriminant analysis. Higher average values were achieved with the breaststroke leg kick technique Fmax, ImpF and RFD (avgFmaxLEGGBK =157.46±19.93N; avgImpF_LEGGBK =45.43±10.64Ns; avgRFD_LEGGBK=337.85±80.73N/s; avgFmaxLBKICK=227.18±49.17N; avgImpF_LBKICK=55.99±14.59Ns; avgRFD_LBKICK=545.47±159.15N/s. After discriminant analysis, the results have shown that the eggbeater leg kick is a selection technique, whereas the force - Fmax is a kinetic selection variable. Based on the obtained results and the analyses performed it may be concluded that a training factor dominant for maintaining a vertical position by

  9. Differences in the regional stratigraphy of NE Poland caused by vertical movements due to glacioisostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Wojciech

    2009-12-01

    Geological mapping in combination with geophysical investigations and borehole analyses show differences of the Pleistocene between the Warmia and Mazury palaeogeographic provinces in NE Poland. The (more western) Warmia province has a crystalline basement that is covered by a folded sedimentary succession of 2-4 km thick. The (more eastern) Mazury province (eastern) has a basement that forms part of the rigid East European crystalline craton, which is covered by a sedimentary cover of only 1-1.5 km thick. Cyclic loading by the Pleistocene ice sheets in this area induced glacioisostatic processes of different intensities, resulting in changing palaeogeographic conditions. The changes were increased by intense neotectonic activity that was induced by the ice sheets in the intermediate zone between the two provinces, stretching along the western slope of the crystalline craton. Significant part of intermediate zone forms a belt of crevasse-infill landforms deposited between the Warmia and Mazury lobes of the last glaciation. Studied deposits reveal a cyclic reactivation of the interlobe zone during the successive Pleistocene glaciations. Considerable variations of the relief of the top-Neogene, vertical discontinuities cutting the Pleistocene and Neogene, stratigraphic gaps within the Pleistocene succession, and thick glaciolacustrine successions result from the vertical neotectonic movements in the intermediate area between the two provinces.

  10. GABAergic neurons in the rostral mesencephalon of the macaque monkey that control vertical eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anja K E; Helmchen, Christoph; Wahle, Petra

    2003-10-01

    The mesencephalic reticular formation is important for the generation of vertical eye movements, but up until now the location of inhibitory premotor neurons is not known in primates. With tract-tracer methods combined with immunocytochemistry or in situ hybridization, we investigated the location of GABAergic premotor neurons in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (riMLF) and interstitial nucleus of Cajal (iC) in macaque monkeys. In the present work, only the premotor pathways of the downward pulling eye muscles, superior oblique (SO) and inferior rectus (IR), were studied. We found that very few, small GABAergic neurons are present in the riMLF, and none of them was found to project to the oculomotor nuclei, suggesting the presence of exclusively excitatory projections from the riMLF to the oculomotor neurons. However, in the iC, medium-sized and large GABAergic neurons were identified projecting contralaterally to the SO and IR motoneurons, and presumably the iC of the other side. These commissural GABAergic projections are well suited to inhibit the SO and IR motoneurons and possibly premotor down-burst-tonic neurons during upward eye movements.

  11. Tectonics and sedimentology of post-rift anomalous vertical movements: the rifted margin of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Charton, Remi; Luber, Tim; Arantegui, Angel; Redfern, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Roughly 15 years ago it was discovered that substantial parts of the Morocco passive continental margin experienced km-scale, post-rift exhumation. It was predicted that the sands resulting from the associated erosion would be present in the offshore and potentially form hydrocarbon reservoirs. At the same time, anomalous post-rift vertical movements have been documented in various localities of the world and rifted continental margins are at present exciting objects of research. Following intense research efforts the knowledge of the kinematics of vertical movements and their implications for sedimentary systems is increasing. The low-T geochronology initially limited to the classical Meseta-Massif Ancien de Marrakech transect has been expanded reaching the Reguibate Massif to the S and covering, possibly more importantly, one transect in E-W direction along the Anti Atlas. Exhumation occurred along two dominant trends. In N-S direction a several hundred-kilometers long exhuming domain developed roughly parallel to the Atlantic margin. Changes in magnitude and timing of exhumation are observed along this elevated domain associated with E-W trending undulations. The timing of main stage of upward movement of E-W trending highs seems to be Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in the Meseta and High Atlas and somewhat older, Early to Middle Jurassic, in the Anti-Atlas and Reguibate. The discovery of E-W trending highs and lows has major implication for sediment distribution and dispersal. At the large scale, it means that the drainage basins were smaller than initially predicted. This seems to be compatible with the paucity of sands encountered by recent exploration wells drilled offshore Morocco. At the scale of several kilometers, W-E trending anticlines and synclines developed in a generally subsiding coastal environment. These folds often had an expression at the sea floor documented by ravinement surfaces and (Jurassic) reef build-ups on top of the anticlines

  12. Numerical simulation of water evaporation inside vertical circular tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Nowak, Marzena; Majewski, Karol

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the results of simplified numerical analysis of water evaporation in vertical circular tubes are presented. The heat transfer in fluid domain (water or wet steam) and solid domain (tube wall) is analyzed. For the fluid domain the temperature field is calculated solving energy equation using the Control Volume Method and for the solid domain using the Finite Element Method. The heat transfer between fluid and solid domains is conjugated using the value of heat transfer coefficient from evaporating liquid to the tube wall. It is determined using the analytical Steiner-Taborek correlation. The pressure changes in fluid are computed using Friedel model.

  13. Vertical Movements, Behavior and Habitat Utilization of Adult Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) Tagged in West Philippine Sea, Mindoro Island, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macusi, Edison; Babaran, R.P.; Ingles, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the vertical movements, behavior and habitat utilization of an electronically tagged adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) after 17 days of liberty in the Philippines based on analyses of 23,845 datapoints recorded from a recovered electronic popup tag. The exhaustive set

  14. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate the potential for bed material movement along the same reach. The purpose of this report is to present information about the lateral and vertical movement of the Madison River from 1970 to 2006 for a 1-mile reach downstream from Earthquake Lake and for Raynolds Pass Bridge, and to provide an analysis of the potential for bed-material movement so that MADTAC can evaluate the applicability of the previously determined threshold streamflow for initiation of damaging erosion. As part of this study channel cross sections originally surveyed by the USGS in 1971 were resurveyed in 2006. Incremental channel-movement distances were determined by comparing the stream centerlines from 14 aerial photographs taken between 1970 and 2006. Depths of channel incision and aggregation were determined by comparing the 2006 and 1971 cross-section and water-surface data. Particle sizes of bed and bank materials were measured in 2006 and 2008 using the pebble-count method and sieve analyses. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model (HEC-RAS) was used to calculate mean boundary-shear stresses for various streamflows; these calculated boundary-shear stresses were compared to calculated critical-shear stresses for the bed materials to determine the potential for bed-material movement. A comparison of lateral channel movement distances with annual peak streamflows shows that streamflows higher than the 3,500-ft3/s threshold were followed by lateral channel movement except from 1991 to 1992 and possibly from 1996 to 1997. However, it was not possible to discern whether the channel moved gradually or suddenly, or in response to one peak flow, to several peak flows, or to sustained flows. The channel moved between 2002 and 2005 even when streamflows were less than the threshold streamflow of 3,500 ft3/s. Comparisons of cross sections and aerial photographs show that the channel has moved laterally and incised and aggraded to varying degrees. The channel has developed meander bends

  15. Thermal structure of a lake with water in vertical motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, G.; Mongelli, F. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The vertical temperature structures of the seasonal thermocline of two lakes in temperate latitude with different feedings have been examined experimentally and reproduced theoretically by the basic equation of heat diffusion. One of these lakes is fed mainly from springs emerging from the lake bottom: as a consequence a vertical motion of water is established. The other lake is fed from the former by a small superficial channel. It is argued that the observed quantitative features of the stratification cycle agree with the theoretical calculations in both lakes with the same value of the molecular thermal diffusivity. Moreover, the seasonal thermocline of the lake with the bottom feeding is reduced: this involves a faster drop in the temperature amplitude of the annual cycle.

  16. Eccentric-Overload Training in Team-Sport Functional Performance: Constant Bilateral Vertical Versus Variable Unilateral Multidirectional Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.

  17. Water Absorbing Plantation Clay for Vertical Greenery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lih-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arises of environmental conscious, the usage of vertical garden system has become more popular in urban cities. Citizens can enjoys the benefits of energy and cost saving besides ornamental effect. More investigations have been conducted on green facades led to the cities ecological enhancement.However, limited plants species can be planted for green facades systems as this system does not provide sufficient soil and nutrients for common plants. Alternative plantation methods such as planted box and felt system required additional maintenance attention. The idea of using clay composite which consists of nutritious soil, water absorbing polymer and flexible cement clay potentially become alternative vertical greenery systems that offers economic and sustainable plantation platform for more variety of plants.The fabricating of clay composite involved three processes, they are: mixing, moulding and drying. Physical properties characterisation (density, pH, compression test, aging test and water immersion test were tested on the dried fabricated clay composite to ensure their sustainability in tropical climate. The results showed that clay composite with 1.5 wt% of cement and 0.3 wt% superabsorbent polymer shows optimum water absorbing properties. This system are expected to enable more agriculture activities in urban living.

  18. Premotor circuits controlling eyelid movements in conjunction with vertical saccades in the cat: II. interstitial nucleus of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingzhong; May, Paul J

    2007-02-01

    Vertical saccadic eye movements are accompanied by concurrent eyelid movements in the same direction. The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (InC) controls eye position for vertical eye movements and may also control saccade-related lid position as well. This study investigates whether the InC serves as a premotor center for eyelid saccades, by employing dual-tracer methods in cats to label both the projections of the InC and the motoneurons supplying the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) muscle, which lie in the caudal central subdivision (CCS) of the oculomotor complex. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the InC anterogradely labeled axons that terminated bilaterally throughout the CCS and in the oculomotor nuclei proper. Labeled terminals lay in close association with labeled LPS motoneurons, which were retrogradely labeled following injections of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the muscle. Ultrastructural investigation revealed that most terminals contained spherical vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts with the labeled motoneurons. These results strongly suggest that the InC monosynaptically controls lid movements in conjunction with vertical eye movements, including saccades. To identify the neurons of origin for this pathway, WGA-HRP injections were centered in the CCS. These experiments indicate that lid and eye motoneurons may share a common source of bilateral InC input. Thus, a common vertical position signal may be employed to maintain the lid and eye at appropriate elevations during fixation, such that the lid sits just above the pupil, allowing unobstructed vision, but at the ready to protect the cornea. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. A New Global Vertical Land Movement Data Set from the TIGA Combined Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman; Ebuy Abraha, Kibrom; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Gravelle, Médéric; Wöppelman, Guy; Schöne, Tilo; Deng, Zhiguo; Bingley, Richard; Hansen, Dionne Nicole; Sanchez, Laura; Moore, Michael; Jia, Minghai

    2017-04-01

    Globally averaged sea level has been estimated from the network of tide gauges installed around the world since the 19th century. These mean sea level (MSL) records provide sea level relative to a nearby tide gauge benchmark (TGBM), which allows for the continuation of the instrumental record in time. Any changes in the benchmark levels, induced by vertical land movements (VLM) affect the MSL records and hence sea level estimates. Over the last two decades sea level has also been observed using satellite altimeters. While the satellite observations are globally more homogeneous providing a picture of sea level not confined to coastlines, they require the VLM-corrected MSL records for the bias calibration of instrumental drifts. Without this calibration altimeter instruments from different missions cannot be combined. GPS has made it possible to obtain highly accurate estimates of VLM in a geocentric reference frame for stations at or close to tide gauges. Under the umbrella of the International GNSS Service (IGS), the Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has been established to apply the expertise of the GNSS community to solving issues related to the accuracy and reliability of the vertical component to provide estimates of VLM in a well-defined global reference frame. To achieve this objective, five TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) contributed re-processed global GPS network solutions to TIGA, employing the latest bias models and processing strategies in accordance with the second re-processing campaign (repro2) of the IGS. These solutions include those of the British Isles continuous GNSS Facility - University of Luxembourg consortium (BLT), the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) Potsdam, the German Geodetic Research Institute (DGF) at the Technical University of Munich, Geoscience Australia (AUT) and the University of La Rochelle (ULR). In this study we present to the sea level community an evaluation of the VLM estimates from the

  20. Vertical Movements and Patterns in Diving Behavior of Whale Sharks as Revealed by Pop-Up Satellite Tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyminski, John P; de la Parra-Venegas, Rafael; González Cano, Jaime; Hueter, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a wide-ranging, filter-feeding species typically observed at or near the surface. This shark's sub-surface habits and behaviors have only begun to be revealed in recent years through the use of archival and satellite tagging technology. We attached pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags to 35 whale sharks in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula from 2003-2012 and three tags to whale sharks in the northeastern Gulf off Florida in 2010, to examine these sharks' long-term movement patterns and gain insight into the underlying factors influencing their vertical habitat selection. Archived data were received from 31 tags deployed on sharks of both sexes with total lengths of 5.5-9 m. Nine of these tags were physically recovered facilitating a detailed long-term view into the sharks' vertical movements. Whale sharks feeding inshore on fish eggs off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula demonstrated reverse diel vertical migration, with extended periods of surface swimming beginning at sunrise followed by an abrupt change in the mid-afternoon to regular vertical oscillations, a pattern that continued overnight. When in oceanic waters, sharks spent about 95% of their time within epipelagic depths (500 m) that largely occurred during daytime or twilight hours (max. depth recorded 1,928 m), had V-shaped depth-time profiles, and comprised more rapid descents (0.68 m sec-1) than ascents (0.50 m sec-1). Nearly half of these extreme dives had descent profiles with brief but conspicuous changes in vertical direction at a mean depth of 475 m. We hypothesize these stutter steps represent foraging events within the deep scattering layer, however, the extreme dives may have additional functions. Overall, our results demonstrate complex and dynamic patterns of habitat utilization for R. typus that appear to be in response to changing biotic and abiotic conditions influencing the distribution and abundance of their prey.

  1. Water striders adjust leg movement speed to optimize takeoff velocity for their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-12-01

    Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows. We find that the leg stroke speeds of water strider species with different leg morphologies correspond to mathematically calculated morphology-specific optima that maximize vertical takeoff velocity by fully exploiting the capillary force of water. These results improve the understanding of correlated evolution between morphology and leg movements in small jumping insects, and provide a theoretical basis to develop biomimetic technology in semi-aquatic environments.

  2. Diel Vertical Movements of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis in a Sulfide-Rich Hot Spring Microbial Mat †

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, carried out a diel vertical movement pattern in Hunter's Hot Springs, Oreg. Throughout most daylight hours, populations of O. terebriformis covered the surface of microbial mats in the hot spring outflows below an upper temperature limit of 54°C. Upon darkness trichomes moved downward by gliding motility into the substrate to a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, where the population remained until dawn. At dawn the population rapidly returned to...

  3. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  4. Water Movement in Vascular Plants: A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2011-01-01

    The origin of land plants was one of the most important events in evolutionary history of earth in terms of its broad impact on metazoan life and the biotic environment. Because vascular tissues enabled land plants to meet the challenges of terrestrial life, it is important to understand the mechanistic basis of water transport through these tissues from soil to the canopy of trees, in some cases almost 100 meters high. The answers to these questions involve not only the biology of plant vasculature, but also the physical properties of water that enable such transport. Although early researchers proposed the hypothesis of cohesion-tension of water as the likely mechanism for sap ascent, the exact mechanism of transport continues to be a hotly debated topic in the field of plant physiology. This debate continues to be enriched with several sophisticated studies on plants of various morphologies growing in diverse habitats. Although a wealth of evidence has upheld the cohesion-tension theory as being fundamenta...

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of vertical ground movements at Mt. Vesuvius in the period 1973-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folco Pingue

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the early ’70s vertical ground movements at Mount Vesuvius area have been investigated and monitored by the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Isti-tuto Nazionale di Geofisica Vulcanologia - Osservatorio Vesuviano since 2001. This monitoring began with the installation of a high-precision leveling line in the region at medium-high elevations on the volcano. The deformation pattern and expected strain field assessment methods in the volcanic structure induced by inner sources has demanded in subsequent years the expansion of the leveling network up to cover the whole volcanic area, enclosing part of leveling lines of other institutions. As a result of this expansion, the Mt. Vesuvius Area Leveling Network (VALN has today reached a length of about 270 km and consists of 359 benchmarks. It is configured in 21 circuits and is connected, westward, to the Campi Flegrei leveling network and, northward, to the Campania Plain leveling network. The data collected have been carefully re-analyzed for random and systematic errors and for error propagation along the leveling lines to identify the areas affected by significant ground movements. For each survey, the data were rigorously adjusted and vertical ground movements were evaluated by differentiating the heights calculated by the various measurements conducted by the Osservatorio Vesuviano from 1973 to 2009.

  6. Modeling of Kinetics of Air Entrainment in Water Produced by Vertically Falling Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelė VAIDELIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the process of air entrainment in water caused by vertically falling water flow in the free water surface. The new kinetic model of air entrainment in water was developed. This model includes the process of air entrapment, as well as air removal, water sputtering and resorption. For the experimental part of this study a new method based on digital image processing was developed. Theoretical and experimental methods were used for determining air concentration and its distribution in water below the air-water interface. A new presented mathematical model of air entrainment process allows determining of air bubbles and water droplets concentrations distribution. The obtained theoretical and experimental results were in good agreement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4871

  7. Mesozoic and Cenozoic vertical movements in the Atlas system (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lamotte, Dominique Frizon; Leturmy, Pascale; Missenard, Yves; Khomsi, Sami; Ruiz, Geoffrey; Saddiqi, Omar; Guillocheau, Francois; Michard, André

    2009-09-01

    The E-W trending Atlas System of Maghreb consists of weakly shortened, intra-continental fold belts associated with plateau areas ("Mesetas"), extending between the south-westernmost branch of the Mediterranean Alpine Belt (Rif-Tell) and the Sahara Platform. Although the Atlas system has been erected contemporaneously from Morocco to Algeria and Tunisia during the Middle Eocene to Recent, it displays a conspicuous longitudinal asymmetry, with i) Paleozoic outcrops restricted to its western part; ii) highest elevation occurring in the west, both in the Atlas System and its foreland (Anti-Atlas); iii) low elevation corridors (e.g. Hodna) and depressed foreland (Tunisian Chotts and Sahel area) in the east. We analyse the origin of these striking contrasts in relation with i) the Variscan heritage; ii) crustal vertical movements during the Mesozoic; iii) crustal shortening during the Cenozoic and finally, iv) the occurrence of a Miocene-Quaternary hot mantle anomaly in the west. The Maghreb lithosphere was affected by the Variscan orogeny, and thus thickened only in its western part. During the Late Permian-Triassic, a paleo-high formed in the west between the Central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys rift systems, giving birth to the emergent/poorly subsident West Moroccan Arch. During the late Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Morocco and western Algeria were dominantly emergent whereas rifting lasted on in eastern Algeria and Tunisia. We ascribe the uplift of the western regions to thermal doming, consistent with the Late Jurassic and Barremian gabbroic magmatism observed there. After the widespread transgression of the high stand Cenomanian-Turonian seas, the inversion of the Atlas System began during the Senonian as a consequence of the Africa-Eurasia convergence. Erosion affected three ENE-trending uplifted areas of NW Africa, which we consider as lithospheric anticlines related to the incipient Africa-Europe convergence. In contrast, in eastern Algeria and Tunisia a NW

  8. A Lightweight Vertical Rosette for Deployment in Ice Covered Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethie, W. M.; Chayes, D. N.; Perry, R. S.; Schlosser, P.

    2009-12-01

    clamped shut. The modules are returned to the base camp where a variety of water samples are drawn and processed. We routinely measure samples for salinity, oxygen, nutrients, tritium, helium isotopes, CFCs, SF6, oxygen isotopes, barium and I-129, but the rosette sampler can be used for a wide range of substances. The water temperature of each bottle is measured when the oxygen sample is drawn and the average warming during the 6 - 10 hour transit time back to the base camp and during the sampling process is 2.5°C. There is no evidence in the gas samples of degassing or contamination with air and all samples are of very high quality. Vertical profiles will be presented to demonstrate data quality.

  9. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  10. Explosive movement in the older men: analysis and comparative study of vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaud, Sébastien; Pairot de Fontenay, Benoit; Blache, Yoann; Monteil, Karine

    2017-10-01

    Loss of power has been demonstrated to have severe functional consequences to perform physical daily living tasks in old age. This study aimed to assess how moment and velocity were affected for each joint of the lower limbs during squat jumping for older men in comparison with young adults. Twenty-one healthy older men (74.5 ± 4.6 years) and 22 young men (21.8 ± 2.8 years) performed maximal squat jumps. Inverse dynamics procedure was used to compute the net joint power, moment and velocity produced at the hip, knee and ankle joints. Vertical jump height of the elderly was 64 % lower than the young adults. The maximal power of the body mass center (P maxbmc ) was 57 % lower in the older population. For the instant at P maxbmc , the vertical ground reaction force and the vertical velocity of the body mass center were 26 % and 35 % less in the older adults than in the young adults, respectively (p vertical ground reaction force; p vertical jump. This smaller power resulted from both a lower moment and angular velocity produced at each joint.

  11. Characterizing seasonal and diel vertical movement and habitat use of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Clear Lake, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Gorsky, Dimitry; Balsey, David

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and daily vertical activity of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis was studied in Clear Lake, Maine (253 ha), using acoustic telemetry from November 2004 to June 2009. Twenty adult lake whitefish were tagged with acoustic tags that had either a depth sensor or both depth and temperature sensors to assess vertical habitat use at a seasonal and daily resolution. Vertical habitat selection varied seasonally and was strongly influenced by temperature. Between December and April, when the lake was covered with ice, surface temperature was below 2°C and tagged individuals occupied deep areas of the lake (∼15 m). After ice-out, fish ascended into shallow waters (∼5 m), responding to increased water temperature and possibly to greater foraging opportunity. When surface water temperatures exceeded 20°C, fish descended below the developing thermocline (∼9 m), where they remained until surface temperatures fell below 20°C; fish then ascended into shallower depths, presumably for feeding and spawning. Through the winter, fish remained in thermal habitats that were warmer than the surface temperatures; in the summer, they selected depths with thermal habitats below 15°C. Though the amplitude varied greatly across seasons, lake whitefish displayed a strong diurnal pattern of activity as measured by vertical velocities. Fish were twofold more active during spring, summer, and fall than during winter. Lake whitefish exhibited diel vertical migrations, rising in the water column during nighttime and occupying deeper waters during the day. This pattern was more pronounced in the spring and fall and far less prominent during winter and summer. The strong linkage between temperature and habitat use may limit the current range of lake whitefish and may be directly impacted by climatic change.

  12. Increase of electrodeposited catalyst stability via plasma grown vertically oriented graphene nanoparticle movement restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrenterghem, Bart; Hodnik, Nejc; Bele, Marjan; Šala, Martin; Amelinckx, Giovanni; Neukermans, Sander; Zaplotnik, Rok; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Breugelmans, Tom

    2017-08-17

    Beside activity, electrocatalyst stability is gaining in importance. The most common degradation mechanism is the loss of the active surface area due to nanoparticle growth via coalescence/agglomeration. We propose a particle confinement strategy via vertically oriented graphene deposition to overcome degradation of the nanoparticles.

  13. Vertical Movements and Patterns in Diving Behavior of Whale Sharks as Revealed by Pop-Up Satellite Tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Tyminski

    Full Text Available The whale shark (Rhincodon typus is a wide-ranging, filter-feeding species typically observed at or near the surface. This shark's sub-surface habits and behaviors have only begun to be revealed in recent years through the use of archival and satellite tagging technology. We attached pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags to 35 whale sharks in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula from 2003-2012 and three tags to whale sharks in the northeastern Gulf off Florida in 2010, to examine these sharks' long-term movement patterns and gain insight into the underlying factors influencing their vertical habitat selection. Archived data were received from 31 tags deployed on sharks of both sexes with total lengths of 5.5-9 m. Nine of these tags were physically recovered facilitating a detailed long-term view into the sharks' vertical movements. Whale sharks feeding inshore on fish eggs off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula demonstrated reverse diel vertical migration, with extended periods of surface swimming beginning at sunrise followed by an abrupt change in the mid-afternoon to regular vertical oscillations, a pattern that continued overnight. When in oceanic waters, sharks spent about 95% of their time within epipelagic depths (500 m that largely occurred during daytime or twilight hours (max. depth recorded 1,928 m, had V-shaped depth-time profiles, and comprised more rapid descents (0.68 m sec-1 than ascents (0.50 m sec-1. Nearly half of these extreme dives had descent profiles with brief but conspicuous changes in vertical direction at a mean depth of 475 m. We hypothesize these stutter steps represent foraging events within the deep scattering layer, however, the extreme dives may have additional functions. Overall, our results demonstrate complex and dynamic patterns of habitat utilization for R. typus that appear to be in response to changing biotic and abiotic conditions influencing the distribution and abundance of their

  14. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    - The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...... exchangers was also developed for detailed evaluation of the heat flux distribution over the mantle surface. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that distribution of the flow around the mantle gap is governed by buoyancy driven recirculation in the mantle. The operation of the mantle...

  15. Monitoring of saline tracer movement with vertically distributed self-potential measurements at the HOBE agricultural test site, Voulund, Denmark

    CERN Document Server

    Jougnot, Damien; Haarder, Eline B; Looms, Majken C

    2015-01-01

    The self-potential (SP) method is sensitive to water fluxes in saturated and partially saturated porous media, such as those associated with rainwater infiltration and groundwater recharge. We present a field-based study at the Voulund agricultural test site, Denmark, that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to focus on the vertical self-potential distribution prior to and during a saline tracer test. A coupled hydrogeophysical modeling framework is used to simulate the SP response to precipitation and saline tracer infiltration. A layered hydrological model is first obtained by inverting dielectric and matric potential data. The resulting model that compares favorably with electrical resistance tomography models is subsequently used to predict the SP response. The electrokinetic contribution (caused by water fluxes in a charged porous soil) is modeled by an effective excess charge approach that considers both water saturation and pore water salinity. Our results suggest that the effective excess char...

  16. Relation between earthquake focal intensity and recent vertical Earth's crustal movements in the Rila-Rhodope seismic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totomanov, I. N.

    The stable statistical relation is studied between the maximum magnitude Y of expected earthquakes with foci in the Earth's crust and the vertical velocity X of recent crustal movements, in the mountainous region of southwestern Bulgaria characterized by a particularly high seismic and tectonic activity. The two dimensional random variate (X,Y) is presented by its sample (Xk, Yk), k = 1, 2,..., 60 composed by appropriate smoothed estimates according to data of the most recent investigations. The sampling (joint and respective marginal) distributions of (X, Y) are determined and examined. Statistical hypotheses are tested and the respective recent geokinematic and tectonic predestination of the seismic activity in the Rila-Rhodope seismic region is argued in terms of the best fit, to the empirical data, regression polynomial of Y with respect to X. A comparison is made between results obtained on the region under examination and corresponding data of earlier studies.

  17. Infusion of GAT1-saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band disrupts self-movement cue processing and spares mnemonic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Jenny R; Winter, Shawn S; Stuebing, Sarah L; Cheatwood, Joseph L; Wallace, Douglas G

    2013-09-01

    Degeneration of the septohippocampal system is associated with the progression of Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Impairments in mnemonic function and spatial orientation become more severe as DAT progresses. Although evidence supports a role for cholinergic function in these impairments, relatively few studies have examined the contribution of the septohippocampal GABAergic component to mnemonic function or spatial orientation. The current study uses the rat food-hoarding paradigm and water maze tasks to characterize the mnemonic and spatial impairments associated with infusing GAT1-Saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB). Although infusion of GAT1-Saporin significantly reduced parvalbumin-positive cells in the MS/VDB, no reductions in markers of cholinergic function were observed in the hippocampus. In general, performance was spared during spatial tasks that provided access to environmental cues. In contrast, GAT1-Saporin rats did not accurately carry the food pellet to the refuge during the dark probe. These observations are consistent with infusion of GAT1-Saporin into the MS/VDB resulting in spared mnemonic function and use of environmental cues; however, self-movement cue processing was compromised. This interpretation is consistent with a growing literature demonstrating a role for the septohippocampal system in self-movement cue processing.

  18. Vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Carney, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The northern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Despite the aquifer’s importance to the regional economy, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the northern High Plains aquifer were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and other parameters to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Chemical data and tritium and radiocarbon ages show that water in the aquifer was chemically and temporally stratified in the study area, with a relatively thin zone of recently recharged water (less than 50 years) near the water table overlying a thicker zone of older water (1,800 to 15,600 radiocarbon years). In areas where irrigated agriculture was an important land use, the recently recharged ground water was characterized by elevated concentrations of major ions and nitrate and the detection of pesticide compounds. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and silica. In general, the chemistry of ground water throughout the aquifer was of high quality. None of the approximately 90 chemical constituents analyzed in each sample exceeded primary drinking-water standards.Mass-balance models indicate that changes in groundwater chemistry along flow paths in the aquifer can be accounted for by small amounts of feldspar and calcite dissolution; goethite

  19. Geophysical tomography for imaging water movement in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1986-09-01

    Alterant tomography has been evaluated for its ability to delineate in-situ water flow paths in a fractured welded-tuff rock mass. The evaluation involved a field experiment in which tomographs of electromagnetic attenuation factor (or attenuation rate) at 300 MHz were made before, during, and after the introduction to the rock of two different water-based tracers: a plain water and dye solution, and salt water and dye. Alterant tomographs were constructed by subtracting, cell by cell, the attenuation factors derived from measurements before each tracer was added to the rock mass from the attenuation factors derived after each tracer was added. The alterant tomographs were compared with other evidence of water movement in the rock: borescope logs of fractures, and post experiment cores used to locate the dye tracer on the fractured surfaces. These comparisons indicate that alterant tomography is suitable for mapping water flow through fractures and that it may be useful in inferring which of the fractures are hydrologically connected in the image plane. The technique appears to be sensitive enough to delineate flow through a single fracture and to define fractures with a spatial resolution of about 10 cm on an imaging scale of a few meters. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Geophysical tomography for imaging water movement in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1986-09-01

    Alterant tomography has been evaluated for its ability to delineate in-situ water flow paths in a fractured welded-tuff rock mass. The evaluation involved a field experiment in which tomographs of electromagnetic attenuation factor (or attenuation rate) at 300 MHZ were made before, during, and after the introduction to the rock of two different water-based tracers: a plain water and dye solution, and salt water and dye. Alterant tomographs were constructed by subtracting, cell by cell, the attenuation factors derived from measurements before each tracer was added to the rock mass from the attenuation factors derived after each tracer was added. The alterant tomographs were compared with other evidence of water movement in the rock: borescope logs of fractures, and postexperiment cores used to locate the dye tracer on the fractured surfaces. These comparisons indicate that alterant tomography is suitable for mapping water flow through fractures and that it may be useful in inferring which of the fractures are hydrologically connected in the image plane. The technique appears to be sensitive enough to delineate flow through a single fracture and to define fractures with a spatial resolution of about 10 cm on an imaging scale of a few meters. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Diel Vertical Movements of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis in a Sulfide-Rich Hot Spring Microbial Mat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, carried out a diel vertical movement pattern in Hunter's Hot Springs, Oreg. Throughout most daylight hours, populations of O. terebriformis covered the surface of microbial mats in the hot spring outflows below an upper temperature limit of 54°C. Upon darkness trichomes moved downward by gliding motility into the substrate to a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, where the population remained until dawn. At dawn the population rapidly returned to the top of the mats. Field studies with microelectrodes showed that the dense population of O. terebriformis moved each night across an oxygen-sulfide interface, entering a microenvironment which was anaerobic and reducing, a dramatic contrast to the daytime environment at the mat surface where oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in supersaturated O2. Laboratory experiments on motility with the use of sulfide gradients produced in agar revealed a negative response to sulfide at concentrations similar to those found in the natural mats. The motility response may help explain the presence of O. terebriformis below the mat surface at night. The movement back to the surface at dawn appears to be due to a combination of phototaxis, photokinesis, and the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis which consumes sulfide. Images PMID:16347435

  2. Diel Vertical Movements of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis in a Sulfide-Rich Hot Spring Microbial Mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L L; Castenholz, R W

    1987-09-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, carried out a diel vertical movement pattern in Hunter's Hot Springs, Oreg. Throughout most daylight hours, populations of O. terebriformis covered the surface of microbial mats in the hot spring outflows below an upper temperature limit of 54 degrees C. Upon darkness trichomes moved downward by gliding motility into the substrate to a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, where the population remained until dawn. At dawn the population rapidly returned to the top of the mats. Field studies with microelectrodes showed that the dense population of O. terebriformis moved each night across an oxygen-sulfide interface, entering a microenvironment which was anaerobic and reducing, a dramatic contrast to the daytime environment at the mat surface where oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in supersaturated O(2). Laboratory experiments on motility with the use of sulfide gradients produced in agar revealed a negative response to sulfide at concentrations similar to those found in the natural mats. The motility response may help explain the presence of O. terebriformis below the mat surface at night. The movement back to the surface at dawn appears to be due to a combination of phototaxis, photokinesis, and the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis which consumes sulfide.

  3. The role of vertical land movements on late 19th century sea level rise at Cuxhaven, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen; Wahl, Thomas; Dangendorf, Sönke; Hofstede, Jacobus

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauges, located along the world's coastlines, represent one of the most important data sources with information about sea level change back into the 17th century, bridging the gap between paleo proxies and modern remote sensing data sources. While the worldwide coverage of tide gauges has increased considerably since the mid-20th century, there are only a few gauges available providing information about regional sea level changes before 1900. Furthermore, these tide gauge measurements are often contaminated by local vertical land movements (VLM) resulting from tectonic processes or local anthropogenic interventions. Such non-climatic effects need to be removed from the raw data to uncover climate signals, which are important, for instance, for answering the question whether and when sea level started to accelerate from the nearly constant rates over the past 2000 years. Here we focus on one of these long tide gauge records: Cuxhaven, which is located in the German Bight and provides uninterrupted digital time series of tidal high and low water levels since 1843. The record has been extensively studied during the past decades with respect to regional and global sea level rise. However, a question that still remains is the role of local subsidence before 1900 at the lighthouse of Cuxhaven, located close to the tide gauge. In 1855 Lentz installed a granite height mark at the lighthouse, which was later used as a proxy for VLMs of the tide gauge itself. The height of the control mark was derived by a levelling between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. These levellings were repeated five times between 1855 and 1900 and later evaluated by Siefert and Lassen (1985) with respect to the role of local subsidence. Based on a linear regression of individual levellings Siefert and Lassen (1985) concluded that the lighthouse subsided by an average rate of 2.8 mm/yr (1855-1875: 4.2 mm/yr; 1876-1890: 2 mm/yr; 1890-1900: 1.2 mm/yr). However, due to the massive uncertainties of these early

  4. Modeling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. The results are tested against analytical solutions and the commercial avalanche model RAMMS. The overall results are in excellent agreement with the reference system RAMMS, and the deviations between the different models are far below the uncertainties in the determination of the relevant fluid parameters and involved avalanche volumes in reality. As this code is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool assisting regional scale natural hazard studies.

  5. Distribution and diel vertical movements of mesopelagic scattering layers in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor A.

    2012-06-13

    The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an extreme environment due to low food concentrations, high temperatures and low oxygen waters. Nevertheless, a 38 kHz echosounder identified at least four distinct scattering layers during the daytime, of which the 2 deepest layers resided entirely within the mesopelagic zone. Two of the acoustic layers were found above a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one layer overlapped with the OMZ, and one layer was found below the OMZ. Almost all organisms in the deep layers migrated to the near-surface waters during the night. Backscatter from a 300 kHz lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler indicated a layer of zooplankton within the OMZ. They carried out DVM, yet a portion remained at mesopelagic depths during the night. Our acoustic measurements showed that the bulk of the acoustic backscatter was restricted to waters shallower than 800 m, suggesting that most of the biomass in the Red Sea resides above this depth. 2012 The Author(s).

  6. Vertical movement patterns and ontogenetic niche expansion in the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2015-01-01

    Sharks are top predators in many marine ecosystems and can impact community dynamics, yet many shark populations are undergoing severe declines primarily due to overfishing. Obtaining species-specific knowledge on shark spatial ecology is important to implement adequate management strategies for the effective conservation of these taxa. This is particularly relevant concerning highly-mobile species that use wide home ranges comprising coastal and oceanic habitats, such as tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier. We deployed satellite tags in 20 juvenile tiger sharks off northeastern Brazil to assess the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on depth and temperature usage. Sharks were tracked for a total of 1184 d and used waters up to 1112 m in depth. The minimum temperature recorded equaled 4°C. All sharks had a clear preference for surface (sharks used mostly shallow (sharks spending considerably more time in surface (shark habitat was observed, with generalized linear models estimating a ~4-fold increase in maximum diving depth from 150- to 300-cm size-classes. The time spent in the upper 5 m of the water column did not vary ontogenetically but shark size was the most important factor explaining the utilization of deeper water layers. Young-of-the-year tiger sharks seem to associate with shallow, neritic habitats but they progressively move into deeper oceanic habitats as they grow larger. Such an early plasticity in habitat use could endow tiger sharks with access to previously unavailable prey, thus contributing to a wider ecological niche.

  7. Vertical Mulching e manejo da água em semeadura direta Vertical Mulching and water management in no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Garcia

    2008-04-01

    soil structure degradation, soil compaction below the arable layer, and decreased macroporosity. These changes resulted in reduced soil water infiltration rate and increased runoff, soil erosion and sedimentation in rivers and reservoirs. In the no tillage system the water erosion from the soil surface is practically controlled, and the terraces were eliminated by the farmers. Nevertheless, the surface flow is higher than it was in the conventional tillage system. With the objective of evaluating the hydrological behavior of vertical mulching in no tillage systems as related to runoff, this study was developed in the growing seasons of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 on a Red Latosol (Oxisol in the Planalto Médio region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A field experiment was installed using plots without vertical mulching, with vertical mulching at every 10 m and with vertical mulching at every 5 m. It was used a randomized block design with three replications. Leveled furrows of vertical mulching, perpendicular to the soil slope (0.08 m wide by 0.38 m deep were dug and filled with straw compacted enough to stabilize the furrow sides. Rainfall intensities of 70 and 106 mm h-1 were simulated on soybean and wheat to determine runoff, soil water infiltration rate, and nutrient and organic carbon concentration in the runoff. The results showed that vertical mulching in no tillage significantly reduces surface runoff and increases the water infiltration rate into the soil. It also reduces the total nutrient and organic carbon losses due to the reduction of water runoff.

  8. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  9. Geoelectrical monitoring of water movement in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Susann; Geib, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    To continually track the water movement in the unsaturated zone and monitor groundwater recharge, two geoelectrical profiles were permanently installed in the catchment area of a waterworks. The geoelectrical profiles were set up in areas with different groundwater recharge. One profile was installed on a forest clearing, where the unsaturated zone is eight meters thick and dominated by sand. The second profile was installed in heathland, where the unsaturated zone is eleven meters thick and dominated by fine sand. The profile length for the geoelectrical measurements and the number of electrodes per profile were chosen depending on the depth of the groundwater table. The geoelectrical measurements were carried out autonomously twice a day. Remote data transmission made the data instantaneously available for analysis and evaluation. During the entire period of investigation, that is August 2011 to December 2012, the geoelectrical profiles worked independently with low maintenance. During this period, approximately 800 data sets were recorded at each location. Each individual data set contained several thousand measuring points in the geoelectrical cross section. To handle the large amounts of data and efficiently interpret them, a largely automatic algorithm, the so-called ELMON algorithm, was developed. The algorithm reads in the raw measurement values and allows fast acquisition of incorrect measurements and, where appropriate, initiation of maintenance (for example, to troubleshoot browsing by game). The detected erroneous measurements are automatically removed. Then, the change in soil electrical conductivity is determined via a physically founded calculation method developed in the framework of the project. The change in soil electrical conductivity is represented compared to a reference state, e.g. the day prior to a rain event. Using the ELMON algorithm, the water movement through the unsaturated zone could be monitored over a period of more than a year

  10. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.

    2014-06-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  11. Post-rift vertical movements and horizontal deformations in the eastern margin of the Central Atlantic : Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous evolution of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertotti, G.; Gouiza, M.

    2012-01-01

    Wide regions of Morocco, from the Meseta to the High Atlas, have experienced km-scale upward vertical movements during Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times following the appearance of oceanic crust in the Central Atlantic. The area experiencing exhumation was flanked to the W by a domain of

  12. Water and mass budgets of a vertical-flow constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Arthur F M; Van Logtestijn, Richard; Rijs, Gerard B J; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    To estimate the nutrient and organic matter (Biological Oxygen Demand (BODs) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)) removal capacity of a constructed vertical-flow wetland in The Netherlands, a water and nutrient budget study was conducted. Also bacterial water quality enhancement was measured. The

  13. Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite

  14. Vertical Distribution of Dust and Water Ice Aerosols from CRISM Limb-geometry Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael Doyle; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, Todd; Kleinbohl, Armin; Murchie, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Specifically, the observed radiance as a function of wavelength and height above the limb enables the vertical distribution of both dust and water ice aerosols to be retrieved. More than a dozen sets of CRISM limb observations have been taken so far providing pole-to-pole cross sections, spanning more than a full Martian year. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations taking into account multiple scattering from aerosols and the spherical geometry of the limb observations. Both dust and water ice vertical profiles often show a significant vertical structure for nearly all seasons and latitudes that is not consistent with the well-mixed or Conrath-v assumptions that have often been used in the past for describing aerosol vertical profiles for retrieval and modeling purposes. Significant variations are seen in the retrieved vertical profiles of dust and water ice aerosol as a function of season. Dust typically extends to higher altitudes (approx. 40-50km) during the perihelion season than during the aphelion season (<20km), and the Hellas region consistently shows more dust mixed to higher altitudes than other locations. Detached water ice clouds are common, and water ice aerosols are observed to cap the dust layer in all seasons.

  15. simulation of vertical water flow through vadose zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    hydrological cycle because it holds only a minute fraction of the earth's fresh water as investigated by. [1]. Vadose ... within this zone has applications in fields of hydrology, agriculture and soil engineering [2] and is critical to ... The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and.

  16. Numerical case studies of vertical wall fire protection using water spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of vertical wall fire protection are evaluated with numerical method. Typical fire cases such as heated dry wall and upward flame spread have been validated. Results predicted by simulations are found to agree with experiment results. The combustion behavior and flame development of vertical polymethylmethacrylate slabs with different water flow rates are explored and discussed. Water spray is found to be capable of strengthening the fire resistance of combustible even under high heat flux radiation. Provided result and data are expected to provide reference for fire protection methods design and development of modern buildings.

  17. Measurements of the vertical profile of water vapor abundance in the Martian atmosphere from Mars Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, J. T.; Mccleese, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) capabilities along with how the vertical profiles of water vapor will be obtained. The PMIRR will employ filter and pressure modulation radiometry using nine spectral channels, in both limb scanning and nadir sounding modes, to obtain daily, global maps of temperature, dust extinction, condensate extinction, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles as a function of pressure to half scale height or 5 km vertical resolution. Surface thermal properties will also be mapped, and the polar radiactive balance will be monitored.

  18. Vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of krill beneath snow-covered ice and in ice-free waters

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2013-11-11

    A bottom mounted upward looking Simrad EK60 120-kHz echo sounder was used to study scattering layers (SLs) and individuals of the krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica. The mooring was situated at 150-m depth in the Oslofjord, connected with an onshore cable for power and transmission of digitized data. Records spanned 5 months from late autumn to spring. A current meter and CTD was associated with the acoustic mooring and a shore-based webcam monitored ice conditions in the fjord. The continuous measurements were supplemented with intermittent krill sampling campaigns and their physical and biological environment.The krill carried out diel vertical migration (DVM) throughout the winter, regardless of the distribution of potential prey. The fjord froze over in mid-winter and the daytime distribution of a mid-water SL of krill immediately became shallower associated with snow fall after freezing, likely related to reduction of light intensities. Still, a fraction of the population always descended all the way to the bottom, so that the krill population by day seemed to inhabit waters with light levels spanning up to six orders of magnitude. Deep-living krill ascended in synchrony with the rest of the population in the afternoon, but individuals consistently reappeared in near-bottom waters already? 1 h after the ascent. Thereafter, the krill appeared to undertake asynchronous migrations, with some krill always being present in near-bottom waters even though the entire population appeared to undertake DVM. The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  20. Simplified calculation methods for all-vertical-piled wharf in offshore deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhan; He, Lin-lin

    2017-04-01

    All-vertical-piled wharf is a kind of high-piled wharf, but it is extremely different from the traditional ones in some aspects, such as the structural property, bearing characteristics, failure mechanism, and static or dynamic calculation methods. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) and theoretical analysis method are combined to analyze the structural property, bearing behavior and failure mode of the all-vertical-piled wharf in offshore deep water, and to establish simplified calculation methods determining the horizontal static ultimate bearing capacity and the dynamic response for the all-vertical-piled wharf. Firstly, the bearing capability and failure mechanism for all-vertical-piled wharf are studied by use of FEM, and the failure criterion is put forward for all-vertical-piled wharf based on the `plastic hinge'. According to the failure criterion and P-Y curve method, the simplified calculation method of the horizontal static ultimate bearing capacity for all-vertical-piled wharf is proposed, and it is verified that the simplified method is reasonable by comparison with the FEM. Secondly, the displacement dynamic magnification factor for the all-vertical-piled wharf under wave cyclic loads and ship impact loads is calculated by the FEM and the theory formula based on the single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement with each other, and the simplified calculation method of the displacement dynamic magnification factor for all-vertical-piled wharf under dynamic loads is proposed. Then the simplified calculation method determining the dynamic response for the all-vertical-piled wharf is proposed in combination with P-Y curve method. That is, the dynamic response of the structure can be obtained through the static calculation results of P-Y curve method multiplied by the displacement dynamic magnification factor. The feasibility of the simplified dynamic response method is verified by

  1. Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Community Diversity and Water Quality during the Reservoir Thermal Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Han Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir thermal stratification drives the water temperature and dissolved oxygen gradient, however, the characteristic of vertical water microbial community during thermal stratification is so far poorly understood. In this work, water bacterial community diversity was determined using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. The results showed that epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion were formed steadily in the JINPEN drinking water reservoir. Water temperature decreased steadily from the surface (23.11 °C to the bottom (9.17 °C. Total nitrogen ranged from 1.07 to 2.06 mg/L and nitrate nitrogen ranged from 0.8 to 1.84 mg/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration decreased sharply below 50 m, and reached zero at 65 m. The Miseq sequencing revealed a total of 4127 operational taxonomic units (OTUs with 97% similarity, which were affiliated with 15 phyla including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Caldiserica, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. The highest Shannon diversity was 4.41 in 45 m, and the highest Chao 1 diversity was 506 in 5 m. Rhodobacter dominated in 55 m (23.24% and 65 m (12.58%. Prosthecobacter dominated from 0.5 to 50 m. The heat map profile and redundancy analysis (RDA indicated significant difference in vertical water bacterial community composition in the reservoir. Meanwhile, water quality properties including dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen have a dramatic influence on vertical distribution of bacterial communities.

  2. Do ray cells provide a pathway for radial water movement in the stems of conifer trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Barnard; Barbara Lachenbruch; Katherine A. McCulloh; Peter Kitin; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2013-01-01

    The pathway of radial water movement in tree stems presents an unknown with respect to whole-tree hydraulics. Radial profiles have shown substantial axial sap flow in deeper layers of sapwood (that may lack direct connection to transpiring leaves), which suggests the existence of a radial pathway for water movement. Rays in tree stems include ray tracheids and/or ray...

  3. Sensitivity of a mesoscale model to initial specification of relative humidity, liquid water and vertical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, M. W.; Perkey, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of synoptic scale initial conditions on the accuracy of mesoscale precipitation modeling is investigated. Attention is focused on the relative importance of the water vapor, cloud water, rain water, and vertical motion, with the analysis carried out using the Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The fully moist primitive equation model has 15 levels and a terrain-following sigma coordinate system. A K-theory approach was implemented to model the planetary boundary layer. A total of 15 sensitivity simulations were run to investigate the effects of the synoptic initial conditions of the four atmospheric variables. The absence of synoptic cloud and rain water amounts in the initialization caused a 2 hr delay in the onset of precipitation. The delay was increased if synoptic-scale vertical motion was used instead of mesoscale values. Both the delays and a choice of a smoothed moisture field resulted in underestimations of the total rainfall.

  4. Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Common practice of aquaculture in Vietnam and other countries in South East Asia involves frequent discharge of polluted water into rivers which results in eutrophication and degradation of receiving water bodies. There is therefore a need to develop improved aquaculture systems which have a more...... quantities of phytoplankton algae were removed in the CWs but abundance of toxic algae such as Microcystis was low. It is concluded that particularly vertical flow CWs have great potential for treatment of fishpond water in recirculating aquaculture systems in the tropics as the discharge of polluted water...

  5. Post-rift vertical movements and horizontal deformations in the eastern margin of the Central Atlantic: Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous evolution of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Gouiza, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Wide regions of Morocco, from the Meseta to the High Atlas, have experienced km-scale upward vertical movements during Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times following the appearance of oceanic crust in the Central Atlantic. The area experiencing exhumation was flanked to the W by a domain of continuous subsidence, part of which is named the Essaouira-Agadir basin. Comparison with vertical movement curves predicted by lithospheric thinning models shows that only 50-60 % of the subsidence documented in the Essaouira basin can be explained by post-rift thermal relaxation and that <30-40 % of the observed exhumation can be explained by processes (in)directly related to the evolution of the Central Atlantic rifted margin. Syn-sedimentary structures in Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous formations of the Eassouira-Agadir basin are common and range from m-scale folds and thrusts to km-scale sedimentary wedges. These structures systematically document coeval shortening generally oriented at high angle to the present margin. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that regional shortening can explain the structural observations and the enigmatic vertical movements.

  6. Vertical distribution of water in the atmosphere of Venus - A simple thermochemical explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John S.; Grinspoon, David H.

    1990-01-01

    Several lines of evidence concerning the vertical abundance profile of water in the atmosphere of Venus lead to strikingly unusual distributions (the water vapor abundance decreases sharply in the immediate vicinity of the surface) or to serious conflicts in the profiles (different IR bands suggest water abundances that are discrepant by a factor of 2.5 to 10). These data sets can be reconciled if (1) water molecules associate with carbon dioxide and sulfur trioxide to make gaseous carbonic acid and sulfuric acid in the lower atmosphere, and (2) the discrepant 0.94-micrometer water measurements are due to gaseous sulfuric acid, requiring it to be a somewhat stronger absorber than water vapor in this wavelength region. A mean total water abundance of 50 + or - 20 parts/million and a near-surface free water vapor abundance of 10 + or - 4 parts/million are derived.

  7. Retrieval of vertical leaf water content using terrestrial full-waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    The vertical distribution of leaf water content (LWC) within plant canopy plays an important role in light penetration and scattering, thus affecting reflectance simulation with radiative transfer models. Although passive remote sensing techniques have been widely applied to estimate LWC, they are unable to retrieve the LWC vertical distribution within canopy. By providing vertical information, terrestrial LiDAR can potentially overcome this limitation. In this paper we investigated the applicability of the terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR to estimate the LWC vertical profile within the canopy of individual plants. A standard radiometric calibration was applied to convert the amplitude and the echo width to a physically well-defined radiometric quantity, namely the backscatter coefficient. However, the backscatter coefficient is strongly affected by the incidence angle between the laser beam and the leaf normal. In order to compensate for incidence angle effects, reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to calibrated the backscatter coefficient. Our results showed that the backscatter coefficient had a strong correlation (R2 = 0.66) with LWC after correcting for the incidence angle effect. Good agreements were achieved between the predicted vertical profile of LWC and the measured vertical profile of LWC with a mean RMSE (root mean square error) value of 0.001 g/cm2 and a mean MAPE (mean absolute percent error) value of 4.46 %. Our study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of retrieving LWC vertical distribution within plant canopy from a terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR.

  8. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R; Breit, George N; Healy, Richard W; Zupancic, John W; Hammack, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300–480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  9. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  10. Dynamic Properties of Radial and Tangential Movements as Determinants of the Haptic Horizontal-Vertical Illusion with an L Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tong S.

    1977-01-01

    In four experiments involving blindfolded subjects, constant errors in the haptic judgment of extent in the horizontal plane were found to relate consistently to the time and velocity of limb movement. Taken together with additional information on judgments of movement duration, the results suggest that the illusion of extent is modulated by the…

  11. Study of dilution, height, and lateral spread of vertical dense jets in marine shallow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nadeem; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information for the design of sea outfalls to dispose of brine from desalination plants into shallow lagoons of the sea. The behavior of vertical dense jets was studied experimentally by discharging cold saline water vertically upward into a tank filled with hot freshwater under stagnant ambient conditions. The minimum return point dilution, μmin, was determined using thermocouples, and the maximum height, Z(m), and the lateral spread, R(sp), of the fountains were determined by observing shadowgraph pictures. The flow was turbulent and the densimetric Froude number Fr(0) varied from 9 to 18.8. Three mixing regimes were identified: deep, intermediate, and impinging mixing regimes. In the intermediate mixing regime, μ(min) and Z(m) were analyzed and compared with the results of deep water studies. The μ(min) and Z(m) values of fountains at an intermediate water depth were found to be higher than those of fountains at deep water depths. In the impinging regime, μ(min) decreases rapidly when a fountain starts to continuously impinge on the water surface, showing a noticeable disturbance in the water surface. Therefore, a good rule of thumb is to reduce the flow through multiport diffusers from desalination plants when the noticeable disturbance is observed from the top water surface.

  12. Integration of gravitational torques in cerebellar pathways allows for the dynamic inverse computation of vertical pointing movements of a robot arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Rodolphe J; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Ebadzadeh, Mehdi; Eskiizmirliler, Selim; Ouanezar, Sofiane; Darlot, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Several authors suggested that gravitational forces are centrally represented in the brain for planning, control and sensorimotor predictions of movements. Furthermore, some studies proposed that the cerebellum computes the inverse dynamics (internal inverse model) whereas others suggested that it computes sensorimotor predictions (internal forward model). This study proposes a model of cerebellar pathways deduced from both biological and physical constraints. The model learns the dynamic inverse computation of the effect of gravitational torques from its sensorimotor predictions without calculating an explicit inverse computation. By using supervised learning, this model learns to control an anthropomorphic robot arm actuated by two antagonists McKibben artificial muscles. This was achieved by using internal parallel feedback loops containing neural networks which anticipate the sensorimotor consequences of the neural commands. The artificial neural networks architecture was similar to the large-scale connectivity of the cerebellar cortex. Movements in the sagittal plane were performed during three sessions combining different initial positions, amplitudes and directions of movements to vary the effects of the gravitational torques applied to the robotic arm. The results show that this model acquired an internal representation of the gravitational effects during vertical arm pointing movements. This is consistent with the proposal that the cerebellar cortex contains an internal representation of gravitational torques which is encoded through a learning process. Furthermore, this model suggests that the cerebellum performs the inverse dynamics computation based on sensorimotor predictions. This highlights the importance of sensorimotor predictions of gravitational torques acting on upper limb movements performed in the gravitational field.

  13. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Moura

    Full Text Available This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy, are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  14. Exact and Approximate Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations for Water Movement in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghu Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solutions of the fractional partial differential equation (fPDE for analysing water movement in soils. The fPDE explains processes equivalent to the concept of symmetrical fractional derivatives (SFDs which have two components: the forward fractional derivative (FFD and backward fractional derivative (BFD of water movement in soils with the BFD representing the micro-scale backwater effect in porous media. The distributed-order time-space fPDE represents water movement in both swelling and non-swelling soils with mobile and immobile zones with the backwater effect operating at two time scales in large and small pores. The concept of flux-concentration relation is now updated to account for the relative fractional flux of water movement in soils.

  15. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water...

  16. The Effect of Occlusal Splint Pretreatment on Mandibular Movements and Vertical Dimension of Occlusion in Long-Term Complete Denture Wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rita de Cássia Costa Ribeiro; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; Boscato, Noéli

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the pretreatment influence of occlusal splints and relines on mandibular movements (MM) and vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) in longstanding complete denture wearers. A total of 30 volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10): control (C), relining of old denture (RD), and occlusal splints (OS). Individual extent of MM was assessed via intraoral Gothic arch tracings and the VDO using posed frontal images taken at three time points. The OS group showed statistically significant differences when compared with the other groups (P < .05). Both MM and VDO were significantly improved by use of occlusal splints pretreatment.

  17. Testing and Training of the Eggbeater Kick Movement in Water Polo: Applicability of a New Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Viero, Valerio; Triossi, Tamara; Tancredi, Virginia; Galvani, Christel; Bonifazi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In water polo, many of the technical actions and the contacts with the opponent take place in quasi-vertical floating position using 2 types of lower limb actions: the eggbeater kick is used most often in fighting and passing and the breaststroke kick in jumping and throwing. The aim of this study was to identify a new system to evaluate and to train the eggbeater kick movement and to verify its applicability. Twenty amateur players and 22 elite players participated in the study. A jacket, homemade and easy to make, allowing the application of an overload submerged in water but not hindering breathing or mobility, was used. Standard anthropometry and a test consisting of different trials of the eggbeater kick action until exhaustion with an increasing overload (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 kg) were collected. Time to exhaustion and the overload estimated maximum value (OEMV) at second 2 were determined for each load. Body weight, height, and lower limb muscle performance of the elite and nonelite players were significantly different from each other (p ≤ 0.05). The effectiveness of the different measured variables in both subgroups and that of the OEMV was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Areas under the ROC curve for the different overloads were 0.72 (0.53-0.92) for 5 kg, 0.80 (0.68-0.90) for 7.5 kg, 0.87 (0.77-0.91) for 10 kg, and 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for 12.5 kg overload. Our results show that the test is sensitive enough and therefore can be used to plan and control training and injury recovery.

  18. On the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    The vertical distribution of local and remote sources of water for precipitation and total column water over the United States are evaluated in a general circulation model simulation. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) general circulation model (GCM) includes passive constituent tracers to determine the geographical sources of the water in the column. Results show that the local percentage of precipitable water and local percentage of precipitation can be very different. The transport of water vapor from remote oceanic sources at mid and upper levels is important to the total water in the column over the central United States, while the access of locally evaporated water in convective precipitation processes is important to the local precipitation ratio. This result resembles the conceptual formulation of the convective parameterization. However, the formulations of simple models of precipitation recycling include the assumption that the ratio of the local water in the column is equal to the ratio of the local precipitation. The present results demonstrate the uncertainty in that assumption, as locally evaporated water is more concentrated near the surface.

  19. Chemistry and movement of ground water, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, S.L.; Moore, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    Three chemical types of ground water are distinguished at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. A sodium-potassium water is related to tuff (in part zeolitized) and to alluvium containing detrital tuff. A calcium-magnesium water is related to limestone and dolomite, or to alluvium containing detritus of these rock types. A mixed chemical type, containing about as much sodium and potassium as calcium and magnesium, may result from the addition of one of the first two types of water to the other; to passage of water first through tuff and then through carbonate rock, or vice versa; and to ion-exchange during water travel. Consideration of the distribution of these water types, together with the distribution of sodium in the water and progressive changes in the dissolved solids, suggests that the ground water in the Nevada Test Site probably moves toward the Amargosa Desert, not into Indian Spring Valley and thence southeastward toward Las Vegas. The low dissolved solids content of ground-water reservoirs in alluvium and tuff of the enclosed basins indicates that recharge is local in origin.

  20. Nitrate movement in shallow ground water from swine-lagoon-effluent spray fields managed under current application regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Daniel W; Showers, William J; Fountain, Matthew; Fountain, John

    2005-01-01

    Rapid increases in the swine (Sus scrofa domestica) population in the 1990s and associated potential for nitrate N pollution of surface waters led the state of North Carolina to adopt stringent waste management regulations in 1993. Our objectives were to characterize (i) nitrate N movement from waste application fields (WAFs) in shallow ground water, and (ii) soil, hydrologic, and biological factors influencing the amount of nitrate N in the adjacent stream. A ground water monitoring study was conducted for 36 mo on a swine farm managed under new regulations. Water table contours and lack of vertical gradients indicated horizontal flow over most of the site. Nitrate N concentrations in water from shallow wells in WAFs averaged 30 +/- 19 mg L(-1) and delta15N ratios for nitrate N were between +20 and +25 per mil. Nitrate N concentration decreased from field-edge to streamside wells by 22 to 99%. Measurement of delta18O and delta15N enrichment of nitrate in ground water throughout the WAF-riparian system indicated that denitrification has not caused significant 15N enrichment of nitrate. Over a 24-mo period, delta15N ratios for nitrate N in the stream approached delta15N ratios for nitrate N in ground water beneath WAFs indicating delivery of some waste-derived nitrate N to the stream in shallow ground water. Nitrate N concentrations in the stream were relatively low, averaging 1 mg L(-1). Dilution of high nitrate N water in shallow horizontal flow paths with low nitrate N water from deeper horizontal flow paths at or near the stream, some denitrification as ground water discharges through the stream bottom, and some denitrification in riparian zone contributed to this low nitrate N concentration.

  1. Wavelet analysis of remote sensing and discharge data for understanding vertical ground movements in sandy and clayey terrains of the Po Delta area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Eleonora; Di Maio, Rosa; Scafetta, Nicola; Calcaterra, Domenico; Zanchettin, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Subsidence phenomena change the proneness of urban and coastal areas to huge flooding, particularly, in river delta regions. Many natural and/or anthropic processes can induce vertical ground movements; identifying the causes of the observed phenomena is a useful, even if not easy, task for flood forecasting. In order to improve the knowledge of natural versus anthropic contributions to vertical ground movements, in the present work data analysis techniques (polynomial regression analysis, frequency analysis and cross wavelet and wavelet coherence analysis) are used to analyze both the long- and short-time scale dependencies between Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) and variations of meteorological, hydrogeological and hydrological data collected in the Po River Delta area (Northern Italy) from January 2009 to December 2015. The main findings are as follows: (i) occurrence of positive correlations and periodic oscillations of about 2-3 years for all the analyzed meteorological, hydrogeological and hydrological records; (ii) a general decrease of the ground level with a faster soil lowering in clayey terrain with respect to sandy terrain; and, (iii) negative correlations between CGPS and Po River discharge records at the intra-annual scale (2-6 months), which are attributed to an isostatic rebound induced by the change of the river discharge due to precipitation changes over northern Italy.

  2. Seed dynamics linked to variability in movement of tidal water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, E. R.; Veeneklaas, R. M.; Bakker, J. P.

    Question: Community structure may be influenced by patterns of dispersed seeds (seed rain) because they contribute to the template of plant community development. We explored factors influencing seed rain in a system dominated by tidal water, where direction and magnitude of water flow are difficult

  3. Integration of gravitational torques in cerebellar pathways allows for the dynamic inverse computation of vertical pointing movements of a robot arm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe J Gentili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several authors suggested that gravitational forces are centrally represented in the brain for planning, control and sensorimotor predictions of movements. Furthermore, some studies proposed that the cerebellum computes the inverse dynamics (internal inverse model whereas others suggested that it computes sensorimotor predictions (internal forward model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a model of cerebellar pathways deduced from both biological and physical constraints. The model learns the dynamic inverse computation of the effect of gravitational torques from its sensorimotor predictions without calculating an explicit inverse computation. By using supervised learning, this model learns to control an anthropomorphic robot arm actuated by two antagonists McKibben artificial muscles. This was achieved by using internal parallel feedback loops containing neural networks which anticipate the sensorimotor consequences of the neural commands. The artificial neural networks architecture was similar to the large-scale connectivity of the cerebellar cortex. Movements in the sagittal plane were performed during three sessions combining different initial positions, amplitudes and directions of movements to vary the effects of the gravitational torques applied to the robotic arm. The results show that this model acquired an internal representation of the gravitational effects during vertical arm pointing movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is consistent with the proposal that the cerebellar cortex contains an internal representation of gravitational torques which is encoded through a learning process. Furthermore, this model suggests that the cerebellum performs the inverse dynamics computation based on sensorimotor predictions. This highlights the importance of sensorimotor predictions of gravitational torques acting on upper limb movements performed in the gravitational field.

  4. Vertical distribution of major photosynthetic picoeukaryotic groups in stratified marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Cabello, Ana M.

    2016-03-14

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are fundamental contributors to oceanic primary production and form diverse communities dominated by prymnesiophytes, chlorophytes, pelagophytes and chrysophytes. Here, we studied the vertical distribution of these major groups in two offshore regions of the northern Iberian Peninsula during summer stratification. We performed a fine-scale vertical sampling (every ∼2 m) across the DCM and used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the PPE composition and to explore the possible segregation of target groups in the light, nutrient and temperature gradients. Chlorophytes, pelagophytes and prymnesiophytes, in this order of abundance, accounted for the total PPEs recorded by flow cytometry in the Avilés canyon, and for more than half in the Galicia Bank, whereas chrysophytes were undetected. Among the three detected groups, often the prymnesiophytes were dominant in biomass. In general, all groups were present throughout the water column with abundance peaks around the DCM, but their distributions differed: pelagophytes were located deeper than the other two groups, chlorophytes presented two peaks and prymnesiophytes exhibited surface abundances comparable to those at the DCM. This study offers first indications that the vertical distribution of different PPE groups is heterogeneous within the DCM. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo

    2012-09-18

    A vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta3N5 nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An Analysis of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Persson, P.

    1963-06-15

    A method of predicting the burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts is presented. The analysis predicts that the burnout conditions are independent of the L/d-ratio and the inlet temperature, and that the burnout steam quality decreases with increasing surface heat flux and increasing mass velocity. It was also found that the burnout steam quality at low pressures increases with the pressure and reaches a maximum at approximately 70 kg/cm, and thereafter decreases with a further increase of the pressure. The theoretical result compares very well with experimental data from different sources.

  7. Movements of a deep-water fish: establishing marine fisheries management boundaries in coastal Arctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Nigel E; Hedges, Kevin J; Barkley, Amanda N; Treble, Margaret A; Peklova, Iva; Webber, Dale M; Ferguson, Steven H; Yurkowski, David J; Kessel, Steven T; Bedard, Jeannette M; Fisk, Aaron T

    2017-04-01

    Management boundaries that define populations or stocks of fish form the basis of fisheries planning. In the Arctic, decreasing sea ice extent is driving increasing fisheries development, highlighting the need for ecological data to inform management. In Cumberland Sound, southwest Baffin Island, an indigenous community fishery was established in 1987 targeting Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) through the ice. Following its development, the Cumberland Sound Management Boundary (CSMB) was designated and a total allowable catch (TAC) assigned to the fishery. The CSMB was based on a sink population of Greenland halibut resident in the northern section of the Sound. Recent fishing activities south of the CSMB, however, raised concerns over fish residency, the effectiveness of the CSMB and the sustainability of the community-based winter fishery. Through acoustic telemetry monitoring at depths between 400 and 1200 m, and environmental and fisheries data, this study examined the movement patterns of Greenland halibut relative to the CSMB, the biotic and abiotic factors driving fish movement and the dynamics of the winter fishery. Greenland halibut undertook clear seasonal movements between the southern and northern regions of the Sound driven by temperature, dissolved oxygen, and sea ice cover with most fish crossing the CSMB on an annual basis. Over the lifespan of the fishery, landfast ice cover initially declined and then became variable, limiting accessibility to favored fisher locations. Concomitantly, catch per unit effort declined, reflecting the effect of changing ice conditions on the location and effort of the fishery. Ultimately, these telemetry data revealed that fishers now target less productive sites outside of their favored areas and, with continued decreases in ice, the winter fishery might cease to exist. In addition, these novel telemetry data revealed that the CSMB is ineffective and led to its relocation to the entrance of the Sound

  8. Fine-scale foraging movements by fish-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca) relate to the vertical distributions and escape responses of salmonid prey (Oncorhynchusspp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brianna M; Ford, John K B; Ellis, Graeme M; Deecke, Volker B; Shapiro, Ari Daniel; Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    We sought to quantitatively describe the fine-scale foraging behavior of northern resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca ), a population of fish-eating killer whales that feeds almost exclusively on Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.). To reconstruct the underwater movements of these specialist predators, we deployed 34 biologging Dtags on 32 individuals and collected high-resolution, three-dimensional accelerometry and acoustic data. We used the resulting dive paths to compare killer whale foraging behavior to the distributions of different salmonid prey species. Understanding the foraging movements of these threatened predators is important from a conservation standpoint, since prey availability has been identified as a limiting factor in their population dynamics and recovery. Three-dimensional dive tracks indicated that foraging ( N  = 701) and non-foraging dives ( N  = 10,618) were kinematically distinct (Wilks' lambda: λ 16  = 0.321, P  killer whales dove deeper, remained submerged longer, swam faster, increased their dive path tortuosity, and rolled their bodies to a greater extent than during other activities. Maximum foraging dive depths reflected the deeper vertical distribution of Chinook (compared to other salmonids) and the tendency of Pacific salmon to evade predators by diving steeply. Kinematic characteristics of prey pursuit by resident killer whales also revealed several other escape strategies employed by salmon attempting to avoid predation, including increased swimming speeds and evasive maneuvering. High-resolution dive tracks reconstructed using data collected by multi-sensor accelerometer tags found that movements by resident killer whales relate significantly to the vertical distributions and escape responses of their primary prey, Pacific salmon.

  9. Modeling vertical movement of organic matter in a soil incubated for 41 years with "1"4C labeled straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, S.; Christensen, B.T.; Thomsen, I.K.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of organic matter (OM) in the soil profile reflects the balance between inputs and decomposition at different depths as well as transport of OM within the profile. In this study we modeled movement of OM in the soil profile as a result of mechanisms resulting in dispersive...... and advective movement. The model was used to interpret the distribution of C-14 in the soil profile 41 years after the labeling event. The model fitted the observed distribution of C-14 well (R-2 = 0.988, AIC(c) = -82.6), with a dispersion constant of D = 0.71 cm(2) yr(-1) and an advection constant of v = 0...

  10. Reading "sun" and looking up: the influence of language on saccadic eye movements in the vertical dimension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Dudschig

    Full Text Available Traditionally, language processing has been attributed to a separate system in the brain, which supposedly works in an abstract propositional manner. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting that language processing is strongly interrelated with sensorimotor processing. Evidence for such an interrelation is typically drawn from interactions between language and perception or action. In the current study, the effect of words that refer to entities in the world with a typical location (e.g., sun, worm on the planning of saccadic eye movements was investigated. Participants had to perform a lexical decision task on visually presented words and non-words. They responded by moving their eyes to a target in an upper (lower screen position for a word (non-word or vice versa. Eye movements were faster to locations compatible with the word's referent in the real world. These results provide evidence for the importance of linguistic stimuli in directing eye movements, even if the words do not directly transfer directional information.

  11. Effect of water stress on the movement and distribution of water in Rhodesgrass and Job's tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saneoka, Hirohumi; Premachandra, G.S.; Ogata, Shoitsu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana Kunth.) and Job's tears (Coix larcryma jobi L.) are known to be drought tolerant and drought susceptible forage crops, respectively. They were grown in a nutrient solution with water stress treatment (osmotic potential of the solution adjusted to {minus}0.97 MPa using mannitol) and control (osmotic potential {minus}0.05 MPa). Tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O) was used as the tracer. In the water stress treatment, twenty four hours after the addition of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O, relative {sup 3}H radioactivity in roots, stems, expanded leaves and expanding leaves in Rhodesgrass reached to 5, 45, 9 and 8% of that of the nutrient solution, respectively. The respective values in Job's tears were 48, 18, 5.5 and 4% indicating that the movement of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O was remarkably higher in both crops under water stress conditions. The results suggested that water movement through plants differ according to plant species. A series of resistance exists along the pathway of water movement from the soil to atmosphere through the plant. The major resistance to the movement appears to exist in the nodes and/or basal stems which locate in transit position from one organ to another Resistance to water flow at the upper nodes as well as at the basal stems was higher in drought sensitive crop, Job's tears, than in Rhodesgrass.

  12. 20171130_Ind Ergo Report_631 DI Water Movement Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Cynthia R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Perform an industrial ergonomic assessment to evaluate the new procedures for filling, lifting, and delivering high purity de-ionized water to building 9925. The goal was to improve on the previous method by minimizing/eliminating as much lifting and bending as possible to reduce the potential for overexertion-related injuries.

  13. Syn- and post-rift anomalous vertical movements in the eastern Central Atlantic passive margin: a transect across the Moroccan passive continental margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Remi; Bertotti, Giovanni; Arantegui, Angel; Luber, Tim; Redfern, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Traditional models of passive margin evolution suggesting generalised regional subsidence with rates decreasing after the break-up have been questioned in the last decade by a number of detailed studies. The occurrence of episodic km-scale exhumation well within the post-rift stage, possibly associated with significant erosion, have been documented along the Atlantic continental margins. Despite the wide-spread and increasing body of evidence supporting post-rift exhumation, there is still limited understanding of the mechanism or scale of these phenomena. Most of these enigmatic vertical movements have been discovered using low-temperature geochronology and time-temperature modelling along strike of passive margins. As proposed in previous work, anomalous upward movements in the exhuming domain are coeval with higher-than-normal downward movements in the subsiding domain. These observations call for an integrated analysis of the entire source-to-sink system as a pre-requisite for a full understanding of the involved tectonics. We reconstruct the geological evolution of a 50km long transect across the Moroccan passive margin from the Western Anti-Atlas (Ifni area) to the offshore passive margin basin. Extending the presently available low-temperature geochronology database and using a new stratigraphic control of the Mesozoic sediments, we present a reconstruction of vertical movements in the area. Further, we integrate this with the analysis of an offshore seismic line and the pattern of vertical movements in the Anti-Atlas as documented in Gouiza et al. (2016). The results based on sampled rocks indicate exhumation by circa 6km after the Variscan orogeny until the Middle Jurassic. During the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous the region was subsequently buried by 1-2km, and later exhumed by 1-2km from late Early/Late Cretaceous onwards. From the Permian to present day, the Ifni region is the link between the generally exhuming Anti Atlas and continually subsiding

  14. Acute Effect of Biomechanical Muscle Stimulation on the Counter-Movement Vertical Jump Power and Velocity in Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Sellers, John H; Conchola, Eric C; Pope, Zach K; Glass, Rob G

    2017-05-01

    Jacobson, BH, Monaghan, TP, Sellers, JH, Conchola, EC, Pope, ZK, and Glass, RG. Acute effect of biomechanical muscle stimulation on the counter-movement vertical jump power and velocity in division I football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1259-1264, 2017-Research regarding whole body vibration (WBV) largely supports such training augmentation in attempts to increase muscle strength and power. However, localized biomechanical vibration has not received the same attention. The purpose of this study was to assess peak and average power before and after acute vibration of selected lower-body sites in division I athletes. Twenty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions using a cross-over design. Pretest consisted of a counter-movement vertical jump (VJ) followed by either localized vibration (30 Hz) to 4 selected lower-body areas or 4 minutes of moderately low-resistance stationary cycling (70 rpm). Vibration consisted of 1 minute bouts at each lower-leg site for a total of 4 minutes followed by an immediate post-test VJ. Repeated measures analysis of variance yielded no significant differences (p > 0.05) in either peak power or peak velocity. Similarly, no significant differences were found for average power and velocity between conditions. It should be noted that, while not significant, the vibration condition demonstrated an increase in peak power and velocity while the bike condition registered slight decreases. Comparing each of the post-VJ repetitions (1, 2, and 3) the vibration condition experienced significantly greater peak power and velocity from VJ 1 to VJ 3 compared with the bike condition which demonstrated no significant differences among the post-test VJs. These results yielded similar, although not statistically significant outcomes to previous studies using WBV. However, the novelty of selected site biomechanical vibration merits further investigation with respect to frequency, magnitude, and duration of vibration.

  15. The Coupled Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Understanding How Clouds Affect the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are crucial to the current Martian climate, and they are coupled through cloud formation. Dust strongly impacts the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation, while clouds provide radiative forcing and control the hemispheric exchange of water through the modification of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent improvements in the quality and sophistication of both observations and climate models allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how the interaction between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) affects the dust and water cycles individually. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distribution of dust and water, and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. For this study, we utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) combined with the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). We demonstrate that the magnitude and nature of the net meridional transport of water between the northern and southern hemispheres during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. We further examine how clouds influence the atmospheric thermal structure and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to identify and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  16. The Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Investigating the Influence of Clouds on the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are critical to the current Martian climate, and they interact with each other through cloud formation. Dust modulates the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly influences atmospheric circulation. Clouds provide radiative forcing and control the net hemispheric transport of water through the alteration of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent advancements in the quality and sophistication of both climate models and observations enable an increased understanding of how the coupling between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) impacts the dust and water cycles. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distributions of dust and water and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. We utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM) to show that the magnitude and nature of the hemispheric exchange of water during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. Further, we investigate how clouds influence atmospheric temperatures and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to isolate and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  17. Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in vertical counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2014-01-01

    and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Introduction: Altered loading pattern of the medial aspect of the knee has been associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated......Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects Brekke AF1,2, Nielsen DB2, Holsgaard-Larsen A2 1School of physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 2Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedics...... with early-onset OA with associated pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. However, specific knee loading pattern of the medial aspect has not been investigated during different jump-tasks in ACL-reconstructed patients. The purpose was to investigate potential kinetic differences...

  18. Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musyl, Michael K.; Brill, Richard W.; Curran, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus......]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports...... and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue sharks was 15% (95% CI, 8.5-25.1%) and suggested that catch-and-release in longline fisheries can be a viable management tool to protect parental biomass in shark populations. Pelagic sharks displayed...

  19. Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Collection of water-quality samples that accurately characterize average particle concentrations and distributions in channels can be complicated by large sources of variability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a fully automated Depth-Integrated Sample Arm (DISA) as a way to reduce bias and improve accuracy in water-quality concentration data. The DISA was designed to integrate with existing autosampler configurations commonly used for the collection of water-quality samples in vertical profile thereby providing a better representation of average suspended sediment and sediment-associated pollutant concentrations and distributions than traditional fixed-point samplers. In controlled laboratory experiments, known concentrations of suspended sediment ranging from 596 to 1,189 mg/L were injected into a 3 foot diameter closed channel (circular pipe) with regulated flows ranging from 1.4 to 27.8 ft3 /s. Median suspended sediment concentrations in water-quality samples collected using the DISA were within 7 percent of the known, injected value compared to 96 percent for traditional fixed-point samplers. Field evaluation of this technology in open channel fluvial systems showed median differences between paired DISA and fixed-point samples to be within 3 percent. The range of particle size measured in the open channel was generally that of clay and silt. Differences between the concentration and distribution measured between the two sampler configurations could potentially be much larger in open channels that transport larger particles, such as sand.

  20. Short-Term Fidelity, Habitat Use and Vertical Movement Behavior of the Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii as Determined by Acoustic Telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqiu Zhang

    Full Text Available The recent miniaturization of acoustic tracking devices has allowed fishery managers and scientists to collect spatial and temporal data for sustainable fishery management. The spatial and temporal dimensions of fish behavior (movement and/or vertical migrations are particularly relevant for rockfishes (Sebastes spp. because most rockfish species are long-lived and have high site fidelity, increasing their vulnerability to overexploitation. In this study, we describe the short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d spatial behavior, as determined by acoustic tracking, of the black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, a species subject to overexploitation in the Yellow Sea of China. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection in the study area was 0.92 ± 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The preference of this species for the artificial reefs that were recently deployed in the study area suggests that artificial seascapes may be effective management tools to attract individuals. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the

  1. Short-Term Fidelity, Habitat Use and Vertical Movement Behavior of the Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii as Determined by Acoustic Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingqiu; Xu, Qiang; Alós, Josep; Liu, Hui; Xu, Qinzeng; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The recent miniaturization of acoustic tracking devices has allowed fishery managers and scientists to collect spatial and temporal data for sustainable fishery management. The spatial and temporal dimensions of fish behavior (movement and/or vertical migrations) are particularly relevant for rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) because most rockfish species are long-lived and have high site fidelity, increasing their vulnerability to overexploitation. In this study, we describe the short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d) spatial behavior, as determined by acoustic tracking, of the black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, a species subject to overexploitation in the Yellow Sea of China. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection) in the study area was 0.92 ± 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h) was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The preference of this species for the artificial reefs that were recently deployed in the study area suggests that artificial seascapes may be effective management tools to attract individuals. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the identification of key

  2. Hydrodynamics of a Free Floating Vertical Axisymmetric Oscillating Water Column Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mavrakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a general formulation of the hydrodynamic problem of a floating or restrained oscillating water column device. Three types of first-order boundary value problems are investigated in order to calculate the velocity potential of the flow field around the device. The horizontal and vertical exciting wave forces, the rolling moment, the hydrodynamic parameters, the volume flows, and the drift forces are obtained in order to find the loads on the structure. The efficiency rate of the device is calculated in connection with the absorbed power and the capture length of energy absorption. Finally, the resulting wave motion inside and outside the device and the inner air pressure are examined.

  3. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heat transfer regimes for a flow of water at supercritcal conditions in vertical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deev, V. I.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Churkin, A. N.; Baisov, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Heat transfer regimes observed in experiments with water at supercritical conditions flowing in vertical channels of various cross-sections (such as round pipes, annulus, or rod bundles) are analyzed. In accordance with the established practice, the normal and the deteriorated heat transfer regimes were singled out as the basic regimes specific for heat carriers with highly variable properties. At the same time, it has been established that most published experimental data on supercritical pressure water heat transfer along the length of test sections demonstrate combined (or transient) heat transfer regimes. The features can be presented as a superposition of characteristics of the above-mentioned basic regimes. The combined regimes are not stable in certain ranges of water flow conditions in which sudden transitions between the basic regimes can occur. A system of similarity criteria governing heat transfer rate in the vicinity of the critical point is examined. As applicable to cores of water-cooled reactors, due to a small hydraulic diameter of cooling channels, buoyancy forces acting in these channels are negligible as compared with the inertia effects caused by thermal acceleration of the flow and viscous force. This concept yields two integrated criteria whose use in the correction factors for the basic heat transfer equation, which we proposed previously for the normal regimes, adequately (with an error of 20-25%) describes the specific of the heat transfer coefficient in the normal, deteriorated, and combined regimes. A system of equations is proposed for design calculation of heat transfer in channels of nuclear reactors cooled with supercritical pressure water.

  5. An Experimental Study on the Solidification and Melting of Water around a Vertical Heat Transfer Plate with Pin Fins

    OpenAIRE

    平澤, 良男; 陳, 東; 渡邉, 弘毅; 竹越, 栄俊

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the solidification and melting of water were investigated experimentally for the case of a vertical heat transfer plate with pin fins. In the experiment, temperature distributions, ice and water volume fractions, and heat flux changes were measured and the flow patterns in the water were observed for examination of the phase change process. In the solidification, the phase change rate increased monotonously with increasing number of fins. In the melting, the temperature ...

  6. Arctic stratospheric dehydration - Part 1: Unprecedented observation of vertical redistribution of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaykin, S. M.; Engel, I.; Vömel, H.; Formanyuk, I. M.; Kivi, R.; Korshunov, L. I.; Krämer, M.; Lykov, A. D.; Meier, S.; Naebert, T.; Pitts, M. C.; Santee, M. L.; Spelten, N.; Wienhold, F. G.; Yushkov, V. A.; Peter, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present high-resolution measurements of water vapour, aerosols and clouds in the Arctic stratosphere in January and February 2010 carried out by in situ instrumentation on balloon sondes and high-altitude aircraft combined with satellite observations. The measurements provide unparalleled evidence of dehydration and rehydration due to gravitational settling of ice particles. An extreme cooling of the Arctic stratospheric vortex during the second half of January 2010 resulted in a rare synoptic-scale outbreak of ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) remotely detected by the lidar aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite. The widespread occurrence of ice clouds was followed by sedimentation and consequent sublimation of ice particles, leading to vertical redistribution of water inside the vortex. A sequence of balloon and aircraft soundings with chilled mirror and Lyman- α hygrometers (Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer, CFH; Fast In Situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, FISH; Fluorescent Airborne Stratospheric Hygrometer, FLASH) and backscatter sondes (Compact Optical Backscatter Aerosol Detector, COBALD) conducted in January 2010 within the LAPBIAT (Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere Facility) and RECONCILE (Reconciliation of Essential Process Parameters for an Enhanced Predictability of Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Loss and its Climate Interactions) campaigns captured various phases of this phenomenon: ice formation, irreversible dehydration and rehydration. Consistent observations of water vapour by these independent measurement techniques show clear signatures of irreversible dehydration of the vortex air by up to 1.6 ppmv in the 20-24 km altitude range and rehydration by up to 0.9 ppmv in a 1 km thick layer below. Comparison with space-borne Aura MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) water vapour observations allow the spatiotemporal evolution of dehydrated air masses within the Arctic vortex to be derived and upscaled.

  7. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d-1 in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH4+ 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  8. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites.

  9. Vertical radar profiles for the calibration of unsaturated flow models under dynamic water table conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, G.; Gallotti, L.; Ventura, V.; Andreotti, G.

    2003-04-01

    The identification of flow and transport characteristics in the vadose zone is a fundamental step towards understanding the dynamics of contaminated sites and the resulting risk of groundwater pollution. Borehole radar has gained popularity for the monitoring of moisture content changes, thanks to its apparent simplicity and its high resolution characteristics. However, cross-hole radar requires closely spaced (a few meters), plastic-cased boreholes, that are rarely available as a standard feature in sites of practical interest. Unlike cross-hole applications, Vertical Radar Profiles (VRP) require only one borehole, with practical and financial benefits. High-resolution, time-lapse VRPs have been acquired at a crude oil contaminated site in Trecate, Northern Italy, on a few existing boreholes originally developed for remediation via bioventing. The dynamic water table conditions, with yearly oscillations of roughly 5 m from 6 to 11 m bgl, offers a good opportunity to observe via VRP a field scale drainage-imbibition process. Arrival time inversion has been carried out using a regularized tomographic algorithm, in order to overcome the noise introduced by first arrival picking. Interpretation of the vertical profiles in terms of moisture content has been based on standard models (Topp et al., 1980; Roth et al., 1990). The sedimentary sequence manifests itself as a cyclic pattern in moisture content over most of the profiles. We performed preliminary Richards' equation simulations with time varying later table boundary conditions, in order to estimate the unsaturated flow parameters, and the results have been compared with laboratory evidence from cores.

  10. Investigating spatial variability of vertical water fluxes through the streambed in distinctive stream morphologies using temperature and head data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Jiang, Weiwei; Song, Jinxi; Dou, Xinyi; Guo, Hongtao; Xu, Shaofeng; Zhang, Guotao; Wen, Ming; Long, Yongqing; Li, Qi

    2017-08-01

    Investigating the interaction of groundwater and surface water is key to understanding the hyporheic processes. The vertical water fluxes through a streambed were determined using Darcian flux calculations and vertical sediment temperature profiles to assess the pattern and magnitude of groundwater/surface-water interaction in Beiluo River, China. Field measurements were taken in January 2015 at three different stream morphologies including a meander bend, an anabranching channel and a straight stream channel. Despite the differences of flux direction and magnitude, flux directions based on vertical temperature profiles are in good agreement with results from Darcian flux calculations at the anabranching channel, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests show no significant differences between the estimated upward fluxes based on the two methods at each site. Also, the upward fluxes based on the two methods show similar spatial distributions on the streambed, indicating (1) that higher water fluxes at the meander bend occur from the center of the channel towards the erosional bank, (2) that water fluxes at the anabranching channel are higher near the erosional bank and in the center of the channel, and (3) that in the straight channel, higher water fluxes appear from the center of the channel towards the depositional bank. It is noted that higher fluxes generally occur at certain locations with higher streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity ( K v) or where a higher vertical hydraulic gradient is observed. Moreover, differences of grain size, induced by stream morphology and contrasting erosional and depositional conditions, have significant effects on streambed K v and water fluxes.

  11. Predicting ground-water movement in large mine spoil areas in the Appalachian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern Kentucky reveals important factors that control the storage and movement of water. Ground-water recharge occurs along the periphery of the spoil body where surface-water drainage is blocked, as well as from infiltration along the spoil-bedrock contact, recharge from adjacent bedrock, and to a minor extent, through macropores at the spoil's surface. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m for all spoil wells, and assuming an estimated porosity of 20%, approximately 5.2 x 106 m3 of water is stored within the existing 4.1 km2 of reclaimed spoil. A conceptual model of ground-water flow, based on data from monitoring wells, dye-tracing data, discharge from springs and ponds, hydraulic gradients, chemical data, field reconnaissance, and aerial photographs indicate that three distinct but interconnected saturated zones have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and others in the valley fills that surround the main spoil body at lower elevations. Ground-water movement is sluggish in the spoil's interior, but moves quickly through the valley fills. The conceptual model shows that a prediction of ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality can be made for active or abandoned spoil areas if all or some of the following data are available: structural contour of the base of the lowest coal seam being mined, pre-mining topography, documentation of mining methods employed throughout the mine, overburden characteristics, and aerial photographs of mine progression.Spoil created by surface mining can accumulate large quantities of ground-water, which can create geotechnical or regulatory problems, as well as flood active mine pits. A current study at a large (4.1 km2), thick, (up to 90 m) spoil body in eastern

  12. Water and nitrogen distribution in uncropped ridgetilled soil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the experiment, the simultaneous distribution of water, nitrate, and ammonium under three ridge widths was measured using the gravimetric method. Monitoring of the water movement revealed that vertical water movement was much greater than horizontal movement. Compared with 30 and 90 cm ridge width, soil water ...

  13. Analysis of the cylinder’s movement characteristics after entering water based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianlong

    2017-10-01

    It’s a variable speed motion after the cylinder vertical entry the water. Using dynamic mesh is mostly unstructured grid, and the calculation results are not ideal and consume huge computing resources. CFD method is used to calculate the resistance of the cylinder at different velocities. Cubic spline interpolation method is used to obtain the resistance at fixed speeds. The finite difference method is used to solve the motion equation, and the acceleration, velocity, displacement and other physical quantities are obtained after the cylinder enters the water.

  14. Raised marine sequences of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura revisited—a reappraisal of relative sea-level changes and vertical movements in the eastern Canary Islands during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente; González, José Ángel; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2002-10-01

    Systematic mapping and morphosedimentary analysis of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands supported by laboratory techniques (U-series mostly by TIMS, 14C analysis and allo-isoleucine measurements on biogenic carbonates from raised marine deposits, paleomagnetic and a few K/Ar measurements on volcanic formations related to marine deposits) provide a basis for constraining the age of Late Cainozoic marine units. The most complete sequences of raised marine terraces are found at similar elevations in both islands. They include up to 12 marine terraces (Episodes) at elevations between 0 m and 70 m above mean sea level (asl). At least six terraces should be of Quaternary age, and more recent than 1.2 Myr. Throughout the whole marine sequence with the exception of the Holocene terrace, the warm fauna assemblage is characterized by the presence of Ostrea virleti, Nerita emiliana, and Strombus ( S. cf. coronatus-S. cf. bubonius). However, there is a major change, highlighted by the disappearance of the first two species, below the 8-10 m terrace, that could possibly correspond to MIS 11. K-Ar measurements allow an estimate for mean uplift rate of 1.7 cm/ka during the last million years. The present elevation of the Last Interglacial deposits (about 1 and 2 m asl) shows discontinuous vertical movements with possibly a reverse trend since MIS 9 in eastern Canary Islands.

  15. Ultrahydrophobic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  16. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

    2011-11-22

    Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

  17. Modal investigation of elastic anisotropy in shallow-water environments: anisotropy beyond vertical transverse isotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Darin J; Odom, Robert I; Park, Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    Theoretical and numerical results are presented for modal characteristics of the seismo-acoustic wavefield in anisotropic range-independent media. General anisotropy affects the form of the elastic-stiffness tensor, particle-motion polarization, the frequency and angular dispersion curves, and introduces near-degenerate modes. Horizontally polarized particle motion (SH) cannot be ignored when anisotropy is present for low-frequency modes having significant bottom interaction. The seismo-acoustic wavefield has polarizations in all three coordinate directions even in the absence of any scattering or heterogeneity. Even weak anisotropy may have a significant impact on seismo-acoustic wave propagation. Unlike isotropic and transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis where acoustic signals comprise P-SV modes alone (in the absence of any scattering), tilted TI media allow both quasi-P-SV and quasi-SH modes to carry seismo-acoustic energy. Discrete modes for an anisotropic medium are best described as generalized P-SV-SH modes with polarizations in all three Cartesian directions. Conversion to SH is a loss that will mimic acoustic attenuation. An in-water explosion will excite quasi-SH.

  18. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Persson, P.; Nilsson, L.; Eriksson, O.

    1963-06-15

    The present report deals with the results of the second phase of an experimental investigation of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts. The following ranges of variables were studied and 809 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure 5. 3 < p < 37. 3 kg/cm{sup 2}; Inlet subcooling 56 < {delta}t{sub sub} < 212 deg C; Steam quality 0. 20 < x{sub BO} < 0.95; Heat Flux 50 < q/A < 515 W/cm{sup 2}; Mass velocity 100 < m'/F < 1890 kg/m{sup 2}s; Heated length 600 < L < 2500 mm; Duct diameter d = 10 mm. The results are presented in diagrams, where for a certain geometry, the burnout steam qualities, x{sub BO} , were plotted against the pressure with the surface heat flux as parameter. The data have been correlated by curves, and the scatter around the curves is less than {+-} 5 per cent. In the ranges investigated, the observed steam quality at burnout, X{sub BO} generally decreases with increasing heat flux and mass velocity but increases with increasing pressure. The data have been compared with the empirical correlation by Tong, and excellent agreement was found for pressures higher than 10 kg/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Numerical determination of vertical water flux based on soil temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbagh, Alain; Cheviron, Bruno; Henine, Hocine; Guérin, Roger; Bechkit, Mohamed-Amine

    2017-07-01

    High sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity Pt100 thermistors), positioned at intervals of a few centimetres along a vertical soil profile, allow temperature measurements to be made which are sensitive to water flux through the soil. The development of high data storage capabilities now makes it possible to carry out in situ temperature recordings over long periods of time. By directly applying numerical models of convective and conductive heat transfer to experimental data recorded as a function of depth and time, it is possible to calculate Darcy's velocity from the convection transfer term, thus allowing water infiltration/exfiltration through the soil to be determined as a function of time between fixed depths. In the present study we consider temperature data recorded at the Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France) experimental station between April 16th, 2009 and March 8th, 2010, at six different depths and 10-min time intervals. We make use of two numerical finite element models to solve the conduction/convection heat transfer equation and compare their merits. These two models allow us to calculate the corresponding convective flux rate every day using a group of three sensors. The comparison of the two series of calculated values centred at 24 cm shows reliable results for periods longer than 8 days. These results are transformed in infiltration/exfiltration value after determining the soil volumetric heat capacity. The comparison with the rainfall and evaporation data for periods of ten days shows a close accordance with the behaviour of the system governed by rainfall evaporation rate during winter and spring.

  20. Increasing vertical resolution of three-dimensional atmospheric water vapor retrievals using a network of scanning compact microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swaroop

    2011-12-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the troposphere, in particular water vapor content and temperature, change in response to physical mechanisms, including frictional drag, evaporation, transpiration, heat transfer and flow modification due to terrain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is characterized by a high rate of change in its thermodynamic state on time scales of typically less than one hour. Large horizontal gradients in vertical wind speed and steep vertical gradients in water vapor and temperature in the PBL are associated with high-impact weather. Observation of these gradients in the PBL with high vertical resolution and accuracy is important for improvement of weather prediction. Satellite remote sensing in the visible, infrared and microwave provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of many atmospheric properties, including cloud cover, precipitation, liquid water content and precipitable water vapor in the upper troposphere. However, the ability to characterize the thermodynamic properties of the PBL is limited by the confounding factors of ground emission in microwave channels and of cloud cover in visible and IR channels. Ground-based microwave radiometers are routinely used to measure thermodynamic profiles. The vertical resolution of such profiles retrieved from radiometric brightness temperatures depends on the number and choice of frequency channels, the scanning strategy and the accuracy of brightness temperature measurements. In the standard technique, which uses brightness temperatures from vertically pointing radiometers, the vertical resolution of the retrieved water vapor profile is similar to or larger than the altitude at which retrievals are performed. This study focuses on the improvement of the vertical resolution of water vapor retrievals by including scanning measurements at a variety of elevation angles. Elevation angle scanning increases the path length of the atmospheric emission, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio

  1. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Distribution and Local Movement of Humpback Whales in Okinawan Waters Depend on Sex and Reproductive Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nozomi; Okabe, Haruna; Kawazu, Isao; Higashi, Naoto; Kato, Keisuke; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro; Uchida, Senzo

    2017-02-01

    The distribution and local movement patterns of humpback whales in waters off the west coast of Okinawa Island, southwest Japan, were investigated using line transect and photo-identification methodologies. Line transect surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2014 and photo-identification survey from 2006 to 2012. During the surveys, humpback whales aggregated in the areas around Ie and Kerama Islands, and tended to travel along the inshore coast of Okinawa Island when they move locally between those two sites. A total of 496 humpback whales of the known sex were photo-identified (322 males, 75 females and 99 females with a calf). Of these, 24.8% were confirmed moving locally between the sites of Ie and Kerama Islands within the same season. Frequency rates of the local movement for males, females and females with a calf were 41.9, 25.0, and 15.1%, respectively; the frequency of local movement for males was significantly higher than that for females and females with a calf. These results indicate that male humpback whales tend to move more actively between the local breeding sites as compared to females and females with a calf. We speculate that the males search for more opportunities to mate, whereas females with a calf tend to remain in the same areas to nurse their calves. These findings extend our knowledge of the habitat use and reproductive ecology of humpback whales in Okinawan waters, which remain poorly understood.

  3. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by means of a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if the fish become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS in the gate wells at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2 were intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system but have resulted in higher mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters in the gate well slots at turbine units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected, the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS were variable and typically less than 0.3 m/s, but fewer than 50% were less than or equal to 0.12 m/s. There was also large variance in sweep velocities across the face of the VBS with most measurements recorded at less than 1.5 m/s. Results of this study revealed that the approach velocities in the gate wells exceeded criteria intended to improve fish passage conditions that were recommended by National Marine Fisheries Service and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. The turbulence measured in the gate well may also result in suboptimal fish passage conditions but no established guidelines to contrast those results have been published.

  4. Vertical Radar Profiling to Determine Dielectric Constant, Water Content and Porosity Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knoll, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A vertical radar profiling (VRP) experiment was conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site to determine if direct arrivals and reflections can be recorded using the surface-to-borehole survey geometry...

  5. Preliminary results of algorithms to determine horizontal and vertical underwater visibilities of coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Joshi, Shreya; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.J.

    Algorithms developed for underwater horizontal and vertical visibilities are presented. The algorithms have been developed to derive the underwater visibilities based on the contrast theory using the in-situ and Hydrolight derived optical parameters...

  6. Burnout data for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts, annuli and rod clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Hernborg, Gunnar; Bode, Manfred; Eriksson, O.

    1965-07-01

    The present report contains the tables of the burnout data obtained for flow in vertical channels at the Heat Engineering Laboratory of AB Atomenergi in Sweden. The data covers measurements in round ducts, annuli, 3-rod and 7-rod clusters.

  7. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  8. Fuel for cyclones: The water vapor budget of a hurricane as dependent on its movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Gorshkov, Victor G.; Nefiodov, Andrei V.; Chikunov, Alexander V.; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio Donato; Li, Bai-Lian

    2017-09-01

    Despite the dangers associated with tropical cyclones and their rainfall, the origin of the moisture in these storms, which include destructive hurricanes and typhoons, remains surprisingly uncertain. Existing studies have focused on the region 40-400 km from a cyclone's center. It is known that the rainfall within this area cannot be explained by local processes alone but requires imported moisture. Nonetheless, the dynamics of this imported moisture appears unknown. Here, considering a region up to three thousand kilometers from cyclone center, we analyze precipitation, atmospheric moisture and movement velocities for severe tropical cyclones - North Atlantic hurricanes. Our findings indicate that even over such large areas a hurricane's rainfall cannot be accounted for by concurrent evaporation. We propose instead that a hurricane consumes pre-existing atmospheric water vapor as it moves. The propagation velocity of the cyclone, i.e. the difference between its movement velocity and the mean velocity of the surrounding air (steering flow), determines the water vapor budget. Water vapor available to the hurricane through its movement makes the hurricane self-sufficient at about 700 km from the hurricane center obviating the need to concentrate moisture from greater distances. Such hurricanes leave a dry wake, whereby rainfall is suppressed by up to 40% compared to the local long-term mean. The inner radius of this dry footprint approximately coincides with the hurricane's radius of water self-sufficiency. We discuss how Carnot efficiency considerations do not constrain the power of such open systems. Our findings emphasize the incompletely understood role and importance of atmospheric moisture stocks and dynamics in the behavior of severe tropical cyclones.

  9. The Zambezi sedimentary system (coastal plain - deep sea fan): a record of the vertical movements of the Mozambican margin since Cretaceous times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Jean Pierre; Robin, Cecile; Guillocheau, Francois; Baby, Guillaume; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Popescu, Speranta; Suc, Jean Pierre; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Moulin, Maryline

    2016-04-01

    The Mozambique margin is an oblique to transform margin which feeds one of the largest African turbiditic system, the Zambezi deep-sea fan (1800 km length and 400 km wide; Droz and Mougenot., AAPG Bull., 1987). The Zambezi sedimentary system is characterized by (1) a changing catchment area through time with evidences of river captures (Thomas and Shaw, J. Afr. Earth. Sci, 1988) and (2) a delta, storing more than 12 km of sediment, with no gravitary tectonics. The aim of this study is to carry out a source to sink study along the Zambezi sedimentary system and to analyse the margin evolution (vertical movements, climate change) since Early Cretaceous times. The used data are seismic lines (industrial and academic) and petroleum wells (with access to the cuttings). Our first objective was to perform a new biochronostratigraphic framework based on nannofossils, foraminifers, pollen and spores on the cuttings of three industrial wells. The second target was to recognize the different steps of the growth of the Zambezi sedimentary systems. Four main phases were identified: • Late Jurassic (?) - early Late Cretaceous: from Neocomian to Aptian times, the high of the clinoforms is getting higher, with the first occurrence of contouritic ridges during Aptian times. • Late Cretaceous - Early Paleocene: a major drop of relative sea-level occurred as a consequence of the South African Plateau uplift. The occurrence of two depocenters suggests siliciclastic supplies from the Bushveld and from the North Mozambique domain. • Early Paleocene - Eocene: growth of carbonate platforms and large contouritic ridges. • Oligocene - Present-day: birth of the modern Zambezi Delta, with quite low siliciclastic supply during Oligocene times, increasing during Miocene times. As previously expected (Droz and Mougenot) some sediments of the so-called Zambezi fans are coming from a feeder located east of the Davie Ridge. This study was founded by TOTAL and IFREMER in the frame of the

  10. An Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Linear Programming with Stochastic Vertices Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming with stochastic vertices (IFLPSV method is developed for water resources management under uncertainty by coupling interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming (IFLP with stochastic programming (SP. As an extension of existing interval parameter fuzzy linear programming, the developed IFLPSV approach has advantages in dealing with dual uncertainty optimization problems, which uncertainty presents as interval parameter with stochastic vertices in both of the objective functions and constraints. The developed IFLPSV method improves upon the IFLP method by allowing dual uncertainty parameters to be incorporated into the optimization processes. A hybrid intelligent algorithm based on genetic algorithm and artificial neural network is used to solve the developed model. The developed method is then applied to water resources allocation in Beijing city of China in 2020, where water resources shortage is a challenging issue. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained, which are helpful and useful for decision makers. Although the amount of water supply from Guanting and Miyun reservoirs is declining with rainfall reduction, water supply from the South-to-North Water Transfer project will have important impact on water supply structure of Beijing city, particularly in dry year and extraordinary dry year.

  11. A Case History of Tracking Water Movement Through Fracture Systems in the Barnett Shale, March 10-11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Presentation Session 6: Monitoring slides to presentation by Denbury on tracking water movement through fracture systems in the Barnett shale. This includes information on micro-seismic well evaluation, well plans, and a fracture map.

  12. Impact of Sewage Sludge on Water Movement in Calcareous Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. AI-Omran

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in soil physical properties and their effect on water movement under ponded irrigation. Sewage sludge was applied to 10 cm soil depth at rates of 0.25. 75  and 100 Mg-ha-1 to two disturbed soils differing in CaCO3 content. The results showed that cumulative infiltration (1 decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. Basic infiltration for slightly calcareous sandy soil was higher than that of moderately calcareous sandy soil, laboratory measurements showed an exponential decrease in saturated hydraulic conductivity and an increase in available water capacity with an increase in sewage sludge rates. For both soils, water diffusivity (D(Q decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. The (oral values of slightly calcareous sandy soils were higher than those of moderately calcareous sandy soils.

  13. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  14. Diel vertical interactions between Atlantic cod Gadus morhua and sprat Sprattus sprattus in a stratified water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Lundgren, Bo; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    , respectively. Cod resided close to the bottom outside these temporal predation windows. Sprat schools were located at the same depth as cod in the daylight hours, whereas at night dispersed sprat were situated higher in the water column. These vertical dynamics could be explained by fitness optimization using...... bioenergetics and trade-offs between temperature, oxygen saturation of the water and predation risk. This study forms a first step towards providing a mechanistic background for the predatory impact of cod at the basin scale and beyond...

  15. Thermal stratification in vertical mantle heat-exchangers with application to solar domestic hot-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations of vertical mantle heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been carried out. Two different inlet positions are investigated. Experiments based on typical operation conditions are carried out to investigate how the thermal...... stratification is affected by different positions of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, side-by-side laboratory tests have been carried out with SDHW systems with different mantle...

  16. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  17. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  18. LPMLE3: A New Analytical Approach to Determine Vertical Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange Flux under Uncertainty and Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidewind, Uwe; van Berkel, Matthijs; Anibas, Christian; Vandersteen, Gerd; Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying groundwater-surface water exchange flux has become an integral part in the study of hyporheic zone processes as well as in the evaluation of the transport and fate of contaminants and nutrients. Several methods have been developed to quantify vertical exchange fluxes from field measurements. One possibility is to use temperature measurements obtained from the top of a porous medium such as a streambed and at some depth and quantify water fluxes by solving the partial differential equation for coupled water flow and heat transport. To determine purely vertical flux from temperature-time series, various analytical 1D procedures have been devised (e.g. Hatch et al., 2006; Keery et al., 2007) that make use of information regarding amplitude attenuation and phase shift between two temperature measurements with a certain vertical spacing and one specific frequency. Other methods (Vandersteen et al., 2014; Wörman et al., 2012) solve for vertical water flow and heat transport in the frequency domain and can use more information from the recorded temperature signals. All of these analytical approaches assume the subsurface to be a semi-infinite homogeneous halfspace. Here we introduce the LPMLE3 method (Local Polynomial Maximum Likelihood Estimator using three measurements), a new analytical approach that quantifies vertical fluxes in the frequency domain without being constrained by this assumption. By using multilevel temperature lances we collected temperature data from seven depths simultaneously at one location in the Slootbeek, a small Belgian lowland stream. Information from these seven sensors was used with the LPMLE3 method to calculate fluxes for finite domains. Each finite domain has a temperature boundary condition (sensor) at its top and bottom, while the flux is estimated for a third temperature signal (sensor) within this domain. The LPML3 method makes use of a local polynomial systems model and a maximum-likelihood estimator to estimate fluxes

  19. Observations of water movement in a block of fractured welded Tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamir, F.; Kwicklis, E.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hampson, D. [Foothills Engineering Consultants Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Anderton, S. [ROCKTECH West Jordan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory water infiltration experiment through a block of fractured, moderately welded volcanic tuff was conducted at different boundary pressures. The block measured 47.5 cm long {times} 54.3 cm wide {times} 80.6 cm high. The purpose of the experiment was: (a) to test an instrumentation scheme for a field test, and (b) to make flow measurements through a fractured network at different boundary pressures to understand mechanisms that affect fracture flow. The upper boundary water pressure was decreased in steps; each step lasted several weeks where the pressure was kept steady. Water inflow and outflow rates were measured for each boundary condition. Entrapped air was found to impede water movement. The gas phase in the fracture network was found to not be continuous; its pressure within the network was not known. The matric potential values could not be measured with tensiometers alone since a known gas pressure is required. Long-term input and output flow rates were equal. Outflow rate did not stabilize during the test period; it continued to decrease, even when the upper boundary water pressure was kept steady. No relation between boundary pressure and flow rate was established. Bacteria, which was found in the outflow, possibly caused variations in the behavior. Trapped air caused the outflow to periodically decrease or stop; however, outflow rates following the interruptions did not change long-term flow trends.

  20. Modelling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open-source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. Testing the results against analytical solutions and the proprietary avalanche model RAMMS, we found a very good agreement. As the GERRIS flow solver is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool for assisting regional-scale natural hazard studies.

  1. Out of Axis Movement of an AUV inside a Water Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moonesun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research intends to evaluate the variation in the resistance and the lift of a torpedo shaped AUV brought about by the wall effect inside the pipe as it moves out of the axis inside a water pipeline. Movement of an AUV at the axis of a pipe causes minimum resistance and lift forces, but when the AUV moves at a position parallel with the axis of the pipe (out of axis of the pipe, the hydrodynamic forces especially the lift force changes. The AUV must be able to move a float inside the pipe and perform non-contact inspection. In water pipes having limited diameters, there is the wall effect. The added resistance and the lift have to be calculated accurately, which is a necessary requirement for the determination of the vehicle speed, power demand, control, range and duration of the operation. According to the findings of this paper, when moving at the center of pipe the ratio of AUV diameter to pipe diameter is equal to 12. This value can be considered for the determination of "the critical pipe diameter" which gives zero resistance. The results of this study can be applied for torpedo movement inside the torpedo tube. The analysis is performed by the Flow Vision (V.2.3 software based on the CFD method and solving the RANS equations.

  2. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  3. The Role of Aquaporin and Tight Junction Proteins in the Regulation of Water Movement in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Raymond W. M.; Yusuke Kumai; Perry, Steve F

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish living in freshwater are challenged by passive water influx; however the molecular mechanisms regulating water influx in fish are not well understood. The potential involvement of aquaporins (AQP) and epithelial tight junction proteins in the regulation of transcellular and paracellular water movement was investigated in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We observed that the half-time for saturation of water influx (K(u)) was 4.3±0.9 min, and reached equilibrium at approximately 30...

  4. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Xylella fastidiosa infection and ethylene exposure result in xylem and water movement disruption in grapevine shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G; Greve, L Carl; Walton, Jeffrey H; Shackel, Ken A; Labavitch, John M

    2007-02-01

    It is conventionally thought that multiplication of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) within xylem vessels is the sole factor responsible for the blockage of water movement in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) affected by Pierce's disease. However, results from our studies have provided substantial support for the idea that vessel obstructions, and likely other aspects of the Pierce's disease syndrome, result from the grapevine's active responses to the presence of Xf, rather than to the direct action of the bacterium. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe the distribution of water within the xylem has allowed us to follow nondestructively the development of vascular system obstructions subsequent to inoculation of grapevines with Xf. Because we have hypothesized a role for ethylene produced in vines following infection, the impact of vine ethylene exposure on obstruction development was also followed using MRI. In both infected and ethylene-exposed plants, MRI shows that an important proportion of the xylem vessels become progressively air embolized after the treatments. The loss of xylem water-transporting function, assessed by MRI, has been also correlated with a decrease in stem-specific hydraulic conductivity (K(S)) and the presence of tyloses in the lumens of obstructed water conduits. We have observed that the ethylene production of leaves from infected grapevines is greater than that from healthy vines and, therefore, propose that ethylene may be involved in a series of cellular events that coordinates the vine's response to the pathogen.

  6. Physical characteristics of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat, West coast of India. Part 2. Vertical homogeneity of temperature and salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    Vertical distribution of temperature and salinity at five stations in the coastal waters off Navapur-Umbharat (Maharashtra-Gujarat coast, India) was studied over different seasons during 1978. The results showed that inspite of large tidal...

  7. GOZCARDS Source Water Vapor 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Means on a Vertical Pressure Grid V1 (GozSmlpH2O) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Water Vapor 1 month L3 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  8. Vertical-Deformation, Water-Level, Microgravity, Geodetic, Water-Chemistry, and Flow-Rate Data Collected During Injection, Storage, and Recovery Tests at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, September 1995 Through September 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metzger, Loren F; Ikehara, Marti E; Howle, James F

    2002-01-01

    .... Monitoring networks were established at or in the vicinity of the test site to measure vertical deformation of the aquifer system, water-level fluctuations, land-surface deformation, water chemistry...

  9. Antarctic killer whales make rapid, round-trip movements to subtropical waters: evidence for physiological maintenance migrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, J W; Pitman, R L

    2012-04-23

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are important predators in high latitudes, where their ecological impact is mediated through their movements. We used satellite telemetry to provide the first evidence of migration for killer whales, characterized by fast (more than 12 km h(-1), 6.5 knots) and direct movements away from Antarctic waters by six of 12 type B killer whales tagged when foraging near the Antarctic Peninsula, including all tags transmitting for more than three weeks. Tags on five of these whales revealed consistent movements to subtropical waters (30-37° S) off Uruguay and Brazil, in surface water temperatures ranging from -1.9°C to 24.2°C; one 109 day track documented a non-stop round trip of almost 9400 km (5075 nmi) in just 42 days. Although whales travelled slower in the warmest waters, there was no obvious interruption in swim speed or direction to indicate calving or prolonged feeding. Furthermore, these movements were aseasonal, initiating over 80 days between February and April; one whale returned to within 40 km of the tagging site at the onset of the austral winter in June. We suggest that these movements may represent periodic maintenance migrations, with warmer waters allowing skin regeneration without the high cost of heat loss: a physiological constraint that may also affect other whales.

  10. Numerical simulation of vertical ground-water flux of the Rio Grande from ground-water temperature profiles, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    An important gap in the understanding of the hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, is the rate at which water from the Rio Grande recharges the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Several methodologies-including use of the Glover-Balmer equation, flood pulses, and channel permeameters- have been applied to this problem in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In the work presented here, ground-water temperature profiles and ground-water levels beneath the Rio Grande were measured and numerically simulated at four sites. The direction and rate of vertical ground-water flux between the river and underlying aquifer was simulated and the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying the river was estimated through model calibration. Seven sets of nested piezometers were installed during July and August 1996 at four sites along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area, though only four of the piezometer nests were simulated. In downstream order, these four sites are (1) the Bernalillo site, upstream from the New Mexico State Highway 44 bridge in Bernalillo (piezometer nest BRN02); (2) the Corrales site, upstream from the Rio Rancho sewage treatment plant in Rio Rancho (COR01); (3) the Paseo del Norte site, upstream from the Paseo del Norte bridge in Albuquerque (PDN01); and (4) the Rio Bravo site, upstream from the Rio Bravo bridge in Albuquerque (RBR01). All piezometers were completed in the inner-valley alluvium of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Ground-water levels and temperatures were measured in the four piezometer nests a total of seven times in the 24-month period from September 1996 through August 1998. The flux between the surface- and ground-water systems at each of the field sites was quantified by one-dimensional numerical simulation of the water and heat exchange in the subsurface using the heat and water transport model VS2DH. Model calibration was aided by the use of PEST, a model-independent computer program that uses

  11. The Slug and Churn Turbulence Characteristics of Oil-Gas-Water Flows in a Vertical Small Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Han, Yunfeng; Wang, Dayang; Zhao, An; Jin, Ningde

    2017-08-01

    The intention of the present study was to investigate the slug and churn turbulence characteristics of a vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow. We firstly carried out a vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow experiment in a 20-mm inner diameter (ID) pipe to measure the fluctuating signals of a rotating electric field conductance sensor under different flow patterns. Afterwards, typical flow patterns were identified with the aid of the texture structures in a cross recurrence plot. Recurrence quantitative analysis and multi-scale cross entropy (MSCE) algorithms were applied to investigate the turbulence characteristics of slug and churn flows with the varying flow parameters. The results suggest that with cross nonlinear analysis, the underlying dynamic characteristics in the evolution from slug to churn flow can be well understood. The present study provides a novel perspective for the analysis of the spatial-temporal evolution instability and complexity in oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  12. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.During 1980-86, the salt balance changed as a result of record high inflow that averaged 4,627,000 acre-feet annually and modifications made to the conveyance properties of the causeway that included opening a 300-foot-wide breach. In this study, a model developed in 1973 by Waddell and Bolke to simulate the water and salt balance of the lake was revised to accommodate the high water-surface altitude and modifications made to the causeway. This study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands and Forestry, updates the model with monitoring data collected during 1980-86. This report describes the calibration of the model and presents the results of simulations for three hypothetical 10-year periods.During January 1, 1980, to July 31, 1984, a net load of 0.5 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the south to the north part of the lake primarily as a result of record inflows. From August 1, 1984, when the breach was opened, to December 31,1986, a net load of 0.3 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the north to the south part of the lake primarily as a result of the breach.For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in the water-surface altitude decreasing from about 4,200 to 4,192 feet, there was a net movement of about 1.0 billion tons of dissolved salt from the south to the north part, and about 1.7 billion tons of salt precipitated in the north part. For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in a rise in water-surface altitude from about 4,200 to 4

  13. Vertical flow soil filter for the elimination of micro pollutants from storm and waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Banzhaf, Stefan; Scheytt, Traugott

    2009-01-01

    A technical scale activated soil filter has been used to study the elimination rates of diverse environmentally relevant micro pollutants from storm and waste water. The filter was made of layers of peat, sand and gravel. The upper (organic) layer was planted with reed (phragmites australis......, synthetic waste water spiked to 3000 ng L−1 with the selected compounds was used. Elimination rates with low hydraulic load (61 L m−2 d−1, water retention time: 2 d) were higher than 96%. During a storm water simulation experiment (hydraulic load: 255 L m−2, water retention time:

  14. Vertically resolved concentration and liquid water content of atmospheric nanoparticles at the US DOE Southern Great Plains site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most prior field studies of new particle formation (NPF have been performed at or near ground level, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the vertical extent of NPF. To address this, we measured concentrations of 11–16 nm diameter particles from ground level to 1000 m during the 2013 New Particle Formation Study at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site in Lamont, Oklahoma. The measurements were performed using a tethered balloon carrying two condensation particle counters that were configured for two different particle cut-off diameters. These observations were compared to data from three scanning mobility particle sizers at the ground level. We observed that 11–16 nm diameter particles were generated at the top region of the boundary layer, and were then rapidly mixed throughout the boundary layer. We also estimate liquid water content of nanoparticles using ground-based measurements of particle hygroscopicity obtained with a Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer and vertically resolved relative humidity (RH and temperature measured with a Raman lidar. Our analyses of these observations lead to the following conclusions regarding nanoparticles formed during NPF events at this site: (1 ground-based observations may not always accurately represent the timing, distribution, and meteorological conditions associated with the onset of NPF; (2 nanoparticles are highly hygroscopic and typically contain up to 50 % water by volume, and during conditions of high RH combined with high particle hygroscopicity, particles can be up to 95 % water by volume; (3 increased liquid water content of nanoparticles at high RH greatly enhances the partitioning of water-soluble species like organic acids into ambient nanoparticles.

  15. Vertical water and DOC/DIC flux estimates in a hummocky soil landscape - from pedon to field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst H.

    2017-04-01

    Arable hummocky soil landscapes of formerly glaciated terrains are characterized by 3D spatial patterns of soil types resulting from tillage and water erosion. Erosion and deposition processes have implication for the water and carbon (C) balance of the hummocky soil landscape. The objective of this study was to estimate the leaching of dissolved C as a crucial component to the terrestrial net ecosystem C balance for (i) pedon scale at different terrain positions and (ii) field scale. At pedon scale, the interactions between erosion affected soil properties, the water balances, and the crop growth and feedback effects of erosion on the leaching rates were studied. The 1D water movements were described using the Richards equation as implemented using the numerical solution in the HYDRUS program. Measured DOC/DIC concentrations were combined with calculated water fluxes to obtain the solute fluxes for certain depth and positions. For the field scale estimation dissolved carbon fluxes a weight average per soil type was chosen, whereas soil types were determined by characteristic multi-parameter delineating landform units and by soil soundings. For a typical section of the hummocky soil landscape, i.e. the CarboZALF-D plot, the average seepage water flux for the three years period 2010-2012 was 96 mm yr-1, the average leaching of DOC 0.6 g m-2 yr-1 and of DIC 7.0 g m-2 yr-1 below the root zone at approximately 200 cm depth. The water and dissolved carbon fluxes varied in direction and magnitude depending on terrain position and erosion history. The depth of the water table was identified as a major influential factor. The temporal variations of dissolved carbon fluxes seem to be dominantly controlled by water fluxes rather than by temporal varying dissolved carbon concentrations. The consideration of soil-crop interactions lead to more spatial differences of water and dissolved carbon fluxes as well as to faster soil development.

  16. Radioactive Particle Tracking Technique with Concentrated {sup 68}Ga Source for Visualization of Water Flows in Digester with Vertical Impeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang-Guen; Moon, Jinho; Lim, Jaecheong; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is very important to understand the dynamic behavior of mixing flow for operating digesters. Therefore, there have been incessant studies over the world to investigate hydrodynamic parameters of flows in digesters experimentally. In Korea, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been studying radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique to tracks the trajectory of a single radioactive particle flowing along with flow current and then, hydrodynamics parameters are calculated based on the trajectory of particle. In this study, the RPT technique was carried out for the digester mixed by a vertical impeller to visualize water flow. In this study, the RPT technique was carried out to investigate water flows in digester mixed by vertical impeller. We used a {sup 68}Ga generator source as a radioactive particle by concentrating eluate for RPT to be independent of reactors, and that is the first attempt in the world. The reconstructed particle trajectory will be used to calculate hydrodynamics parameters to understand the dynamic behavior of flows in digester.

  17. Measurements of the Effects of Spacers on the Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in a Vertical Annulus and a Vertical 7-Rod Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.

    1965-03-15

    An analysis for predicting the burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts is presented. The analysis which is based on the Vanderwater flow model predicts that the burnout conditions are independent of the inlet subcooling and the heated length, and depends only on the local values at the burnout position of pressure, heat flux, steam quality and, mass velocity and the duct diameter. The results of an experimental investigation covering 811 burnout measurements in the pressure range from 41 to 101 kg/cm{sup 2} is presented. These results together with 488 of our earlier burnout measurements at the pressures of 2, 7, 10, 20 and 30 kg/cm{sup 2} were used to determine two constants in the analytical results. The final correlation predicted the burnout heat fluxes of the 1299 measurements within 8 per cent and with an RMS error of 5.3 per cent. The measurements covered the following ranges of variables Diameter d, 3.93-24.95 mm; Heated length L 400-3,500 mm; L/d-ratio L/d 40-890; Pressure p, 2.7-101 kg/cm{sup 2}; Inlet sub-cooling {delta}t{sub sub} 30-240 deg C; Mass velocity G 120-5450 kg/m{sup 3}/s; Heat flux q/A 35-686 W/cm{sup 3}; Burnout steam quality X{sub BO} 0-1.00. The Columbia data and the Winfrith data were also analysed in terms of the measured and predicted burnout heat fluxes and enthalpies, and it was found, that a very good agreement existed between the present results and the Columbia and the Winfrith data. The Columbia data were on the average 3 per cent lower comparing the measured and predicted burnout heat fluxes. The scatter of the data was within + 10 and - 15 per cent and the RMS error was 8.4 per cent. The Winfrith data were on the average 6 per cent higher than the predicted heat fluxes and the deviations of the measured heat fluxes were within + 25 and - 15 per cent of the predictions. The RMS error was 10.8 per cent.

  18. Three-phase flow (water, oil and gas in a vertical circular cylindrical duct with leaks: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fluid dynamic behavior of a three-phase flow (water-oil-natural gas in a vertical pipe with or without leakage. The studied pipe has 8 meters in length, circular cross-section with 25 cm in diameter and a leak, which hole has a circular shape with 10mm diameter located in the center of pipe. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for each phase (continuous phase - oil, dispersed phases - gas and water were numerically solved using ANSYS CFX software, in which the Eulerian-Eulerian model and the RNG - turbulence model were applied. Results of the pressure, velocity, temperature and volume fraction distributions of the involved phases are present and analyzed.

  19. Dynamic optimal foraging theory explains vertical migrations of bigeye tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sommer, Lene; Evans, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Bigeye tuna are known for remarkable daytime vertical migrations between deep water, where food is abundant but the water is cold, and the surface, where water is warm but food is relatively scarce. Here we investigate if these dive patterns can be explained by dynamic optimal foraging theory......, where the tuna maximizes its energy harvest rate. We assume that foraging efficiency increases with body temperature, so that the vertical migrations are thermoregulatory. The tuna's state is characterized by its mean body temperature and depth, and we solve the optimization problem numerically using...... dynamic programming. With little calibration of model parameters, our results are consistent with observed data on vertical movement: we find that small tuna should display constant-depth strategies while large tuna should display vertical migrations. The analysis supports the hypothesis that the tuna...

  20. Movement of water, bromide ion and the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone measured in a sandy soil in Vredepeel (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Pas, van der L.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect a data set suitable for testing pesticide leaching models in the case of a Dutch sandy soil with a shallow groundwater table. The movement of water, bromide ion and the behaviour of the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone was studied. The substances were applied

  1. Movement of water, bromide and the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone in a sandy soil: the Vredepeel data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Pas, van der L.J.T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect a data set suitable for testing pesticide leaching models in the case of a Dutch sandy soil with a shallow groundwater table. The movement of water, bromide ion and the behaviour of the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone was studied. The substances were applied

  2. Heat transfer in vertical pipe flow at supercritical pressures of water; Waermeuebergang von Wasser in vertikalen Rohrstroemungen bei ueberkritischem Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenberg, M.F.

    2007-05-15

    A new reactor concept with light water at supercritical conditions is investigated in the framework of the European project ''High Performance Light Water Reactor'' (HPLWR). Characteristics of this reactor are the system pressure and the coolant outlet temperature above the critical point of water. Water is regarded as a single phase fluid under these conditions with a high energy density. This high energy density should be utilized in a technical application. Therefore in comparison with up to date nuclear power plants some constructive savings are possible. For instance, steam dryers or steam separators can be avoided in contrast to boiling water reactors. A thermal efficiency of about 44% can be accomplished at a system pressure of 25MPa through a water heat-up from 280 C to 510 C. To ensure this heat-up within the core reliable predictions of the heat transfer are necessary. Water as the working fluid changes its fluid properties dramatically during the heat up in the core. As such; the density in the core varies by the factor of seven. The motivation to develop a look-up table for heat transfer predications in supercritical water is due to the significant temperature dependence of the fluid properties of water. A systematic consolidation of experimental data was performed. Together with further developments of the methods to derive a look-up table made it possible to develop a look-up table for heat transfer in supercritical water in vertical flows. A look-up table predicts the heat transfer for different boundary conditions (e.g. pressure or heat flux) with tabulated data. The tabulated wall temperatures for fully developed turbulent flows can be utilized for different geometries by applying hydraulic diameters. With the developed look-up table the difficulty of choosing one of the many published correlations can be avoided. In general, the correlations have problems with strong fluid property variations. Strong property variations

  3. A new method to assess long term small sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water from bottom pressure sensor: the case of Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malservisi, R.; Chierici, F.; Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Pignagnoli, L.; Locritani, M.; Embriaco, D.; Donnarumma, G. P.; Rodgers, M.; Beranzoli, L.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new methodology aimed at assessing long term small vertical seafloor deformation in shallow water environments by using Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) measurements jointly with ancillary sea level, water column and barometric data. These measurements are presently acquired only in areas where the amount of vertical deformation is large and in deep water environment, where the noise induced by the sea state and other near surface disturbances is low. We applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at about 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a quasi-symmetric seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude. The method provides an estimation of the vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 +/- 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the seafloor vertical deformation in shallow water. We reached this result by taking into account the contribution of the BPR instrumental drift and the contribution of the sea water density variations, which can affect the measurement on the order of tens of centimeters. The estimation of the vertical deformation obtained in this way compares favorably with data acquired by a land based GPS station, which is located at the same distance from the area of maximum deformation as the BPR

  4. Phase change of First Wall in Water-Cooled Breeding Blankets of K-DEMO for Vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo; Lee, Jeong Hun; Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Park, Goon Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ki Hak [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to simulate thermal-hydraulic behavior of a single blanket module when plasma disruption occurs. Plasma disruptions, such as vertical displacement events (VDE), with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and also burnout of coolant channels. The thermal design, evaluation and validation have been performed in order to establish the conceptual design guidelines of the water-cooled breeding blanket for the K-DEMO reactor. As a part of the NFRI research, Seoul National University (SNU) is conducting transient thermal-hydraulic analysis to confirm the integrity of blanket system for plasma disruption events. Vertical displacement events (VDE) with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials (PFCs) and also burnout of coolant channels. In order to simulate melting of first wall in blanket module when VDE occurs, one-dimensional heat conduction equations were solved numerically with modification of the specific heat of the first wall materials using effective heat capacity method. Temperature profiles in first wall for VDE are shown in fig 7 - 9. At first, temperature of tungsten rapidly raised and even exceeded its melting temperature. When VDE just ended at 0.1 second, 0.83 mm thick of tungsten melted. But the other materials including vanadium and RAFM didn't exceed their melting temperatures after 500 seconds.

  5. Vertical gradients for particulate Cu fractions in estuarine water over tidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hummel, H.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The speciation of particulate copper was determined at several depths (0, 5 and 15 cm above the sediment surface) in the water column above intertidal flat systems in the polluted estuary Westerschelde (WS) and the relatively un-polluted Oosterschelde sea-arm (OS), in order to assess differences in

  6. Prediction of critical heat flux for water in uniformly heated vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accuracy of correlations was estimated by calculating both the average and RMS error with available experimental data, and a new correlation is presented. The new correlation predicts the CHF data with average error 0.07% and RMS error 7.91 %. Keywords: CHF - Heat transfer - Water vapor - Porous coated tubes.

  7. "Rivers of Living Water": The Movements and Mobility of Holiness-Pentecostals, 1837-1910

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation follows the fluid and dynamic movements of holiness and pentecostal worshipers who crossed boundaries of race, gender, language, and region at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century. It demonstrates how the changeable, decentralized, and anti-institutional character of the holiness-pentecostal movement allowed for both radical social behavior and dynamic geographic mobility. The movement was in a constant state of flux as the sanctified tra...

  8. Steering compensation for strong vertical refraction gradients in a long-distance free-space optical communication link over water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suite, M. R.; Moore, C. I.; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Wasiczko, L.; Stell, M. F.; Rabinovich, W. S.; Scharpf, W. J.; Gilbreath, G. C.

    2005-08-01

    It is important to be able to characterize and compensate for refraction effects in free-space optical laser communication (FSO lasercom). The refractive index depends on various properties of the propagation medium such as temperature, pressure, and moisture, with temperature having the largest affect. Very strong but slow-varying thermal gradients have been observed at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed, which offers a 16 km one-way (32 km round-trip) FSO lasercom link over water. Thermal gradients affect the elevation-pointing angle, and their magnitudes are a function of the time of day and year and also the weather conditions. These vertical refraction errors are corrected by the use of a fiber positioner controlled by a position-sensing detector (PSD). This system is implemented into the receiver at the NRL Chesapeake Bay lasercom testbed. System test results will be presented.

  9. Integrating Phosphorus Movement with Soil and Water Loss in the Daily Erosion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenar, Tim; Perez-Bidegain, Mario; Cruse, Richard; Gelder, Brian; Herzmann, Daryl

    2016-04-01

    The Daily Erosion Project (DEP) is an ongoing modelling effort which is now in its second generation. DEP provides comprehensive and dynamic estimates of sediment delivery, soil erosion, and hill slope runoff for agricultural land areas across the Midwestern United States every day for Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC 12) size watersheds. Results are posted every morning on the Internet at dailyerosion.org. Currently DEP covers all of Iowa and portions of Kansas and Minnesota, but expansion of coverage is ongoing. The integration of highly resolute spatial and temporal climate data, soil properties, crop rotation and residue management data affords the opportunity to test the effects of using multiple conservation practices on the transport and fate of water borne nutrients, especially phosphorus, on the Midwestern United States agricultural landscapes. Understanding the interaction of different environmental and land management practices on phosphorus movement will allow data from the DEP to guide conservation efforts as expansion continues into surrounding Midwestern states. The presentation will provide an overview of the DEP technology, including how input data are derived and used to make daily erosion estimates on over 200,000 flowpaths in the modelling area, as well as a discussion of the ongoing phosphorus transport modelling efforts and plans for future expansion (both land area and model functionality).

  10. Vertical wicking tester for monitoring water transportation behavior in fibrous assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratibha; Chatterjee, Arobindo; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-10-01

    An instrument based on the principle of change of resistance of fibrous assembly on wetting has been developed for precise monitoring of the water transportation behaviour in the fibrous assemblies. The conducting probes sense the change in resistance of a dry fibrous assembly on wetting. This change in resistance generates analog signals which trigger an amplifying circuit. This circuit produces an enlarged copy of the received signals which are further converted to digital signals by a Darlington pair and are encoded to measurable quantity with the help of a microcontroller. The data thus obtained are displayed on a suitable display device. Comparison between conventional strip test and experimental results obtained by the developed instrument shows its reliability. The developed instrument measures the initial rate of water transport with increased precision and hence could be used for detailed study of fluid flow in the fibrous structure.

  11. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  12. Moist convection and the vertical structure and water abundance of Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Anthony D.; Mcgrattan, Kevin B.

    1990-01-01

    The cumulative effects of an ensemble of moist convective plumes on a conditionally unstable atmosphere are predicted by a model of moist convection on Jupiter in which the heating/cooling and drying/moistening of the environment occur through (1) compensating subsidence, (2) detrainment of updraft air at cloud tops, and (3) the evaporation and melting of falling condensate. Parahydrogen is transported as a passive tracer. Pure moist convective, mixed moist-dry convective, and primarily dry convective regimes are possible, depending on the assumed deep-water abundance, efficiency of condensate evaporation, and initial temperature profile.

  13. In situ profiling of eastern Arabian Sea coastal waters using a new autonomous vertical profiler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Phaldesai, M.; Maurya, P.

    and execute dives at programmed intervals as before, but now as a fully autonomous platform. The inherent buoyancy is of prac- tical use during deployment at sea, as it enables the user to see the AVP float away from the proximity of the ship. In contrast... by oceanographers in profiling the water column is the well-known rosette con- ductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) system which is lowered toward the seabed from a ship’s winch. Portable CTD logging instruments are now available for use from small boats...

  14. Wave energy conversion utilizing vertical motion of water in the array of water chambers aligned in the direction of wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesayoshi Hadano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a new technical approach, wave energy converter by using vertical motion of water in the multiple water chambers were developed to realize actual wave power generation as eco-environmental renewable energy. And practical use of wave energy converter was actually to require the following conditions: (1 setting up of the relevant device and its application to wave power generation in case that severe wave loading is avoided; (2 workability in installation and maintenance operations; (3 high energy conversion potential; and (4 low cost. In this system, neither the wall(s of the chambers nor the energy conversion device(s are exposed to the impulsive load due to water wave. Also since this system is profitable when set along the jetty or along a long floating body, installation and maintenance are done without difficulty and the cost is reduced. In this paper, we describe the system which consists of a float, a shaft connected with another shaft, a rack and pinion arrangement, a ratchet mechanism, and rotary type generator(s. Then, we present the dynamics model for evaluating the output electric power, and the results of numerical calculation including the effect of the phase shift of up/down motion of the water in the array of water chambers aligned along the direction of wave propagation.

  15. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des

  16. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the water column of Lago Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation was to study the model of vertical distribution in Lago Amapá, taking into consideration the seasonality of its zooplanktonic composition. Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S and 67º50'24"W is located in the floodplain of the Rio Acre. Samplings were conducted at three different depths of the water column, to study the vertical distribution of zooplankton populations and determine some physico-chemical and biological parameters of Lago Amapá. Weekly samples were taken with a Van Dorn sampler. The species showed greater concentrations at the by means of water column. Thirty-eight zooplankton species were found in the samples represented by Rotifera (30, Cladocera (5 and Cyclopoida (3. The temperature of the water column showed a tendency toward relatively high values (about 30ºC with little variation, consequently resulting in low viscosity. Based of Jaccard's index, it was seen that during the low-water phase, S1 and S3 of the three sampling stations studied, had greater similarity (Cj = 0.7058 in the middle of the water column. Lago Amapá showed characteristics in line with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis model, favoring colonization by opportunistic species such as rotifers.O objetivo desta investigação foi observar a distribuição vertical da comunidade do zooplâncton no Lago Amapá (10º2'36"S e 67º50'24"W, localizado na planície de inundação do Rio Acre. Amostragens foram conduzidas em três diferentes profundidades da coluna da água, considerando aspectos sazonais do zooplâncton, parâmetros físicos, químicos e biológicos. Coletas foram realizadas semanalmente com Garrafa de Van Dorn. As espécies apresentaram maiores concentrações no meio da coluna da água. Foram encontradas 38 espécies, assim distribuídas: Rotifera (30, Cladocera (5 e Cyclopoida (3. A temperatura da coluna da água em geral apresentou-se alta, em torno de 30ºC, com pequena variação, resultando em baixa viscosidade. O

  17. Initiation of migration and movement rates of Atlantic salmon smolts in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Daniel S.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Timing of ocean entry is critical for marine survival of both hatchery and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Management practices and barriers to migration such as dams may constrain timing of smolt migrations resulting in suboptimal performance at saltwater entry. We modeled influences of stocking location, smolt development, and environmental conditions on (i) initiation of migration by hatchery-reared smolts and (ii) movement rate of hatchery- and wild-reared Atlantic salmon smolts in the Penobscot River, Maine, USA, from 2005 through 2014 using acoustic telemetry data. We also compared movement rates in free-flowing reaches with rates in reaches with hydropower dams and head ponds. We compared movement rates before and after (1) removal of two mainstem dams and (2) construction of new powerhouses. Initiation of movement by hatchery fish was influenced by smolt development, stocking location, and environmental conditions. Smolts with the greatest gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity initiated migration 24 h sooner than fish with the lowest gill NKA activity. Fish with the greatest cumulative thermal experience initiated migration 5 days earlier than those with lowest cumulative thermal experience. Smolts released furthest from the ocean initiated migration earlier than those released downstream, but movement rate increased by fivefold closer to the ocean, indicating behavioral trade-offs between initiation and movement rate. Dams had a strong effect on movement rate. Movement rate increased from 2.8 to 5.4 km·h−1 in reaches where dams were removed, but decreased from 2.1 to 0.1 km·h−1 in reaches where new powerhouses were constructed. Movement rate varied throughout the migratory period and was inversely related to temperature. Fish moved slower at extreme high or low discharge. Responses in fish movement rates to dam removal indicate the potential scope of recovery for these activities.

  18. The role of aquaporin and tight junction proteins in the regulation of water movement in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W M Kwong

    Full Text Available Teleost fish living in freshwater are challenged by passive water influx; however the molecular mechanisms regulating water influx in fish are not well understood. The potential involvement of aquaporins (AQP and epithelial tight junction proteins in the regulation of transcellular and paracellular water movement was investigated in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio. We observed that the half-time for saturation of water influx (K(u was 4.3±0.9 min, and reached equilibrium at approximately 30 min. These findings suggest a high turnover rate of water between the fish and the environment. Water influx was reduced by the putative AQP inhibitor phloretin (100 or 500 μM. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that AQP1a1 protein was expressed in cells on the yolk sac epithelium. A substantial number of these AQP1a1-positive cells were identified as ionocytes, either H⁺-ATPase-rich cells or Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich cells. AQP1a1 appeared to be expressed predominantly on the basolateral membranes of ionocytes, suggesting its potential involvement in regulating ionocyte volume and/or water flux into the circulation. Additionally, translational gene knockdown of AQP1a1 protein reduced water influx by approximately 30%, further indicating a role for AQP1a1 in facilitating transcellular water uptake. On the other hand, incubation with the Ca²⁺-chelator EDTA or knockdown of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-b significantly increased water influx. These findings indicate that the epithelial tight junctions normally act to restrict paracellular water influx. Together, the results of the present study provide direct in vivo evidence that water movement can occur through transcellular routes (via AQP; the paracellular routes may become significant when the paracellular permeability is increased.

  19. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  20. Comparison of ALE and SPH Simulations of Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section into Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fuchs, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of multi-terrain impact has been identified as an important research area for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program on Rotorcraft Crashworthiness. As part of this effort, two vertical drop tests were conducted of a 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section into water. For the first test, the fuselage section was impacted in a baseline configuration without energy absorbers. For the second test, the fuselage section was retrofitted with a composite honeycomb energy absorber. Both tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of 25-ft/s. A detailed finite element model was developed to represent each test article and water impact was simulated using both Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches in LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Analytical predictions were correlated with experimental data for both test configurations. In addition, studies were performed to evaluate the influence of mesh density on test-analysis correlation.

  1. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones for drinking water in Niamey city, Niger, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Joy; Kumar, K. Lohith; Nagaiah, E.; Sonkamble, S.; Ahmed, Shakeel; Kumar, Venay

    2017-08-01

    Niger is a landlocked African country and the only source of surface water is the Niger River which flows in the western part of Niger and only few villages near to the river gets benefited from it, leaving most of the areas dependent on groundwater solely. The groundwater resources in Niger are mainly used for drinking, livestock and domestic needs. It can be observed that the water exploitation is minimal there due to several factors like undeveloped areas, less population, limited wells, rain-fed irrigation, etc. The delineation of potential aquifer zones is an important aspect for groundwater prospecting. Hence, the direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting that was used in the capital city, Niamey of Niger. Twelve VES surveys, each of AB spacing 400 m were carried out in lateritic and granitic rock formations with a view to study the layer response and to delineate the potential zones. Potential aquifer zones were at shallow depth ranging from 10 to 25 m for the drilled borehole depth of 80-85 m in every village. Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the acquired data and the lithologs.

  2. Pulvinus activity, leaf movement and leaf water-use efficiency of bush bean ( Phaseplus vulgaris L.) in a hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2008-11-01

    Pulvinus activity of Phaseolus species in response to environmental stimuli plays an essential role in heliotropic leaf movement. The aims of this study were to monitor the continuous daily pulvinus movement and pulvinus temperature, and to evaluate the effects of leaf movements, on a hot day, on instantaneous leaf water-use efficiency (WUEi), leaf gas exchange, and leaf temperature. Potted plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Provider were grown in Chicot sandy loam soil under well-watered conditions in a greenhouse. When the second trifoliate leaf was completely extended, one plant was selected to measure pulvinus movement using a beta-ray gauging (BRG) meter with a point source of thallium-204 (204Tl). Leaf gas exchange measurements took place on similar leaflets of three plants at an air temperature interval of 33-42°C by a steady-state LI-6200 photosynthesis system. A copper-constantan thermocouple was used to monitor pulvinus temperature. Pulvinus bending followed the daily diurnal rhythm. Significant correlations were found between the leaf-incident angle and the stomatal conductance ( R 2 = 0.54; P photosynthesis rate ( R 2 = 0.84; P light intensity and air temperature and influenced leaf gas exchange.

  3. Temporal and vertical variability in optical properties of New England shelf waters during late summer and spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, Heidi M.; Green, Rebecca E.; Pegau, W. Scott; Roesler, Collin S.

    2001-05-01

    Relationships between optical and physical properties were examined on the basis of intensive sampling at a site on the New England continental shelf during late summer 1996 and spring 1997. During both seasons, particles were found to be the primary source of temporal and vertical variability in optical properties since light absorption by dissolved material, though significant in magnitude, was relatively constant. Within the particle pool, changes in phytoplankton were responsible for much of the observed optical variability. Physical processes associated with characteristic seasonal patterns in stratification and mixing contributed to optical variability mostly through effects on phytoplankton. An exception to this generalization occurred during summer as the passage of a hurricane led to a breakdown in stratification and substantial resuspension of nonphytoplankton particulate material. Prior to the hurricane, conditions in summer were highly stratified with subsurface maxima in absorption and scattering coefficients. In spring, stratification was much weaker but increased over the sampling period, and a modest phytoplankton bloom caused surface layer maxima in absorption and scattering coefficients. These seasonal differences in the vertical distribution of inherent optical properties were evident in surface reflectance spectra, which were elevated and shifted toward blue wavelengths in the summer. Some seasonal differences in optical properties, including reflectance spectra, suggest that a significant shift toward a smaller particle size distribution occurred in summer. Shorter timescale optical variability was consistent with a variety of influences including episodic events such as the hurricane, physical processes associated with shelfbreak frontal dynamics, biological processes such as phytoplankton growth, and horizontal patchiness combined with water mass advection.

  4. Experimental study of heat transfer during pseudo-dropwise condensation of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol vapor mixtures on a vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindyakov, A. A.; Smirnov, Yu B.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Mikhailova, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    In the present study experimental heat transfer data on condensation of almost immobile water-ethanol and water-isopropanol vapor mixtures on the vertical smooth copper tube 100 mm long with an outer diameter of 12.0 mm were obtained. Experiments for water-ethanol mixture were carried out at mass concentrations of ethanol from 0.4 to 16% in the vapor phase, and for a water-isopropanol mixture - from 0.6 to 8.4%. The pressure was 0.12…0.13 MPa, vapor-to-surface temperature difference varied from 2 to 40K. The experimental data are represented as dependency of heat transfer coefficient and heat flux on the vapor-to-surface temperature difference. The results of high-speed photography of the condensation process are discussed. It is noted that the transition from film mode to pseudo-dropwise condensation occurs when vapor-to-surface temperature difference is close to dew point - bubble point temperature difference for a given composition of the mixture. According to experimental data, the diffusion thermal resistance and thermal resistance of the liquid phase at different concentrations of the mixture were calculated.

  5. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  6. Structure of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Solonin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a research of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel filled with water. A purpose of the work is to obtain experimental data for further analysis of a character of the moving phases. Research activities used the optic methods PIV (Particle Image Visualization because of their noninvasiveness to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow. A laser sheet illuminated the fluorescence particles, which were admixed in water along the channel length. A digital camera recorded their motion for a certain time interval that allowed building the velocity vector fields. As a result, gas phase velocity components typical for a steady area of the channel and their relations for various intensity of volume air rate were obtained. A character of motion both for an air bubble and for its surrounding liquid has been conducted. The most probable direction of phases moving in the channel under sparging regime is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The use of image processing enabled an analysis of the initial area of the air inlet into liquid. A characteristic curve of the bubbles offset from the axis for various intensity of volume gas rate and channel diameter is defined. A character of moving phases is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The values of vertical components of liquid velocity in the inlet part of channel are calculated. Using the obtained data of the gas phase velocities a true void fraction was calculated. It was compared with the values of void fraction, calculated according to the liquid level change in the channel. Obtained velocities were compared with those of the other researchers, and a small difference in their values was explained by experimental conditions. The article is one of the works to research the two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data allow us to understand a character of moving the two-phase flows in

  7. Characterizing phosphorus removal from polluted urban river water by steel slags in a vertical flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yuan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zheng, Yucong; Zhao, Yaqian; Xiong, Jiaqing

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) removal in constructed wetlands (CWs) is often low unless special substrates with high sorption capacities are used. However, the use of special substrates in vertical flow (VF) CWs has not been proved to enhance P sorption. Thus, two VF wetlands were designed to evaluate the potential for enhanced P removal from polluted urban river water, one with slag as substrate and the other as a control with gravel as substrate. Findings from batch experiments showed P sorption capacities of 3.15 gP/kg and 0.81 gP/kg, respectively, for steel slag and gravel. Different organic matter fractions played different roles in P sorption, the effects of which were significant only at high concentrations. Over a 220 days' operation, the VF-slag removed 76.0% of the influent total phosphorus (TP) at 0.159 g/m(2)·d and PO4-P of 70.9% at 0.063 g/m(2)·d, whereas the VF-gravel removed 65.0% at 0.136 g/m(2)·d and 48.6% at 0.040 g/m(2)·d, respectively. Therefore, the merit of using a steel slag substrate in VF wetlands can be significant for the removal of PO4-P.

  8. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found

  9. High-resolution Vertical Profiling of Ocean Velocity and Water Properties Under Hurricane Frances in September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. B.; D'Asarp, E. A.; Girton, J. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    In ONR's CBLAST Hurricane research program observations were made of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Frances. Three EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research APEX floats) and two Lagrangian floats were deployed north of Hispaniola from a C-130 aircraft ahead of Hurricane Frances in September 2004. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. The Lagrangian floats measured temperature and salinity while following the three- dimensional boundary layer turbulence in the upper 40 m. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX and two Lagrangian floats went in about 50 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 100 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m, then continued profiling between 35 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean turbulence, momentum, and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. The buildup of surface gravity waves in advance of the storm was also observed in the velocity profiles, with significant wave heights of up to 11 m. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s stimulated vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.5 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of

  10. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  11. Prediction of the critical heat flux for saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gil Sik, E-mail: choigs@kaist.ac.kr; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2016-07-15

    A study, on the theoretical method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels, has been conducted. For the assessment of this CHF prediction method, 608 experimental data were selected from the previous researches, in which the heated sections were uniformly heated from both wide surfaces under the high pressure condition over 41 bar. For this purpose, representative previous liquid film dryout (LFD) models for circular channels were reviewed by using 6058 points from the KAIST CHF data bank. This shows that it is reasonable to define the initial condition of quality and entrainment fraction at onset of annular flow (OAF) as the transition to annular flow regime and the equilibrium value, respectively, and the prediction error of the LFD model is dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive equations of droplet deposition and entrainment. In the modified Levy model, the CHF data are predicted with standard deviation (SD) of 14.0% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.1%. Meanwhile, in the present LFD model, which is based on the constitutive equations developed by Okawa et al., the entire data are calculated with SD of 17.1% and RMSE of 17.3%. Because of its qualitative prediction trend and universal calculation convergence, the present model was finally selected as the best LFD model to predict the CHF for narrow rectangular channels. For the assessment of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels, effective 284 data were selected. By using the present LFD model, these data are predicted with RMSE of 22.9% with the dryout criterion of zero-liquid film flow, but RMSE of 18.7% with rivulet formation model. This shows that the prediction error of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels is similar with that for circular channels.

  12. The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

    2014-10-01

    A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Water Movement and Spatial Scaling for Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen Fluxes in Intertidal Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, R. M.; Jensen, M. H.; Jensen, K. M.; Kristensen, E.; Asmus, H.; Wille, A.

    1998-02-01

    Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) across the sediment-water interface were determined at intertidal locations in Königshafen, northern Wadden Sea, North Sea. Three different incubation techniques were compared: closed sediment cores (small scale), closed bell jars (medium scale) and an open flow system (Sylt flume, large scale). Water movement in the two closed systems was maintained below the resuspension limit by spinning magnets (cores, incubated in the laboratory) or by transfer of wave action through flexible plastic foil (bell jars,in situ), whereas in the flume system (in situ) water movement was unidirectional, driven by currents and waves. Data sets from several years of core measurements (1992-94), bell jar measurements (1980) and flume campaigns (1990-93) served as the basis for a comparison of dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes. Fluxes of ammonium and nitrate were within the same order of magnitude in closed cores and bell jars, while flume rates of ammonium were considerably higher. The high flume rates were caused by advective flushing due to tidal water movement and wave action. The release of ammonium increased significantly with current velocity between 1 and 13 cm s-1. Fluxes of ammonium were higher in sediments withArenicola marinacompared to those without this bioturbating species. The influence of benthic microalgae was evident only in the small and medium scale core and bell jar systems as reduced ammonium release during light exposure. Nitrate was consumed by sediments in both closed systems at a rate proportional to the nitrate concentration in the overlying water. Nitrate fluxes in the large scale Sylt flume were low with an average of only 7% of the ammonium fluxes, probably due to low concentrations in tidal waters during measurements (summer). Both closed, small scale or open, large scale techniques can be applied successfully for benthic flux studies, but the actual choice depends on the purpose of the

  14. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: a new approach for water stress detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Roberto O; Clevers, Jan G P W; Verbesselt, Jan; Naulin, Paulette I; Herold, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil., subject to different levels of groundwater depletion. As solar irradiation increased during the day and also during the summer, the paraheliotropic leaves of Tamarugo moved to an erectophile position (parallel to the sun rays) making the NDVI signal to drop. This way, Tamarugo stands with no water stress showed a positive NDVI difference between morning and midday (ΔNDVI mo-mi) and between winter and summer (ΔNDVI W-S). In this paper, we showed that the ΔNDVI mo-mi of Tamarugo stands can be detected using MODIS Terra and Aqua images, and the ΔNDVI W-S using Landsat or MODIS Terra images. Because pulvinar movement is triggered by changes in cell turgor, the effects of water stress caused by groundwater depletion can be assessed and monitored using ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S. For an 11-year time series without rainfall events, Landsat ΔNDVI W-S of Tamarugo stands showed a positive linear relationship with cumulative groundwater depletion. We conclude that both ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S have potential to detect early water stress of paraheliotropic vegetation.

  15. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: a new approach for water stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto O Chávez

    Full Text Available Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil., subject to different levels of groundwater depletion. As solar irradiation increased during the day and also during the summer, the paraheliotropic leaves of Tamarugo moved to an erectophile position (parallel to the sun rays making the NDVI signal to drop. This way, Tamarugo stands with no water stress showed a positive NDVI difference between morning and midday (ΔNDVI mo-mi and between winter and summer (ΔNDVI W-S. In this paper, we showed that the ΔNDVI mo-mi of Tamarugo stands can be detected using MODIS Terra and Aqua images, and the ΔNDVI W-S using Landsat or MODIS Terra images. Because pulvinar movement is triggered by changes in cell turgor, the effects of water stress caused by groundwater depletion can be assessed and monitored using ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S. For an 11-year time series without rainfall events, Landsat ΔNDVI W-S of Tamarugo stands showed a positive linear relationship with cumulative groundwater depletion. We conclude that both ΔNDVI mo-mi and ΔNDVI W-S have potential to detect early water stress of paraheliotropic vegetation.

  16. Hydrogeologic factors that influence ground water movement in the desert southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Frank C.; McKee, Edwin H.; Howard, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    A project to study ground-water and surface-water interactions in the desert southwestern United States was initiated in 2001 by the Tucson, Arizona office of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One of the goals of the Southwest Ground-water Resources Project was to develop a regional synthesis that includes the use of available digital geologic data, which is growing rapidly due to the increasing use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Included in this report are the digital maps and databases of geologic information that should have a direct impact on the studies of ground-water flow and surface-water interaction. Ground-water flow is governed by many geologic factors or elements including rock and soil permeability, stratigraphy and structural features. These elements directly influence ground-water flow, which is key to understanding the possible inter-connectivity of aquifer systems in desert basins of the southwestern United States. We derive these elements from the evaluation of regional geology and localized studies of hydrogeologic basins. These elements can then be applied to other unstudied areas throughout the desert southwest. This report presents a regional perspective of the geologic elements controlling ground-water systems in the desert southwest that may eventually lead to greater focus on smaller sub-regions and ultimately, to individual ground-water basins.

  17. A novel Eulerian approach for modelling cyanobacteria movement: Thin layer formation and recurrent risk to drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen Quang, Tri; Kahawita, René; Hamilton, David; de Boutray, Marie Laure; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms are being reported in an increasing number of water bodies worldwide. As drinking water (DW) treatment can be disrupted by CB, in addition to long term management plans, short term operational decision-making tools are needed that enable an understanding of the temporal variability of CB movement in relation to drinking water intakes. In this paper, we propose a novel conservative model based on a Eulerian framework and compare results with data from CB blooms in Missisquoi Bay (Québec, Canada). The hydrodynamic model considered the effects of wind and light intensity, demonstrated that current understanding of cell buoyancy in relation to light intensity in full-scale systems is incomplete and some factors are yet to be fully characterized. Factors affecting CB buoyancy play a major role in the formation of a thin surface layer that could be of ecological importance with regards to cell concentrations and toxin production. Depending on velocities, wind contributes either to the accumulation or to the dispersion of CB. Lake recirculation effects have a tendency to create zones of low CB concentrations in a water body. Monitoring efforts and future research should focus on short-term variations of CB throughout the water column and the characterization of factors other than light intensity that affect cell buoyancy. These factors are critical for understanding the risk of breakthrough into treatment plants as well as the formation of surface scums and subsequent toxin production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adsorption and movement of water by skin of the Australian thorny devil (Agamidae: Moloch horridus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanns, Philipp; Esser, Falk J.; Kappel, Peter H.; Baumgartner, Werner; Shaw, Jeremy; Withers, Philip C.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture-harvesting lizards, such as the Australian thorny devil Moloch horridus, have remarkable adaptations for inhabiting arid regions. Their microstructured skin surface, with channels in between overlapping scales, enables them to collect water by capillarity and passively transport it to the mouth for ingestion. We characterized this capillary water transport for live thorny devils using high-speed video analyses. Comparison with preserved specimens showed that live lizards are required for detailed studies of skin water transport. For thorny devils, there was no directionality in cutaneous water transport (unlike Phrynosoma) as 7 µl water droplets applied to the skin were transported radially over more than 9.2 mm. We calculated the total capillary volume as 5.76 µl cm-2 (dorsal) and 4.45 µl cm-2 (ventral), which is reduced to 50% filling by the time transportation ceases. Using micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy of shed skin to investigate capillary morphology, we found that the channels are hierarchically structured as a large channel between the scales that is sub-divided by protrusions into smaller sub-capillaries. The large channel quickly absorbs water whereas the sub-capillary structure extends the transport distance by about 39% and potentially reduces the water volume required for drinking. An adapted dynamics function, which closely reflects the channel morphology, includes that ecological role.

  19. Rice straw biochar affects water retention and air movement in a sand-textured tropical soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Ahmed, Fauziatu

    2017-01-01

    sampling times, soil water retention was significantly higher (20–150%) for the BC treatment due to increased fraction of smaller pores (Although there was no consistent effect of BC on air-filled porosity, BC significantly reduced air permeability and gas....../w) on water retention, gas transport and structure of a sand-textured tropical soil. We sampled 3 months and 15 months after BC application and measured wet- and dry-region soil water retention, air permeability and gas diffusivity at selected matric potentials. At all measured potentials and for both...

  20. Influence of polyacrylamide application to soil on movement of microorganisms in runoff water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, R E; Entry, J A

    2000-06-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) use in irrigation for erosion control has increased water infiltration and reduced soil erosion. This has improved runoff water quality via lower concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, and pesticides, and decreased biological oxygen demand. Since non-toxic high molecular weight anionic PAMs removed clay size sediment particles in flowing water, we hypothesized that PAM would effectively remove or immobilize microorganisms in flowing water. In an agricultural field, we determined the efficacy of PAM-treatment of furrow irrigation water to remove several categories of microorganisms in the inflow and runoff. Treatments were: (1) PAM application and a control; (2) three flow rates; (3) two distances from the inflow point; and (4) three times during each irrigation. After water traveled 1 m at 7.5 and 15.5 l min(-1), PAM-treatment reduced total bacterial and microbial biomass and total fungal biomass relative to the control treatment. After water traveled 40 m at 7.5, 15.5, and 22.5 l min(-1), PAM-treatment reduced algae, the numbers active and total bacteria, active and total fungal length, and total bacterial biomass, total fungal and microbial biomass relative to the control treatment. Although specific organisms were not identified or monitored in this study, the results clearly have implications for controlling the spread of soil-borne plant pathogens and other classes of harmful organisms within and among fields via irrigation water and in re-utilized return flows. Beyond furrow-irrigated agriculture, new methods to manage overland transmission of harmful microorganisms could potentially help control transport of pathogens from animal waste in runoff and groundwater.

  1. Water movement within the unsaturated zone in four agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L.H.; Healy, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Millions of tons of agricultural fertilizer and pesticides are applied annually in the USA. Due to the potential for these chemicals to migrate to groundwater, a study was conducted in 2004 using field data to calculate water budgets, rates of groundwater recharge and times of water travel through the unsaturated zone and to identify factors that influence these phenomena. Precipitation was the only water input at sites in Indiana and Maryland; irrigation accounted for about 80% of total water input at sites in California and Washington. Recharge at the Indiana site (47.5 cm) and at the Maryland site (31.5 cm) were equivalent to 51 and 32%, respectively, of annual precipitation and occurred between growing seasons. Recharge at the California site (42.3 cm) and Washington site (11.9 cm) occurred in response to irrigation events and was about 29 and 13% of total water input, respectively. Average residence time of water in the unsaturated zone, calculated using a piston-flow approach, ranged from less than 1 yr at the Indiana site to more than 8 yr at the Washington site. Results of bromide tracer tests indicate that at three of the four sites, a fraction of the water applied at land surface may have traveled to the water table in less than 1 yr. The timing and intensity of precipitation and irrigation were the dominant factors controlling recharge, suggesting that the time of the year at which chemicals are applied may be important for chemical transport through the unsaturated zone. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulating soil-water movement through loess-veneered landscapes using nonconsilient saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lee, Brad D.; Schoeneberger, Philip J.; McCauley, W. M.; Indorante, Samuel J.; Owens, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) data are available for the entire United States, so are incorporated in many regional and national models of hydrology and environmental management. However, SSURGO does not provide an understanding of spatial variability and only includes saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) values estimated from particle size analysis (PSA). This study showed model sensitivity to the substitution of SSURGO data with locally described soil properties or alternate methods of measuring Ksat. Incorporation of these different soil data sets significantly changed the results of hydrologic modeling as a consequence of the amount of space available to store soil water and how this soil water is moved downslope. Locally described soil profiles indicated a difference in Ksat when measured in the field vs. being estimated from PSA. This, in turn, caused a difference in which soil layers were incorporated in the hydrologic simulations using TOPMODEL, ultimately affecting how soil water storage was simulated. Simulations of free-flowing soil water, the amount of water traveling through pores too large to retain water against gravity, were compared with field observations of water in wells at five slope positions along a catena. Comparison of the simulated data with the observed data showed that the ability to model the range of conditions observed in the field varied as a function of three soil data sets (SSURGO and local field descriptions using PSA-derived Ksat or field-measured Ksat) and that comparison of absolute values of soil water storage are not valid if different characterizations of soil properties are used.

  3. Effect of cholera toxin on glucose absorption and net movements of water and electrolytes in the intestinal loop of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, H S; Onaga, T; Mineo, H; Kim, J T; Kato, S

    1996-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cholera toxin on glucose absorption and net movement of water and electrolytes in the jejunal loop of sheep. Intraluminal perfusion was performed at the rate of 1 ml/min with isotonic 10 mM glucose solution. Osmolality was adjusted by adding NaCl, and the outflow solution was collected every 10 min. After a 30 min control period, cholera toxin was applied intraluminally for 30 min at doses of 30, 60, and 120 micrograms/loop. In the control period, water, sodium and chloride were absorbed, while potassium and bicarbonate were secreted. Cholera toxin reversed the net absorption of water, sodium and chloride to net secretions, and this secretory response to cholera toxin was dose-dependent. Bicarbonate secretion was stimulated dose-dependently by cholera toxin. Potassium secretion was also increased at all doses, though this response was not dose-dependent. The net glucose absorption was decreased dose-dependently by cholera toxin. In conclusion, these results indicate that cholera toxin stimulates water and electrolyte secretion, and inhibits glucose absorption in the jejunal loop of sheep.

  4. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  5. Vertical distributions of late stage larval fishes in the nearshore waters of the San Bias Archipelago, Caribbean Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, IE; Wilson, DT; Meekan, MG

    Light traps were used to describe the vertical distribution of late larval stages of reef fishes in the San Blas Archipelago during three successive new moon periods. Traps were deployed in the lagoon and at an exposed site on the outer reef edge. At each site, two traps were anchored at the surface

  6. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self-worth ...

  7. AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA: VERTICAL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Under the amnesty programme, militants were offered a presidential pardon, training opportunities .... accepted the deal presidential pardons and other incentives including training opportunities and payment ...... 82 R. Ako and O. Oluduro, 'Bureaucratic Rhetoric of Climate Change in Nigeria: International. Aspiration versus ...

  8. Relationships among climatological vertical moisture structure, column water vapor, and precipitation over the central Amazon in observations and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Benjamin R.; Adams, David K.; Schiro, Kathleen A.; Stansfield, Alyssa M.; Amorim Rocha, Alciélio A.; Neelin, J. David

    2017-02-01

    Bias and spread in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulated vertical specific humidity (q) structure are examined and related to both precipitation and column water vapor (cwv) near Manaus, Brazil, site of the recent Green Ocean Amazon campaign. Simulated seasonal mean q profiles are typically too dry, especially at low levels and during the local dry season, consistent with previously identified surface hydroclimate biases in the Amazon. Multimodel empirical orthogonal function analysis of the models' monthly climatological q profiles indicates two significant modes of ensemble spread in moisture vertical structure, with the leading mode peaked at low levels and the second mode in the lower free troposphere (LFT). While both modes project onto simulated cwv spread, only the first projects on precipitation, suggesting inconsistent sensitivity of simulated rainfall to LFT moisture. Relative to observations, models with high cwv and low-level moisture errors tend to exhibit high precipitation error.

  9. Water movement across bonded dentin - too much of a good thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R. Tay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the classic concept of 3-step bonding to dental tissues has developed rapidly to more user-friendly, simplified adhesive systems. These comprise the total-etch 2 step, self-etch 2step and the self-etch "all-in-one" adhesives. These adhesives carry along with simplicity some characteristics that are relevant to their efficacy in providing long-lasting bond stability. They share with the glass ionomer cements a class of materials that have high affinity for water. Such hydrophilicity renders such adhesives very permeable and denies their ability to hermetically seal dentin surfaces. Additionally, the water flux across simplified adhesives may compromise bonding in certain circumstances and their durability in the oral environment. This paper presents evidences of the water transport across simplified adhesive systems and glass ionomer cements and relates them with clinical implications of the phenomenon.

  10. Evidence of horizontal and vertical transport of water in the Southern Hemisphere tropical tropopause layer (TTL from high-resolution balloon observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khaykin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution in situ balloon measurements of water vapour, aerosol, methane and temperature in the upper tropical tropopause layer (TTL and lower stratosphere are used to evaluate the processes affecting the stratospheric water budget: horizontal transport (in-mixing and hydration by cross-tropopause overshooting updrafts. The obtained in situ evidence of these phenomena are analysed using satellite observations by Aura MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation together with trajectory and transport modelling performed using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere and HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Balloon soundings were conducted during March 2012 in Bauru, Brazil (22.3° S in the frame of the TRO-Pico campaign for studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget. The balloon payloads included two stratospheric hygrometers: FLASH-B (Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon and Pico-SDLA instrument as well as COBALD (Compact Optical Backscatter Aerosol Detector sondes, complemented by Vaisala RS92 radiosondes. Water vapour vertical profiles obtained independently by the two stratospheric hygrometers are in excellent agreement, ensuring credibility of the vertical structures observed. A signature of in-mixing is inferred from a series of vertical profiles, showing coincident enhancements in water vapour (of up to 0.5 ppmv and aerosol at the 425 K (18.5 km level. Trajectory analysis unambiguously links these features to intrusions from the Southern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, containing more water and aerosol, as demonstrated by MLS and CALIPSO global observations. The in-mixing is successfully reproduced by CLaMS simulations, showing a relatively moist filament extending to 20° S. A signature of local cross-tropopause transport of water is observed in

  11. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  12. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavu S. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des

  13. Cold water immersion of the ankle decreases neuromuscular response of lower limb after inversion movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane S. G. Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy has been associated with a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity and muscle contraction with possible effects on exercise and physical training. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the electromyographic response of the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, rectus femoris and gluteus medius to ankle inversion following cold water immersion. METHOD: The peak values of the root mean square (RMS were obtained from 35 healthy and active university subjects after the use of a tilt platform to force the ankle into 30° of inversion before, immediately after, and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after water immersion at 4±2°C, for 20 minutes. The Shapiro-Wilk test, repeated measures analysis, Bonferroni's post-hoc, and linear regression analysis provided the results. RESULTS: Peak RMS was significantly lower at all times after cold water immersion, with residual effect of up to 30 minutes, when compared to pre-immersion for all muscles, except for immediate post-immersion for the gluteus medius. CONCLUSIONS: After cold water immersion of the ankle, special care should be taken in activities that require greater neuromuscular control.

  14. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  15. Amino acid and hexosamine in the equatorial western Pacific: vertical fluxes and individual preservation through water column to surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, H.; Gupta, L. P.; Ishizuka, T.

    2002-12-01

    Amino acids (AA) and hexosamines (HA) are major constituents for all living organisms, constituting important fractions of labile organic carbon and nitrogen. They usually decompose rapidly than bulk OM and must be expected to be closely linked to biogeochemical processes. In spite of such importance, our understanding of degradation processes of labile components is still limited. Therefore vertical fluxes and preservation of AA and HA from water column to surface sediments are investigated at the western equatorial Pacific. The settling particles were composed of fairly fresh AA, which could be derived from siliceous diatom with less amount of calcareous plankton. In contrast, AA were degraded in sediments and porewaters. Each AA showed highly variable preservation ratio from settling to sedimentary particles. Compared with glycine, the calculated preservation ratio was the lowest (0%) for cysteine, followed by phenylalanine (6%), tyrosine (17%), methionine (47%), leucine (60%), isoleucine (65%), proline (67%), valine (91%), serine (99%), arginine (107%), threonine (112%), alanine (115%), glutamic acid (114%), aspartic acid (150%), lysine (166%) and histidine (186%). Beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least labile AA. Probably they are so difficult to degrade for bacteria to get biochemical energy that the degradation proceeds fairly slowly. In contrast, after burial, even most labile, aromatic and sulfur-containing AA, degrade at a rate similar to the other protein AA. In spite of complicated reactions, most of the AA showed first-order reaction kinetics during the degradation in the sediments. The decomposition rate constant k (kyr-1) in this study was 2-3 orders lower than those in coastal marine environments. Better preservation of HA over AA in the sediments was probably due to the general incorporation of HA into structural biopolymer matrices, such as bacterial cell-walls and chitinous material. Abundant glycine in the AA in the sediments is

  16. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water movement and fate of nitrogen during drip dispersal of wastewater effluent into a semi-arid landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Robert L; Parzen, Rebecca; Tomaras, Jill; Lowe, Kathryn S

    2014-04-01

    Drip dispersal of partially treated wastewater was investigated as an approach for onsite water reclamation and beneficial reuse of water and nutrients in a semi-arid climate. At the Mines Park Test Site in Golden, Colorado, a drip dispersal system (DDS) was installed at 20- to 30-cm depth in an Ascalon sandy loam soil profile. Two zones with the same layout were established to enable study of two different hydraulic loading rates. Zones 1 and 2 each had one half of the landscape surface with native vegetation and the other with Kentucky bluegrass sod. After startup activities, domestic septic tank effluent was dispersed five times a day at footprint loading rates of 5 L/m(2)/d for Zone 1 and 10 L/m(2)/d for Zone 2. Over a two-year period, monitoring included the frequency and volume of effluent dispersed and its absorption by the landscape. After the first year of operation in October a (15)N tracer test was completed in the sodded portion of Zone 1 and samples of vegetation and soil materials were collected and analyzed for water content, pH, nitrogen, (15)N, and bacteria. Research revealed that both zones were capable of absorbing the effluent water applied at 5 or 10 L/m(2)/d. Effluent water dispersed from an emitter infiltrates at the emitter and along the drip tubing and water movement is influenced by hydrologic conditions. Based on precipitation and evapotranspiration at the Test Site, only a portion of the effluent water dispersed migrated downward in the soil (approx. 34% or 64% for Zone 1 or 2, respectively). Sampling within Zone 1 revealed water filled porosities were high throughout the soil profile (>85%) and water content was most elevated along the drip tubing (17-22% dry wt.), which is also where soil pH was most depressed (pH 4.5) due to nitrification reactions. NH4(+) and NO3(-) retention occurred near the dispersal location for several days and approximately 51% of the N applied was estimated to be removed by plant uptake and denitrification

  18. Seasonal cues of Arctic grayling movement in a small Arctic stream: the importance of surface water connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Arp, Christopher D.; Adams, Jeff; Falke, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In Arctic ecosystems, freshwater fish migrate seasonally between productive shallow water habitats that freeze in winter and deep overwinter refuge in rivers and lakes. How these movements relate to seasonal hydrology is not well understood. We used passive integrated transponder tags and stream wide antennae to track 1035 Arctic grayling in Crea Creek, a seasonally flowing beaded stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Migration of juvenile and adult fish into Crea Creek peaked in June immediately after ice break-up in the stream. Fish that entered the stream during periods of high flow and cold stream temperature traveled farther upstream than those entering during periods of lower flow and warmer temperature. We used generalized linear models to relate migration of adult and juvenile fish out of Crea Creek to hydrology. Most adults migrated in late June – early July, and there was best support (Akaike weight = 0.46; w i ) for a model indicating that the rate of migration increased with decreasing discharge. Juvenile migration occurred in two peaks; the early peak consisted of larger juveniles and coincided with adult migration, while the later peak occurred shortly before freeze-up in September and included smaller juveniles. A model that included discharge, minimum stream temperature, year, season, and mean size of potential migrants was most strongly supported (w i  = 0.86). Juvenile migration rate increased sharply as daily minimum stream temperature decreased, suggesting fish respond to impending freeze-up. We found fish movements to be intimately tied to the strong seasonality of discharge and temperature, and demonstrate the importance of small stream connectivity for migratory Arctic grayling during the entire open-water period. The ongoing and anticipated effects of climate change and petroleum development on Arctic hydrology (e.g. reduced stream connectivity, earlier peak flows, increased evapotranspiration) have important implications

  19. A Physical Pre-Treatment Method (Vertical Weir Curtain for Mitigating Cyanobacteria and Some of Their Metabolites in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Hong Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Harmful cyanobacteria and their metabolites often contaminate drinking water resources, and effective control remains challenging. Here, we developed a physical algal pre-treatment method, the vertical weir curtain (VWC, to mitigate cyanobacteria and some of their metabolites (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB, and microcystins in situ and evaluated its performance in a raw water reservoir used for drinking water supply. The VWC was manufactured with two fibrous polypropylene mats (0% and 92% porosity which were mounted to maintain a constant underwater depth. We installed the VWC to cover the entire epilimnion of the drinking water intake zone and monitored its efficiency during an algal bloom period (July–October 2015. Reduction rates were 40–59% for total algae, 60–75% for cyanobacteria, 23–55% for geosmin, 30–51% for 2-MIB, and 47–89% for microcystin-LR during the study period. Significant reductions were observed in the shallow layer of the water column (1–3 m water depth, particularly during August, when cyanobacterial density was the highest. The results indicate that the VWC can effectively mitigate harmful cyanobacteria and their metabolites when suitably applied, serving as a valuable reference for the algal reduction in raw drinking water resources.

  20. Application of vertical electrical sounding combined with induced polarization method in ground water exploration; IP koka wo koryoshita hiteikoho suichoku tansa no chikasui chosa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M.; Sakurada, H. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For ground water exploration using vertical Schlumberger exploration method, measurement and analysis combined with induced polarization (IP) effect were conducted as trial. For the Schlumberger method, potential is measured at the center between potential electrodes during flow of dc current between current electrodes. In the case of vertical exploration, measurements are repeated with fixed potential electrodes by extending the distance between current electrodes. Ground water exploration was conducted using this method at Otaki village, Hokkaido. Geology of surveyed plateau consists of a basement of Pliocene tuffs and Quaternary Pleistocene sediments covering on the surface. For the results of analysis, four to seven beds were detected from the resistivity. The depth up to the lowest bed was between 25 and 85 m, the resistivity of each bed was between 9 and 8,000 ohm{times}m, and the polarizability was between 1 and 15 mV/V. Among these resistivity zones, it was judged that zones satisfying following three conditions correspond to coarse grain sediments saturated with ground water, and can be expected as aquifers; having resistivity ranging between 100 and 1,000 ohm{times}m, polarizability higher than 10 mV/V, and relatively large thickness. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Feasibility of Onsite Residential Graywater Recycling Using a Semi-Batch Vertical Flow Wetland for Non-Potable Water Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zita Lai Ting

    2015-01-01

    Water sustainability has become a critical issue in various regions around the world given rapid population rise and the impact of climate change on water resources. In this regard, onsite treatment and reuse of graywater (defined as wastewater is not originated from toilets or urinals), for non-potable applications, can be an important element of the approach to water sustainability. Treatment of graywater prior to reuse is essential in order to enable effective product water reuse and stora...

  2. Quantifying Microstegium vimineum seed movement by non-riparian water dispersal using an ultraviolet-marking based recapture method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Tekiela

    Full Text Available Microstegium vimineum is a shade tolerant annual C4 invasive grass in the Eastern US, which has been shown to negatively impact species diversity and succession in hardwood forests. To date, empirical studies have shown that population expansion is limited to <1 m yr(-1, which is largely driven by gravity dispersal. However, this likely does not fully account for all mechanisms of population-scale dispersal as we observe greater rates of population expansion. Though water, both riparian and non-riparian water (i.e., ephemeral overland flow, have been speculated mechanisms for M. vimineum dispersal, few studies have empirically tested this hypothesis. We designed an experiment along the slopes of a Southwest Virginia hardwood forest to test the role of non-riparian water on local seed dispersal. We developed a seed marking technique by coating each seed with an ultraviolet (UV powder that did not affect buoyancy to aid in situ seed recapture. Additionally, a new image analysis protocol was developed to automate seed identification from UV photos. Total seed mobility (summation of individual seed movement within each transect was positively correlated with precipitation. Over a period of one month with 52.32 mm of precipitation, the maximum dispersal distance of any single recaptured seed was 2.4 m, and the average distance of dispersed seed was 0.21±0.04 m. This is the first quantitative evidence of non-riparian water dispersal in a forest understory, which accounts for an additional pathway of population expansion.

  3. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  4. Simulation of water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a heavy clay soil using the MACRO model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Besien

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dual-porosity MACRO model has been used to investigate methods of reducing leaching of isoproturon from a structured heavy clay soil. The MACRO model was applied to a pesticide leaching data-set generated from a plot scale experiment on a heavy clay soil at the Oxford University Farm, Wytham, England. The field drain was found to be the most important outflow from the plot in terms of pesticide removal. Therefore, this modelling exercise concentrated on simulating field drain flow. With calibration of field-saturated and micropore saturated hydraulic conductivity, the drain flow hydrographs were simulated during extended periods of above average rainfall, with both the hydrograph shape and peak flows agreeing well. Over the whole field season, the observed drain flow water budget was well simulated. However, the first and second drain flow events after pesticide application were not simulated satisfactorily. This is believed to be due to a poor simulation of evapotranspiration during a period of low rainfall around the pesticide application day. Apart from an initial rapid drop in the observed isoproturon soil residue, the model simulated isoproturon residues during the 100 days after pesticide application reasonably well. Finally, the calibrated model was used to show that changes in agricultural practice (deep ploughing, creating fine consolidated seed beds and organic matter applications could potentially reduce pesticide leaching to surface waters by up to 60%.

  5. Cotransport of clay colloids and viruses through water-saturated vertically oriented columns packed with glass beads: Gravity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2016-03-01

    The cotransport of clay colloids and viruses in vertically oriented laboratory columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 were used as model viruses, and kaolinite (ΚGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. A steady flow rate of Q=1.5 mL/min was applied in both vertical up (VU) and vertical down (VD) flow directions. In the presence of KGa-1b, estimated mass recovery values for both viruses were higher for VD than VU flow direction, while in the presence of STx-1b the opposite was observed. However, for all cases examined, the produced mass of viruses attached onto suspended clay particles were higher for VD than VU flow direction, suggesting that the flow direction significantly influences virus attachment onto clays, as well as packed column retention of viruses attached onto suspended clays. KGa-1b hindered the transport of ΦX174 under VD flow, while STx-1b facilitated the transport of ΦX174 under both VU and VD flow directions. Moreover, KGa-1b and STx-1b facilitated the transport of MS2 in most of the cases examined except of the case where KGa-1b was present under VD flow. Also, the experimental data were used for the estimation of virus surface-coverages and virus surface concentrations generated by virus diffusion-limited attachment, as well as virus attachment due to sedimentation. Both sedimentation and diffusion limited virus attachment were higher for VD than VU flow, except the case of MS2 and STx-1b cotransport. The diffusion-limited attachment was higher for MS2 than ΦΧ174 for all cases examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of water deposits and movement in porous materials by infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdelidis, N. P.; Moropoulou, A.; Theoulakis, P.

    2003-06-01

    Since a large amount of damage in porous materials arises as a direct or indirect consequence of moisture (static and dynamic phenomena), detection and monitoring of moisture in porous materials is important, in an attempt to determine the actual damage, as well as the deterioration rate. The most common methodology to assess the moisture content in porous materials is to collect representative samples from the sites investigated and then weigh them before and after drying. In this research, infrared thermography, an indirect moisture assessment technique, was used in the investigation of various porous stones in the laboratory during capillary rise tests. Supplementary investigation of the stones in terms of their microstructure (mercury intrusion porosimetry) and isothermic behaviour (water sorption) was also performed. Finally, an in field diagnostic survey on historic structures was carried out. The results of this study indicate that infrared imaging provides significant information in the study of moisture in porous materials.

  7. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam).

  8. Measurement of vertical oil-in-water two-phase flow using dual-modality ERT–EMF system

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Mi; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Oddie, Gary; Primrose, Ken; Qiu, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    Oil-in-water two-phase flows are often encountered in the upstream petroleum industry. The measurement of phase flow rates is of particular importance for managing oil production and water disposal and/or water reinjection. The complexity of oil-in-water flow structures creates a challenge to flow measurement. This paper proposes a new method of two-phase flow metering, which is based on the use of dual-modality system and multidimensional data fusion. The Electrical Resistance Tomography sys...

  9. Biosonar, diving and movements of two tagged white-beaked dolphin in Icelandic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    For the first time bio-logging tags were attached to free-ranging white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. A satellite tag was attached to one animal while an acoustic A-tag, a time-depth recorder and a VHF transmitter complex was attached to a second dolphin with a suction cup....... The satellite tag transmitted for 201 days, during which time the dolphin stayed in the coastal waters of western Iceland. The acoustic tag complex was on the second animal for 13 hours and 40 minutes and provided the first insight in echolocation behaviour of a free-ranging white-beaked dolphin. The tag...... registered 162 dives. The dolphin dove to a maximum depth of 45 m, which is about the depth of the bay in which the dolphin was swimming. Two basic types of dives were identified; U-shaped and V-shaped dives. The dolphin used more time in U-shaped dives, more clicks and sonar signals with shorter click...

  10. Optical teledetection of the vertical attenuation coefficient for downward quantum irradiance of photosynthetically available radiation in turbid inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Depth profiles of downward quantum irradiance of photosynthetically available radiation in situ and spectral subsurface irradiance reflectance, obtained from water-leaving radiance, were determined in different inland water types. These included the large, shallow and eutrophic IJssel lagoon in the

  11. Effect of localized water uptake on backfill hydration and water movement in a backfilled tunnel: half-scale tests at Aespoe Bentonite Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River (Canada); Jonsson, E. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hansen, J. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland); Hedin, M. [Aangpannefoereningen, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramqvist, G. [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    The report describes the outcome of the work within the project 'SU508.20 Impact of water inflow in deposition tunnels'. Project decision SKB doc 1178871 Version 3.0. Two activity plans have been used for the field work: AP TD SU50820-09-019 and AP TD SU 50820-09-071. SKB and Posiva have been examining those processes that may have particularly strong effects on the evolution of a newly backfilled deposition tunnel in a KBS-3V repository. These assessments have involved the conduct of increasingly large and complex laboratory tests and simulations of a backfilled tunnel section. In this series of four tests, the effect of water inflow into a backfilled tunnel section via an intersecting fracture feature was evaluated. The tests included the monitoring of mock-ups where water entered via the simulated fractures as well as evaluation of what the effect of isolated tunnel sections caused by localized water inflow would have on subsequent evolution of these isolated sections. It was found that even a slowly seeping fracture can have a substantial effect on the backfill evolution as it will cause development of a gasket-like feature that effectively cuts of air and water movement from inner to outer regions of the backfilled tunnel. Water entering via these fractures will ultimately move out of the tunnel via a single discrete flow path, in a manner similar to what was observed in previous 1/2-scale and smaller simulations. If the low-rate of water inflow from fracture is the only source of water inflow to the tunnel this will result in hydraulic behaviour similar to that observed for a single inflow point in previous tests. The presence of a fracture feature will however result in a larger proportion of water uptake by the process of suction than might occur in a point inflow situation and hence a more uniform water distribution will be present in the pellet fill. This also results in a greater tendency for water to be absorbed into the adjacent block fill

  12. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  13. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  14. Movimiento del agua en Argiudoles de la Pampa Ondulada con diferente mineralogía de arcillas Water movement in some Argiudolls of the rolling Pampa differing in their clay mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guillermo Castiglioni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos zonales de la Pampa Ondulada son Argiudoles Típicos y Vérticos los cuales se diferencian en la composición mineralógica de su fracción arcilla. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las vinculaciones entre la tasa de movimiento del agua edáfica con algunos atributos relacionados con la composición mineralógica de la fracción arcilla, en distintos suelos representativos de la región mencionada. Se tomaron muestras de los horizontes A, BA/BE, Bt y BC de dos Argiudoles Típicos y de un Argiudol Vértico, realizando sobre las mismas determinaciones relacionadas con la cantidad y tipo de las arcillas presentes. A su vez mediante diferentes técnicas se evaluaron el sistema poroso del suelo y el movimiento de agua edáfica. En los horizontes Bt, aquellos parámetros que integran el tipo y el contenido de arcillas, como el COLE y la CIC, mostraron estar mejor vinculados con el movimiento de agua edáfica que cuando se consideró únicamente el porcentaje de arcilla. La distinta porosidad estructural generada dentro de los agregados de los horizontes Bt, originó diferencias en su difusividad y conductividad hidráulica no saturada, a contenidos de humedad por encima del 50% de saturación. En aquellos horizontes con mayor actividad biológica y menor contenido de arcilla, el movimiento de agua se realizó en forma independiente de las características de las arcillas presentes.Typic and Vertic Argiudolls, which differ in the composition of their clay fraction, are the zonal soils in the Rolling Pampa of Argentina. The aim of this work has been to analize the relationship between water movement and diverse soil properties in some representative soils of the Rolling Pampa, differing in their clay mineralogy. The A, BA/ BE, Bt and BC horizons of two Typic and one Vertic Argiudolls were sampled and a number of properties related with clay content and clay type were measured. Soil porosity and soil water movement were also

  15. Study of the Internal Flow and Evaporation Characteristic Inside a Water Droplet on a Vertical Vibrating Hydrophobic Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Seok; Lim, Hee-Chang [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Thermal Marangoni flow has been observed inside droplets on heated surfaces, finally resulting in a coffee stain effect. This study aims to visualize and control the thermal Marangoni flow by employing periodic vertical vibration. The variations in the contact angle and internal volume of the droplet as it evaporates is observed by using a combination of continuous light and a still camera. With regard to the internal velocity, the particle image velocimetry system is applied to visualize the internal thermal Marangoni flow. In order to estimate the internal temperature gradient and surface tension on the surface of a droplet, the theoretical model based on the conduction and convection theory of heat transfer is applied. Thus, the internal velocity increases with an increase in plate temperature. The flow directions of the Marangoni and gravitational flows are opposite, and hence, it may be possible to control the coffee stain effect.

  16. Prediction of friction factor of pure water flowing inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çebi, A.; Akdoğan, E.; Celen, A.; Dalkilic, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model of friction factor in smooth and microfin tubes under heating, cooling and isothermal conditions was developed in this study. Data used in ANN was taken from a vertically positioned heat exchanger experimental setup. Multi-layered feed-forward neural network with backpropagation algorithm, radial basis function networks and hybrid PSO-neural network algorithm were applied to the database. Inputs were the ratio of cross sectional flow area to hydraulic diameter, experimental condition number depending on isothermal, heating, or cooling conditions and mass flow rate while the friction factor was the output of the constructed system. It was observed that such neural network based system could effectively predict the friction factor values of the flows regardless of their tube types. A dependency analysis to determine the strongest parameter that affected the network and database was also performed and tube geometry was found to be the strongest parameter of all as a result of analysis.

  17. Phosphorus removal performance and biological dephosphorization process in treating reclaimed water by Integrated Vertical-flow Constructed Wetlands (IVCWs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lu; Chen, Qianru; Liu, Panpan; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Qiaohong; Xu, Dong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2017-11-01

    Phosphorous removal in adsorption had been extensively researched; however, the biological dephosphorization process and optimum operating parameters have not been discussed or quantified in Integrated Vertical-flow Constructed Wetlands (IVCWs). In this study, IVCWs planted with different plants were employed to evaluate total phosphorus (TP) treatment performance under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), in summer and autumn. The results showed that the systems planted with Canna generalis showed the highest TP removal efficiency (77%) under a three-day HRT in autumn. The activities of exopolyphosphatase (PPX) and polyphosphate kinase (PPK) were determined, and it was found that PPK activity was seasonably variable and had been more active in autumn than that in summer (premoval efficiency (pphosphorus aerobic biological adsorption in IVCWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of carbon reserve dynamics in Microcystis and its influence on vertical migration with Yoyo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabouille, Sophie; Thébault, Jean-Marc; Salençon, Marie-José

    2003-04-01

    Blue-green algae control their buoyancy depending upon the surrounding conditions. This process is essential for Cyanobacteria development and can account for their dominance in eutrophic waters in summer. In order to determine the main regulating factors of those movements, we developed a mechanistic and deterministic model, based on differential equations, that simulates the vertical migration of Microcystis sp. In Microcystis, buoyancy regulation results from the dynamics of the carbohydrate reserve metabolism during photosynthesis. These fundamental processes are modelled daily by this vertical 1-D model named Yoyo. It describes the movement of colonies with different sizes in response to variations of environmental conditions. This paper presents the model sensitivity analysis. We individually investigated the role of light and temperature upon algal migration with colonies of two different diameters. Under a daily light cycle and a temperature of 20 degrees C, the model described vertical migration on a 48 h rhythm in colonies with a 300-micron diameter.

  19. The method of neutron imaging as a tool for the study of the dynamics of water movement in wet aramid-based ballistic body armour panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, Felix A.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Frei, Gabriel; May, Hans; Rossi, René

    2006-07-01

    A new non-destructive method based on neutron imaging (neutron radiography) to determine the exact water content in aramid-based soft body armour panels is presented. While investigating the ballistic resistance of aramid-based body armour panels under a wet condition, it is important to precisely determine their water content and its chronological development. Using the presented method, the influence of water amount and location on impact testing as well as its time dependence was shown. In the ballistic panels used, spreading of water strongly depended on the kind of quilting. Very fast water migration could be observed when the panels were held vertically. Some first results regarding the water distribution in wet panels immediately after the impact are presented. On the basis of the presented results, requirements for a standard for testing the performance of ballistic panels in the wet state are deduced.

  20. Dispersal of post-larval macrobenthos in subtidal sedimentary habitats: Roles of vertical diel migration, water column, bedload transport and biological traits' expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Aldo S.; Uribe, Roberto A.; Thiel, Martin; Oliva, Marcelo E.; Riascos, Jose M.

    2013-03-01

    Post-larval dispersal along the sediment-water interface is an important process in the dynamics of macrobenthic populations and communities in marine sublittoral sediments. However, the modes of post-larval dispersal in low energy sublittoral habitats have been poorly documented. Herein we examined the specific dispersal mechanisms (diel vertical migration, water column, and bedload transport) and corresponding biological traits of the dispersing assemblage. At two sublittoral sites (sheltered and exposed) along the northern coast of Chile, we installed different trap types that capture benthic organisms with specific modes of dispersal (active emergence and passive water column drifting) and also by a combination of mechanisms (bedload transport, passive suspension and settlement from the water column). Our results show that even though there were common species in all types of traps, the post-larval macrobenthic assemblage depended on specific mechanisms of dispersal. At the sheltered site, abundant emerging taxa colonized sediments that were placed 0.5 m above the bottom and bedload-transported invertebrates appeared to be associated to the passive drifting of macroalgae. At the exposed site, assemblage dispersal was driven by specific mechanisms e.g. bedload transport and active emergence. At both sites the biological traits "small size, swimming, hard exoskeleton, free living and surface position" were associated to water column and bedload dispersal. This study highlights the importance of (i) the water-sediment interface for dispersal of post-larvae in sublittoral soft-bottom habitat, and (ii) a specific set of biological traits when dispersing either along the bottom or through the water column.

  1. An analytical study on heat and mass transfer for ammonia-water system in a vertical falling-film type of absorber and generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Katsumi; Matsuda, Akira

    A numerical analysis on simultaneous heat and mass transfer for ammonia-water air-conditioning with a vertical falling-film type of absorber and generator was performed by the one-dimensional difference method which takes into account only the change of flow direction. In the calculation, the geometries of absorber/generator and the temperature conditions were taken like as those in our previous works for water-lithium bromide system. Therefore, the liquid and vapor concentrations ranged 53-55 and 99-l00mass%NH3, respectively. The ratio of the liquid mass flow rate to the vapor mass flow rate, L/V, ranged up to 18000. For these thermal conditions, it was found that the vapor-phase mass transfer resistance is negligibly small, and the absorption/generation rates are almost constant regardless of the vapor flow rate, but increase with increasing liquid flow rate. It was also found that the calculated values of heat fluxes in the absorber/generator for ammonia-water system are equivalent or superior to those for water-lithium bromide system.

  2. Discrete-Time Dynamical Maximum Power Tracking Control for a Vertical Axis Water Turbine with Retractable Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the power generation control system of a new drag-type Vertical Axis Turbine with several retractable blades. The returning blades can be entirely hidden in the drum, and negative torques can then be considerably reduced as the drum shields the blades. Thus, the power efficiency increases. Regarding the control, a Linear Quadratic Tracking (LQT optimal control algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is proposed to ensure that the wave energy conversion system can operate highly effectively under fluctuating conditions and that the tracking process accelerates over time. Two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations are performed to obtain the maximum power points of the turbine’s output. To plot the tip speed ratio curve, the least squares method is employed. The efficacy of the steady and dynamic performance of the control strategy was verified using Matlab/Simulink software. These validation results show that the proposed system can compensate for power fluctuations and is effective in terms of power regulation.

  3. Vertical ground reaction force responses to different head-out aquatic exercises performed in water and on dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberton, Cristine Lima; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Antunes, Amanda Haberland; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to analyse the vertical ground reaction forces (Fz) of head-out aquatic exercises [stationary running (SR), frontal kick (FK), cross-country skiing (CCS), jumping jacks (JJ), adductor hop (ADH) and abductor hop (ABH)] at two cadences in both aquatic and dry land environments. Twelve young women completed two sessions in each environment, each consisting of three exercises performed at two cadences (first and second ventilatory thresholds - C1 and C2, respectively). Two-way and three-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to the statistical analysis. The results showed that the peak Fz and impulse were significantly lower in the aquatic environment, resulting in values from 28.2% to 58.5% and 60.4% to 72.8% from those obtained on dry land, respectively. In the aquatic environment, the peak Fz was lower and the impulse was higher at the C1 than at the C2. Furthermore, it was observed that SR and FK (0.9-1.1 BW) elicited a significantly higher peak Fz values compared to the ADH and JJ exercises (0.5-0.8 BW). It can be concluded that the aquatic environment reduces the Fz during head-out aquatic exercises. It should be noted that its magnitude is also dependent on the intensity and the identity of the exercise performed.

  4. Using precipitation, vertical root distribution, and satellite-retrieved vegetation information to parameterize water stress in a Penman-Monteith approach to evapotranspiration modeling under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Sha; Koju, Upama Ashish; Yao, Fengmei; Igbawua, Tertsea

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that global Penman-Monteith equation based (PM-based) models poorly simulate water stress when estimating evapotranspiration (ET) in areas having a Mediterranean climate (AMC). In this study, we propose a novel approach using precipitation, vertical root distribution (VRD), and satellite-retrieved vegetation information to simulate water stress in a PM-based model (RS-WBPM) to address this issue. A multilayer water balance module is employed to simulate the soil water stress factor (SWSF) of multiple soil layers at different depths. The water stress factor (WSF) for surface evapotranspiration is determined by VRD information and SWSF in each layer. Additionally, four older PM-based models (PMOV) are evaluated at 27 flux sites in AMC. Results show that PMOV fails to estimate the magnitude or capture the variation of ET in summer at most sites, whereas RS-WBPM is successful. The daily ET resulting from RS-WBPM incorporating recommended VI (NDVI for shrub and EVI for other biomes) agrees well with observations, with R2=0.60 (RMSE = 18.72 W m-2) for all 27 sites and R2=0.62 (RMSE = 18.21 W m-2) for 25 nonagricultural sites. However, combined results from the optimum older PM-based models at specific sites show R2 values of only 0.50 (RMSE = 20.74 W m-2) for all 27 sites. RS-WBPM is also found to outperform other ET models that also incorporate a soil water balance module. As all inputs of RS-WBPM are globally available, the results from RS-WBPM are encouraging and imply the potential of its implementation on a regional and global scale.

  5. Impact of oxygen-depleted water on the vertical distribution of chaetognaths in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kusum, K.K.; Vineetha, G.; Raveendran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    The influence of a thick layer of oxygen-depleted water (<0.2 ml l sup(-1)) on the abundance and distribution of chaetognaths was investigated in the northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS), a natural oxygen-deficient system in the global ocean. The species...

  6. A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudts, K.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M. J.; Otto, J.; Chen, Y.; Valade, A.; Bellasen, V.; Berhongaray, G.; Bönisch, G.; Campioli, M.; Ghattas, J.; De Groote, T.; Haverd, V.; Kattge, J.; MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Merilä, P.; Penuelas, J.; Peylin, P.; Pinty, B.; Pretzsch, H.; Schulze, E. D.; Solyga, D.; Vuichard, N.; Yan, Y.; Luyssaert, S.

    2015-07-01

    Since 70 % of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchange with the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none of the land-surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today's predictions of future climate, accounts for the interactions between climate and forest management. We addressed this gap in modelling capability by developing and parametrising a version of the ORCHIDEE land-surface model to simulate the biogeochemical and biophysical effects of forest management. The most significant changes between the new branch called ORCHIDEE-CAN (SVN r2290) and the trunk version of ORCHIDEE (SVN r2243) are the allometric-based allocation of carbon to leaf, root, wood, fruit and reserve pools; the transmittance, absorbance and reflectance of radiation within the canopy; and the vertical discretisation of the energy budget calculations. In addition, conceptual changes were introduced towards a better process representation for the interaction of radiation with snow, the hydraulic architecture of plants, the representation of forest management and a numerical solution for the photosynthesis formalism of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry. For consistency reasons, these changes were extensively linked throughout the code. Parametrisation was revisited after introducing 12 new parameter sets that represent specific tree species or genera rather than a group of often distantly related or even unrelated species, as is the case in widely used plant functional types. Performance of the new model was compared against the trunk and validated against independent spatially explicit data for basal area, tree height, canopy structure, gross primary production (GPP), albedo and evapotranspiration over Europe. For all tested variables, ORCHIDEE-CAN outperformed the trunk regarding its ability to reproduce large-scale spatial patterns as well as their inter

  7. Second-order velocity slip with axisymmetric stagnation point flow and heat transfer due to a stretching vertical plate in a Copper-water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardri, M. A.; Bachok, N.; Arifin, N. M.; Ali, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    The steady axisymmetric stagnation point flow with second-order velocity slip due to a stretching vertical plate with the existence of copper-water nanofluid was investigated. Similarity transformation has been applied to reduce the governing partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Then the self-similar equations are solved numerically using solver bvp4c available in Matlab with Prandtl number, Pr = 6.2. It is found that the dual solutions exist for the certain range of mixed convection parameter. The effects of the governing parameters on the velocity and temperature profile, skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are observed. The results show that the inclusion of nanoparticle copper, will increase the shear stress on the stretching sheet and decrease the heat transfer rate for the slip parameters.

  8. Numerical investigation of saturated upward flow boiling of water in a vertical tube using VOF model: effect of different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, B.; Irandoost, M. S.; Hassani, M.; Kouhikamali, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a numerical simulation of upward two-phase flow evaporation in a vertical tube has been studied by considering water as working fluid. To this end, the computational fluid dynamic simulations of this system are performed with heat and mass transfer mechanisms due to energy transfer during the phase change interaction near the heat transfer surface. The volume of fluid model in an available Eulerian-Eulerian approach based on finite volume method is utilized and the mass source term in conservation of mass equation is implemented using a user defined function. The characteristics of water flow boiling such as void fraction and heat transfer coefficient distribution are investigated. The main cause of fluctuations on heat transfer coefficient and volume fraction is velocity increment in the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The case study of this research including convective heat transfer coefficient and tube diameter are considered as a parametric study. The operating conditions are considered at high pressure in saturation temperature and the physical properties of water are determined by considering system's inlet temperature and pressure in saturation conditions. Good agreement is achieved between the numerical and the experimental values of heat transfer coefficients.

  9. Study on diesel vertical migration characteristics and mechanism in water-bearing sand stratum using an automated resistivity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuying; Jia, Yonggang; Wang, Yuhua; Xia, Xin; Guo, Lei

    2017-11-24

    Oil spills frequently occur on both land and sea. Petroleum in mobile phase will cause serious pollution in the sediment and can form a secondary pollution source. Therefore, it is very important to study the migration of petroleum in sediments ideally in a rapid and simplified approach. The release of diesel was simulated using fine beach sand to construct a model aquifer, and dynamic monitoring was carried out using an automated monitoring system including a resistivity probe originally developed by our research group. The mobile phase migration fronts were determined accurately using wavelet analysis method combined with resistivity curve method. Then, a relationship between resistivity and the joint oil-water content was established. The main conclusions were as follows. The seepage velocity of the diesel with high mobility at the initial stage of infiltration was faster, followed by a period when gravity seepage was dominant, and finally a redistribution period at the later stage, which was mainly an oil-water displacement process. The resistivity trends for diesel infiltration in different water-saturated soil layers varied with depth. The resistivity in the vadose zone fluctuated significantly, increasing initially and later decreasing. The resistivity change in the capillary zone was relatively small and constant in the initial stage; then, it increased and subsequently decreased. The resistivity in the saturated zone was basically unchanged with depth, and the value became slightly larger than the background value over time. Overall, for a large volume of mobile phase diesel leakage, the arrival migration fronts can be detected by wavelet analysis combined with resistivity curves. The thickness of the oil slick in the capillary zone can be estimated by resistivity changes. The relationships between resistivity and both the moisture content and oil-water joint saturation are in agreement with the linear models. The research results provide basic data and a

  10. Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Jenna; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves J. Charland * **, J. Touboul **, V. Rey ** jenna.charland@univ-tln.fr * Direction Générale de l'Armement, CNRS Délégation Normandie ** Université de Toulon, 83957 La Garde, France Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille, France CNRS/INSU, IRD, MIO, UM 110 In the nearshore area, both wave propagation and currents are influenced by the bathymetry. For a better understanding of wave - current interactions in the presence of a 3D bathymetry, a large scale experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin FIRST, Toulon, France. The 3D bathymetry consisted of two symmetric underwater mounds on both sides in the mean wave direction. The water depth at the top the mounds was hm=1,5m, the slopes of the mounds were of about 1:3, the water depth was h=3 m elsewhere. For opposite current conditions (U of order 0.30m/s), a huge focusing of the wave up to twice its incident amplitude was observed in the central part of the basin for T=1.4s. Since deep water conditions are verified, the wave amplification is ascribed to the current field. The mean velocity fields at a water depth hC=0.25m was measured by the use of an electromagnetic current meter. The results have been published in Rey et al [4]. The elliptic form of the "mild slope" equation including a uniform current on the water column (Chen et al [1]) was then used for the calculations. The calculated wave amplification of factor 1.2 is significantly smaller than observed experimentally (factor 2). So, the purpose of this study is to understand the physical processes which explain this gap. As demonstrated by Kharif & Pelinovsky [2], geometrical focusing of waves is able to modify significantly the local wave amplitude. We consider this process here. Since vertical velocity profiles measured at some locations have shown significant

  11. Vertical stratification of bacterial communities driven by multiple environmental factors in the waters (0-5000 m) off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobal-Amador, Vladimir; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Guerrero-Feijoo, Elisa; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Teira, Eva; Varela-Rozados, Marta M.

    2016-08-01

    The processes mediated by microbial planktonic communities occur along the entire water column, yet the microbial activity and composition have been studied mainly in surface waters. This research examined the vertical variation in bacterial abundance, activity and community composition and structure from surface down to 5000 m depth following a longitudinal transect off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin, from 43°N, 9°W to 43°N, 15°W). Community activity and composition changed with depth. The leucine incorporation rates decreased from the euphotic layer to the bathypelagic waters by three orders of magnitude, whereas prokaryotic abundance decreased only by one order of magnitude. The relative abundance of SAR11 and Alteromonas, determined by catalyzed reported deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), decreased with depth. Meanwhile, the contribution of SAR 202 and SAR324 was significantly higher in the deeper layers (i.e. NEADW, North East Atlantic Deep Water and LDW, Lower Deep Water) than in the euphotic zone. Bacterial community structure, assessed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), was depth-specific. A distance based linear model (DistLM) revealed that the variability found in bacterial community structure was mainly explained by temperature nitrate, phosphate, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence, prokaryotic abundance, leucine incorporation and to a lesser extent salinity, oxygen, CDOM absorbance and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Our results displayed a bacterial community structure shaped not only by depth-related physicochemical features but also by DOM quality, indicating that different prokaryotic taxa have the potential to metabolize particular DOM sources.

  12. Whole-hand water flow stimulation increases motor cortical excitability: a study of transcranial magnetic stimulation and movement-related cortical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Onishi, Hideaki; Yasuhiro, Baba; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies examining the influence of afferent stimulation on corticospinal excitability have demonstrated that the intensity of afferent stimulation and the nature of the afferents targeted (cutaneous/proprioceptive) determine the effects. In this study, we assessed the effects of whole-hand water immersion (WI) and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits by measuring motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves and conditioned MEP amplitudes. We further investigated whether whole-hand WF modulated movement-related cortical activity. Ten healthy subjects participated in three experiments, comprising the immersion of participants' right hands with (whole-hand WF) or without (whole-hand WI) water flow, and no immersion (control). We evaluated MEP recruitment curves produced by a single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse at increasing stimulus intensities, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using the paired TMS technique before and after 15 min of intervention. Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) were evaluated to examine primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and somatosensory cortex excitability upon movement before and after whole-hand WF. After whole-hand WF, the slope of the MEP recruitment curve significantly increased, whereas SICI decreased and ICF increased in the contralateral motor cortex. The amplitude of the Bereitschaftspotential, negative slope, and motor potential of MRCPs significantly increased after whole-hand WF. We demonstrated that whole-hand WF increased corticospinal excitability, decreased SICI, and increased ICF, although whole-hand WI did not change corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Whole-hand WF modulated movement-related cortical activity, increasing motor cortex activation for the planning and execution of voluntary movements. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Population dynamics and movement of Ozark cavefish in Logan Cave NWR, Benton County, Arkansas, with additional baseline water quality information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The population dynamics, general biology, and movements of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae) were studied in Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge,...

  14. Vertical Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Crenarchaeota and Methanogens in the Epipelagic Waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo)▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (∼50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake. PMID:20802065

  15. Vertical distribution of ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeota and methanogens in the epipelagic waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-10-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (∼50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake.

  16. Oberbeck–Boussinesq free convection of water based nanoliquids in a vertical channel using Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions on temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asiah Mohd Makhatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is carried out into the flow and heat transfer within a fully-developed mixed convection flow of water–alumina (Al2O3–water, water–titania (TiO2–water and water–copperoxide (CuO–water in a vertical channel by considering Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. Actual values of thermophysical quantities are used in arriving at conclusions on the three nanoliquids. The Biot number influences on velocity and temperature distributions are opposite in regions close to the left wall and the right wall. Robin condition is seen to favour symmetry in the flow velocity whereas Dirichlet and Neumann conditions skew the flow distribution and push the point of maximum velocity to the right of the channel. A reversal of role is seen between them in their influence on the flow in the left-half and the right-half of the channel. This leads to related consequences in heat transport. Viscous dissipation is shown to aid flow and heat transport. The present findings reiterate the observation on heat transfer in other configurations that only low concentrations of nanoparticles facilitate enhanced heat transport for all three temperature conditions. Significant change was observed in Neumann condition, whereas the changes are too extreme in Dirichlet condition. It is found that Robin condition is the most stable condition. Further, it is also found that all three nanoliquids have enhanced heat transport compared to that by base liquid, with CuO–water nanoliquid shows higher enhancement in its Nusselt number, compared to Al2O3 and TiO2.

  17. Dissociated vertical deviation and eye torsion: Relation to disparity-induced vertical vergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. van Rijn; H.J. Simonsz (Huib); M.P.M. ten Tusscher

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the relation between vertical eye movements and binocular torsion in five subjects with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). During trials, subject viewed a well illuminated Snellen letter chart, with both eyes uncovered during 4 seconds. Subsequently, DVD was induced by

  18. Facilitation of vertical vergence by horizontal saccades, found in a patient with dissociated vertical deviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); L.J. van Dijk (Laurens)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The authors examined vertical vergence in a Is-year-old girl with dissociated vertical deviation, a 60 convergent strabismus, no binocular vision, latent nystagmus, and a minimal left amblyopia. Eye movements were recorded during 4s-periods of (1) both eyes open, alternated with

  19. On vertical velocity fluctuations and internal tides in an upwelling region off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    of flow and wind and temperature oscillations at a mooring site in the shelf waters off the west coast of India are discussed. The vertical velocities were computed from a time series of vertical temperature profiles assuming that horizontal advection... of tem- perature is negligible. The computed values at a depth of 40 m during the 72-h period of observation were of the order of 10-l to lo-* cm s-i, with a mean value of - 2.77 x lo-* cm s-i indicating a net upward movement of water. The com- puted...

  20. A comparative study of vertical flow and free-water surface constructed wetlands for low C/N ratio domestic wastewater treatment and its greenhouse gases emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of chemical treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. However, growing attention has been directed to its greenhouse side-effect and global-warming potential in recent years. In this study, two typical constructed wetlands: Vertical flow (VF) and Free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands were used not only to compare the nutrients removal performance for treatment of low C/N ratio loading domestic wastewater, but also to investigate and compare their CH4 and N2O greenhouse gases emission characteristics. The results indicated that the VF CW showed a comparatively good performance for nitrogen and phosphorus removal than FWS constructed wetland, which was 98.5, 95.9, 93.2 and 90.7 percent for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6 days HRT, respectively. It was found that the FWS CW had the higher tendency to emit CH4 than the VF CW during four seasons of one year.

  1. Melting and evaporation analysis of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket module under vertical displacement event by using the MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Material phase change of first wall was simulated for vertical displacement event. • An in-house first wall module was developed to simulate melting and evaporation. • Effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were proposed. • MARS code was proposed to predict two-phase phenomena in coolant channel. • Phase change simulation was performed by coupling MARS and in-house module. - Abstract: Plasma facing components of tokamak reactors such as ITER or the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) can be subjected to damage by plasma instabilities. Plasma disruptions like vertical displacement event (VDE) with high heat flux, can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and burnout of coolant channels. In this study, to simulate melting and vaporization of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket under VDE, one-dimensional heat equations were solved numerically by using an in-house first wall module, including phase change models, effective heat capacity method, and evaporation model. For thermal-hydraulics, the in-house first wall analysis module was coupled with the nuclear reactor safety analysis code, MARS, to take advantage of its prediction capability for two-phase flow and critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence. The first wall was proposed for simulation according to the conceptual design of the K-DEMO, and the heat flux of plasma disruption with a value of 600 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.1 s was applied. The phase change simulation results were analyzed in terms of the melting and evaporation thicknesses and the occurrence of CHF. The thermal integrity of the blanket first wall is discussed to confirm whether the structural material melts for the given conditions.

  2. Enhanced photoassisted water electrolysis using vertically oriented anodically fabricated Ti-Nb-Zr-O mixed oxide nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Nageh K; Alamgir, Faisal; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2010-10-26

    Self-ordered, highly oriented arrays of titanium-niobium-zirconium mixed oxide nanotube films were fabricated by the anodization of Ti(35)Nb(5)Zr alloy in aqueous and formamide electrolytes containing NH(4)F at room temperature. The nanostructure topology was found to depend on the nature of the electrolyte and the applied voltage. Our results demonstrate the possibility to grow mixed oxide nanotube array films possessing several-micrometer-thick layers by a simple and straightforward electrochemical route. The fabricated Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes showed a ∼17.5% increase in the photoelectrochemical water oxidation efficiency as compared to that measured for pure TiO(2) nanotubes under UV illumination (100 mW/cm(2), 320-400 nm, 1 M KOH). This enhancement could be related to a combination of the effect of the thin wall of the fabricated Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes (10 ± 2 nm) and the formation of Zr oxide and Nb oxide layers on the nanotube surface, which seems to slow down the electron-hole recombination in a way similar to that reported for Grätzel solar cells.

  3. High-Resolution Vertical Profile Measurements for Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour Concentrations Within and Above Crop Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Patrizia; Graf, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    We present a portable elevator-based facility for measuring CO2 , water vapour, temperature and wind-speed profiles between the soil surface and the atmospheric surface layer above crop canopies. The end of a tube connected to a closed-path gas analyzer is continuously moved up and down over the profile range (in our case, approximately 2 m) while concentrations are logged at a frequency of 20 s^{-1} . Using campaign measurements in winter wheat, winter barley and a catch crop mixture (spring 2015 to autumn 2016) during different stages of crop development and different times of the day, we demonstrate a simple approach to correct for time lags, and the resulting profiles of 30-min mean mole fractions of CO2 and H2O over height increments of 0.025 m. The profiles clearly show the effects of soil respiration and photosynthetic carbon assimilation, varying both during the diurnal cycle and during the growing season. Profiles of temperature and wind speed are based on a ventilated finewire thermocouple and a hot-wire anemometer, respectively. Measurements over bare soil and a short plant canopy were analyzed in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to check the validity of the measurements and raw-data-processing approach. Derived fluxes of CO2 , latent and sensible heat and momentum show good agreement with eddy-covariance measurements.

  4. Functional analysis of Microcystis vertical migration: a dynamic model as a prospecting tool. II. Influence of mixing, thermal stratification and colony diameter on biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouille, S.A.M.; Marie-José Salençon, M-J.

    2005-01-01

    Yoyo is a deterministic model developed to represent the growth and vertical movement of Microcystis sp. colonies in the water column. Migration of colonies is represented in the model through the dynamics of carbon-reserve metabolism during photosynthesis and biosynthesis. It was used to quantify

  5. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  6. Vertically aligned nitrogen doped (Sn,Nb)O{sub 2} nanotubes – Robust photoanodes for hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Prasad Prakash, E-mail: ppp4@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Hanumantha, Prashanth Jampani [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Gattu, Bharat [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15217 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nb and N co-doping provides excellent optoelectronic properties for SnO{sub 2} NTs. • The optoelectronic properties of doped SnO{sub 2} are studied by first principles study. • (Sn{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05})O{sub 2}:N-600 NTs exhibits superior ABPE (4.1%) to date. • Excellent photoelectrochemical stability of (Sn{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05})O{sub 2}:N-600 NTs. - Abstract: Hydrogen generation from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is on the forefront of clean energy generation landscape. The efficiency of PEC system is dependent on the engineering of semiconductors with tailored narrow band gap coupled with superior photoelectrochemical activity and desired stability vital for the commercialization of PEC water splitting cells. We report herein the study of vertically aligned Nb and N doped SnO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs), i.e., (Sn{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05})O{sub 2}:N NTs for PEC water splitting. (Sn{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05})O{sub 2} NTs was selected for co-doping with nitrogen by systematic analysis of applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of various Nb doped SnO{sub 2} (x = 0–0.1) compositions. Consequently, excellent photoelectrochemical stability and the highest efficiency of 4.1% is obtained for (Sn{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05})O{sub 2}:N-600 NTs never observed for other known TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} systems to date. Additionally, theoretical first principles study provides understanding of Nb and N co-doping on the electronic structure and band gap of SnO{sub 2} semiconductor, further corroborating results of the experimental study.

  7. Pike (Esox lucius L.) on the edge: consistent individual movement patterns in transitional waters of the western Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Bekkevold, Dorte; Berg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    salinity) would perform spawning- and feeding-related movements between areas with different salinity regimes. Twenty-two pike were caught prior to spawning, tagged with acoustic transmitters, and their movements were tracked for 18 months. Pike showed two main patterns of movements that were consistent...... within individuals across two years. Whereas some individuals stayed in the lagoon year-round, most pike left the lagoon for longer periods after spawning and returned to the lagoon prior to following year’s spawning season. We found no evidence that probability of moving out of the lagoon co......-varied with either length or condition factor. Despite the fact that the lagoon’s salinity is close to the reported upper limit for pike egg development, results indicated that all pike spawned in the lagoon. Correspondingly, genetic data showed that all fish belonged to the same reproductive population unit...

  8. Variação do movimento da água do solo devido à atividade de minhocas: simulação numérica Chance of soil-water movement due to eartworms activity: numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kobiyama

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a influência das minhocas sobre o movimento da água no solo. O fluxo da água unidimensional, vertical e não saturada foi expresso com base na equação de Picharas, que foi resolvida pelo método de diferenças finitas. As propriedades hidráulicas dos solos com e sem minhocas, que foram medidas no campo, foram utilizadas e expressas com as equações de VAN GENUCHTEN (1980. Os resultados mostram que a atividade das minhocas aumenta o pico do hidrograma no solo onde a água subsuperficial é dominante no processo chuva-vazão. Entretanto, o fenômeno do aumento do pico depende da relação entre os aumentos da condutividade hidráulica saturada (Ks e da umidade saturada (tetas. Se as minhocas provocarem um pequeno aumento em Ks ou um elevado aumento em tetas, haverá uma redução do pico. Caso ocorra contrário, um elevado aumento em Ks ou um pequeno aumento em tetas, este pico aumenta.The objective of this study was to evaluate, with a numerical method, the influence of earth worms on the soil-water movement. The one-dimensional, vertical, saturated and unsaturated water flow was expressed by the Richards equation. The generated equations were solved with a fïnite difference method. The hydraulic properties of soils with and without earthworms, which were measured on field, were utilized and expressed with VAN GENUCHTEN (1980 equations. The results demonstrated that the eathworms activity increased a peak of hydrograph of soil where the subsurface flow is dominant in the rainfall-runoff process. However, the phenomenon of this increase depenas on the relation between the increases of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and the saturated water content (thetas. When the earthworms provide a small increase of Ks and a large increase of thetas, the peak would decrease. In the contrary case where Ks increases a lot and thetas increases a little, the peak would increase.

  9. Long distance movements and disjunct spatial use of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the inland waters of the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina typically limit their movements and activity to 100 km from their capture site at least once, two of which traveled round trip to and from the Pacific coast, a total distance >400 km. Disjunct spatial use patterns observed provide new insight into general harbor seal behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-distance movements and disjunct spatial use of adult harbor seals have not been reported for the study region and are rare worldwide in such a large proportion of tagged individuals. Thus, the ecological influence of individual seals may reach farther than previously assumed.

  10. Detecting leaf pulvinar movements on NDVI time series of desert trees: A new approach for water stress detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chávez Oyanadel, R.O.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Verbesselt, J.; Naulin, P.; Herold, M.

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf ‘solar tracking’ occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices,

  11. Vertical distribution of archaeal communities associated with anaerobic degradation of pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) in river-based groundwater recharge with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulin; Ma, Mengsi; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Weifang; Li, Yangyao

    2018-02-01

    When groundwater is recharged with reclaimed water, the presence of trace amounts of biorefractory pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE, specifically BDE-99) might cause potential groundwater pollution. A laboratory-scale column was designed to investigate the distribution of the community of archaea in this scenario and the associated anaerobic degradation of BDE-99. The concentration of BDE-99 decreased significantly as soil depth increased, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that archaea exerted significant effects on the biodegradation of PBDE. Through 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, we found that the distribution and structure of the archaeal community associated with anaerobic degradation of BDE-99 in the river-based aquifer media changed significantly between different soil depths. The primary debrominated metabolites varied with changes in the vertically distributed archaeal community. The archaea in the surface layer were dominated by Methanomethylovorans, and the middle layer was mainly composed of Nitrososphaera. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera were equally abundant in the bottom layer. In addition, Methanomethylovorans abundance depended on the depth of soil, and the relative abundance of Nitrosopumilus increased with increasing depth, which was associated with the oxidation-reduction potential and the content of intermediate metabolites. We propose that Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus might be the key archaeal taxa mediating the biodegradation of BDE-99.

  12. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vertical-deformation, water-level, microgravity, geodetic, water-chemistry, and flow-rate data collected during injection, storage, and recovery tests at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, September 1995 through September 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Ikehara, Marti E.; Howle, James F.

    2001-01-01

    A series of freshwater injection, storage, and recovery tests were conducted from September 1995 through September 1998 to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of the Antelope Valley, California. The tests used two production wells at a well field located in the southern part of the city of Lancaster. Monitoring networks were established at or in the vicinity of the test site to measure vertical deformation of the aquifer system, water-level fluctuations, land-surface deformation, water chemistry, and injection well flow rates during water injection and recovery. Data presented in this report were collected from a dual extensometer; 10 piezometers; 1 barometer; 27 active or abandoned production wells; 31 gravity stations; 124 bench marks; 1 permanent and 1 temporary continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) station; 3 tiltmeters; and 2 electromagnetic flowmeters from September 1995 through September 1998. This report discusses the location and design of the monitoring networks and the methods used to collect and process the data, and presents the data in tables and graphs.

  14. Analysis of Swing Movement in Ballroom Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Shioya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rise and fall movement represents typical characteristics of the swing dances in ballroom dances. The rise and fall movements are analyzed in the mechanical point of view in the presentation. The biomechanics of the rise and fall movements were analyzed in terms of the potential energy and the velocity of the body. Some basic figures of Waltz are taken as examples with application suggestion to the other dances. A sinusoidal function is employed for vertical and horizontal movements in the analysis featuring the natural swing movement of the dancer’s body. The height of center of gravity of dancer and its vertical acceleration are quantitatively exhibited in graphs for each basic movement of the figures of these dances. It is shown that the maximum height in the movement depends on each figure in each dance and that it is limited by the acceleration analysis regardless of dancer’s height or weight.

  15. Absorption of water vapour in the falling film of water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) in a vertical tube at air-cooling thermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouis, Mahmoud; Valles, Manel; Medrano, Marc; Coronas, Alberto [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, CREVER, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Autovia de Salou, s/n, 43006, Tarragona (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    In air-cooled water-LiBr absorption chillers the working conditions in the absorber and condenser are shifted to higher temperatures and concentrations, thereby increasing the risk of crystallisation. To develop this technology, two main problems are to be addressed: the availability of new salt mixtures with wider range of solubility than water-LiBr, and advanced absorber configurations that enable to carry out simultaneously an appropriate absorption process and an effective air-cooling. One way of improving the solubility of LiBr aqueous solutions is to add other salts to create multicomponent salt solutions. The aqueous solution of the quaternary salt system (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) presents favourable properties required for air-cooled absorption systems: less corrosive and crystallisation temperature about 35 K lower than that of water-LiBr.This paper presents an experimental study on the absorption of water vapour over a wavy laminar falling film of an aqueous solution of (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) on the inner wall of a water-cooled smooth vertical tube. Cooling water temperatures in the range 30-45 C were selected to simulate air-cooling thermal conditions. The results are compared with those obtained in the same experimental set-up with water-LiBr solutions.The control variables for the experimental study were: absorber pressure, solution Reynolds number, solution concentration and cooling water temperature. The parameters considered to assess the absorber performance were: absorber thermal load, mass absorption flux, degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber, and the falling film heat transfer coefficient.The higher solubility of the multicomponent salt solution makes possible the operation of the absorber at higher salt concentration than with the conventional working fluid water-LiBr. The absorption fluxes achieved with water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) at a concentration of 64.2 wt% are around 60 % higher than

  16. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and ...

  17. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  19. Green-energy, water-autonomous greenhouse system: an alternative-technology approach towards sustainable smart-green vertical greening in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Paiyao, Hung; Kuanghui, Peng

    2017-01-01

    By means of “going greener”, “getting smarter” and “converging smart-green”, an innovation-driven smart city could address the steps toward more sustainability and aim toward improved human well-being. A vertical greening means a vertical triumph of greenery in a high density urban area, in some ways it displays the level of smartness and greenness in a city. Researchers have suggested the use of vertical greening in urban areas to improve sustainability of the environment. However, conventio...

  20. Sensitivity of ROV model to some factors on the ground movement computer simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, T. [Technical Univ. of Szczecin (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an attempt of describing movement properties of an underwater vehicle at the initial phase of designing. The author studies the flat motion of a vehicle on a vertical longitudinal plane for a certain drive system arrangement. The computer simulation makes it possible to predict the behavior of a vehicle. There are several problems discussed in the paper, i.e. relation between horizontal and vertical components of a vehicle speed and vehicle trajectory, influence of added water mass coefficients and of the metacentric height value on the trajectory.

  1. Mortality, movement and behaviour of native mussels during a planned water-level drawdown in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Gray, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Managers in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) are using reductions in the River's water levels during summer to mimic historical water regimes and rehabilitate habitats for vegetation and other species. Concerns for the unintended effects of these actions on mussel populations threatened to halt these projects.

  2. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  3. Vertical habitat and behaviour of the bluntnose sixgill shark in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Christina M.; Weng, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    Bluntnose sixgill sharks are apex predators and scavengers that are near-globally distributed in slope and shelf habitats, but many aspects of their behaviour and ecology are poorly understood. A better understanding of how oceanographic variables influence sixgill shark behaviour may help predict their distribution, response to increasing anthropogenic stressors including climate change, and role in ecosystems throughout their geographic range. We used satellite telemetry to observe the vertical behaviour of four bluntnose sixgill sharks in the subtropical oligotrophic waters of Hawaii. A strong diel vertical movement cycle was observed, with sharks spending nighttime in thermocline waters and descending into the oxygen minimum zone in daytime. Depth changes generally occurred between nautical twilight and sunrise/sunset. Dive initiation and dive completion were significantly correlated with nautical dawn and sunrise, respectively. A stepwise generalised estimating equations model was used to investigate vertical speeds in the daytime and nighttime depth habitats, and this analysis revealed that photic zone light level was the primary factor correlated with vertical speed. Outside of the depth transitions, higher vertical speeds were observed when photic zone light was low, suggesting more active foraging in the shallow nighttime habitat than the deep daytime habitat.

  4. The movement of water and cryoprotectants across the plasma membrane of mammalian oocytes and embryos and its relevance to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edashige, Keisuke

    2016-08-25

    The permeability of the plasma membrane to water and cryoprotectants is one of the most important factors for determining suitable conditions for vitrification of mammalian oocytes and embryos. In mouse oocytes and early stage embryos, water and cryoprotectants move slowly, principally by simple diffusion. In contrast, in morulae (and probably blastocysts), water, glycerol, and ethylene glycerol move rapidly, principally by facilitated diffusion via aquaporin 3, and DMSO moves rapidly via channels other than aquaporin 3. However, propylene glycol moves principally by simple diffusion. In cows and pigs, similar results were obtained. However, in bovine morulae, DMSO moves principally by simple diffusion. In pigs, permeability to water, glycerol, and ethylene glycol increases not at the morula stage but at the blastocyst stage, and increases further at the expanded blastocyst stage. Therefore, in general, the permeability of mammalian oocytes and early stage embryos to water and cryoprotectants is low. Then, at later stages, the permeability to water and some cryoprotectants markedly increases and occurs by facilitated diffusion via channels, although there are some species-specific differences.

  5. Updated numerical model with uncertainty assessment of 1950-56 drought conditions on brackish-water movement within the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Linzy K.; White, Jeremy T.; Houston, Natalie A.; Thomas, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, began a study to assess the brackish-water movement within the Edwards aquifer (more specifically the potential for brackish-water encroachment into wells near the interface between the freshwater and brackish-water transition zones, referred to in this report as the transition-zone interface) and effects on spring discharge at Comal and San Marcos Springs under drought conditions using a numerical model. The quantitative targets of this study are to predict the effects of higher-than-average groundwater withdrawals from wells and drought-of-record rainfall conditions of 1950–56 on (1) dissolved-solids concentration changes at production wells near the transition-zone interface, (2) total spring discharge at Comal and San Marcos Springs, and (3) the groundwater head (head) at Bexar County index well J-17. The predictions of interest, and the parameters implemented into the model, were evaluated to quantify their uncertainty so the results of the predictions could be presented in terms of a 95-percent credible interval.

  6. Effect of Nitrogen and Irrigation Application on Water Movement and Nitrogen Transport for a Wheat Crop under Drip Irrigation in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For improving water scarcity and groundwater pollution from agriculture, two-year experiments (2011–2013 with three water levels (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 evaporation (E in 20-cm-diameter pans and four nitrogen (N levels (120, 140 and 190 kg·ha−1 in 2012 and 120, 190 and 290 kg·ha−1 in 2013 were conducted to study effects of water and N availability on water movement and N transport for a wheat crop under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. The results indicated that under drip irrigation, deep percolation at 1-m depth was stable at 0.5–0.8 E with the same N rate for winter wheat. At 0.5–0.8 E, deep percolation was also relatively stable with increasing N rate from 120 to 140 kg·ha−1 or from 190 to 290 kg·ha−1. The irrigation schedule and N rates only affected N leaching below the root zone of winter wheat (60-cm depth, while the N residual in the soil layer presented more risk to the environment than N leaching. In general, the 290-kg-ha−1 N level was not recommended using drip fertigation for winter wheat in the North China Plain. The empirical equation given by the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources was also not recommended for estimating the drainage under drip irrigation.

  7. Influences of summer water temperatures on the movement, distribution, and resources use of fluvial Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the South Fork Clearwater River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Marika E.; Corsi, Matthew P.; Schill, Daniel J.; DuPont, Joseph M.; Quist, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Although many Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi populations in Idaho are robust and stable, population densities in some systems remain below management objectives. In many of those systems, such as in the South Fork Clearwater River (SFCR) system, environmental conditions (e.g., summer temperatures) are hypothesized to limit populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout. Radiotelemetry and snorkeling methods were used to describe seasonal movement patterns, distribution, and habitat use of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the SFCR during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Sixty-six radio transmitters were surgically implanted into Westslope Cutthroat Trout (170–405 mm TL) from May 30–June 25, 2013, and June 20–July 6, 2014. Sedentary and mobile summer movement patterns by Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in the SFCR. Westslope Cutthroat Trout were generally absent from the lower SFCR. In the upper region of the SFCR, fish generally moved from the main-stem SFCR into tributaries as water temperatures increased during the summer. Fish remained in the middle region of the SFCR where water temperatures were cooler than in the upper or lower regions of the SFCR. A spatially explicit water temperature model indicated that the upper and lower regions of the SFCR exceeded thermal tolerance levels of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the summer. During snorkeling, 23 Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in 13 sites along the SFCR and at low density (mean ± SD, 0.0003 ± 0.0001 fish/m2). The distribution of fish observed during snorkeling was consistent with the distribution of radio-tagged fish in the SFCR during the summer. Anthropogenic activities (i.e., grazing, mining, road construction, and timber harvest) in the SFCR basin likely altered the natural flow dynamics and temperature regime and thereby limited stream habitat in the SFCR system for Westslope Cutthroat Trout.

  8. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2008-03-08

    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  9. Two-phase flow modelling for oxygen renewal estimation in vertical flow filter: luxury or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A-G

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and practitioners exhibit an increasing interest on effluent transfer and degradation modelling in Vertical Flow Sand Filters (VFSF) and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW). Modelling software used to this purpose is mainly monophasic: in the unsaturated zone, only water flow is taken into account and air phase influence is assumed to be negligible. In hydrology, many studies have point out the limitations of this assumption in order to quantify air phase movement but little has been done in the modelling of vertical flow filter. Despite its complexity, two-phase flow modelling allows to overcome these difficulties. In this work, we describe the complex air and water flows in the particular case of vertical flow filter fed intermittently using both numerical and experimental results. Complete different behaviour is observed depending on ponding occurs or not. If it does, flow is clearly influenced by air entrapment which is responsible of a reduction of the infiltration speed and of the drainage of a part of the water kept at the interface between the sand and the drainage layer. Finally, we study the dependency of oxygen income by convection on hydraulic load and compare numerical results with experimental results obtained on oxygen consumption.

  10. Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Harvey, Guy; Nemeth, Richard S; Aming, Choy; Burnie, Neil; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2014-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico–Virgin Islands platform and off Bermuda between 2008 and 2009. Useable data were received from nine of 14 sharks tagged, tracked over a total of 529 days. Sharks spent the majority of their time making yo-yo dives within the upper 50 m of the water column and considerable time within the upper 5 m of the water column. As a result, sharks typically occupied a narrow daily temperature range (∼2°C). Dives to greater than 200 m were common, and all sharks made dives to at least 250 m, with one shark reaching a depth of 828 m. Despite some similarities among individuals, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habit use was observed. Four distinct depth distributions that were not related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size were detected. In addition, similar depth distributions did not necessitate similar dive patterns among sharks. Recognition of intraspecific variability in habitat use of top predators can be crucial for effective management of these species and for understanding their influence on ecosystem dynamics. PMID:24963376

  11. 129I and its species in the East China Sea: level, distribution, sources and tracing water masses exchange and movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dan; Hou, Xiaolin; Du, Jinzhou

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 129I as a long-lived radioisotope of iodine has been considered as an ideal oceanographic tracer due to its high residence time and conservative property in the ocean. Surface water samples collected from the East China Sea (ECS) in August 2013 were analyzed for 129I, 127I...... and their inorganic chemical species in the first time. The measured 129I/127I ratio is 1–3 orders of magnitude higher than the pre-nuclear level, indicating its dominantly anthropogenic sources. Relatively high 129I levels were observed in the Yangtze River and its estuary, as well as in the southern Yellow Sea......, and 129I level in seawater declines towards the ECS shelf. In the open sea, 129I and 127I in surface water exists mainly as iodate, while in Yangtze River estuary and some locations, iodide is dominated. The results indicate that the Fukushima nuclear accident has no detectable effects in the ECS until...

  12. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  13. El Niño Southern Oscillation influences the abundance and movements of a marine top predator in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprogis, Kate R; Christiansen, Fredrik; Wandres, Moritz; Bejder, Lars

    2017-10-08

    Large-scale climate modes such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence population dynamics in many species, including marine top predators. However, few quantitative studies have investigated the influence of large-scale variability on resident marine top predator populations. We examined the effect of climate variability on the abundance and temporary emigration of a resident bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population off Bunbury, Western Australia (WA). This population has been studied intensively over six consecutive years (2007-2013), yielding a robust dataset that captures seasonal variations in both abundance and movement patterns. In WA, ENSO affects the strength of the Leeuwin Current (LC), the dominant oceanographic feature in the region. The strength and variability of the LC affects marine ecosystems and distribution of top predator prey. We investigated the relationship between dolphin abundance and ENSO, Southern Annular Mode, austral season, rainfall, sea surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Linear models indicated that dolphin abundance was significantly affected by ENSO, and that the magnitude of the effect was dependent upon season. Dolphin abundance was lowest during winter 2009, when dolphins had high temporary emigration rates out of the study area. This coincided with the single El Niño event that occurred throughout the study period. Coupled with this event, there was a negative anomaly in SST and an above average rainfall. These conditions may have affected the distribution of dolphin prey, resulting in the temporary emigration of dolphins out of the study area in search of adequate prey. This study demonstrated the local effects of large-scale climatic variations on the short-term response of a resident, coastal delphinid species. With a projected global increase in frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, resident marine top predators may not only have to contend with increasing coastal

  14. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Fowler, Neil E; Bennett, Simon J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the segmental coordination of vertical jumps under fatigue of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. Eleven healthy and active subjects performed maximal vertical jumps with and without fatigue, which was imposed by requesting the subjects to extend/flex their knees continuously in a weight machine, until they could not lift a load corresponding to approximately 50% of their body weight. Knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques were also measured before and after fatigue. Video, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously and used to provide several variables of the jumps. Fatiguing the knee flexor muscles did not reduce the height of the jumps or induce changes in the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic profiles. Knee extensor fatigue caused the subjects to adjust several variables of the movement, in which the peak joint angular velocity, peak joint net moment, and power around the knee were reduced and occurred earlier in comparison with the nonfatigued jumps. The electromyographic data analyses indicated that the countermovement jumps were performed similarly, i.e., a single strategy was used, irrespective of which muscle group (extensor or flexors) or the changes imposed on the muscle force-generating characteristics (fatigue or nonfatigue). The subjects executed the movements as if they scaled a robust template motor program, which guided the movement execution in all jump conditions. It was speculated that training programs designed to improve jump height performance should avoid severe fatigue levels, which may cause the subjects to learn and adopt a nonoptimal and nonspecific coordination solution. It was suggested that the neural input used in the fatigued condition did not constitute an optimal solution and may have played a role in decreasing maximal jump height achievement.

  17. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    . Nuclear methodology in hydrologic applications is generally more complex than the conventional and hence requires a high level of technical expertise for effective use. Application of nuclear techniques to hydrologic problems in the developing countries is likely to be marginal for some years to come, owing to the higher costs involved and expertise required. Nuclear techniques, however, would seem to have particular promise in studies of water movement in unsaturated soils and of erosion and sedimentation where conventional techniques are inadequate, inefficient and in some cases costly. Remote sensing offers great promise for synoptic evaluations of water resources and hydrologic processes, including the transient phenomena of the hydrologic cycle. Remote sensing is not, however, a panacea for deficiencies in hydrologic data programs in the developing countries. Rather it is a means for extending and augmenting on-the-ground observations ans surveys (ground truth) to evaluated water resources and hydrologic processes on a regionall or even continental scale. With respect to economic growth goals in developing countries, there are few identifiable gaps in existing hydrologic instrumentation and methodology insofar as appraisal, development and management of available water resources are concerned. What is needed is acceleration of institutional development and professional motivation toward more effective use of existing and proven methodology. Moreover, much sophisticated methodology can be applied effectively in the developing countries only when adequate levels of indigenous scientific skills have been reached and supportive institutional frameworks are evolved to viability.

  18. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget. The study area covers about 1,220 square miles in northern Pierce and southern King Counties, Washington; extends north to the Green River and Auburn Valley and southwest to the Puyallup River and adjacent uplands; and is bounded on the south and east by foothills of the Cascade Range and on the west by Puget Sound. The area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits, which overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the foothills along the southern and eastern margin of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 13 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 1,012 drillers’ logs to construct 8 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps.

  19. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants, termites and earthworms) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable and, in terms of habitat restoration and function, typically of great value. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration, seepage, runoff generation and soil erosion. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, the soil macrofauna is typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions and field trials on post-mining lands are required to quantify (i) macrofauna-soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  20. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mine land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-08-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants and termites) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration and seepage. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end-goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, soil macrofauna are typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions are required to quantify (i) macrofauna - soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  1. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  2. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  3. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  4. Vertical saccades in children: a developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Seassau, Magali

    2014-03-01

    There are no studies exploring the development of vertical saccades in large populations of children. In this study, we examined the development of vertical saccades in sixty-nine children. Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video oculography system [Mobile EBT(®), e(ye)BRAIN], and movements from both eyes had been analyzed. The gain and the peak velocity of vertical saccades show an up-down asymmetry. Latency value decreases with the age of children, and it does not depend on the direction of the saccades; in contrast, the gain and the peak velocity values of vertical saccades are stable during childhood. We suggest that the up-down asymmetry is developed early, or is innate, in humans. Latencies of vertical saccades develop with the age of children, in relationship with the development of the cortical network responsible for the saccade preparation. In contrast, the precision and the peak velocity are not age-dependent as they are controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem structures.

  5. Coupling the Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Investigating the Role of Clouds in Controlling the Vertical Distribution of Dust During N. H. Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Wilson, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for the current climate of Mars. The radiative effects of dust impact the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere (Gierasch and Goody, 1968; Haberle et al., 1982; Zurek et al., 1992). Although dust is present in the Martian atmosphere throughout the year, the level of dustiness varies with season. The atmosphere is generally the dustiest during northern fall and winter and the least dusty during northern spring and summer (Smith, 2004). Dust particles are lifted into the atmosphere by dust storms that range in size from meters to thousands of kilometers across (Cantor et al., 2001). During some years, regional storms combine to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by as much as 40 K (Smith et al., 2002). Key recent observations of the vertical distribution of dust indicate that elevated layers of dust exist in the tropics and sub-tropics throughout much of the year (Heavens et al., 2011). These observations have brought particular focus on the processes that control the vertical distribution of dust in the Martian atmosphere. The goal of this work is to further our understanding of how clouds in particular control the vertical distribution of dust, particularly during N. H. spring and summer

  6. Modeling the potential impact of seasonal and inactive multi-aquifer wells on contaminant movement to public water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.L.; Clark, B.R.; Landon, M.K.; Kauffman, L.J.; Eberts, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wells screened across multiple aquifers can provide pathways for the movement of surprisingly large volumes of groundwater to confined aquifers used for public water supply (PWS). Using a simple numerical model, we examine the impact of several pumping scenarios on leakage from an unconfined aquifer to a confined aquifer and conclude that a single inactive multi-aquifer well can contribute nearly 10% of total PWS well flow over a wide range of pumping rates. This leakage can occur even when the multi-aquifer well is more than a kilometer from the PWS well. The contribution from multi-aquifer wells may be greater under conditions where seasonal pumping (e.g., irrigation) creates large, widespread downward hydraulic gradients between aquifers. Under those conditions, water can continue to leak down a multi-aquifer well from an unconfined aquifer to a confined aquifer even when those multi-aquifer wells are actively pumped. An important implication is that, if an unconfined aquifer is contaminated, multi-aquifer wells can increase the vulnerability of a confined-aquifer PWS well.

  7. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste--ground-water contamination program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H. C.; Franks, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology, selected the former American Creosote Works site near Pensacola, Florida as a national research demonstration area. Seventy-nine years (1902-81) of seepage from unlined discharge impoundments had released creosote, diesel fuel, and pentachlorophenol (since 1950) wastes into the ground-water system. A cluster of from 2 to 5 wells constructed at different depths at 9 sites yielded water which revealed contamination 600 feet downgradient and to a depth of 100 feet below land surface near the site. The best cross-sectional representation of the contaminant plume was obtained from samples collected and analyzed for oxidation-reduction sensitive inorganic chemical constituents. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence detected recently formed iron carbonate in soil samples from highly reducing ground-water zones. Approximately eighty specific organic contaminants were isolated from ground-water samples by gas-chromotography/mass spectrometry. Column studies indicate the dimethyl phenols are not sorbed or degraded by the sand-and-gravel aquifer materials. Five of nineteen individual phenolic and related compounds are biodegradable based on anaerobic digestor experiments with ACW site bacterial populations. The potential impacts in the nearby Pensacola Bay biotic community are being evaluated. (USGS)

  8. Water movement through plant roots – exact solutions of the water flow equation in roots with linear or exponential piecewise hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meunier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1978, Landsberg and Fowkes presented a solution of the water flow equation inside a root with uniform hydraulic properties. These properties are root radial conductivity and axial conductance, which control, respectively, the radial water flow between the root surface and xylem and the axial flow within the xylem. From the solution for the xylem water potential, functions that describe the radial and axial flow along the root axis were derived. These solutions can also be used to derive root macroscopic parameters that are potential input parameters of hydrological and crop models. In this paper, novel analytical solutions of the water flow equation are developed for roots whose hydraulic properties vary along their axis, which is the case for most plants. We derived solutions for single roots with linear or exponential variations of hydraulic properties with distance to root tip. These solutions were subsequently combined to construct single roots with complex hydraulic property profiles. The analytical solutions allow one to verify numerical solutions and to get a generalization of the hydric behaviour with the main influencing parameters of the solutions. The resulting flow distributions in heterogeneous roots differed from those in uniform roots and simulations led to more regular, less abrupt variations of xylem suction or radial flux along root axes. The model could successfully be applied to maize effective root conductance measurements to derive radial and axial hydraulic properties. We also show that very contrasted root water uptake patterns arise when using either uniform or heterogeneous root hydraulic properties in a soil–root model. The optimal root radius that maximizes water uptake under a carbon cost constraint was also studied. The optimal radius was shown to be highly dependent on the root hydraulic properties and close to observed properties in maize roots. We finally used the obtained functions for evaluating the impact

  9. Water movement through plant roots - exact solutions of the water flow equation in roots with linear or exponential piecewise hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Félicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Draye, Xavier; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    In 1978, Landsberg and Fowkes presented a solution of the water flow equation inside a root with uniform hydraulic properties. These properties are root radial conductivity and axial conductance, which control, respectively, the radial water flow between the root surface and xylem and the axial flow within the xylem. From the solution for the xylem water potential, functions that describe the radial and axial flow along the root axis were derived. These solutions can also be used to derive root macroscopic parameters that are potential input parameters of hydrological and crop models. In this paper, novel analytical solutions of the water flow equation are developed for roots whose hydraulic properties vary along their axis, which is the case for most plants. We derived solutions for single roots with linear or exponential variations of hydraulic properties with distance to root tip. These solutions were subsequently combined to construct single roots with complex hydraulic property profiles. The analytical solutions allow one to verify numerical solutions and to get a generalization of the hydric behaviour with the main influencing parameters of the solutions. The resulting flow distributions in heterogeneous roots differed from those in uniform roots and simulations led to more regular, less abrupt variations of xylem suction or radial flux along root axes. The model could successfully be applied to maize effective root conductance measurements to derive radial and axial hydraulic properties. We also show that very contrasted root water uptake patterns arise when using either uniform or heterogeneous root hydraulic properties in a soil-root model. The optimal root radius that maximizes water uptake under a carbon cost constraint was also studied. The optimal radius was shown to be highly dependent on the root hydraulic properties and close to observed properties in maize roots. We finally used the obtained functions for evaluating the impact of root maturation

  10. Distribution and arrest of vertical through-going joints in shallow-water carbonates: Insights from an integrated virtual outcrop - field structural analysis of a reservoir-scale exposure (Sorrento Peninsula, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, Amerigo; Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Iannace, Alessandro; Vinci, Francesco; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio; Pignalosa, Antonio; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Through-going joints cutting across several beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. However, despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow, only few field studies focused on the understanding and estimation of through-going joint dimensional parameters, including spacing and vertical extent in relation to stratigraphy. Recent improvements in the construction of virtual models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues, favoring the evaluation of relationships between jointing and stratigraphy at the reservoir scale. In this study, we present the results obtained from integrating field measurements and stratigraphic logs with a virtual outcrop model of a carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing a monocline of alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolostones, crossed by several vertical joints of different size. This study allowed us to define how major through-going joints pass across thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers. In essence, through-going joints arrest on "weak" levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages made of thick beds, in the same manner as bed-confined joints arrest on less competent interlayers.

  11. Organic carbon movement through two SWRO facilities from source water to pretreatment to product with relevance to membrane biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahri, Abdullah Hassan Mohammed

    2016-12-29

    The presence of algae, bacteria, various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the raw water, after each pretreatment process and in the permeate and concentrate streams, were measured at two SWRO plants to assess biofouling potential. It was found that the most significant process controlling the concentration of algae, bacteria, and the biopolymer and humic substances was the intake type with the subsurface intake discharge showing significant reductions. The mixed media filtration process was marginally useful in removing some TOC and NOM, but had little effect on TEP removal. Some bacterial regrowth may be occurring in the cartridge filters, but the evidence is inconsistent. Significant quantities of the biopolymer and humic substance concentrations were found to be retained in the membranes, but the concentrations were significantly greater in the facility using an open-ocean intake. Bacteria and TEP were found in the permeate stream, which may document bacterial regrowth and TEP production downstream of the membrane process. Measurements of the organic carbon passage through SWRO facilities can be successfully used to evaluate pretreatment process effectiveness and to make SWRO plant operational improvements.

  12. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway, 1987-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Miller, Craig W.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2000-01-01

    The Southern Pacific Transportation Company completed a rock-fill causeway across Great Salt Lake in 1959. The effect of the causeway was to change the water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake by creating two separate but interconnected parts of the lake, with more than 95 percent of freshwater surface inflow entering the lake south of the causeway.The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of the causeway that divides the lake into south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway consist of two 15-foot-wide culverts, a 290-foot-wide breach, and permeable rock-fill material.

  13. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  14. Waves, circulation and vertical dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, George

    2013-04-01

    Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper

  15. Estimation of Free-Living Energy Expenditure by Heart Rate and Movement Sensing: A Doubly-Labelled Water Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, Søren; Westgate, Kate; Franks, Paul W; Stegle, Oliver; Wright, Antony; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR) and acceleration (ACC) sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE) which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE). To evaluate estimates of EE using ACC and HR data with or without individual calibration against doubly-labelled water (DLW) estimates of EE. 23 women and 23 men (22-55 yrs, 48-104 kg, 8-46%body fat) underwent 45-min resting EE (REE) measurement and completed a 20-min treadmill test, an 8-min step test, and a 3-min walk test for individual calibration. ACC and HR were monitored and TEE measured over 14 days using DLW. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaire. PAEE (TEE ÷ REE ÷ DIT) and TEE were compared to estimates from ACC and HR using bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation statistics. Mean(SD) measured PAEE and TEE were 66(25) kJ·day(-1)·kg(-1), and 12(2.6) MJ·day(-1), respectively. Estimated PAEE from ACC was 54(15) kJ·day(-1)·kg(-1) (p<0.001), with RMSE 24 kJ·day(-1)·kg(-1) and correlation r = 0.52. PAEE estimated from HR and ACC+HR with treadmill calibration were 67(42) and 69(25) kJ·day(-1)·kg(-1) (bias non-significant), with RMSE 34 and 20 kJ·day(-1)·kg(-1) and correlations r = 0.58 and r = 0.67, respectively. Similar results were obtained with step-calibrated and walk-calibrated models, whereas non-calibrated models were less precise (RMSE: 37 and 24 kJ·day(-1)·kg(-1), r = 0.40 and r = 0.55). TEE models also had high validity, with biases <5%, and correlations r = 0.71 (ACC), r = 0.66-0.76 (HR), and r = 0.76-0.83 (ACC+HR). Both accelerometry and heart rate may be used to estimate EE in adult European men and women, with improved precision if combined and if heart rate is individually calibrated.

  16. Estimation of Free-Living Energy Expenditure by Heart Rate and Movement Sensing: A Doubly-Labelled Water Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Brage

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR and acceleration (ACC sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE.To evaluate estimates of EE using ACC and HR data with or without individual calibration against doubly-labelled water (DLW estimates of EE.23 women and 23 men (22-55 yrs, 48-104 kg, 8-46%body fat underwent 45-min resting EE (REE measurement and completed a 20-min treadmill test, an 8-min step test, and a 3-min walk test for individual calibration. ACC and HR were monitored and TEE measured over 14 days using DLW. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT was calculated from food-frequency questionnaire. PAEE (TEE ÷ REE ÷ DIT and TEE were compared to estimates from ACC and HR using bias, root mean square error (RMSE, and correlation statistics.Mean(SD measured PAEE and TEE were 66(25 kJ·day(-1·kg(-1, and 12(2.6 MJ·day(-1, respectively. Estimated PAEE from ACC was 54(15 kJ·day(-1·kg(-1 (p<0.001, with RMSE 24 kJ·day(-1·kg(-1 and correlation r = 0.52. PAEE estimated from HR and ACC+HR with treadmill calibration were 67(42 and 69(25 kJ·day(-1·kg(-1 (bias non-significant, with RMSE 34 and 20 kJ·day(-1·kg(-1 and correlations r = 0.58 and r = 0.67, respectively. Similar results were obtained with step-calibrated and walk-calibrated models, whereas non-calibrated models were less precise (RMSE: 37 and 24 kJ·day(-1·kg(-1, r = 0.40 and r = 0.55. TEE models also had high validity, with biases <5%, and correlations r = 0.71 (ACC, r = 0.66-0.76 (HR, and r = 0.76-0.83 (ACC+HR.Both accelerometry and heart rate may be used to estimate EE in adult European men and women, with improved precision if combined and if heart rate is individually calibrated.

  17. Calibrating the X-ray attenuation of liquid water and correcting sample movement artefacts during in operando synchrotron X-ray radiographic imaging of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Nan; Chevalier, Stéphane; Hinebaugh, James; Yip, Ronnie; Lee, Jongmin; Antonacci, Patrick; Kotaka, Toshikazu; Tabuchi, Yuichiro; Bazylak, Aimy

    2016-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray radiography, due to its high temporal and spatial resolutions, provides a valuable means for understanding the in operando water transport behaviour in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The purpose of this study is to address the specific artefact of imaging sample movement, which poses a significant challenge to synchrotron-based imaging for fuel cell diagnostics. Specifically, the impact of the micrometer-scale movement of the sample was determined, and a correction methodology was developed. At a photon energy level of 20 keV, a maximum movement of 7.5 µm resulted in a false water thickness of 0.93 cm (9% higher than the maximum amount of water that the experimental apparatus could physically contain). This artefact was corrected by image translations based on the relationship between the false water thickness value and the distance moved by the sample. The implementation of this correction method led to a significant reduction in false water thickness (to ∼0.04 cm). Furthermore, to account for inaccuracies in pixel intensities due to the scattering effect and higher harmonics, a calibration technique was introduced for the liquid water X-ray attenuation coefficient, which was found to be 0.657 ± 0.023 cm(-1) at 20 keV. The work presented in this paper provides valuable tools for artefact compensation and accuracy improvements for dynamic synchrotron X-ray imaging of fuel cells.

  18. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  19. Evidence of Diel Vertical Migration of Mesopelagic Sound-Scattering Organisms in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Gjøsæter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While sound scattering layers (SSLs have been described previously from ice-covered waters in the Arctic, the existence of a viable mesopelagic community that also includes mesopelagic fishes in the Arctic has been questioned. In addition, it has been hypothesized that vertical migration would hardly exist in these areas. We wanted to check if deep scattering layers (DSLs was found to the west and north of Svalbard (79°30′N−82°10′N during autumn 2015, and if present; whether organisms in such DSLs undertook vertical migrations. Our null hypothesis was that there would be no evidence of diel vertical migration. Multi-frequency acoustic observations by hull mounted echo sounder (18, 38, and 120 kHz revealed a DSL at depths ~210–510 m in areas with bottom depths exceeding ~600 m. Investigating eight geographical locations that differed with respect to time periods, light cycle and sea ice conditions, we show that the deeper layer of DSL displayed a clear ascending movement during night time and a descending movement during daytime. The high-light weighted mean depth (WMD (343–514 m with respect to backscattered energy was statistically deeper than the low-light WMD (179–437 m for the locations studied. This behavior of the DSL was found to be consistent both when the sun was continuously above the horizon and after it started to set on 1 September, and both in open water and sea ice covered waters. The WMD showed an increasing trend, while the nautical area backscattering strength from the DSL showed a decreasing trend from south to north among the studied locations. Hydrographic observations revealed that the diel migration was found in the lower part of the north-flowing Atlantic Water, and was disconnected from the surface water masses above the Atlantic Water during day and night. The organisms conducting vertical migrations were studied by vertical and oblique hauls with zooplankton nets and pelagic trawls. These data suggest

  20. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  1. Numerical-experimental contrast of a mathematical model that simulates the movement of a fluid under shallow water conditions including energy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balaguer-Beser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In  this  paper,  a  comparison  between  the  results  obtained  in  laboratory  experiments  and  those  calculated  by  a numerical  simulation  of  shallow  water  equations  in  an  open  channel  is  performed,  considering  the  energy  losses that  occur  as  it  passes  through  a  local  narrowing  of  the  cross  section.  The mathematical model that simulates this physical phenomenon is governed by a partial differential equations system whose solution provides the water depth and the flow rate per unit of width, which is related to the velocity of the water. Such movement is controlled primarily  by  the  force  of  gravity,  being  fundamental  the  relationship  between  it  and  the  inertial  forces.  In the present study we have also taken into account energy losses caused by friction of the water with the contours and local losses caused by obstacles or changes in the width of the channel. A numerical scheme based on a high-order finite  volume  method  has  been  used  for  obtaining  the  solutions  of  such  model.  Two type of laboratory tests have been simulated.  The   first  type  represents  a  slow  transition  regime,  upstream  and  downstream  of  a  narrowing  in the channel. The second type represents a subcritical flow upstream, a narrowing that works as a control (regime change and a downstream supercritical flow. Numerical-experimental comparison demonstrates the importance of adequately modeling of the different physical phenomena involved in the process, and the proper imposition of the boundary conditions of the problem.

  2. Bond-Energy-Driven, Low- or High-Angle-Grain-Boundary-Movement-Mediated Synthesis of Porous Se-Te for Use in Water-Splitting Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Nayak, Arpan Kumar; Kartikeya, Prashant; Pradhan, Debabrata; Pal, Tarasankar

    2017-12-06

    Herein, for the first time, we applied the metal-metal-bond-energy factor to the evolution of a porous Se-Te alloy. The porous Se-Te material has been prepared from the constituents' elemental states, through only a heating-cooling process in silicone oil without the use of any reagent, surfactant, or capping agent. Surprisingly, the reaction occurred at a much lower temperature (240 °C) than the mp (450 °C) of Te0. The reaction's nucleation and growth by means of varied bond energy have been clarified for the first time. A difference in the bond energies of a hetero metal-metal bond (Se-Te) and a homo metal-metal bond (Se-Se) directs nucleation and growth toward the fabrication of a porous structure, even from the constituents' elemental states, in which low-angle-grain-boundary (LAGB) and high-angle-grain-boundary (HAGB) movements play governing roles. Proper band-gap alignment of Se and Te makes the alloy composite applicable to water-splitting reactions under Xe-arc-lamp illumination. PEC efficiency of Se-Te was found to be higher than those reported for Se and other composite materials.

  3. The effect of a natural water-movement related disturbance on the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities in the intertidal sand flat of Rocas Atoll (NE, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Attrill, M. J.; Warwick, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    Rocas, the only atoll in the South Atlantic, is located 266 km off the northeast Brazilian coast. Spatial patterns in community structure of meiofauna, particularly nematodes, and macrofauna were examined along a transect through the sediment path from windward to leeward of the Rocas Atoll sand flat. Differences in benthic community structure between four zones of the sand flat were found to be significant and related to the major local processes of carbonate-grain transport and sedimentation. Both meiobenthic and macrobenthic assemblages were significantly more diverse and abundant within the sediment inflow zone (the initial part of the detrital path of Rocas sand flat) than in the other zones, where a clear impoverishment of benthic invertebrates occurred. This first study of the benthos of an intertidal sand flat over a reef island in the Atlantic showed that the meiofauna is numerically dominated by the nematodes Metoncholainus sp. 1 (Oncholaimidae) and Epsilonema sp. 1 (Epsilonematidade), whilst the macrofauna is largely dominated by oligochaetes and large Oncholaimidae nematodes. Analysis of the species composition, trophic structure and abundance of both the meiobenthos and the macrobenthos revealed an impoverished community subjected to an intense water-movement disturbance.

  4. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical ...

  5. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  6. Landslide movement in southwest Colorado triggered by atmospheric tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.H.; Kean, J.W.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    Landslides are among the most hazardous of geological processes, causing thousands of casualties and damage on the order of billions of dollars annually. The movement of most landslides occurs along a discrete shear surface, and is triggered by a reduction in the frictional strength of the surface. Infiltration of water into the landslide from rainfall and snowmelt and ground motion from earthquakes are generally implicated in lowering the frictional strength of this surface. However, solid-Earth and ocean tides have recently been shown to trigger shear sliding in other processes, such as earthquakes and glacial motion. Here we use observations and numerical modelling to show that a similar processatmospheric tidescan trigger movement in an ongoing landslide. The Slumgullion landslide, located in the SanJuan Mountains of Colorado, shows daily movement, primarily during diurnal low tides of the atmosphere. According to our model, the tidal changes in air pressure cause air and water in the sediment pores to flow vertically, altering the frictional stress of the shear surface; upward fluid flow during periods of atmospheric low pressure is most conducive to sliding. We suggest that tidally modulated changes in shear strength may also affect the stability of other landslides, and that the rapid pressure variations associated with some fast-moving storm systems could trigger a similar response. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical modeling and experimental analysis of volatile contaminant removal from vertical flow filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical flow filters (unplanted) and vertical flow constructed wetlands (planted), simple and inexpensive technologies to treat effectively volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contaminated water, consist of containers filled with granular material which is intermittently fed with contaminated water.

  8. Vertical distribution and temporal dynamics of dissolved137Cs concentrations in soil water after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar

    2017-11-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs) migration from headwater forested areas to downstream rivers has been investigated in many studies since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which was triggered by a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The accident resulted in the release of a huge amount of radioactivity and its subsequent deposition in the environment. A large part of the radiocesium released has been shown to remain in the forest. The dissolved 137 Cs concentration and its temporal dynamics in river water, stream water, and groundwater have been reported, but reports of dissolved 137 Cs concentration in soil water remain sparse. In this study, soil water was sampled, and the dissolved 137 Cs concentrations were measured at five locations with different land-use types (mature/young cedar forest, broadleaf forest, meadow land, and pasture land) in Yamakiya District, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from July 2011 to October 2012. Soil water samples were collected by suction lysimeters installed at three different depths at each site. Dissolved 137 Cs concentrations were analyzed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in soil water were high, with a maximum value of 2.5 Bq/L in July 2011, and declined to less than 0.32 Bq/L by 2012. The declining trend of dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in soil water was fitted to a two-component exponential model. The rate of decline in dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in soil water (k 1 ) showed a good correlation with the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) of topsoil (0-5 cm) at the same site. Accounting for the difference of 137 Cs deposition density, we found that normalized dissolved 137 Cs concentrations of soil water in forest (mature/young cedar forest and broadleaf forest) were higher than those in grassland (meadow land and pasture land). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosing disconjugate eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Alessandro; Liao, Ke; Matta, Manuela; Leigh, R John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Saccades are fast eye movements that conjugately shift the point of fixation between distant features of interest in the visual environment. Several disorders, affecting sites from brainstem to extraocular muscle, may cause horizontal saccades to become disconjugate. Prior techniques for detection of saccadic disconjugacy, especially in internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), have compared only one point in abducting vs adducting saccades, such as peak velocity. Methods: We applied a phase-plane technique that compared each eye’s velocity as a function of change in position (normalized displacement) in 22 patients with disease variously affecting the brainstem reticular formation, the abducens nucleus, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the oculomotor nerve, the abducens nerve, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles; 10 age-matched subjects served as controls. Results: We found three different patterns of disconjugacy throughout the course of horizontal saccades: early abnormal velocity disconjugacy during the first 10% of the displacement in patients with INO, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, and advanced extraocular muscle disease; late disconjugacy in patients with disease affecting the neuromuscular junction; and variable middle-course disconjugacy in patients with pontine lesions. When normal subjects made disconjugate saccades between two targets aligned on one eye, the initial part of the movement remained conjugate. Conclusions: Along with conventional measures of saccades, such as peak velocity, phase planes provide a useful tool to determine the site, extent, and pathogenesis of disconjugacy. We hypothesize that the pale global extraocular muscle fibers, which drive the high-acceleration component of saccades, receive a neural command that ensures initial ocular conjugacy. GLOSSARY Abd. = abducens; CN = cranial nerve; CPEO = chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia; EM = eye movement; H = horizontal; INO = internuclear

  10. Rapid Nonconjugate Adaptation of Vertical Voluntary Pursuit Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    applied to the post-adaptation data from the left eye magnification condition: YRpost(Transformed) = (2 * YRpre) - YRPost (6) For example, if the pie ...nonconjugate adaptation with spectacle- mounted plano -cylindrical lenses, Lemij (1990) demonstrated that nonconjugate pursuit adaptation was

  11. Amnesty in the Niger Delta: vertical movement towards self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawn disputes over the ownership and control of oil resources and revenues. While the country's Constitution vests the absolute ownership and control of oil resources as well as the distribution of oil revenues in the federal government, the ...

  12. Cambios en la viabilidad de dos bacterias marinas antárticas expuestas a la radiación solar en la columna de agua: influencia de la mezcla vertical Changes in viability of two Antarctic marine bacteria exposed to solar radiation in the water column: influence of vertical mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Hernández

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la radiación ultravioleta (RUV sobre dos cepas bacterianas marinas antárticas (UVps y UVvi en la columna de agua de la caleta Potter (Shetland del Sur, Antártida. Frascos de cuarzo con las cepas en estudio fueron expuestos a la radiación solar en superficie, a 1 m y a 3 m de profundidad. Se realizaron ensayos con exposición directa y con filtros interferenciales que discriminaron la radiación UVA y la UVB. En otros ensayos se simuló una mezcla vertical de 4 m/h. Ambas cepas mostraron una disminución significativa del número de unidades formadoras de colonias, tanto en superficie como a 1 m de profundidad, luego de exponerlas a dosis superficiales de UVB de 8,4 kJ m-2. El estudio con filtros interferenciales mostró una disminución significativa de la viabilidad en ambos tratamientos UV en superficie y a 1 m. La cepa UVps mostró mayor sensibilidad a la UVB que a la UVA. La mezcla vertical amortiguó el daño causado por la UVB cuando la dosis en superficie fue de 4,8 kJ m-2. Este efecto amortiguador no se observó cuando la dosis en superficie fue de 7,7 kJ m-2. Estos resultados muestran que el efecto negativo de la RUV sobre el bacterioplancton sería particularmente importante en el primer metro de profundidad de las aguas costeras antárticas con abundante material particulado en suspensión.The effect of UV radiation on two Antarctic marine bacterial strains (UVps and UVvi was studied in the water column of Potter Cove (South Shetland, Antarctica. Quartz flasks were filled with the bacterial suspensions and exposed to solar radiation at 0 m, 1 m and 3 m depth. Assays using flasks exposed to direct solar radiation and others using flasks covered with/by interferential filters which discriminate between UVA and UVB, were performed. In other assays, a vertical mixing of 4 m/h was simulated. Both strains showed a significant decrease in viability (expressed as colony - forming units when exposed to a surface

  13. Eye movements may cause motor contagion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; de Grosbois, John; Lung, Tiffany; Tremblay, Luc; Pratt, Jay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2017-06-01

    When a person executes a movement, the movement is more errorful while observing another person's actions that are incongruent rather than congruent with the executed action. This effect is known as "motor contagion". Accounts of this effect are often grounded in simulation mechanisms: increased movement error emerges because the motor codes associated with observed actions compete with motor codes of the goal action. It is also possible, however, that the increased movement error is linked to eye movements that are executed simultaneously with the hand movement because oculomotor and manual-motor systems are highly interconnected. In the present study, participants performed a motor contagion task in which they executed horizontal arm movements while observing a model making either vertical (incongruent) or horizontal (congruent) movements under three conditions: no instruction, maintain central fixation, or track the model's hand with the eyes. A significant motor contagion-like effect was only found in the 'track' condition. Thus, 'motor contagion' in the present task may be an artifact of simultaneously executed incongruent eye movements. These data are discussed in the context of stimulation and associative learning theories, and raise eye movements as a critical methodological consideration for future work on motor contagion.

  14. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  15. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaré, S.; Lazennec, J. Y.; Camelot, C.; Saillant, G.; Hansen, S.; Trabelsi, R.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.

  16. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Estimation of the Effect of Green Water and Bow Flare Slamming on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending Moment Using Closed-Form Ex-pressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The effect of impulsive loads like slamming and green water on deck on the wave-induced bending mo-ment is estimated by a semi-analytical approach. The impulse loads leading to transient vibrations are described in terms of magnitude, phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and decay...... rate. These loads can be due to bow flare slamming, bottom slamming or green water loads as they all can be characterised by a short duration relative to the wave cycle. The magnitude of the bow flare slamming loads is estimated using accurate results from wedge-shaped sections, Zhao and Faltinsen...... (1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...

  18. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  19. Composition of vertical gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Vertical gardens are fully functional gardens in areas where there is less oxygen and space, ideal for residential and urban cities where there is no vegetation; occupy a special place in interiors furniture. The gardens occupy an important aesthetic problem. Aesthetic task in vertical gardens can be achieved by forming sectors of identification in the urban landscape through the choice of a particular plant spatial composition and composition, to create comfort and representation in commu...

  20. The analysis of the differences between the results of the thermal response test and the data from the operation of the brine-to-water heat pump's vertical exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawy, Natalia; Stefanowicz, Ewelina; Mazurek, Wojciech; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, Małgorzata; Bryszewska-Mazurek, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the principles and the problems of obtaining an accurate data input for the design of brine-to-water heat pump's vertical exchangers. Currently, the most accurate method is the thermal response test (TRT). Unfortunately, the test procedure has its limitations and the quality of the results depends on many factors that cannot be fully controlled during the test. As an illustration of the problems, the results of the TRT were presented. The test was executed on the vertical boreholes (one actively regenerated and one not actively regenerated during the summer) which are parts of the operating heat pump system. The test results were compared to the data from the device's operation, in particular with the measurements of the undisturbed ground temperature profiles and the actual unit energy gains from the boreholes. The level of difference between the results of the test and the data from the operation of the boreholes under the real load and the threats concerning the boreholes overload were shown. Additionally the performance differences between the actively regenerated and not actively regenerated boreholes have been emphasised.

  1. Time-lapse resistivity measurements combined with soil water sampling to characterize solute movement in the unsaturated zone at Oslo airport, Gardermoen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, E.; French, H. K.; Binley, A.; Schotanus, D.; Eggen, G.

    2010-12-01

    Pollution of soils is a widespread problem and is an important part of the still to be implemented Soil Directive (EU). To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies for natural attenuation, we require a better understanding of the effect of soil heterogeneity on contaminant movement and methods for monitoring the effects of this heterogeneity at contaminated sites. Geophysical methods provide indirect measurements of subsurface properties over larger volumes than tradition techniques, and are potentially cost-efficient. However, the usefulness of any individual set of geophysical measurements (akin to a snapshot at one point in time) is severely limited by the problem of non-uniqueness or ambiguity when used to study contaminated sites, where the attendant processes vary in space and time. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate quasi field-scale, extensively instrumented tools, such as the multi-compartment sampler, with non-invasive (geophysical) and invasive (soil sampling, soil water sampling) methods. We illustrate this approach in an application to solute transport at Oslo airport, Norway. The impact of annual infiltration of large quantities of de-icing chemicals at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, represents common challenge for all airports with winter frost. It is also similar to the challenge posed by de-icing salt application along roads. At the research field station at Gardermoen, a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer were added to the snow cover prior to snowmelt and to the surface during an irrigation experiment performed after the snowmelt. In order to link geophysical measurements to solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone, time-lapse cross borehole resistivity as well as surface resistivity measurements were conducted at the same time as soil water samples were extracted. Measurements of soil temperature, and tension were also carried

  2. How does interannual trophic variability caused by vertical water mixing affect reproduction and population density of Daphnia longispina group in Lake Iseo, a deep stratifying lake in Italy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoni, B.; Garibaldi, L.; Gulati, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Iseo is a deep meromictic lake located in Italy. During the past 20 years (1993–2013), the lake has experienced complete mixing of the water column only in spring 2005 and 2006. The full overturn episodes in these 2 years resulted in an increase in nutrients in both years, but an increase in

  3. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle......It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...

  4. Movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-28

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  6. Forest management in Earth system modelling: a vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudts, Kim; Ryder, James; McGrath, Matthew J.; Otto, Juliane; Chen, Yiying; Valade, Aude; Bellasen, Valentin; Ghattas, Josefine; Haverd, Vanessa; MacBean, Natasha; Maignan, Fabienne; Peylin, Philippe; Pinty, Bernard; Solyga, Didier; Vuichard, Nicolas; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchange with the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none of the land surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today's predictions of future climate, account for the interactions between climate and forest management. We addressed this gap in modelling capability by developing and parametrizing a version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE to simulate the biogeochemical and biophysical effects of forest management. The most significant changes between the new model called ORCHIDEE-CAN and the standard version of ORCHIDEE are the allometric-based allocation of carbon to leaf, root, wood, fruit and reserve pools; the transmittance, absorbance and reflectance of radiation within the canopy; and the vertical discretisation of the energy budget calculations. In addition, conceptual changes towards a better process representation occurred for the interaction of radiation with snow, the hydraulic architecture of plants, the representation of forest management and a numerical solution for the photosynthesis formalism of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry. For consistency reasons, these changes were extensively linked throughout the code. Parametrization was revisited after introducing twelve new parameter sets that represent specific tree species or genera rather than a group of unrelated species, as is the case in widely used plant functional types. Performance of the new model was compared against the trunk and validated against independent spatially explicit data for basal area, tree height, canopy structure, GPP, albedo and evapotranspiration over Europe. For all tested variables ORCHIDEE-CAN outperformed the trunk regarding its ability to reproduce large-scale spatial patterns as well as their inter-annual variability over Europe. Depending on the data stream, ORCHIDEE-CAN had a 67 to 92

  7. Experimental Study of Falling Water Limitation under a Counter-Current Flow in a Vertical Rectangular Channel : 1st Report, Effect of Flow Channel Configuration and Introduction of CCFL Correlation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SUDO, Yukio; USUI, Tohru; KAMINAGA, Masanori

    1991-01-01

    Counter-current-flow limitation (CCFL) experiments were carried out for both vertical rectangular channels and vertical circular tubes varying in size and in configuration of their cross sections to clarify CCFL characteristics...

  8. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  9. The stable isotopic composition of water vapour above Corsica during the HyMeX SOP1 campaign: insight into vertical mixing processes from lower-tropospheric survey flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Harald; Aemisegger, Franziska; Pfahl, Stephan; Bitter, Mark; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Feuerle, Thomas; Graf, Pascal; Hankers, Rolf; Hsiao, Gregor; Schulz, Helmut; Wieser, Andreas; Wernli, Heini

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotopes of water vapour are powerful indicators of meteorological processes on a broad range of scales, reflecting evaporation, condensation, and air mass mixing processes. With the recent advent of fast laser-based spectroscopic methods, it has become possible to measure the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour in situ at a high temporal resolution. Here we present results from such comprehensive airborne spectroscopic isotope measurements in water vapour over the western Mediterranean at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements have been acquired by a customized Picarro L2130-i cavity-ring down spectrometer deployed onboard the Dornier 128 D-IBUF aircraft together with a meteorological flux measurement package during the HyMeX SOP1 (Hydrological cycle in Mediterranean Experiment special observation period 1) field campaign in Corsica, France, during September and October 2012. Taking into account memory effects of the air inlet pipe, the typical time resolution of the measurements was about 15-30 s, resulting in an average horizontal resolution of about 1-2 km. Cross-calibration of the water vapour measurements from all humidity sensors showed good agreement under most flight conditions but the most turbulent ones. In total 21 successful stable isotope flights with 59 flight hours have been performed. Our data provide quasi-climatological autumn average conditions and vertical profiles of the stable isotope parameters δD, δ18O, and d-excess during the study period. A d-excess minimum in the overall average profile is reached in the region of the boundary-layer top, possibly caused by precipitation evaporation. This minimum is bracketed by higher d-excess values near the surface caused by non-equilibrium fractionation, and a maximum above the boundary layer related to the increasing d-excess in very depleted and dry high-altitude air masses. Repeated flights along the same pattern reveal pronounced day-to-day variability

  10. The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad is a mountain-slide type of movement. Estimations of the thickness of the layer which is moving range between 10 and 100 m. There is no proof that the movement is water induced, but it could be influenced by the water household. The slope of the slide area is H: D = 1: 2. The height difference in the moving area studied, according to this paper, is 1 km. The actual rate of movement is about 12 cm/yr.

  11. Vertical zonation and functional diversity of fish assemblages revealed by ROV videos at oil platforms in The Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, F; Jensen, H M; Range, P; Bach, S S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Sigsgaard, E E; Thomsen, P F; Møller, P R; Riera, R

    2017-09-01

    An assessment of vertical distribution, diel migration, taxonomic and functional diversity of fishes was carried out at offshore platforms in The (Arabian-Iranian-Persian) Gulf. Video footage was recorded at the Al Shaheen oil field between 2007 and 2014 using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). A total of 12 822 individual fishes, from 83 taxonomic groups were recorded around the platforms. All the species identified are considered native to The Gulf, although Cyclichthys orbicularis and Lutjanus indicus were recorded for the first time in Qatari waters. Several trends were uncovered in the vertical distribution of the fish community; most species were observed between 20 and 50 m depth and fish abundance decreased towards the bottom, with the highest abundances recorded in the upper layers, i.e. down to 40 m depth. Vertical variation in fish diversity, however, was generally not accompanied by differences in vertical movements. Carnivores and invertivores were the dominant trophic groups, being found at each depth range from surface to seabed. The functional indices showed no significant differences between water depths or diel cycles. The study demonstrates that oil platforms represent a hotspot of fish diversity and interesting sites for studying fish communities, abundance and behaviour. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2018-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  13. Monitoring the Response of Roads and Railways to Seasonal Soil Movement with Persistent Scatterers Interferometry over Six UK Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road and rail networks provide critical support for society, yet they can be degraded by seasonal soil movements. Currently, few transport network operators monitor small-scale soil movement, but understanding the conditions contributing to infrastructure failure can improve network resilience. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI is a remote sensing technique offering the potential for near real-time ground movement monitoring over wide areas. This study tests the use of PSI for monitoring the response of major roads, minor roads, and railways to ground movement across six study sites in England, using Sentinel 1 data in VV polarisation in ascending orbit. Some soils are more stable than others—a national soil map was used to quantify the relationships between infrastructure movement and major soil groups. Vertical movement of transport infrastructure is a function of engineering design, soil properties, and traffic loading. Roads and railways built on soil groups prone to seasonal water-logging (Ground-water Gley soils, Surface-water Gley soils, Pelosols, and Brown soils demonstrated seasonal subsidence and heave, associated with an increased risk of infrastructure degradation. Roads and railways over Podzolic soils demonstrated relative stability. Railways on Peat soils exhibited the most extreme continual subsidence of up to 7.5 mm year−1. Limitations of this study include the short observation period (~13 months, due to satellite data availability and the regional scale of the soil map—mapping units contain multiple soil types with different ground movement potentials. Future use of a higher resolution soil map over a longer period will advance this research. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the viability of PSI as a technique for measuring both seasonal soil-related ground movement and the associated impacts on road and rail infrastructure.

  14. Chlorophyll alpha fluorescence analysis along a vertical gradient of the crown in a poplar (Oxford clone) subjected to ozone and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desotgiu, Rosanna; Pollastrini, Martina; Cascio, Chiara; Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Bussotti, Filippo

    2012-08-01

    An experiment in open-top chambers was carried out in summer 2008 at Curno (Northern Italy) in order to study the effects of ozone and mild water stress on poplar cuttings (Oxford clone). In this experiment direct fluorescence parameters (JIP-test) were measured in leaves from different sections of the crown (L: lower; M: medium; U: upper parts of the crown). The parameters considered were calculated at the different steps of the fluorescence transient, and include maximum quantum yield efficiency in the dark-adapted state (F(v)/F(M)); the L-band, at 100 ∝ s, that expresses the stability of the tripartite system reaction centre-harvesting light complex-core antenna; the K-band, at 300 ∝ s, that expresses the efficiency of the oxygen-evolving complex; the J-phase, at 2 ms, that expresses the efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain from Q(A)(-) to the intersystem electron acceptors; the IP-phase, which expresses the efficiency of electron transport around the photosystem 1 (PSI) to reduce the final acceptors of the electron transport chain, i.e., ferredoxin and NADP; and finally the performance index total (PItot) for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction flux of PSI end acceptors. The main results are: (i) different dynamics were observed between leaves in the lower section, whose PItot decreased over time, and those in the upper sections in which it increased, with a dynamic connected to the leaf age; (ii) ozone depressed all the considered fluorescence parameters in basal leaves of well-watered plants, while it had little or no damaging effect on medium-level or upper-section leaves; (iii) PItot and IP-phase increased in upper leaves of plants subjected to ozone stress, as well as the net photosynthesis; (iv) water stress increased PItot of leaves in all levels of the crown. The results suggest that ozone-damaged poplar plants compensate, at least partially, for the

  15. A one-electron model for the aqueous electron that includes many-body electron-water polarization: Bulk equilibrium structure, vertical electron binding energy, and optical absorption spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Leif D; Herbert, John M

    2010-10-21

    Previously, we reported an electron-water pseudopotential designed to be used in conjunction with a polarizable water model, in order to describe the hydrated electron [L. D. Jacobson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124115 (2009)]. Subsequently, we found this model to be inadequate for the aqueous electron in bulk water, and here we report a reparametrization of the model. Unlike the previous model, the current version is not fit directly to any observables; rather, we use an ab initio exchange-correlation potential, along with a repulsive potential that is fit to reproduce the density maximum of the excess electron's wave function within the static-exchange approximation. The new parametrization performs at least as well as the previous model, as compared to ab initio benchmarks for (H(2)O)(n) (-) clusters, and also predicts reasonable values for the diffusion coefficient, radius of gyration, and absorption maximum of the bulk species. The new model predicts a vertical electron binding energy of 3.7 eV in bulk water, which is 1.4 eV smaller than the value obtained using nonpolarizable models; the difference represents the solvent's electronic reorganization energy following electron detachment. We find that the electron's first solvation shell is quite loose, which may be responsible for the electron's large, positive entropy of hydration. Many-body polarization alters the electronic absorption line shape in a qualitative way, giving rise to a high-energy tail that is observed experimentally but is absent in previous simulations. In our model, this feature arises from spatially diffuse excited states that are bound only by electronic reorganization (i.e., solvent polarization) following electronic excitation.

  16. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although past investigations establish the effect of various parameters on scour around vertical submerged structures for live and clear water condition, yet further studies are required to analyze the scour around group of submerged structures for various bed sediments, understand the flow physics around the group and ...

  17. OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIEL VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) of six common species of hydromedusae was investigated during two drogue studies conducted in St Helena Bay on the west coast of South Africa in February 1995. Clytia spp., Obelia spp. and Bougainvillia macloviana, were largely confined to surface waters and did not appear to display any ...

  18. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  19. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-24

    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  20. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...... this strategic behavior, yields better market performance than Cournot beliefs...

  1. Hunting Voronoi vertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrucci, V.; Overmars, Mark; Rao, A.; Vleugels, J.

    1994-01-01

    Given three objects in the plane, a Voronoi vertex is a point that is equidistant simultaneously from each. In this paper, we consider the problem of computing Voronoi vertices for planar objects of xed but possibly unknown shape; we only require the ability to query the closest point on an object

  2. Vertical shaft windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  3. Impact of Cloud Vertical and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on Multi-Spectral Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud Properties: A Study for the GCOM-C/SGLI Cloud Product by Using A-Train and Landsat-8 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, T. M.; Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet effective radius (re) and optical thickness (τc) of liquid water cloud retrieved from multi-spectral measurement of satellite-borne sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are important parameters for understanding of cloud microphysics and droplet growth process. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is scheduling to launch a new earth observation satellite, the Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), in Japan fiscal year 2016. The GCOC-C consists the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) instrument, which is a radiometer providing near-ultraviolet-to-thermal-infrared multi-spectral measurements at 250m-1km resolution with 1150-1400km swath. Motivated by the importance of re and τc retrievals, the GCOM-C/SGLI cloud product also provides them. However, it is pointed out by previous studies that multi-spectral-retrieved re and τc are impacted by cloud vertical and horizontal inhomogeneity. This study investigates the impacts by using A-Train and Landsat-8 data. First, we interpret three re retrievals from 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7µm-band measurements (re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7) in terms of cloud vertical inhomogeneity by using synergistic measurements from the CloudSat/CPR and Aqua/MODIS. For this interpretation, we use an approach called Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagram (CFODD), which is a joint frequency diagram of CloudSat/CPR radar reflectivity profile as a function of in-cloud optical depth profile as classified according to retrieved re (Nakajima et al., 2010; Suzuki et al., 2010). The CFODD approach visualizes the linkage of re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7 to cloud droplet vertical profile. Second, we simulate the biases in re and τc retrievals at 1km resolution from the MODIS and SGLI induced by cloud horizontal inhomogeneity by using high-spatial resolution measurements of Landsat-8. And then we suggest two inversion models which estimate the biases in re and τc retrievals by using co

  4. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO{sub 2}-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Jagadale, Pravin [DISAT — Department of Applied Science and Technology, Carbon group, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Sharon, Maheshwar [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO{sub 2}-ceramic and MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}-ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} and 2.23 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO{sub 2} on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation.

  5. Lexical processes in the recognition of Japanese horizontal and vertical compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    This lexical decision eye-tracking study investigated whether horizontal and vertical readings elicit comparable behavioral patterns and whether reading directions modulate lexical processes. Response times and eye movements were recorded during a lexical decision task with Japanese bimorphemic

  6. Vertical gastroplasty: evolution of vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E E; Doherty, C; Cullen, J J; Scott, D; Rodriguez, E M; Maher, J W

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the goals, technical requirements, advantages, and potential risks of gastroplasty for treatment of severe obesity. Gastroplasty is preferred to more complex operations, as it preserves normal digestion and absorption and avoids complications that are peculiar to exclusion operations. The medical literature and a 30-year experience at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) provides an overview of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) evolution. Preliminary 10-year results with the VBG technique currently used at UIHC are included. At UIHC the VBG is preferred to other gastroplasties because it provides weight control that extends for at least 10 years and the required objective, intraoperative quality control required for a low rate of reoperation. It is recommended that modifications of the operative technique not be attempted until a surgeon has had experience with the standardized operation--and then only under a carefully designed protocol. Realistic goals for surgery and criteria of success influence the choice of operation and the optimum, lifelong risk/benefit ratio. In conclusion, VBG is a safe, long-term effective operation for severe obesity with advantages over complex operations and more restrictive simple operations.

  7. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  9. Ups and Downs in the Ocean: Effects of Biofouling on Vertical Transport of Microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Merel; Nes, Egbert H van; Scheffer, Marten; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-07-18

    Recent studies suggest size-selective removal of small plastic particles from the ocean surface, an observation that remains unexplained. We studied one of the hypotheses regarding this size-selective removal: the formation of a biofilm on the microplastics (biofouling). We developed the first theoretical model that is capable of simulating the effect of biofouling on the fate of microplastic. The model is based on settling, biofilm growth, and ocean depth profiles for light, water density, temperature, salinity, and viscosity. Using realistic parameters, the model simulates the vertical transport of small microplastic particles over time, and predicts that the particles either float, sink to the ocean floor, or oscillate vertically, depending on the size and density of the particle. The predicted size-dependent vertical movement of microplastic particles results in a maximum concentration at intermediate depths. Consequently, relatively low abundances of small particles are predicted at the ocean surface, while at the same time these small particles may never reach the ocean floor. Our results hint at the fate of "lost" plastic in the ocean, and provide a start for predicting risks of exposure to microplastics for potentially vulnerable species living at these depths.

  10. Vertical profiles of Mars 1.27 μm O2 dayglow from MRO CRISM limb spectra: Seasonal/global behaviors, comparisons to LMDGCM simulations, and a global definition for Mars water vapor profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Smith, Michael D.; Lefèvre, Franck; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Sandor, Brad J.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lee, Steven W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Nair, Hari; Navarro, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    ; Montmessin et al., 2004; Steele et al., 2014; Navarro et al., 2014) and depend on uncertain cloud microphysical properties (Navarro et al., 2014). The derived low-to-mid latitude changes in Mars water vapor vertical distributions should reduce current model-data disagreements in column O3 and H2O2 abundances over low-to-mid latitudes (e.g., within the ACB; Lefèvre et al., 2008; Encrenaz et al., 2015; Clancy et al., 2016). Lastly, the global/seasonal average comparison of CRISM and LMDGCM O2(1△g) VER below 20 km altitudes indicates a factor of ∼3 times lower value (0.25 ×10-20 cm3sec-1) for the CO2 collisional de-excitation rate coefficient of O2(1△g) than derived recently by Guslyakova et al. (2016).

  11. Loss of exploratory vertical saccades after unilateral frontal eye field damage

    OpenAIRE

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nyffeler, Thomas; Von Wartburg, Roman; Hess, Christian W; Müri, René M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their relevance for locomotion and social interaction in everyday situations, little is known about the cortical control of vertical saccades in humans. Results from microstimulation studies indicate that both frontal eye fields (FEFs) contribute to these eye movements. Here, we present a patient with a damaged right FEF, who hardly made vertical saccades during visual exploration. This finding suggests that, for the cortical control of exploratory vertical saccades, integrity of both...

  12. The spontaneous eye movements in the awake kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, L; Lucchetti, C

    1985-07-01

    The spontaneous eye movements were analysed comparatively in the kitten and in the cat. The eye movements were recorded in the dark by a magnetic search coil technique. The spatio-temporal organization of eye movements in the kitten has a prevailing vertical orientation and differs completely from that of the cat. In the kitten the amplitude of eye movements is smaller than in the cat and only a few movements are followed by fixation. It results, by correlating amplitude-peak velocity, that rapid eye movements in the awake kitten are saccades. From our results we conclude that the eye movements in the kitten and in the cat differ in many aspects and that the visual system is responsible for the development of the correct oculomotor behaviour.

  13. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  14. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  15. Turgor-mediated Leaf Movements in Analogy With Stomatal Function and Under the General Aspect of Water Flux Through the Plant: II. Rhythmic Transport of (86)Rb and (43)K in Trifolium repens L. and Oxalis acetosella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Maercker, U

    1984-08-01

    Microautoradiographic methods were applied to trace (86)Rb and (43)K during the migration within the transpiration stream of Trifolium repens L. and Oxalis acetosella L. During the dark phase of the diurnal cycle, ions moved through the petiole to the insertion of the leaf blade. There the movement stopped. In Oxalis the ions gathered in three distinct spots at the adaxial side of the insertion, each belonging to one of the downwards bending leaflets. In Trifolium the areas of ion accumulation were two little humps at the abaxial periphery of the nodal junction of the inwardly bending leaflets. During the phases of upward movement of the leaflets, Oxalis did not reveal a specific pattern of ion distribution within the pulvinus. However, when Trifolium was loaded during the phases of leaflet opening, (86)Rb and (43)K were mainly found within the parenchymatous bundle sheath of the three laminar pulvini and their junction towards the petiole. The conclusion was that ions are stored within small cells on the flexor side and are removed from there by regulatory processes controlling water and solute flux from the sites of storage to the evaporating surfaces of the leaf blade. Implications on the interpretation of nyctinastic leaf movements are discussed. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonally dynamic diel vertical migrations of Mysis diluviana, coregonine fishes, and siscowet lake trout in the pelagia of western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Sass, Greg G.

    2011-01-01

    Diel vertical migrations are common among many aquatic species and are often associated with changing light levels. The underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or growth rates and avoiding predation risk (μ). The objectives of this study were to (1) assess seasonal and interannual changes in vertical migration patterns of three trophic levels in the Lake Superior pelagic food web and (2) examine the mechanisms underlying the observed variability by using models of foraging, growth, and μ. Our results suggest that the opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush migrate concurrently during each season, but spring migrations are less extensive than summer and fall migrations. In comparison with M. diluviana, kiyis, and siscowets, the migrations by ciscoes C. artedi were not as deep in the water column during the day, regardless of season. Foraging potential and μ probably drive the movement patterns of M. diluviana, while our modeling results indicate that movements by kiyis and ciscoes are related to foraging opportunity and growth potential and receive a lesser influence from μ. The siscowet is an abundant apex predator in the pelagia of Lake Superior and probably undertakes vertical migrations in the water column to optimize foraging efficiency and growth. The concurrent vertical movement patterns of most species are likely to facilitate nutrient transport in this exceedingly oligotrophic ecosystem, and they demonstrate strong linkages between predators and prey. Fishery management strategies should use an ecosystem approach and should consider how altering the densities of long-lived top predators produces cascading effects on the nutrient cycling and energy flow in lower trophic levels.

  17. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  18. Delineation of aquifers in basaltic hard rock terrain using vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the traps by using vertical electrical sounding surveys in order to meet the increasing demand of water ... (VES) for the purpose of augmenting water sup- ...... 3.7 Water quality. In this region, similar to any other rural area of the country, groundwater from dug wells is directly used for drinking. Therefore, analysis of ground-.

  19. Movement of trichloroethene in a discontinuous permafrost zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andrea E; Barnes, David L

    2011-06-01

    At a site with discontinuous permafrost in Fairbanks, Alaska, releases of trichloroethene (TCE), an industrial solvent, have caused contamination of the groundwater. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the migration pathway of the TCE groundwater plume and the distribution of the discontinuous permafrost at the site. The TCE plume configuration is substantially different than what regional hydrology trends would predict. Using GIS, we conducted a geostatistical analysis of field data collected during soil-boring installations and groundwater monitoring well sampling. With the analysis results, we constructed maps of the permafrost-table elevation (top of permafrost) and of the groundwater gradients and TCE concentrations from multiyear groundwater sampling events. The plume concentrations and groundwater gradients were overlain on the permafrost map to correlate permafrost locations with groundwater movement and the spatial distribution of TCE moving with groundwater. Correlation of the overlay maps revealed converging and diverging groundwater flow in response to the permafrost-table distribution, the absence of groundwater contamination in areas with a high permafrost-table elevation, and channeling of contaminants and water between areas of permafrost. In addition, we measured groundwater elevations in nested wells to quantify vertical gradients affecting TCE migration. At one set of nested wells down gradient from an area of permafrost we measured an upward vertical gradient indicating recharge of groundwater from the subpermafrost region of the aquifer causing dilution of the plume. The study indicates that the variable distribution of the permafrost is affecting the way groundwater and TCE move through the aquifer. Consequently, changes to the permafrost configuration due to thawing would likely affect both groundwater movement and TCE migration, and areas that were contaminant-free may become susceptible to contamination

  20. Multitracer studies for determining seepage water and anion movement in four types of soil using lysimeters with different functions and designs; Multitracer-Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung in vier Bodenformen bei Lysimetern unterschiedlicher Nutzung und Bauart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, S.; Russow, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung; Seeger, J. [Lysimeterstation Falkenberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Lysimeter experiments based on the stable isotope tracer technique are a suitable means of examining the complex relationships governing water and material transport processes in the soil. The present paper reports on experiments in which water and nitrate movement was traced directly by means of lysimeters placed at different depths and using deuterium water and [{sup 15}N]N-nitrate for pulse marking. Extensive investigations carried out during the dissection of soil monoliths that had been used for many years in lysimeters offered an opportunity for stable isotope tracer studies aimed at determining seepage water and anion movement in undisturbed soils and, after dismantling the lysimeters, conducting soil analyses to find out more about the fate of nonpercolated tracers at various soil depths. Following other authors, bromide anions were additionally used as conservative tracers. [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung der komplexen Zusammenhaenge des Wasser- und Stofftransportes im Boden bieten sich Lysimeterversuche unter Nutzung der stabilisotopen Tracertechnik an. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird zunaechst ueber die direkte Verfolgung der Wasser- und Nitrat-Bewegung in tiefengestaffelten Lysimetern durch Pulsmarkierung mit Deuteriumwasser und [{sup 15}N]Nitrat berichtet. Im Rahmen von umfangreichen Untersuchungen bei der Zerlegung von langjaehrig in Lysimetern genutzten Bodenmonolithen bestand des weiteren die Moeglichkeit, stabilisotope Traceruntersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung an ungestoerten Boeden durchzufuehren und nach der Zerlegung der Lysimeter ueber entsprechende Analysen des Bodens Aussagen zum Verbleib der nicht perkolierten Tracer in verschiedenen Bodentiefen zu treffen. Zusaetzlich wurde dabei das von anderen Autoren bereits genutzte Bromid-Anion als sogenannter konservativer Tracer eingesetzt. (orig.)

  1. Tubular occlusion prevents water-treeing and through-and-through fluid movement in a single-bottle, one-step self-etch adhesive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Hiraishi, N; Imazato, S; Rueggeberg, F A; Salz, U; Zimmermann, J; King, N M

    2005-10-01

    Water entrapment occurs at resin-dentin interfaces of one-step self-etch adhesives. We hypothesized that by preventing water fluxes from dentin, any water entrapment would be attributed to incomplete removal of adhesive solvents. We tested this hypothesis by bonding to transparent carious dentin containing occluded dentinal tubules. An experimental single-bottle, one-step self-etch adhesive was applied to flat surfaces of caries-affected dentin surrounded by sound dentin, with or without pulpal pressure. Resin-dentin interfaces were examined with TEM after silver-impregnation. Although caries-affected dentin was highly porous, adhesive layers were devoid of silver deposits when tubules were occluded. Conversely, variable extents of water-treeing and water-droplets were identified from adhesive layers in bonded sound dentin. Water-treeing and water-droplet formation, being manifestations of evaporative and convective water fluxes, can be eliminated during bonding to occluded transparent carious dentin. However, the highly porous nature of this clinically relevant substrate after bonding may lead to potentially undesirable consequences.

  2. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  3. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  4. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  5. Empirical model for estimating vertical concentration profiles of re-suspended, sediment-associated contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. W.; Cheng, P. D.; Li, W.; Chen, J. H.; Pang, Y.; Wang, D. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Vertical distribution processes of sediment contaminants in water were studied by flume experiments. Experimental results show that settling velocity of sediment particles and turbulence characteristics are the major hydrodynamic factors impacting distribution of pollutants, especially near the bottom where particle diameter is similar in size to vortex structure. Sediment distribution was uniform along the distance, while contaminant distribution slightly lagged behind the sediment. The smaller the initial sediment concentration was, the more time it took to achieve a uniform concentration distribution for suspended sediment. A contaminants transportation equation was established depending on mass conservation equations. Two mathematical estimation models of pollutant distribution in the overlying water considering adsorption and desorption were devised based on vertical distribution of suspended sediment: equilibrium partition model and dynamic micro-diffusion model. The ratio of time scale between the sediment movement and sorption can be used as the index of the models. When this ratio was large, the equilibrium assumption was reasonable, but when it was small, it might require dynamic micro-diffusion model.

  6. Diel vertical migration in deep sea plankton is finely tuned to latitudinal and seasonal day length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Hans; Compton, Tanya J

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in marine and freshwater plankton communities. Most commonly, plankton migrate to surface waters at dusk and return to deeper waters at dawn. Up until recently, it was thought that DVM was triggered by a relative change in visible light intensity. However, evidence has shown that DVM also occurs in the deep sea where no direct and background sunlight penetrates. To identify whether such DVM is associated with latitudinal and seasonal day light variation, one and a half years of recorded acoustic data, a measure of zooplankton abundance and movement, were examined. Acoustic Doppler current profilers, moored at eight different sub-tropical latitudes in the North-Atlantic Ocean, measured in the vertical range of 500-1600 m. DVM was observed to follow day length variation with a change in season and latitude at all depths. DVM followed the rhythm of local sunrise and sunset precisely between 500 and 650 m. It continued below 650 m, where the deepest penetrable irradiance level are plankton shortened their time at depth by up to about 63% at 1600 m. This suggests light was no longer a cue for DVM. This trend stayed consistent both across latitudes and between the different seasons. It is hypothesized that another mechanism, rather than light, viz. a precise biochemical clock could maintain the solar diurnal and seasonal rhythms in deep sea plankton motions. In accordance with this hypothesis, the deepest plankton were consistently the first to migrate upwards.

  7. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO H.V. HAZIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h−1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (< 50 m vertical distribution for most of the monitoring period. While presenting the first data on tiger shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  8. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  9. Linking Literacy and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  10. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  11. Diurnal patterns of branch movement in a desert shrub (Larrea tridentata) track hydraulic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, A.

    2016-12-01

    Near-surface, repeat digital photography has emerged as a powerful tool to collect continuous observations of plant traits of individuals and communities across daily, seasonal, and annual time scales. To date, this technology has largely been used to detect patterns of vegetative phenology or "canopy greenness." Little work has been done to use digital photographs to quantify changes in canopy structure or shifts in canopy function on shorter time scales. In this study, we tracked the position of creosote (Larrea tridentata) branches using a timeseries of photos taken in a creosote-dominated shrubland in central New Mexico, USA where radiation, temperature, humidity, soil water content, soil water potential, and stem water potential were also measured. We found that both living and dead woody branches displayed dramatic diurnal patterns of movement, with shrubs only 1-2 m in height sometimes undergoing vertical shifts in branch position of over 0.25 m and changes in branch angle of over 20 degrees. Although circadian rhythms in plants are often attributed to cyclical patterns of photoperiod or temperature, we found that creosote branch movements were best correlated with diurnal changes in stem water potential and atmospheric humidity and that this correlation was stronger under wetter soil conditions. Branches were straighter and oriented in higher positions in times of low hydraulic stress, possibly preparing the creosote to better capture moisture via stemflow. Branches were oriented lower to the ground in times of high hydraulic stress, possibly providing more shade and reducing soil evaporation beneath the base of the shrub. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe diurnal patterns of branch movements in creosote and is the most extensive dataset of observations of diurnal movements in any woody plant. It provides more knowledge about the biology of a desert shrub, but also offers novel methods for using repeat digital photography to gain

  12. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  13. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index......, an index of refraction of the second low-index layer or air being less than 2; and a thickness of the cap layer and a thickness of the grating layer, and a pitch and a duty cycle of the grating structure are selected to obtain a resonance having a free-space resonance wavelength in the interval 300 nm to 3...... microns, the cap layer comprises an active region configured to generate or absorb photons at the free-space resonance wavelength by stimulated emission or absorption when a sufficient forward or reverse bias voltage is applied across the active region, a thickness of the first low-index layer is less...

  14. Flow-Meter and Passive Diffusion Bag Tests and Potential Influences on the Vertical Distribution of Contaminants in Wells at Galena Airport, Galena, Alaska, August to October 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Peterson, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Past activities at Galena Airport, a U.S. Air Force Base in Galena, Alaska, have resulted in ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds. The primary contaminants are petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The U.S. Geological Survey and Earth Tech, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, conducted investigations at Galena Airport from August to October 2002 using polyethylene diffusion bag samplers and borehole flow-meter testing to examine the vertical distribution of ground-water contamination in selected wells. This investigation was limited to the vicinity of building 1845 and to the area between building 1845 and the Yukon River. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey was asked to determine whether additional wells are needed to more clearly define the nature and extent of the ground-water contamination at the Air Force Base. Little or no vertical water movement occurred under ambient conditions in the wells tested at Galena Airport, Alaska, in August 2002. All of the ambient vertical flows detected in wells were at rates less than the quantitative limit of the borehole flow meter (0.03 gallons per minute). In wells 06-MW-07 and 10-MW-01, no vertical flow was detected. In wells where ambient flow was detected, the direction of flow was downward. In general, concentrations of volatile organic compounds detected in the low-flow samples from wells at Galena Airport were approximately the same concentrations detected in the closest polyethylene diffusion bag sample for a wide variety of volatile organic compounds. The data indicate that the polyethylene diffusion bag sample results are consistent with the low-flow sample results. Vertical profiling of selected wells using polyethylene diffusion bag samplers at Galena Airport showed that from September 30 to October 1, 2002, little vertical change occurred in volatile organic compound concentrations along the screen length despite the fact that

  15. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  16. Efeito da temperatura radicular na resistência ao movimento de água no cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. Radicular temperature effects in water movement resistence in cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Costa de Amorim

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da temperatura radicular na resistência ao movimento de água foi estudada em plântulas de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. cv. Catongo sob condições de casa de vegetação e a temperaturas radiculares de 10, 20, 30 e 40ºC, em folhas cobertas com papel de alumínio e sacos de polieteileno preto e em folhas descobertas. As folhas estavdf am localizadas na parte basal, intermediária e apical do caule. Mediram-se trocas gasosas foliares utilizando o sistema portátil de fotossíntese LI-6000. O potencial hídrico e o osmótico foram mensurados por psicrometria. O potencial de turgor foi estimado por diferença entre o potencial hídrico e o osmótico. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a resistência ao movimento de água nas plântulas de cacau depende do fluxo transpiracional e que a variação dos gradientes do potencial hídrico na planta é determinada por temperaturas radiculares maiores de 30ºC. As trocas gasosas, a temperaturas radiculares diferentes, dependem do estado hídrico da planta.The effects of root temperature on water movement resistance were studied on cacao (Theobroma cacao L. cv Catongo seedlings under greenhouse conditions at root temperatures of 10, 20 30 and 40ºC, on leaves covered with aluminum foil and black plastic bags and on uncovered leaves. The leaves were located at the base, intermediates part and apex of the stem. Gas exchange measurements were done utilizing a LI-6000 portable photosynthetic system. Water and osmotic potential were measured by psychrometry. Turgor potential was estimated as the difference between water potential and osmotic potential. The results suggested that the resistance to water movement depends on the transpirational flux and that the water potential gradients across the plant vary at temperatures greater than 30ºC. Gas exchanges, at diferent root temperature, depend on the water status of the plant.

  17. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-29

    strengths of 27.6 MPa and 41.1 MPa, respectively. The mix proportions are reported in Table 1. Type II high - early portland cement was used in the...of a shelter transition section, thickness-to-radius ratio (t/r) of the shelter tube section, and concrete strength ) on shelter response. In addition...kilograms Water , in kilograms 189 155 Pozzoligh, in milliliters 1183 1124 Entrained air, as a percentage 3 3 Slump, in millimeters 127 127 Water / cement

  18. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™ were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra. Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  19. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

    2014-04-01

    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Tritium/Helium-3 Apparent Ages of Shallow Ground Water, Portland Basin, Oregon, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples for tritium/helium-3 age dating were collected from 12 shallow monitoring wells in the Portland basin, Oregon, in 1997, and again in 1998. Robust tritium/helium-3 apparent (piston-flow) ages were obtained for water samples from 10 of the 12 wells; apparent ages ranged from 1.1 to 21.2 years. Method precision was demonstrated by close agreement between data collected in 1997 and 1998. Tritium/helium-3 apparent ages generally increase with increasing depth below the water table, and agree well with age/depth relations based on assumptions of effects of recharge rate on vertical ground-water movement.

  1. Plant nuclear photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

    2014-06-01

    Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and plant cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in plant cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized plant organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in plant cells, especially plant-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Hydrologic connections and dynamics of water movement in the classical Karst (Kras) Aquifer: evidence from frequent chemical and stable isotope sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    A review of past research on the hydrogeology of the Classical Karst (Kras) region and new information obtained from a two- year study using environmental tracers are presented in this paper. The main problems addressed are 1) the sources of water to the Kras aquifer resurgence zone-including the famous Timavo springs-under changing flow regimes; 2) a quantification of the storage volumes of the karst massif corresponding to flow regimes defined by hydrograph recessions of the Timavo springs; and 3) changing dynamics between deep phreatic conduit flow and shallow phreatic and epiphreatic storage within the aquifer resurgence zone as determined through changes in chemical and isotopic composition at springs and wells. Particular focus was placed on addressing the long-standing question of the influence of the Soca River on the ground waters of the aquifer resurgence zone. The results indicate that the alluvial aquifer supplied by the sinking of the Soca River on the northwestern edge of the massif contributes approximately 75% of the mean annual outflow to the smaller springs of the aquifer resurgence zone, and as much as 53% to the mean annual outflow of the Timavo springs. As a whole, the Soca River is estimated to contribute 56% of the average outflow of the Kras aquifer resurgence. The proportions of Soca River water increase under drier conditions, and decrease under wetter conditions. Time series analysis of oxygen stable isotope records indicate that the transit time of Soca River water to the Timavo springs, Sardos spring, and well B-4 is on the order of 1-2 months, depending on hydrological conditions. The total baseflow storage of the Timavo springs is estimated to be 518 million m3, and represents 88.5% of the storage capacity estimated for all flow regimes of the springs. The ratio of baseflow storage volume to the average annual volume discharged at the Timavo springs is 0.54. The Reka River sinking in Slovenia supplies substantial allogenic recharge to

  3. Pain ameliorating effect of eye movement desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, H; Groth, S; Rogers, D

    1994-06-01

    This study explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) in the management of acute pain induced by hand exposures to ice water. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, (b) eye movement desensitization with music (EMD/M), and (c) control. The EMD/R participants focused on negative experiences associated with exposure to ice water, generated positive self-talk, and diverted their attention away from pain by focusing on a rapidly moving light on a monitor. The EMD with music group received eye movement desensitization coupled with preferred music. Repeated measures univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that both procedures alleviated participants' pain to a similar degree and significantly more than the control, P < 0.05.

  4. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duzer, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  5. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  7. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  9. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  10. Predicting Vertical Motion within Convective Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Convective storms are both beneficial in the fresh water they supply and destructive in the life-threatening extreme weather they produce. They are found throughout the tropics and midlatitudes, vary in structure from isolated to highly organized systems, and are the sole source of precipitation in many regions of Earth. Convective updrafts and downdrafts plays a crucial role in cloud and precipitation formation, latent heating, water vapor transport, storm organization, and large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells. These processes, in turn, impact the strength and longevity of updrafts and downdrafts through complex, non-linear feedbacks. In spite of the significant influence of convective updrafts and downdrafts on the weather and climate system, accurately predicting vertical motion using numerical models remains challenging. In high-resolution cloud-resolving models where vertical motion is normally resolved, significant biases exist in the predicted profiles of updraft and downdraft velocities, at least for the limited cases where observational data have been available for model evaluation. It has been suggested that feedbacks between the vertical motion and microphysical processes may be one cause of these discrepancies, however, our understanding of these feedbacks remains limited. In this talk, the results of a small field campaign conducted over northeastern Colorado designed to observe storm vertical motion and cold pool characteristics within isolated and organized deep convective storms will be described. High frequency radiosonde, radar and drone measurements of a developing through mature supercell storm updraft and cold pool will be presented and compared with RAMS simulations of the same supercell storm. An analysis of the feedbacks between the storm dynamical and microphysical processes will be presented, and implications for regional and global modeling of severe storms will be discussed.

  11. Horizontal and vertical changes in anchor molars after extractions in bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the anchor molar position (horizontal, vertical after retraction in bimaxillary protrusion maximum anchorage cases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring maximum anchorage after extraction of the first premolars were selected for this study. The second molars were banded in both arches along with trans-palatal arch in the maxillary arch and lingual arch in the mandibular arch. En mass retraction was done using sliding mechanics. Horizontal and vertical positions of the anchor first molars were evaluated cephalometrically before and after orthodontic retraction. Results: In the horizontal plane, maxillary first molars showed net mesial movement of 1.72 mm, and there was a statistical difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. The mandibular molars showed a net horizontal movement of 2.26 mm, and there was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. In the vertical plane, there was vertical movement of the maxillary anchor molars by a net value of 0.95 mm which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mandibular anchor molars moved vertically by a net value of 0.45 mm. This difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: There was anchorage loss seen in both the planes (horizontal, vertical of the maxillary anchor molars. In the mandibular anchor molars, there was anchorage loss seen only in the horizontal plane. No anchorage loss was seen in the vertical plane.

  12. Maximum height and minimum time vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H

    2015-08-20

    The performance criterion in maximum vertical jumping has typically been assumed to simply raise the center of mass as high as possible. In many sporting activities minimizing movement time during the jump is likely also critical to successful performance. The purpose of this study was to examine maximum height jumps performed while minimizing jump time. A direct dynamics model was used to examine squat jump performance, with dual performance criteria: maximize jump height and minimize jump time. The muscle model had activation dynamics, force-length, force-velocity properties, and a series of elastic component representing the tendon. The simulations were run in two modes. In Mode 1 the model was placed in a fixed initial position. In Mode 2 the simulation model selected the initial squat configuration as well as the sequence of muscle activations. The inclusion of time as a factor in Mode 1 simulations resulted in a small decrease in jump height and moderate time savings. The improvement in time was mostly accomplished by taking off from a less extended position. In Mode 2 simulations, more substantial time savings could be achieved by beginning the jump in a more upright posture. However, when time was weighted more heavily in these simulations, there was a more substantial reduction in jump height. Future work is needed to examine the implications for countermovement jumping and to examine the possibility of minimizing movement time as part of the control scheme even when the task is to jump maximally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Morphologic-functional study of the locomotor system of penguins as a general model of movement in under-water flight. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannasch, R

    1986-01-01

    Regarding several theories of the evolution of the Sphenisciformes the specific morpho-physiological alterations for the changeover from aerial to underwater life are discussed. The peculiarities in the Penguin's "construction" become comprehensible as strong adjustments to the subaquatic locomotion. Surely they took their origin from the equipment of flying birds. The present data of the kinematics of the underwater locomotion show, that propulsion is produced in the same principal way by the flapping wings as in aerial flight. Therefore the short term "underwater flight" for the Penguin's style of locomotion is justified. Known data of swimming performance suggest that its essential adaptation is not that to top achievements but more to an economical use of energy budget. The favourable hydrodynamic characteristics of the Penguin body may be well interpreted from this point of view. The peculiarity of underwater flight is the absence of the necessity to produce a weight-compensating force. In order to create thrust forces in an appropriate magnitude during up- and downstroke of the beating cycle the upstroke must be powered. The anatomical architecture and the mode of operation of the parts of the muscle system must be adjusted to this demand. Based on these statements, the anatomy of active and passive apparatus of movement was studied by dissection of 26 individuals of Pygoscelis papua, P. antarctica, P. adeliae, Eudyptes chrysolophus, and Aptenodytes forsteri. Besides the functional explanation of the Articulatio sternocoracoidea (diverging considerably from the usual type in birds), a new interpretation is given for the structures of the Articulatio humeri. In this context, the role of the Ligamentum acrocoracohumerale as an important element for coordination of the motion processes in the shoulder joint is elucidated. The essential curvature of the Caput humeri is found to be satisfactorily approximated by a logarithmic spiral. The understanding of the

  14. Vertical migrations of a deep-sea fish and its prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Afonso

    Full Text Available It has been speculated that some deep-sea fishes can display large vertical migrations and likely doing so to explore the full suite of benthopelagic food resources, especially the pelagic organisms of the deep scattering layer (DSL. This would help explain the success of fishes residing at seamounts and the increased biodiversity found in these features of the open ocean. We combined active plus passive acoustic telemetry of blackspot seabream with in situ environmental and biological (backscattering data collection at a seamount to verify if its behaviour is dominated by vertical movements as a response to temporal changes in environmental conditions and pelagic prey availability. We found that seabream extensively migrate up and down the water column, that these patterns are cyclic both in short-term (tidal, diel as well as long-term (seasonal scales, and that they partially match the availability of potential DSL prey components. Furthermore, the emerging pattern points to a more complex spatial behaviour than previously anticipated, suggesting a seasonal switch in the diel behaviour mode (benthic vs. pelagic of seabream, which may reflect an adaptation to differences in prey availability. This study is the first to document the fine scale three-dimensional behaviour of a deep-sea fish residing at seamounts.

  15. Stress distribution in maxillary first molar periodontium using straight pull headgear with vertical and horizontal tubes: A finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Feizbakhsh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results, when force applied to the straight pull headgear with a vertical tube, Von Mises stress was reduced significantly in comparison with the horizontal tube. Therefore, to correct the mesiolingual movement of the maxillary first molar, vertical headgear tube is recommended.

  16. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  17. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  18. Smooth-pursuit eye movements without head movement disrupt the static body balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeob; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the changes of body balance in static posture in smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEMs) without head movement. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects (24 males, 16 females) aged 23.24 ± 2.58 years participated. SPEMs were activated in three directions (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal movements); the target speed was set at three conditions (10°/s, 20°/s, and 30°/s); and the binocular visual field was limited to 50°. To compare the body balance changes, the general stability (ST) and the fall risk index (FI) were measured with TETRAX. The subjects wore a head-neck collar and stood on a balance plate for 32 s during each measurement in three directions. SPEMs were induced to each subject with nine target speeds and directions. All measured values were compared with those in stationary fixation. [Results] The ST and FI increased significantly in all SPEMs directions, with an increased target speed than that in stationary fixation. In the same condition of the target speed, the FI had the highest value relative to diagonal SPEMs. [Conclusion] SPEMs without head movement disrupt the stability of body balance in a static posture, and diagonal SPEMs may have a more negative effect in maintaining body balance than horizontal or vertical SPEMs.

  19. Determining fine-scale use and movement patterns of diving bird species in federal waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb; Berlin, Alicia; Gilbert, Andrew; Gray, Carrie E.; Montevecchi, William; Stenhouse, Iain; Ford, Scott; Olsen, Glenn H.; Fiely, Jonathan; Savoy, Lucas; Goodale, M. Wing; Burke, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development in the United States is projected to expand in the upcoming decades to meet growing energy demands and reduce fossil fuel emissions. There is particular interest in commercial offshore wind development within Federal waters (i.e., > 3 nautical miles from shore) of the mid-Atlantic. In order to understand the potential for adverse effects on marine birds in this area, information on distribution and behavior (e.g., flight pathways, timing, etc.) is required for a broad suite of species. In areas where offshore wind development is likely to occur, such information can be used to identify high use areas during critical life stages, which can inform the siting of offshore facilities. It can also be used to provide baseline data for understanding broad changes in distributions that occur after offshore wind developments are constructed in a specific area.

  20. Vertical designs and agriculture joined for food production in the modules for urban vertical gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.

  1. Soil Hydrologic Response and Nutrient Movement in Three Small Tropical Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, N. H.; Hamann, H. B.; Stallard, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    The movement of water over and through soils by storm-generated flowpaths in tropical forests not only mediates nutrient movement and physical weathering, but also potentially influences vegetation growth and dynamics with seasonally dry or saturated soil conditions. However, few small-scale catchment studies (10-1000ha) have produced a comprehensive, standardized dataset on soil hydrologic properties among tropical forest catchments, due in part to complexities within tropical systems, and to inconsistencies in methods, data collection, and/or analyses. In response, this study has utilized the global, standardized network of forest dynamics plots of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) for the rapid assessment of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and the water chemistry from storm-generated flowpaths. Ks measurements at varying depths help in testing Elsenbeer's (2001) functional classification continuum of tropical forest soilscapes and resulting hydrologic flowpaths. In Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Ks decreased rapidly with soil depth where horizontal surface and near-surface flowpaths were most prevalent. Ks measurements in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador indicated limited vertical movement of water at depths >15cm due to an impermeable soil layer. Ks measurements from Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia, represented both ends of the continuum due to variability in soil type and lithology. In relation to soil hydrology and hydrological flowpaths, runoff chemistry at Yasuni reveals a general pattern of increased nutrient export as water moves through the canopy and over the soil surface, with concentrations of K+ increasing significantly in throughfall, and concentrations of both K+, and NO3- remaining high in overland flow. The results from the composite overland flow samples may indicate a more open nutrient cycle in tropical forest environments than has been suggested from earlier studies using radioactively labeled isotopes.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  3. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  4. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  5. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  6. Comparison of vertical and horizontal systems of constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Urša

    2011-01-01

    The constructed wetlands (CW) or artificial wetlands with the wastewater treatment as their primary function are complex systems of water, substrate, plants, animals and microorganisms (bacteria). In practice there are two general systems in use, the system with the surface and the system with the subsurface flow, which is further divided into the system with the horizontal water flow and in the system with the vertical water flow. Understanding of constructed wetlands function...

  7. Effects of Foam Rolling on Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foam rolling is a popular activity utilized by strength and conditioning coaches as it is believed to increase muscle length and break up fibrous adhesions located in connective tissue. However, there is little research investigating the effects of foam rolling on athletic performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lower body foam rolling on vertical jump performance. Methods: Twenty males (age 24.05 ± 2.02 years; height 177.43 ± 6.31 cm; mass 81.41 ± 8.76 kg volunteered to participate. Subjects completed three days of testing, separated by at least twenty-four hours. Day one consisted of baseline vertical jumps on a force plate, followed by familiarization with foam rolling and control protocols. Subjects returned on days two and three and performed 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling or mimicked foam rolling movements on a skateboard followed by vertical jumps on a force plate. The highest jump from each day was used for statistical analyses. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant differences in Jump height, impulse, relative ground reaction force, or take-off velocity between conditions. Conclusion: 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling do not improve vertical jump performance. Keywords: Dynamic Warm-Up, Foam Rolling, Vertical Jump

  8. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  9. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Evidence of zooplankton vertical migration from continuous Southern Adriatic buoy current-meter records (E2-M3A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursella, Laura; Cardin, Vanessa; Batistić, Mirna

    2017-04-01

    The E2-M3A Station is deployed in the southern Adriatic Sea, at about 1200 m depth, in the center of the cyclonic gyre where deep convection process takes place, involving both the atmosphere and the ocean dynamics and forming new dense and oxygenated waters, thus triggering the solubility and the biological pump. In particular, the E2M3A is equipped with an upward looking 150 kHz RDI-Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) positioned between 265 and 320 m depth, with a vertical resolution of 5 m and a range of 250-300 m. The mooring line has been in water since November 2006, with an interruption from September 2010 until May 2011. ADCP backscattering signal is very useful in determining zooplankton distribution and variability at various time scales, including seasonal/annual behavior and diel vertical migration (DVM). From ADCP backscattering signal, backscattering strength (Sv) was calculated for the entire dataset. Sv permits to quantify qualitatively the scatters present in the water, i.e. the particulate and/or the phyto/zoo-plankton. Zooplankton distribution is dependent on phytoplankton presence and blooms, which on its own depend on nutrients availability (related to wind-induced vertical mixing), but also on sunlight. The variation in time of Sv together with vertical velocity allows for measuring DVM of zooplankton and its variability with seasons and years. Alternation of high and low values for Sv are present all year long with differences in intensities in particular in the surface layer. Quite high values for Sv are found in spring and summer; in spring they are found along a large part of the water column, while in summer they are detected prevalently in the upper part of the measurement range. This behavior is related to the conditions of the water column, i.e. mixing and nutrients availability, which influence phytoplankton blooms and therefore zooplankton growing and movements. Correlating Net Primary Production obtained from model and Mixed

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  12. Thermal remote sensing of estuarine spatial dynamics: Effects of bottom-generated vertical mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorino, G. O.; Smith, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    In a recent paper, Hedger, R.D., Malthus, T.J., Folkard, A.M., Atkinson, P.M. [2007. Spatial dynamics of estuarine water surface temperature from airborne remote sensing. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71, 608-615] demonstrate that airborne thermal remote sensing shows great potential for monitoring estuarine dynamics and surface currents. One aspect needing further attention is the impact of bottom-generated vertical mixing as this can create both stationary thermal features as well as thermal patterns that advect with the flow. This dual effect is illustrated using airborne infrared imagery of a mixing front having an embedded pattern of thermal boils. The boils are several meters in diameter (in water less than 4 m deep) and are ˜0.2 °C cooler than the ambient water surface. Time sequential imagery that captures the movement of individual boils as well as their growth rate can be used to deduce both the near-surface current and the intensity of turbulent mixing.

  13. Habitat use and diel vertical migration of bigeye thresher shark: Overlap with pelagic longline fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rui; Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Miguel N

    2015-12-01

    Pelagic longliners targeting swordfish and tunas in oceanic waters regularly capture sharks as bycatch, including currently protected species as the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus. Fifteen bigeye threshers were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) in 2012-2014 in the tropical northeast Atlantic, with successful transmissions received from 12 tags for a total of 907 tracking days. Marked diel vertical movements were recorded on all specimens, with most of the daytime spent in deeper colder water (mean depth = 353 m, SD = 73; mean temperature = 10.7 °C, SD = 1.8) and nighttime spent in warmer water closer to the surface (mean depth = 72 m, SD = 54; mean temperature = 21.9 °C, SD = 3.7). The operating depth of the pelagic longline gear was measured with Minilog Temperature and Depth Recorders (TDRs), and the overlap with habitat utilization was calculated. Overlap is taking place mainly during the night and is higher for juveniles. The results presented herein can be used as inputs for Ecological Risk Assessments for bigeye threshers captured in oceanic tuna fisheries, and serve as a basis for efficient management and conservation of this vulnerable shark species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  15. Fine-Scale Movements and Behaviors of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in a Seasonal Aggregation near Al Lith, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Movement and behavior studies are traditional yet effective ways to understand the biology and ecology of a species. For an endangered species like the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), a comprehensive knowledge of its movement and behavior is particularly critical for successful management and conservation. For this dissertation, acoustic telemetry and biologging tagging studies were carried out at a seasonal whale shark aggregation site near Al Lith in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Acoustic telemetry data revealed consistent path usage in a narrow longshore area with patterns in seasonality and diel horizontal movements within a smaller scale. Some individuals specifically concentrated on this path and made non-stop back and forth movements along it. In another dimension, depth use of whale sharks derived from biologgers showed distinct diel patterns. The sharks heavily utilized shallow waters with mixed depth usage consisting of surface swimming and varied types of dives, which explained the data of previous visual surveys. Vertical velocities indicated potential energy expenditure strategies that were further investigated based on acceleration data. Energy expenditure data suggested strategies that fine-tuned foraging efforts to optimize the balance between feeding and foraging. However, while these strategies fit well in the natural habitat, local human impacts could be of great disturbance if not well managed.

  16. Movements of temporomandibular condyles during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čimić, Samir; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gospić, Renata Kevilj; Badel, Tomislav; Dulčić, Nikša; Ćatić, Amir

    2015-03-01

    There have been studies that investigated mandibular movements and positioning during swallowing, but the results were inconsistent, and still the exact position of the condyles during swallowing is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to study the kinematics of the mandible and the condyles, and to determine the actual movement paths and position of mandible and condyles during the process of swallowing. The study was performed on a sample of 44 dental students. Measurements were done with an electronic axiograph. After non-occlusing attachment was fixed in the mouth, every subject swallowed for five times from the rest position. The final swallowing position of the left and the right condyles was measured in the sagittal plane. The final swallowing position of the sagittal incisal point was measured in sagittal, frontal and horizontal plane, and data was statistically analyzed. The condyles showed average movement toward posterior (left 0.17 mm, SD 0.28, right 0.16 mm, SD 0.25) and superior (left 0.14 mm, SD 0.20, right 0.14 mm, SD 0.23). Anterior and/or inferior position had 20% of participants. The average sagittal incisal point movement during swallowing was toward anterior (0.30 mm, SD 0.53) and superior (0.81 mm, SD 0.84). The mean mandibular lateral movement was 0.1 mm (SD 0.1). The results of the study suggest that retrusion during swallowing is not the rule, although on average there is a slight tendency of condylar movement toward posterior. Swallowing can be used as auxiliary method for determining vertical dimension of occlusion.

  17. A physiological perspective on fixational eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodderly, D. Max

    2014-01-01

    For a behavioral neuroscientist, fixational eye movements are a double-edged sword. On one edge, they make control of visual stimuli difficult, but on the other edge they provide insight into the ways the visual system acquires information from the environment. We have studied macaque monkeys as models for human visual systems. Fixational eye movements of monkeys are similar to those of humans but they are more often vertically biased and spatially more dispersed. Eye movements scatter stimuli from their intended retinal locations, increase variability of neuronal responses, inflate estimates of receptive field size, and decrease measures of response amplitude. They also bias against successful stimulation of extremely selective cells. Compensating for eye movements reduced these errors and revealed a fine-grained motion pathway from V1 feeding the cortical ventral stream. Compensation is a useful tool for the experimenter, but rather than compensating for eye movements, the brain utilizes them as part of its input. The saccades and drifts that occur during fixation selectively activate different types of V1 neurons. Cells that prefer slower speeds respond during the drift periods with maintained discharges and tend to have smaller receptive fields that are selective for sign of contrast. They are well suited to code small details of the image and to enable our fine detailed vision. Cells that prefer higher speeds fire transient bursts of spikes when the receptive field leaves, crosses, or lands on a stimulus, but only the most transient ones (about one-third of our sample) failed to respond during drifts. Voluntary and fixational saccades had very similar effects, including the presence of a biphasic extraretinal modulation that interacted with stimulus-driven responses. Saccades evoke synchronous bursts that can enhance visibility but these bursts may also participate in the visual masking that contributes to saccadic suppression. Study of the small eye movements

  18. Movements and feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Fernandez Poncela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text reviews the theory of recognition and focuses on the study of the role of emotions in collective action and social movements. It shows how emotion becomes feeling and creates a need to be met, leading to action. Anger, for example, as emotion, moves on to the feeling of indignation, and it is expressed in many forms, including the pursuit of justice and recognition. This point lands and deepens the study with the experience of the student movement in Mexico #YoSoy132 in 2012. The research is based on interviews with members of the movement. The presence and importance of feelings in collective action and social movements through the proposed case study is finally shown.

  19. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  20. The Dynamics of Vertical Migration in the Oceanic Gulf of Mexico after Deepwater Horizon: Active Linkage of Large Vertebrates and Deep-Pelagic Nekton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T.; Cook, A.; Frank, T. M.; Boswell, K. M.; Vecchione, M.; Judkins, H.; Romero, I.

    2016-02-01

    Toothed whales, smaller cetaceans, seabirds, and epipelagic gamefishes rely on deep-pelagic (meso- and bathypelagic) nekton as primary or secondary prey. This trophic interaction is mediated by downward and upward vertical movements (e.g., sperm whale diving and lanternfishes migration, respectively). This interaction also links particle-feeding lower trophic levels with top predators in a manner that spans the gamut of depth domains. This is particularly important with respect to a whole-water column disturbance such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS). Here we present highly resolved vertical distribution and migration data collected during a large-scale, NOAA-supported, deep-pelagic (0-1500 m) survey in 2011, along with data collected during ongoing GoMRI-supported DEEPEND consortium surveys. The deep-pelagic nekton community of the Gulf of Mexico is a complex mixture of migrating, non-migrating, and partially migrating assemblages that connect surface waters with depths in excess of 1000 m. Major patterns of vertical distribution for 400+ species of fishes, cephalopods, and macrocrustaceans, the primary prey of many important species of oceanic vertebrates living near-surface, will be summarized and quantified with the goal of highlighting potential vectors of anthropogenic contamination transfer in the deep-pelagial, the Gulf's largest ecosystem.

  1. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  2. Spiraldynamik - intelligent movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wippert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Spiraldynamik ® is an anatomically based movement and therapy concept. It was founded by the physiotherapist Yolanda Deswarte, and Dr. med. Christian Larsen. During the time that he was professionally active as a pediatrician, Christian Larsen repeatedly wondered: “is the universal principle of organization, the spiral, also embodied in man?” Observing the babies and toddlers that he worked with inspired him to research further into movement sequences. International interdisciplinary research...

  3. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  4. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Water evaporation in vertical tubes: an analytical approach for the subcooled flow boiling region and development of a method for evaluation and sizing evaporators = Evaporación de agua en tubos verticales: análisis de la región de ebullición subenfriada y desarrollo de un método de evaluación y Dimensionado de evaporadores

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrana González, José

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis analyses in detail the process of water evaporation for convective upward flows in vertical tubes, used in industrial applications. Both, the heat transfer process and the pressure drop mechanism, are considered. However, special attention has been put on the heat transfer process in the transition from pure liquid to two-phase flow, known as subcooled flow boiling region. The empirical correlations for the heat transfer coefficient on the water side for subcooled flow boil...

  6. Using terrestrial laser scanning for differential measurement of interannual rock glacier movement in the Argentine Dry Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Renato R.

    Argentina has recently implemented laws to protect glaciers and buried ice in the Andes to improve the sustainability of scarce, long-term water resources. Therefore, all glaciers and buried ice terrains must be located and avoided in any commercial alterations of the landscape. Buried ice in this remote and often dangerous terrain typically is located via the use of remote-sensing techniques. This thesis applies one such technique, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in the form of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), to detect rock glacier movement that is indicative of flowing, buried ice not visible in near surface excavations. TLS surveys were completed at two locales, Los Azules and El Altar, in both AD 2013 and AD 2014 on landscapes where buried ice is suspected to have produced the current surface forms. Multiple TLS scans were co-registered with the use of benchmarks, both between scans and between years, which introduced quantifiable positional errors. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were derived from the point cloud data by standardizing the spacing of the points in the horizontal direction, creating 0.1 m by 0.1 m cells with elevation as the cell value. The DEMs for each year were subtracted from each other to yield a change in elevation. The surface roughness of the rock glaciers (vertical variability within each cell) was empirically determined and evaluated as a threshold for results. Both sites showed sub-decimeter interannual movements, and the direction of their movement is typical of forms with buried ice. The results of the study were validated using independent GPS data showing annual movement rates. Despite the downslope movement of these rock glaciers, the volume of ice contained within them remains unclear, and further study is required to assess the volume of water contained.

  7. Distribution and movement of scalloped hammerhead Sphryna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of population distribution and movement is crucial for the conservation and management of shark species occurring in coastal waters. From 1984 to 2009, 641 scalloped hammerheads Sphyrna lewini, 1 342 smooth hammerheads Sphyrna zygaena and 1 352 unspecified hammerheads Sphyrna spp. were ...

  8. Upper limb joint forces and moments during underwater cyclical movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-03

    Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture. Together with body scans, segment inertial properties, and hydrodynamic resistances computed from a unique dynamic mesh algorithm capable to handle large body deformations, these data were fed into an inverse dynamics model to solve for joint kinetics. Simulation validity was assessed by comparing the impulse produced by the arms, calculated by integrating vertical forces over a stroke period, to the net theoretical impulse of buoyancy and ballast forces. A resulting gap of 1.2±3.5% provided confidence in the results. Upper limb joint load was within 5% of swimmer׳s body weight, which tends to supports the use of low-load aquatic exercises to reduce joint stress. We expect this significant methodological improvement to pave the way towards deeper insights into the mechanics of aquatic movement and the establishment of practice guidelines in rehabilitation, fitness or swimming performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A one-dimensional model of vertical stratification of Lake Shira focussed on winter conditions and ice cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genova, S.N.; Belolipetsky, V.M.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Degermendzhy, A.G.; Mooij, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In meromictic lakes such as Lake Shira, horizontal inhomogeneity is small in comparison with vertical gradients. To determine the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, and density of water in a deep zone of a Lake Shira, or other saline lakes, a one-dimensional (in vertical direction)

  10. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  11. Ground Movement in SSRL Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunikumar, Nikita; /UCLA /SLAC

    2011-08-25

    Users of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) are being affected by diurnal motion of the synchrotron's storage ring, which undergoes structural changes due to outdoor temperature fluctuations. In order to minimize the effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, especially on the vertical motion of the ring floor, scientists at SSRL tried three approaches: painting the storage ring white, covering the asphalt in the middle of the ring with highly reflective Mylar and installing Mylar on a portion of the ring roof and walls. Vertical motion in the storage ring is measured by a Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS), which calculates the relative height of water in a pipe that extends around the ring. The 24-hr amplitude of the floor motion was determined using spectral analysis of HLS data, and the ratio of this amplitude before and after each experiment was used to quantitatively determine the efficacy of each approach. The results of this analysis showed that the Mylar did not have any significant effect on floor motion, although the whitewash project did yield a reduction in overall HLS variation of 15 percent. However, further analysis showed that the reduction can largely be attributed to a few local changes rather than an overall reduction in floor motion around the ring. Future work will consist of identifying and selectively insulating these local regions in order to find the driving force behind diurnal floor motion in the storage ring.

  12. Eye movements in ephedrone-induced parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Bonnet

    Full Text Available Patients with ephedrone parkinsonism (EP show a complex, rapidly progressive, irreversible, and levodopa non-responsive parkinsonian and dystonic syndrome due to manganese intoxication. Eye movements may help to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes providing insights into which brain networks are affected in the underlying disease, but they have never been systematically studied in EP. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded in 28 EP and compared to 21 Parkinson's disease (PD patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using standardized oculomotor tasks with infrared videooculography. EP patients showed slow and hypometric horizontal saccades, an increased occurrence of square wave jerks, long latencies of vertical antisaccades, a high error rate in the horizontal antisaccade task, and made more errors than controls when pro- and antisaccades were mixed. Based on oculomotor performance, a direct differentiation between EP and PD was possible only by the velocity of horizontal saccades. All remaining metrics were similar between both patient groups. EP patients present extensive oculomotor disturbances probably due to manganese-induced damage to the basal ganglia, reflecting their role in oculomotor system.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the TMJ movement with a new mandibular movement tracking and simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Seung; Hwang, Soon Jung; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Heo, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin [Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system for the measurement and simulation of the TMJ movement and to analyze the mandibular movement quantitatively. We devised patient-specific splints and a registration body for the TMJ movement tracking. The mandibular movements of the 12 subjects with facial deformity and 3 controls were obtained by using an optical tracking system and the patient-specific splints. The mandibular part was manually segmented from the CT volume data of a patient. Three-dimensional surface models of the maxilla and the mandible were constructed using the segmented data. The continuous movement of the mandible with respect to the maxilla could be simulated by applying the recorded positions sequentially. Trajectories of the selected reference points were calculated during simulation and analyzed. The selected points were the most superior point of bilateral condyle, lower incisor point, and pogonion. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between control group and pre-surgical group in the maximum displacement of left superior condyle, lower incisor, and pogonion in vertical direction. Differences in the maximum lengths of the right and the left condyle were 0.59 {+-} 0.30 mm in pre-surgical group and 2.69 {+-} 2.63 mm in control group, which showed a significant difference (P<0.005). The maximum of differences between lengths of the right and the left calculated during one cycle also showed a significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). Significant differences in mandibular movements between the groups implies that facial deformity have an effect on the movement asymmetry of the mandible.

  14. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  15. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  16. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  17. Pursuit Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  18. Transmission of vertical soil stress under agricultural tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Berli, M.; Ruiz, S.

    2014-01-01

    and simulate soil stress under defined loads. Stress in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at a water content close to field capacity on five soils (13–66% clay). Stress transmission was then simulated with a semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth...

  19. Vertical Electrical Sounding to delineate the potential Aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    Vertical Electrical Sounding to delineate the potential Aquifer zones for drinking water in. Niamey city, Niger, Africa. Joy Choudhury*, LohithKumar K, E. Nagaiah, S Sonkamble, Shakeel Ahmed, Venay Kumar. Corresponding author email- joy8099@gmail.com. CSIR - National Geophysical Research Institute,. Uppal Road ...

  20. Vergence responses to vertical binocular disparity during lexical identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, M; Jainta, S; Blythe, H I; Jones, M O; Liversedge, S P

    2015-01-01

    Humans typically make use of both eyes during reading, which necessitates precise binocular coordination in order to achieve a unified perceptual representation of written text. A number of studies have explored the magnitude and effects of naturally occurring and induced horizontal fixation disparity during reading and non-reading tasks. However, the literature concerning the processing of disparities in different dimensions, particularly in the context of reading, is considerably limited. We therefore investigated vertical vergence in response to stereoscopically presented linguistic stimuli with varying levels of vertical offset. A lexical decision task was used to explore the ability of participants to fuse binocular image disparity in the vertical direction during word identification. Additionally, a lexical frequency manipulation explored the potential interplay between visual fusion processes and linguistic processes. Results indicated that no significant motor fusional responses were made in the vertical dimension (all p-values>.11), though that did not hinder successful lexical identification. In contrast, horizontal vergence movements were consistently observed on all fixations in the absence of a horizontal disparity manipulation. These findings add to the growing understanding of binocularity and its role in written language processing, and fit neatly with previous literature regarding binocular coordination in non-reading tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TIME ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO PART PROGRAMS ON A CNC VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Murat PİNAR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a program examining the CNC programs in the control unit of Dyna Myte 2900 Vertical Machining Center and calculating the machining time and rapid movement time of the cutting tools has been developed. The workpiece program to be examined is transferred to CNC code editor by the user manually, by a computer file with a diskette, or through hard disk or the machine tool. By examining all the movements of the cutting tools, detailed machining time, rapid movement time or total time is served to the user. So that, an important part of workpiece cost analysis information is provided.

  2. Realization of an Automated Vertical Warp Stop Motion Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Cloppenburg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The tension in the warp yarns is a critical variable in the weaving process. If the warp tension is too high or too low the weaving process will be interrupted. A parameter that directly affects the warp tension is the vertical warp stop motion position. The position of the warp stop motion must be set for every produced new article. The setting procedure is performed completely manual. In this paper we present a mechatronic modification of an air jet-weaving machine to adjust the vertical warp stop motion position with the help of actuators. The parameters for the automated movement are determined and an open loop control, which uses a PLC, is proposed.

  3. The movements of pikeperch in a shallow reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders; Økland, F.

    1999-01-01

    with water temperature. Rate of movement was correlated positively with body size for both male and female pikeperch. During the breeding season (April-May) males became stationary for 14-47 days. Spawning sites, inferred from movements of males, were at depths of 2.0-2.5 m on hard substrata, mainly gravel...

  4. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...

  5. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  6. Multiservice Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Fang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Future wireless networks must be able to coordinate services within a diverse-network environment. One of the challenging problems for coordination is vertical handoff, which is the decision for a mobile node to handoff between different types of networks. While traditional handoff is based on received signal strength comparisons, vertical handoff must evaluate additional factors, such as monetary cost, offered services, network conditions, and user preferences. In this paper, several optimizations are proposed for the execution of vertical handoff decision algorithms, with the goal of maximizing the quality of service experienced by each user. First, the concept of policy-based handoffs is discussed. Then, a multiservice vertical handoff decision algorithm (MUSE-VDA and cost function are introduced to judge target networks based on a variety of user- and network-valued metrics. Finally, a performance analysis demonstrates that significant gains in the ability to satisfy user requests for multiple simultaneous services and a more efficient use of resources can be achieved from the MUSE-VDA optimizations.

  7. Movement asymmetry in working polo horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, T; Parkes, R S; Burden, E R; Bell, N; Fairhurst, H; Witte, T H

    2016-07-01

    The high, repetitive demands imposed on polo horses in training and competition may predispose them to musculoskeletal injuries and lameness. To quantify movement symmetry and lameness in a population of polo horses, and to investigate the existence of a relationship with age. Convenience sampled cross-sectional study. Sixty polo horses were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the poll, and between the tubera sacrale. Six movement symmetry measures were calculated for vertical head and pelvic displacement during in-hand trot and compared with values for perfect symmetry, compared between left and right limb lame horses, and compared with published thresholds for lameness. Regression lines were calculated as a function of age of horse. Based on 2 different sets of published asymmetry thresholds 52-53% of the horses were quantified with head movement asymmetry and 27-50% with pelvic movement asymmetry resulting in 60-67% of horses being classified with movement asymmetry outside published guideline values for either the forelimbs, hindlimbs or both. Neither forelimb nor hindlimb asymmetries were preferentially left or right sided, with directional asymmetry values across all horses not different from perfect symmetry and absolute values not different between left and right lame horses (P values >0.6 for all forelimb symmetry measures and >0.2 for all hindlimb symmetry measures). None of the symmetry parameters increased or decreased significantly with age. A large proportion of polo horses show gait asymmetries consistent with previously defined thresholds for lameness. These do not appear to be lateralised or associated with age. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  9. Age-specific light preferences and vertical migration patterns of a Great Lakes invasive invertebrate, Hemimysis anomala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Brent T.; Halpin, Kathleen E.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    We use a combination of spectral sensitivity analyses, laboratory behavioral observations and field distributions of a vertically migrating invertebrate, Hemimysis anomala (a recent invasive species to the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America), to determine if light preference and timing of emergence has an ontogenetic component. Juvenile Hemimysis (−3.4 and 10−2.4 mylux— a Hemimysis-specific unit of brightness derived from visual pigment analyses (wavelength of maximum absorbance = 500 nm; 1 mylux ~ 159 lx). These preferred light levels are equivalent to those present during nautical twilight on the Earth's surface and were several orders of magnitude brighter than those most preferred by adults (> 4.5 mm) in the laboratory (10−6.4 to 10−7.4 mylux). Both size classes completely avoided light levels of 10−0.4 mylux and greater, which are representative of daytime light levels at the Earth's surface. Net hauls taken at ~ 20-min intervals from sunset to the end of nautical twilight on two sampling occasions on Seneca Lake, New York (sampling depth = 2 m) revealed that juveniles emerged into the water column during civil twilight. Adult Hemimysis emerged later during nautical twilight when juveniles had already reached their maximum abundance in the water column. Laboratory-derived light preferences successfully predicted the timing of emergence and time of maximal abundance of both size classes on both sampling occasions. This study is one of the first to demonstrate that Hemimysis diel vertical migration has an ontogenetic component and to report the specific light levels likely to initiate and limit vertical movements.

  10. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  12. Pressure Drop in Vertical Core-Annular Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Prada,José Walter Vanegas; Bannwart,Antonio Carlos

    2001-01-01

    An experimental apparatus for the study of core annular flows of heavy oil and water at room temperature has been set up and tested at laboratory scale. The test section consists of a 2.75 cm ID galvanized steel pipe. Tap water and a heavy oil (17.6 Pa.s; 963 kg/m³) were used. Pressure drop in a vertical upward test section was accurately measured for oil flow rates in the range 0.297 - 1.045 l/s and water flow rates ranging from 0.063 to 0.315 l/s. The oil-water input ratio was in the range ...

  13. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  14. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  15. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  16. Potential of Vertical Hydroponic Agriculture in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Anda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2050, Mexico’s population will reach 150 million people, about 80% of whom will likely live in urban centers. This increase in population will necessitate increased fo