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Sample records for vertical viral transmission

  1. Detection of viral sequences in semen of honeybees (Apis mellifera): evidence for vertical transmission of viruses through drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Constanze; Schröder, Marion; Bienefeld, Kaspar; Genersch, Elke

    2006-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be attacked by many eukaryotic parasites, and bacterial as well as viral pathogens. Especially in combination with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, viral honeybee diseases are becoming a major problem in apiculture, causing economic losses worldwide. Several horizontal transmission routes are described for some honeybee viruses. Here, we report for the first time the detection of viral sequences in semen of honeybee drones suggesting mating as another horizontal and/or vertical route of virus transmission. Since artificial insemination and controlled mating is widely used in honeybee breeding, the impact of our findings for disease transmission is discussed.

  2. Vertical Transmission of Dengue Virus in the Peripartum Period and Viral Kinetics in Newborns and Breast Milk: New Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arragain, Lucille; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; O'Connor, Olivia; Sigur, Nathalie; Grangeon, Jean-Paul; Huguon, Emilie; Dechanet, Clothilde; Cazorla, Cécile; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Descloux, Elodie

    2016-10-19

    We investigated 10 mother-newborn pairs and found a 90% rate of dengue virus (DENV) transmission during the perinatal period. Here, we describe DENV kinetics in the sera of newborns before the onset of disease. Of the breast-milk samples analyzed, 75% tested positive for DENV. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. With this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of vertical (DENV) transmission during the peripartum period and to describe its viral kinetics in serum and breast milk. We carried out a prospective study during the 2012-2013 dengue epidemic in New Caledonia, its most severe on record. All mothers hospitalized at the Centre Hospitalier Territorial in Nouméa, New Caledonia, with symptoms of dengue infection between 7 days before and 2 days after delivery and/or whose infant was infected during breastfeeding were investigated. DENV was detected and quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in sera and breast milk (mothers), sera and gastric fluid (newborns), cord blood, and placentas. DENV kinetics and sequences in sera and breast milk were studied. Clinical presentation and biological evolution in mother-newborn pairs were analyzed. Ten mother-newborn pairs were investigated over an 11-month period. One premature birth, 3 hemorrhagic complications, and 1 maternal death occurred. Nine newborns were infected and symptomatic. One case of deep thrombocytopenia and 1 case of anoxic encephalopathy occurred. DENV was detected in breast milk samples from 9 (75%) of 12 infected breastfeeding mothers. Original DENV kinetics in sera and breast milk were described. The occurrence of vertical DENV transmission was high (90%) in viremic mothers at delivery, and these mothers and their infants were at major risk for obstetric and neonatal complications. The modes of viral transmission are difficult to clarify. The risk of DENV transmission through breast milk seems plausible. Close follow-up of

  3. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Key words: Transfusion Transmissible Infections, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Blood Donors,. University College Hospital (UCH), ELISA. INTRODUCTION. The most common diseases transmitted in blood transfusions are viral infections. Transfusion- transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus ...

  4. Vertical and horizontal transmission drive bacterial invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, N.; Huigens, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    A huge variety of Arthropod species is infected with endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that manipulate their host’s reproduction to invade populations. In addition to vertical transmission from mother to offspring through the egg cytoplasm, it has been demonstrated through phylogenetic analyses and

  5. Evidence for vertical transmission of HPV from mothers to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elaine M; Parker, Michael A; Rubenstein, Linda M; Haugen, Thomas H; Hamsikova, Eva; Turek, Lubomir P

    2010-01-01

    Few large studies have evaluated concordance based on a broad spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in oral and genital specimens of mothers and their recently born infants. This information is important in determining whether HPV vaccines administered prior to pregnancy may be useful for preventing vertical transmission. HPV DNA was positive in 30% of mothers and 1.5% of newborns. Maternal/newborn concordance (HPV+/+ or HPV-/-) was 71%. Among HPV DNA+ mothers, only 3% of their infants were DNA+ and only 1 pair had the same HPV type. Among HPV- women, 0.8% of infants were HPV+. HPV DNA detected in hospitalized newborns reflects current infection transmitted to infants during pregnancy or delivery. None of the mother/baby HPV DNA+ concordance pairs detected viral types found in HPV vaccines suggesting that vaccination prior to pregnancy is unlikely to be efficacious in preventing vertical transmission.

  6. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  7. Discrepancy in impact of maternal milk on vertical transmission between Hepatitis B virus and Human cytomegalovirus

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    Ting Wang

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Breastfeeding is not a risk factor for maternal-to-infant transmission of HBV after the recommended prophylaxis is implemented. However, viral DNA positive breast milk is a main source for vertical transmission of HCMV to infants who are not protected by a standard immunoprophylaxis protocol.

  8. Prediction of HCV vertical transmission: what factors should be optimized using data mining computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrazek, Abd; Amer, Mohamed; El-Hawary, Bahaa; Salah, Altaher; Bhagavathula, Akshaya S; Alboraie, M; Saab, Samy

    2017-04-01

    Neonates born to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive mothers are usually not screened for HCV. Unscreened children may act as active sources for social HCV transmission, and factors contributing for vertical HCV transmitting still remained controversial and needed optimization. We aimed to investigate the factors contributing for vertical HCV transmission in Egypt; the highest HCV prevalence worldwide. We prospectively followed the neonates born to HCV-positive mother in the child-bearing period, to identify mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) factors from January 2015 to March 2016. Data mining computational analysis was used to quantify the findings. Among 3000 randomized pregnant women, prevalence of HCV was 46/3000 (1.53%). HCV vertical transmission was identified in eight neonates (17.39%). Only high viral load identified at 975.000 IU was the predictor risk for MTCT. Hepatitis C virus in pregnancy has substantial risk for vertical HCV transmission: High viral load in HCV-positive women increases the risk of HCV transmission to neonates. Screening pregnant women during early stage of pregnancy and optimizing the HCV viral load in HCV-positive women might prevent vertical HCV transmission to neonates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vertical-transmission routes for deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Constanze; Schröder, Marion; Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2007-08-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a viral pathogen of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera), associated with clinical symptoms and colony collapse when transmitted by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. In the absence of V. destructor, DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms, suggesting that mite-independent transmission results in covert infections. True covert infections are a known infection strategy for insect viruses, resulting in long-term persistence of the virus in the population. They are characterized by the absence of disease symptoms in the presence of the virus and by vertical transmission of the virus. To demonstrate vertical transmission and, hence, true covert infections for DWV, a detailed study was performed on the vertical-transmission routes of DWV. In total, 192 unfertilized eggs originating from eight virgin queens, and the same number of fertilized eggs from the same queens after artificial insemination with DWV-negative (three queens) or DWV-positive (five queens) semen, were analysed individually. The F0 queens and drones and F1 drones and workers were also analysed for viral RNA. By in situ hybridization, viral sequences were detected in the ovary of an F0 queen that had laid DWV-positive unfertilized eggs and was inseminated with DWV-positive semen. In conclusion, vertical transmission of DWV from queens and drones to drone and worker offspring through unfertilized and fertilized eggs, respectively, was demonstrated. Viral sequences in fertilized eggs can originate from the queen, as well as from drones via DWV-positive semen.

  10. Vertical transmission in feather mites: insights into its adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dona, Jorge; Potti, Jaime; De La Hera, Ivan; Blanco, Guillermo; Frias, Oscar; Jovani, Roger

    2017-01-01

    1. The consequences of symbiont transmission strategies are better understood than their adaptive causes. 2. Feather mites are permanent ectosymbionts of birds assumed to be transmitted mainly vertically from parents to offspring. The transmission of Proctophyllodes doleophyes Gaud (Astigmata,

  11. Vertical transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Barati, Farid; Kahroba, Hooman; Jolodar, Abbas; Rashidi, Fardokht

    2014-07-14

    This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period. A dead ewe and her aborted fetus were transported to the Ahvaz Veterinary Hospital for the diagnostic evaluation. The microbial cultures from the ewe vaginal discharges and fetal abomasal contents and the liver were negative. The blood films of the ewe and her fetus contained Theileria piroplasms and the impression smears from ewe liver and fetal spleen were positive for Theileria Koch blue bodies. The DNA was extracted from the liver and spleen of ewe and her fetus, respectively, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers derived from the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of T. lestoquardi. A single fragment of 428-bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank(®) showed 100% identities with 18S rDNA gene of T. lestoquardi. The present study is the first report of the T. lestoquardi vertical transmission that could be related to the abortion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Zika virus: what do we know about the viral structure, mechanisms of transmission, and neurological outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Regina Cangussu da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Zika virus epidemic that started in Brazil in 2014 has spread to >30 countries and territories in Latin America, leading to a rapid rise in the incidence of microcephalic newborns and adults with neurological complications. At the beginning of the outbreak, little was known about Zika virus morphology, genome structure, modes of transmission, and its potential to cause neurological malformations and disorders. With the advancement of basic science, discoveries of the mechanisms of strain variability, viral transfer to the fetus, and neurovirulence were published. These will certainly lead to the development of strategies to block vertical viral transmission, neuronal invasion, and pathogenesis in the near future. This paper reviews the current literature on Zika virus infections, with the aim of gaining a holistic insight into their etiology and pathogenesis. We discuss Zika virus history and epidemiology in Brazil, viral structure and taxonomy, old and newly identified transmission modes, and neurological consequences of infection.

  13. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens1-3. In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects3-5. Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers6-8, allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  14. Antiretroviral treatment, viral load of mothers & perinatal HIV transmission in Mumbai, India

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    Swati P Ahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT is the most significant route of HIV transmission in children below the age of 15 yr. In India, perinatal HIV transmission, even after treatment, accounts for 5.4 per cent of HIV cases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of anti-retro viral therapy (ART or prophylactic treatment (PT to control maternal viral load in HIV positive women, and its effect on vertical HIV transmission to their infants. Methods: A total of 58 HIV positive women were enrolled at the time of delivery and their plasma samples were obtained within 24 h of delivery for estimation of viral load. Viral load analysis was completed in 38 women. Infants received single dose nevirapine within 2 h of birth and zidovudine for 6 wk. At the end of 18 month follow up, HIV positive or negative status was available in 28 infants. Results: Results revealed undetectable levels of viral load in 58.3 per cent of women with ART compared to 30.7 per cent of women with PT. No women on ART had viral load more than 10,000 copies/ml, whereas seven (26.9%, P=0.07 women receiving PT had this viral load. Median CD4 count of women on PT (483 cells/μl was high compared to the women on ART (289 cells/ μl. At the end of 18 months follow up, only two children were HIV positive, whose mothers were on PT. One had in utero transmission; infection detected within 48 h of delivery, while the other child was infected post partum as HIV was detected at six months follow up. Interpretation & conclusions: Women who received a single dose of nevirapine during delivery had higher levels of viral load than women on ART. Combination drug therapy for pregnant women is now a standard of care in most of the western countries; use of nevirapine monotherapy at the time of delivery in our settings is not effective in controlling viral load. This highlights initiation of ART in pregnant women to control their viral load and thus to inhibit

  15. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences...... viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...... fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts. We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. The I391L polymerase mutant also exhibited lower transmission rates...

  16. Determination of vertical transmission rate of Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the vertical transmission rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the socio-demographic factors associated with its transmission in pregnant women (PW). The subjects were pregnant women who presented for delivery in the prenatal wards and their newborns at Muhimbili ...

  17. Understanding Viral Transmission Behavior via Protein Intrinsic Disorder Prediction: Coronaviruses

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    Gerard Kian-Meng Goh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a common threat to farm animals and poultry, coronavirus (CoV was responsible for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in 2002–4. However, many aspects of CoV behavior, including modes of its transmission, are yet to be fully understood. We show that the amount and the peculiarities of distribution of the protein intrinsic disorder in the viral shell can be used for the efficient analysis of the behavior and transmission modes of CoV. The proposed model allows categorization of the various CoVs by the peculiarities of disorder distribution in their membrane (M and nucleocapsid (N. This categorization enables quick identification of viruses with similar behaviors in transmission, regardless of genetic proximity. Based on this analysis, an empirical model for predicting the viral transmission behavior is developed. This model is able to explain some behavioral aspects of important coronaviruses that previously were not fully understood. The new predictor can be a useful tool for better epidemiological, clinical, and structural understanding of behavior of both newly emerging viruses and viruses that have been known for a long time. A potentially new vaccine strategy could involve searches for viral strains that are characterized by the evolutionary misfit between the peculiarities of the disorder distribution in their shells and their behavior.

  18. Vertical transmission of HTLV-I/II: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L

    1998-01-01

    The vertical transmission of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) occurs predominantly through breast-feeding. Since some bottle-fed children born to carrier mothers still remain seropositive with a frequency that varies from 3.3% to 12.8%, an alternative pathway of vertical transmission must be considered. The prevalence rate of vertical transmission observed in Japan varied from 15% to 25% in different surveys. In Brazil there is no evaluation of this form of transmission until now. However, it is known that in Salvador, Bahia, 0.7% to 0.88% of pregnant women of low socio-economic class are HTLV-I carriers. Furthermore the occurrence of many cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and of four cases of infective dermatitis in Salvador, diseases directly linked to the vertical transmission of HTLV-I, indicates the importance of this route of infection among us. Through prenatal screening for HTLV-I and the refraining from breast-feeding a reduction of approximately 80% of vertical transmission has been observed in Japan. We suggest that in Brazil serologic screening for HTLV-I infection must be done for selected groups in the prenatal care: pregnant women from endemic areas, Japanese immigrants or Japanese descendents, intravenous drug users (IDU) or women whose partners are IDU, Human immunodeficiency virus carriers, pregnant women with promiscuous sexual behavior and pregnant women that have received blood transfusions in areas where blood donors screening is not performed. There are in the literature few reports demonstrating the vertical transmission of HTLV-II.

  19. Effect of synaptic transmission on viral fitness in HIV infection.

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    Natalia L Komarova

    Full Text Available HIV can spread through its target cell population either via cell-free transmission, or by cell-to-cell transmission, presumably through virological synapses. Synaptic transmission entails the transfer of tens to hundreds of viruses per synapse, a fraction of which successfully integrate into the target cell genome. It is currently not understood how synaptic transmission affects viral fitness. Using a mathematical model, we investigate how different synaptic transmission strategies, defined by the number of viruses passed per synapse, influence the basic reproductive ratio of the virus, R(0, and virus load. In the most basic scenario, the model suggests that R(0 is maximized if a single virus particle is transferred per synapse. R(0 decreases and the infection eventually cannot be maintained for larger numbers of transferred viruses, because multiple infection of the same cell wastes viruses that could otherwise enter uninfected cells. To explain the relatively large number of HIV copies transferred per synapse, we consider additional biological assumptions under which an intermediate number of viruses transferred per synapse could maximize R(0. These include an increased burst size in multiply infected cells, the saturation of anti-viral factors upon infection of cells, and rate limiting steps during the process of synapse formation.

  20. Évolution De La Prevalence Des Infections Virales Transmissibles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : Notre étude a montré que le VIH, le VHC et le VHB constituent encore de véritables freins à la sécurité transfusionnelle en Côte d'Ivoire. Une augmentation du taux de fidélisation des donneurs de sang pourrait en partie diminuer les risques de transmission de ces infections virales. Mots clés : Prévalence, VIH, ...

  1. Transmission of vertical soil stress under agricultural tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Berli, M.; Ruiz, S.

    2014-01-01

    and simulate soil stress under defined loads. Stress in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at a water content close to field capacity on five soils (13–66% clay). Stress transmission was then simulated with a semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth...

  2. Intrapartum practices to limit vertical transmission of HIV | du Preez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, we formulate general recommendations for nursing education, future research, and midwifery practice. In particular we suggest ways the national Guidelines for Maternity Care in South Africa may be adapted and better implemented to enhance safe intrapartum practices to limit vertical transmission of HIV.

  3. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants.

  4. Viral piracy: HIV-1 targets dendritic cells for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkerkerker, Annemarie N; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2006-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells, are critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. Remarkably the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subverts DC function leading to spread of the virus. At an early phase of HIV-1 transmission, DCs capture HIV-1 at mucosal surfaces and transmit the virus to T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Capture of the virus on DCs takes place via C-type lectins of which the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is the best studied. DC-SIGN-captured HIV-1 particles accumulate in CD81(+) multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in DCs and are subsequently transmitted to CD4+ T cells resulting in infection of T cells. The viral cell-to-cell transmission takes place at the DC-T cell interface termed the infectious synapse. Recent studies demonstrate that direct infection of DCs contributes to the transmission to T cells at a later phase. Moreover, the infected DCs may function as cellular reservoirs for HIV-1. This review discusses the different processes that govern viral piracy of DCs by HIV-1, emphasizing the intracellular routing of the virus from capture on the cell surface to egress in the infectious synapse.

  5. Mathematical model of Zika virus with vertical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Agusto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika is a flavivirus transmitted to humans through either the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes or sexual transmission. Zika has been linked to congenital anomalies such as microcephaly. In this paper, we analyze a new system of ordinary differential equations which incorporates human vertical transmission of Zika virus, the birth of babies with microcephaly and asymptomatically infected individuals. The Zika model is locally and globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. Our model shows that asymptomatic individuals amplify the disease burden in the community, and the most important parameters for ZIKV spread are the death rate of mosquitoes, the mosquito biting rate, the mosquito recruitment rate, and the transmission per contact to mosquitoes and to adult humans. Scenario exploration indicates that personal-protection is a more effective control strategy than mosquito-reduction strategy. It also shows that delaying conception reduces the number of microcephaly cases, although this does little to prevent Zika transmission in the broader community. However, by coupling aggressive vector control and personal protection use, it is possible to reduce both microcephaly and Zika transmission. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 92B05, 93A30, 93C15. Keywords: Zika virus, Vertical transmission, Microcephaly, Stability, Control

  6. Fatores protetores e de risco envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 Protective and risk factors related to vertical transmission of the HIV-1

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    Rosângela P. Gianvecchio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia os fatores maternos e fetais envolvidos na transmissão vertical do HIV-1 em 47 pares de mãe e filho. As variáveis comportamentais, demográficas e obstétricas foram obtidas mediante entrevista; os dados referentes ao parto e ao recém-nascido, dos prontuários das maternidades. Durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação foi realizada a contagem da carga viral materna e dos linfócitos T CD4+. A média de idade foi de 25 anos e 23,4% das gestantes eram primigestas, e o fator comportamental mais prevalente foi não usar preservativos. Dentre as gestantes, 48,9% tinham células CD4+ superior a 500 células/mm³ e 93,6% se enquadravam na categoria clínica A; 95,7% submeteram-se à profilaxia com zidovudina durante a gestação ou no parto, a qual foi ministrada a todos os recém-nascidos; 50,0% delas foram submetidas à cesárea eletiva. Apesar de expostas a vários fatores de risco e protetores, nenhuma criança tornou-se infectada. A transmissão vertical resulta de um desequilíbrio entre os fatores, com predomínio dos de risco sobre os protetores.This study aimed to evaluate maternal and fetal factors related to vertical transmission of HIV-1. Participants included 47 mother-child pairs. Behavioral, demographic, and obstetric data were obtained through interviews. Data related to delivery and newborns were collected from registries in the maternity hospitals. During the third trimester of pregnancy, CD4+ T lymphocytes and maternal viral load were measured. Mean age of the mothers was 25 years and 23.4% of the pregnant women were primigravidae. The most prevalent behavioral factor was lack of condom use. 48.9% of the women presented a CD4+ count greater than 500 cells/ mm³, and 93.6% belonged to clinical category A. 95.7% of the women received zidovudine prophylaxis during pregnancy or childbirth, and the medication was also administered to all the neonates. 50.0% of patients were submitted to elective cesareans. Despite

  7. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HTLV-I/II: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achiléa Lisboa BITTENCOURT

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical transmission of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I occurs predominantly through breast-feeding. Since some bottle-fed children born to carrier mothers still remain seropositive with a frequency that varies from 3.3% to 12.8%, an alternative pathway of vertical transmission must be considered. The prevalence rate of vertical transmission observed in Japan varied from 15% to 25% in different surveys. In Brazil there is no evaluation of this form of transmission until now. However, it is known that in Salvador, Bahia, 0.7% to 0.88% of pregnant women of low socio-economic class are HTLV-I carriers. Furthermore the occurrence of many cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and of four cases of infective dermatitis in Salvador, diseases directly linked to the vertical transmission of HTLV-I, indicates the importance of this route of infection among us. Through prenatal screening for HTLV-I and the refraining from breast-feeding a reduction of ~ 80% of vertical transmission has been observed in Japan. We suggest that in Brazil serologic screening for HTLV-I infection must be done for selected groups in the prenatal care: pregnant women from endemic areas, Japanese immigrants or Japanese descendents, intravenous drug users (IDU or women whose partners are IDU, human immunodeficiency virus carriers, pregnant women with promiscuous sexual behavior and pregnant women that have received blood transfusions in areas where blood donors screening is not performed. There are in the literature few reports demonstrating the vertical transmission of HTLV-II.A transmissão vertical do virus linfotrópico para células T humanas tipo I (HTLV-I ocorre principalmente através a amamentação. Como um pequeno percentual de filhos de portadoras alimentados artificialmente é soropositivo, devem existir outras vias de transmissão vertical. A taxa de prevalência de transmissão vertical no Japão varia de 15% a 25%. No Brasil, ainda n

  8. Oral sex and transmission of non-viral STIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Carne, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on the role of oral sex in the transmission of non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHOD: A Medline search was performed using the keywords oro-genital sex, and those specific to each infection. Further references were then taken from each article read. CONCLUSIONS: Oral sex is a common sexual practice between both heterosexual and homosexual couples. Oro-genital sex is implicated as a route of transmission for gonorrhoea, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, chancroid, and Neisseria meningitidis. Other respiratory organisms such as streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae could also be transmitted by this route. Fellatio confers risk for acquisition of infection by the oral partner. Cunnilingus appears to predispose to recurrent vaginal candidiasis although the mechanism for this is unclear, while a link between oro-genital sex and bacterial vaginosis is currently being studied. Oro-anal sex is implicated in the transmission of various enteric infections. In view of the increased practice of oral sex this has become a more important potential route of transmission for oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. 


 PMID:9634339

  9. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine microorganisms represent the largest reservoir of living organic carbon in the ocean and collectively manage the pools and fluxes of nutrients and energy. Climate-induced increases in sea surface temperature and associated modifications to vertical stratification are affecting the structure

  10. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how changes in vertical stratification affect autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities along a meridional gradient in the Atlantic Ocean. The Northeast Atlantic Ocean is a key area in global ocean circulation and a important sink for

  11. [Hepatitis C and pregnancy: an analysis of factors associated with vertical transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardenal, Renata Vidal Cardoso; Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Luft, Juliana Libman; Paula, Gregori Lucas Steimback Alves de; Vidal, Fábio Galvão; Turine Neto, Plínio; Souza, Renê Augusto Almeida de

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning hepatitis C virus infection during pregnancy in Brazilian medical services are scarce. This study aimed to verify factors associated with vertical transmission (VT) of HCV in pregnant women. Observational transversal study of pregnant women from Campo Grande, MS, central Brazil, with confirmed reagent serology for HCV infection from 2002 to 2005. Vertical transmission was considered to be positive HCV serology by ELISA, confirmed by PCR, after 18 months of life of the newborn. The factors studied associated with VT were: delivery mode, time of premature rupture of membranes, breastfeeding, blood transfusion history, drug addiction, number of sexual partners and the presence of body tattoos. Fifty-eight pregnant women with HCV infection were identified, indicating a prevalence rate of 0.2% (58/31,187). Of these 58 pregnant women,23 (39.6%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The VT rate was 13% (3/23), and the most frequent HCV viral subtypes were 1a (53%), 1b (30%), 2b (4%) e 3a (13.0%). Two (8.7%) patients were coinfected with HIV. A significant association (p 2.5 x 10(6)) and VT and the use of illicit drugs by the mother. The present study demonstrates that high serum maternal viremia for HCV and the use of illicit drugs by the mother are associated with vertical transmission of HCV.

  12. Vertical transmission of Toxocara canis in successive generations of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenardie, Elizandra Roselaine; Scaini, Carlos James; Pepe, Michele Soares; Borsuk, Sibele; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Villela, Marcos; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis larvae in unusual hosts. In dogs, the definitive host, the infection occurs mainly through transplacental and transcolostral transmission. Studies on experimental models have shown that vertical transmission may result from acute infections. Considering that toxocariasis is characterized as a chronic infection, with possible reactivation of larvae present in the brain, this study evaluated the presence of larvae in the brain of female BALB/c mice and their offspring with chronic infection during three successive pregnancies. ELISA-TES was used to evaluate the antibody levels. T. canis larvae were detected in the brain tissue of the mice during the three successive generations evaluated. The offspring's IgG level gradually decreased, and mean absorbance (ABS) above the cutoff point (0.070) was observed only at 30 (0.229) and 50 (0.096) days of age, while IgM was not detected. The infections in the offspring confirmed that vertical transmission of T. canis larvae occurred during chronic toxocariasis in three successive generations of mice.

  13. Diverse strategies for vertical symbiont transmission among subsocial stinkbugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Sociality may affect symbiosis and vice versa. Many plant-sucking stinkbugs harbor mutualistic bacterial symbionts in the midgut. In the superfamily Pentatomoidea, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus, which their offspring ingest orally and establish vertical symbiont transmission. In many stinkbug families whose members are mostly non-social, females excrete symbiont-containing materials onto/beside eggs upon oviposition. However, exceptional cases have been reported from two subsocial species representing the closely related families Cydnidae and Parastrachiidae, wherein females remain nearby eggs for maternal care after oviposition, and provide their offspring with symbiont-containing secretions at later stages, either just before or after hatching. These observations suggested that sociality of the host stinkbugs may be correlated with their symbiont transmission strategies. However, we found that cydnid stinkbugs of the genus Adomerus, which are associated with gammaproteobacterial gut symbionts and exhibit elaborate maternal care over their offspring, smear symbiont-containing secretions onto eggs upon oviposition as many non-social stinkbugs do. Surface sterilization of the eggs resulted in aposymbiotic insects of slower growth, smaller size and abnormal body coloration, indicating vertical symbiont transmission via egg surface contamination and presumable beneficial nature of the symbiosis. The Adomerus symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions, accelerated molecular evolutionary rates and reduced genome size, while these degenerative genomic traits were less severe than those in the symbiont of a subsocial parastrachiid. These results suggest that not only sociality but also other ecological and evolutionary aspects of the host stinkbugs, including the host-symbiont co-evolutionary history, may have substantially affected their symbiont transmission strategies.

  14. Diverse Strategies for Vertical Symbiont Transmission among Subsocial Stinkbugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Hironaka, Mantaro; Inadomi, Koichi; Mukai, Hiromi; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    Sociality may affect symbiosis and vice versa. Many plant-sucking stinkbugs harbor mutualistic bacterial symbionts in the midgut. In the superfamily Pentatomoidea, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus, which their offspring ingest orally and establish vertical symbiont transmission. In many stinkbug families whose members are mostly non-social, females excrete symbiont-containing materials onto/beside eggs upon oviposition. However, exceptional cases have been reported from two subsocial species representing the closely related families Cydnidae and Parastrachiidae, wherein females remain nearby eggs for maternal care after oviposition, and provide their offspring with symbiont-containing secretions at later stages, either just before or after hatching. These observations suggested that sociality of the host stinkbugs may be correlated with their symbiont transmission strategies. However, we found that cydnid stinkbugs of the genus Adomerus, which are associated with gammaproteobacterial gut symbionts and exhibit elaborate maternal care over their offspring, smear symbiont-containing secretions onto eggs upon oviposition as many non-social stinkbugs do. Surface sterilization of the eggs resulted in aposymbiotic insects of slower growth, smaller size and abnormal body coloration, indicating vertical symbiont transmission via egg surface contamination and presumable beneficial nature of the symbiosis. The Adomerus symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions, accelerated molecular evolutionary rates and reduced genome size, while these degenerative genomic traits were less severe than those in the symbiont of a subsocial parastrachiid. These results suggest that not only sociality but also other ecological and evolutionary aspects of the host stinkbugs, including the host-symbiont co-evolutionary history, may have substantially affected their symbiont transmission strategies. (250 words). PMID:23741463

  15. [Retrospective study of risk factors of vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga Revilla, P; Aguar Carrascosa, M; Pereda Pérez, A; Modesto Alapont, V; Montañés Sánchez, A; Torres Martínez, E; Brugada Montanter, M; León Cariñena, S

    2012-06-01

    Despite the low prevalence of paediatric HCV infection and its initial mild clinical expressiveness, chronic infection could progress into cirrhosis and/or hepatocarcinoma. It is essential to control vertical transmission. Recent studies show that up to 50% of transmissions occur within the uterus. [corrected] A retrospective study was conducted on 17 cases of (Hepatitis C virus) HCV infection registered over a period of 8 years. Vertical transmission risk factors were analysed, in order to introduce primary prevention. Only parenteral drug addiction significantly increased the rate of HCV transmission; HIV co-infection was not a confounding factor. HCV viremia, HIV co-infection, liver dysfunction and/or duration of the infection did not appear to affect the rate of transmission. Caesarean section, amniocentesis and internal monitoring may be risk factors (not statistically significant), but not prolonged vaginal delivery after amniotic membrane rupture. Breastfeeding showed protection. The effect of viremia on the risk of transmission is not clearly established, despite the importance usually attributed. Lack of viremia does not discount the risk of transmission, due to viral RNA detection can be intermittent, so it should be interpreted cautiously. Immunosuppression secondary to HIV co-infection implies a higher risk of transmission, but this effect decreases by improving immune competence by antiretroviral treatment. With regard to the birth characteristics, time after the rupture of membranes has not shown being a risk factor; being the caesarean not advisable as a good alternative to finish the pregnancy. Breastfeeding does not increase the risk, even it can be protective. This results would be justified by the low viral content of milk, its inactivation by gastric pH and its immunological benefits. Given that retrospective studies results are limited, prospective studies need to be carried out in order to improve the understanding of the role of possible risk

  16. Alanine transaminase levels in the year before pregnancy predict the risk of hepatitis C virus vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Azzari, Chiara; Moriondo, Maria; Lippi, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Resti, Massimo

    2006-07-01

    Vertical transmission is the most common route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children. Transmission risk factors have been described, but most risk factors can only be evaluated using expensive laboratory exams. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether maternal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels before pregnancy correlate with HCV vertical transmission. Seventy-four transmitting and 403 nontransmitting mothers were evaluated. All mothers enrolled had two ALT determinations in the last year before pregnancy, at least 6 months apart. Mothers were divided into two groups: mothers with persistently normal serum ALT levels and mothers with abnormal ALT levels. In the second group both mothers with constantly raised or with fluctuating ALT levels (one normal and one raised determination) were included. ALT was defined as raised if higher than twice the upper limit of normal. Abnormal ALT levels were found in 39/74 (52.7%) HCV transmitting mothers and in 146/403 (32.6%) nontransmitting mothers (P = 0.008; relative risk 1.96; 95% confidence limits 1.19-3.23). The risk of transmission from mothers with constantly raised ALT levels was more evident than that from mothers with fluctuating ALT levels. Increased ALT levels may reflect a more severe liver disease and a higher viral load, factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. ALT determination, a simple, widely available and inexpensive test, may help in identifying mothers with an increased risk of HCV vertical transmission. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, G.; Revollo, J.; Guerra, M.; Cruz, M.; Barja Simon, Z.; Roca, Y.; Vargas Florès, J.; Hervé, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The natural transmission of dengue virus from an infected female mosquito to its progeny, namely the vertical transmission, was researched in wild caught Aedes aegypti during an important outbreak in the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Mosquitoes were collected at the preimaginal stages (eggs, larvae and pupae) then reared up to adult stage for viral detection using molecular methods. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 were found to be co-circulating with significant higher prevalence in male than in female mosquitoes. Of the 97 pools of Ae. aegypti (n = 635 male and 748 female specimens) screened, 14 pools, collected in February-May in 2007, were found positive for dengue virus infection: five DEN-1 and nine DEN-3. The average true infection rate (TIR) and minimum infection rate (MIR) were respectively 1.08% and 1.01%. These observations suggest that vertical transmission of dengue virus may be detected in vectors at the peak of an outbreak as well as several months before an epidemic occurs in human population. PMID:21894270

  18. Herpes simplex virus-2 transmission probability estimates based on quantity of viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Mayer, Bryan T; Fong, Youyi; Swan, David A; Wald, Anna

    2014-06-06

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is periodically shed in the human genital tract, most often asymptomatically, and most sexual transmissions occur during asymptomatic shedding. It would be helpful to identify a genital viral load threshold necessary for transmission, as clinical interventions that maintain viral quantity below this level would be of high utility. However, because viral expansion, decay and re-expansion kinetics are extremely rapid during shedding episodes, it is impossible to directly measure genital viral load at the time of sexual activity. We developed a mathematical model based on reproducing shedding patterns in transmitting partners, and median number of sex acts prior to transmission in discordant couples, to estimate infectivity of single viral particles in the negative partner's genital tract. We then inferred probability estimates for transmission at different levels of genital tract viral load in the transmitting partner. We predict that transmission is unlikely at viral loads less than 10(4) HSV DNA copies. Moreover, most transmissions occur during prolonged episodes with high viral copy numbers. Many shedding episodes that result in transmission do not reach the threshold of clinical detection, because the ulcer remains very small, highlighting one reason why HSV-2 spreads so effectively within populations.

  19. Possible Vertical Transmission of Bartonella bacilliformis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuya, Ximena L.; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; Tinco, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; Petrozzi, Verónica; Ruiz, Joaquim; del Valle, Juana

    2015-01-01

    A 22-day-old male was admitted with a 2-day history of irritability, dyspnea, jaundice, fever, and gastrointestinal bleeding. A thin blood smear was performed, which showed the presence of intraerythrocyte bacteria identified as Bartonella bacilliformis, and subsequently, the child was diagnosed with Carrion's disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction. The child was born in a non-endemic B. bacilliformis area and had not traveled to such an area before hospitalization. However, the mother was from an endemic B. bacilliformis area, and posterior physical examination showed the presence of a wart compatible with B. bacilliformis in semi-immune subjects. These data support vertical transmission of B. bacilliformis. PMID:25371184

  20. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Nielsen, V.R.

    2008-01-01

    was to describe vertical transmission of HIV in Denmark after the introduction of ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective study of all HIV-infected women who gave birth in Denmark between 1 January 2000 and 31 May 2005 and their children. RESULTS: 83 HIV-infected women gave birth to 96 children...... during the study period. In 79% of the cases, the woman knew her HIV status at the beginning of her pregnancy. The median CD4 count before delivery was 447 x 10(6)/l, and in 76% of the cases the HIV-RNA was women delivered by Caesarean section. None of the children were...... breastfed. None of the children were infected during pregnancy, delivery or after birth. During the same period of time, 8 children were diagnosed with HIV in Denmark; they were born to mothers whose HIV infection was not diagnosed during pregnancy or delivery and therefore preventive treatment...

  1. Vertical transmission of Brucella abortus causes sterility in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashino, Masanori; Kim, Suk; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms of abortion and sterility induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, caused sterility in pregnant mice. We have recently established a mouse model for abortion induced by B. abortus infection and high rates of abortion are observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Infected newborn (first generation) mice showed poor growth compared with uninfected newborn mice and bacterial replication in the spleen of the former was observed over a long period. When infected first generation female mice were mated to infected first generation male mice, the number of fetuses was significantly less than that in uninfected first generation mice. These infected second generation mice also showed poor growth. These results suggest that vertical transmission of B. abostus causes sterility in pregnant mice and our mouse model would be useful for the investigating of brucellosis.

  2. Autophagy pathway induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread and transmission by its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Qian; Li, Manman; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Hongyan; Wu, Wei; Jia, Dongsheng; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-11-01

    Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux. Such virus-containing autophagosomes seem able to mediate nonlytic viral release from cultured cells or facilitate viral spread in the leafhopper intestine. Applying the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing the expression of Atg5 significantly decrease viral spread in vitro and in vivo, whereas applying the autophagy inducer rapamycin or silencing the expression of Torc1 facilitate such viral spread. Furthermore, we find that activation of autophagy facilitates efficient viral transmission, whereas inhibiting autophagy blocks viral transmission by its insect vector. Together, these results indicate a plant virus can induce the formation of autophagosomes for carrying virions, thus facilitating viral spread and transmission by its insect vector. We believe that such a role for virus-induced autophagy is common for vector-borne persistent viruses during their transmission by insect vectors.

  3. The magnitude of syphilis: from prevalence to vertical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rodrigues Pedreira de Cerqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO reported that 1.9 million pregnant women were infected with syphilis worldwide, of which 66.5% had adverse fetal effects in cases of untreated syphilis. Congenital syphilis contributes significantly to infant mortality, accounting for 305,000 perinatal deaths worldwide annually. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis in parturients, the incidence of congenital syphilis and the vertical transmission rate. Material and methods: a cross-sectional study with data collected from 2041 parturients who had undergone treatment between 2012 and 2014 in the maternity section of the Pedro Ernesto Hospital of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion criterion was positive VDRL and treponemal test in a hospital environment. Results: the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 4.1% in 2012, 3.1% in 2013 and 5% in 2014, with official reporting of 15.6%, 25.0% and 48.1%, respectively. The incidence of congenital syphilis (CS was 22/1,000 in live births (LB in 2012; 17/1,000 LB in 2013 and 44.8/1,000 LB in 2014. CS underreporting during the period was 6.7%. Vertical transmission occurred in 65.8% of infants from infected mothers. It was concluded that, in 34.6% of the CS cases, maternal VDRL titers were = 1/4. Conclusion: Results demonstrate the magnitude of the disease, fragility of the reporting system in the assessment of the actual prevalence, impact on perinatal outcomes, and they are a warning about the real situation of syphilis, which is still underestimated in the State.

  4. The magnitude of syphilis: from prevalence to vertical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cerqueira, Luciane Rodrigues Pedreira; Monteiro, Denise L. M.; Taquette, Stella R.; Rodrigues, Nádia C. P.; Trajano, Alexandre J. B.; de Souza, Flavio Monteiro; Araújo, Bianca De Melo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 1.9 million pregnant women were infected with syphilis worldwide, of which 66.5% had adverse fetal effects in cases of untreated syphilis. Congenital syphilis contributes significantly to infant mortality, accounting for 305,000 perinatal deaths worldwide annually. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis in parturients, the incidence of congenital syphilis and the vertical transmission rate. Material and methods: a cross-sectional study with data collected from 2041 parturients who had undergone treatment between 2012 and 2014 in the maternity section of the Pedro Ernesto Hospital of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion criterion was positive VDRL and treponemal test in a hospital environment. Results: the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 4.1% in 2012, 3.1% in 2013 and 5% in 2014, with official reporting of 15.6%, 25.0% and 48.1%, respectively. The incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) was 22/1,000 in live births (LB) in 2012; 17/1,000 LB in 2013 and 44.8/1,000 LB in 2014. CS underreporting during the period was 6.7%. Vertical transmission occurred in 65.8% of infants from infected mothers. It was concluded that, in 34.6% of the CS cases, maternal VDRL titers were = 1/4. Conclusion: Results demonstrate the magnitude of the disease, fragility of the reporting system in the assessment of the actual prevalence, impact on perinatal outcomes, and they are a warning about the real situation of syphilis, which is still underestimated in the State. PMID:29267586

  5. Vertically acquired hepatitis C virus infection: Correlates of transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, Pier-Angelo; Calitri, Carmelina; Scolfaro, Carlo; Gabiano, Clara; Garazzino, Silvia

    2016-01-28

    The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is 0.05%-0.4% in developed countries and 2%-5% in resource-limited settings, where inadequately tested blood products or un-sterile medical injections still remain important routes of infection. After the screening of blood donors, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HCV has become the leading cause of pediatric infection, at a rate of 5%. Maternal HIV co-infection is a significant risk factor for MTCT and anti-HIV therapy during pregnancy seemingly can reduce the transmission rate of both viruses. Conversely, a high maternal viral load is an important, but not preventable risk factor, because at present no anti-HCV treatment can be administered to pregnant women to block viral replication. Caution is needed in adopting obstetric procedures, such as amniocentesis or internal fetal monitoring, that can favor fetal exposure to HCV contaminated maternal blood, though evidence is lacking on the real risk of single obstetric practices. Mode of delivery and type of feeding do not represent significant risk factors for MTCT. Therefore, there is no reason to offer elective caesarean section or discourage breast-feeding to HCV infected parturients. Information on the natural history of vertical HCV infection is limited. The primary infection is asymptomatic in infants. At least one quarter of infected children shows a spontaneous viral clearance (SVC) that usually occurs within 6 years of life. IL-28B polymorphims and genotype 3 infection have been associated with greater chances of SVC. In general, HCV progression is mild or moderate in children with chronic infection who grow regularly, though cases with marked liver fibrosis or hepatic failure have been described. Non-organ specific autoantibodies and cryoglobulins are frequently found in children with chronic infection, but autoimmune diseases or HCV associated extrahepatic manifestations are rare.

  6. Conservation of functional domains and limited heterogeneity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene following vertical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafees

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reverse transcriptase (RT enzyme of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 plays a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus by converting the single stranded RNA genome into double stranded DNA that integrates into the host chromosome. In addition, RT is also responsible for the generation of mutations throughout the viral genome, including in its own sequences and is thus responsible for the generation of quasi-species in HIV-1-infected individuals. We therefore characterized the molecular properties of RT, including the conservation of functional motifs, degree of genetic diversity, and evolutionary dynamics from five mother-infant pairs following vertical transmission. Results The RT open reading frame was maintained with a frequency of 87.2% in five mother-infant pairs' sequences following vertical transmission. There was a low degree of viral heterogeneity and estimates of genetic diversity in mother-infant pairs' sequences. Both mothers and infants RT sequences were under positive selection pressure, as determined by the ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis of 132 mother-infant RT sequences revealed distinct clusters for each mother-infant pair, suggesting that the epidemiologically linked mother-infant pairs were evolutionarily closer to each other as compared with epidemiologically unlinked mother-infant pairs. The functional domains of RT which are responsible for reverse transcription, DNA polymerization and RNase H activity were mostly conserved in the RT sequences analyzed in this study. Specifically, the active sites and domains required for primer binding, template binding, primer and template positioning and nucleotide recruitment were conserved in all mother-infant pairs' sequences. Conclusion The maintenance of an intact RT open reading frame, conservation of functional domains for RT activity, preservation of several amino acid motifs in epidemiologically

  7. Trade practices are main factors involved in the transmission of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, M.; Matras, M.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), caused by the novirhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), causes significant economic problems to European rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), production. The virus isolates can be divided into four distinct genotypes with additiona...... cause of virus transmission appears to be movement of fish. At least in Polish circumstances trading practices appear to have significant impact on spreading of VHSV infection....

  8. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences v...... and that maintaining diversity is important for the establishment of infection. This work supports the hypothesis that the reduced polymerase fidelity of the pandemic GII.4 human norovirus isolates may contribute to their global dominance.......Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences...... viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...

  9. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 in the western region of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Maria Alves Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of HIV-1-infected mothers and infant pairs living in the municipalities of São Paulo Regional Health Departments DRS II (Araçatuba and DRS XI (Presidente Prudente. From March 2001 to March 2006, blood samples were collected and referred to the Molecular Biology Unit of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (ALI, Presidente Prudente. HIV-1-RNA viral load was determined by bDNA assay. RESULTS: The number of births (109/217, 50.2% and vertical HIV-1 transmissions (6/109, 5.5% that occurred in DRS II was similar to births (108/217, 49.8% and vertical transmissions (7/108, 6.5% in DRS XI (p > 0.05. Although 80% (4/5 of the infected children were male in DRS II, while in DRS XI, 75% (6/8 were female, no differences between sex regarding infected and noninfected children in the regions of Araçatuba and Presidente Prudente were verified. The overall vertical HIV-1 transmission rate was 6%. No consistent reduction in the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission occurred over the years. About 20% of mothers did not know the HIV-1 status of their newborns eight months after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, MTCT prevalence rates were about 70% higher than those previously determined in the State of São Paulo, with noreduction throughout the period.Furthermore, a significant number of mothers did not know the HIV-status of their newborns eight months after delivery.

  10. Avaliação dos fatores associados à transmissão vertical de HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa da Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo Comparar a prevalência e os fatores associados à transmissão vertical de HIV-1 entre grávidas tratadas de 1998-2004 e de 2005-2011 em um serviço de referência de cuidado de pacientes com HIV no sul do Brasil. Métodos Estudo descritivo e analítico que usou as bases de dados de laboratórios da Rede Nacional de Laboratórios de CD4 e Carga Viral de DST/Aids do Ministério da Saúde. As grávidas com HIV-1 foram selecionadas em uma pesquisa ativa de informações clínicas e dados obstétricos e neonatais em seus prontuários médicos entre 1998-2011. Resultados Foram analisadas 102 grávidas entre 1998 e 2004 e 251 entre 2005-2011, no total 353 crianças nascidas de grávidas com HIV-1. Observou-se que a transmissão vertical foi de 11,8% entre 1998 e 2004 e de 3,2% entre 2005-2011 (p < 0,001. O maior uso de medicamentos antirretrovirais (p = 0,02, a redução na carga viral (p < 0,001 e o tempo de ruptura de membranas menor do que quatro horas (p < 0,001 foram associados à redução nos fatores de transmissão vertical quando os dois períodos são comparados. Conclusão Observou-se uma redução na taxa de transmissão vertical nos últimos anos. De acordo com as variáveis estudadas, sugere-se que os fatores de risco de transmissão vertical de HIV-1 foram ausência de terapia antirretroviral, alta carga viral das grávidas e tempo de ruptura maior do que quatro horas.

  11. Insect transmission of plant viruses: Multilayered interactions optimize viral propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Then, Christiane; Berthelot, Edwige; Ducousso, Marie; Ng, James C K; Drucker, Martin

    2017-12-01

    By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses, and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized. Whereas association of virus particles with specific sites in the vector's mouthparts or in alimentary tract regions immediately posterior to them is required for noncirculative transmission, the cycle of particles through the vector body is necessary for circulative transmission. Virus transmission is also determined by interactions that are associated with changes in vector feeding behaviors and with alterations in plant host's morphology and/or metabolism that favor the attraction or deterrence of vectors. A recent concept in virus-host-vector interactions proposes that when vectors land on infected plants, vector elicitors and effectors "inform" the plants of the confluence of interacting entities and trigger signaling pathways and plant defenses. Simultaneously, the plant responses may also influence virus acquisition and inoculation by vectors. Overall, a picture is emerging where transmission depends on multilayered virus-vector-host interactions that define the route of a virus through the vector, and on the manipulation of the host and the vector. These interactions guarantee virus propagation until one or more of the interactants undergo changes through evolution or are halted by environmental interventions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Evidence of vertical transmission of dengue virus in two endemic localities in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Jeannette; Martínez-Muñoz, Jorge Pascual; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Salas-Benito, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Dengue virus is spread in tropical areas of the world and is the causative agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. It is horizontally transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes, but it is also able to be vertically or transovarially transmitted to insect progeny. In this work, we analyzed the vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in two endemic localities in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The collected larvae were grown in the laboratory and transovarial transmission of dengue virus, either in larvae or newly emerged mosquitoes, was investigated using a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. Although the presence of dengue virus in larvae could not be demonstrated, the viral genome was amplified in 4 out of 43 pools of in-cage born mosquitoes: DEN 2, 3 and 4 serotypes were detected in 2 pools from Tuxtepec and two from Juchitán. The results presented here strongly suggest that dengue virus can be vertically transmitted in mosquitoes from Oaxaca, but more studies will be necessary to analyze the epidemiological impact of this mechanism of transmission. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Viral infections acquired indoors through airborne, droplet or contact transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina La Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoor human environments, including homes, offices, schools, workplaces, transport systems and other settings, often harbor potentially unsafe microorganisms. Most previous studies of bioaerosols in indoor environments have addressed contamination with bacteria or fungi. Reports on the presence of viral aerosols in indoor air are scarce, however, despite the fact that viruses are probably the most common cause of infection acquired indoor. OBJECTIVE: This review discusses the most common respiratory (influenza viruses, rhino-viruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and enteroviruses and gastrointestinal (noroviruses viral pathogens which can be easily transmitted in indoor environments. RESULTS: The vast majority of studies reviewed here concern hospital and other health facilities where viruses are a well-known cause of occupational and nosocomial infections. Studies on other indoor environments, on the other hand, including homes, non-industrial workplaces and public buildings, are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of regulations, threshold values and standardized detection methods for viruses in indoor environments, make both research and interpretation of results difficult in this field, hampering infection control efforts. Further research will be needed to achieve a better understanding of virus survival in aerosols and on surfaces, and to elucidate the relationship between viruses and indoor environmental characteristics.

  14. Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aedes mosquitoes were found to be resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and lamdacyhalothrin, but susceptible to permethrin. Funding: This study was supported in part by Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-Grid). Keywords: Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, insecticide, risk, VHF transmission, ...

  15. Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Eye Infections, Angola, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Isabel; Martínez, Prudencio; Sanz, Iván; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Ana; Fernandez, Itziar; Pastor, Jose Carlos; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    To determine transmission rates for neonatal conjunctivitis causative microorganisms in Angola, we analyzed 312 endocervical and 255 conjunctival samples from mothers and newborns, respectively, during 2011–2012. Transmission rates were 50% for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 10.5% for Mycoplasma genitalium. Possible pathogenic effects of M. genitalium in children’s eyes are unknown. PMID:25695394

  16. Vertical price transmission in the Danish food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate price transmission patterns through selected Danish food chains – from primary production to processing, from processing to wholesale and from wholesale to retail prices. Specifically, the study addresses the following research questions: To what extent...... are commodity prices transmitted from one stage to another in the food chain? What is the time horizon in the price transmission? Is price transmission symmetric – in the short run and in the long run? Is the degree of price transmission affected by the degree of concentration in the supply and demand stage...... considered? These questions are analysed theoretically and empirically using econometric analysis. 6 food chains are investigated: pork, chicken, eggs, milk, sugar and apples. Preliminary empirical results suggest that for most commodities, price transmission tends to be upward asymmetric, i.e. stronger...

  17. Neonatal Anaplasma platys infection in puppies: Further evidence for possible vertical transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matei, I.A.; Stuen, S.; Modrý, David; Degan, A.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 219, 1 January (2017), s. 40-41 ISSN 1090-0233 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma platys * canine * vertical transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.802, year: 2016

  18. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresh Lynn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i. and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days. Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the

  19. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in a hospital in southern Brazil Transmissão vertical do vírus da hepatite C em um hospital do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Ferreira Peixoto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There still are controversies concerning the vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C virus in pregnant women, as well as the rate of vertical transmission of this virus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between August 1998 and November 1999, 1,090 consecutive pregnant women were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus; positive results were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction assay. Patient's viral load was evaluated by the branched deoxyribonucleic acid assay. Hepatitis C virus genotype was identified by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction amplification products. The same tests were performed in the children born from infected mothers at the 1st and 6th month of life. RESULTS: Of the 1,090 mothers surveyed, 29 were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (prevalence of 2.66%. Twenty-five patients presented with hepatitis C virus RNA, with a median hepatitis C virus viral load of 3.132 ± 5.891 MEq/mL. Twenty-two patients (six human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected were followed and gave birth to 23 children; 18 of them had blood samples tested at the 1st month of life, and 22, at the 6th month. Vertical transmission rate was 5.56%; it affected a girl who had hepatitis C virus RNA detectable only in the 1st month sample (41.570 MEq/mL. The mother who transmitted hepatitis C virus was coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and presented with an hepatitis C virus viral load of 3.765 MEq/mL, with 100% homology with her daughter's hepatitis C virus genotype. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women should not be neglected, and early diagnosis of vertical transmission and the follow up of infected children should be emphasized.RACIONAL: Ainda existem controvérsias em relação à transmissão vertical do vírus da hepatite C (VHC. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência dos anticorpos contra o VHC (anti

  20. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  1. Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Ciaian, P.; Pokrivcak, J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no

  2. Horizontal and vertical transmission of wild-type and recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X.C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Werf, van der W.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission plays a central role in the ecology of baculoviruses and the population dynamics of their hosts. Here, we report on the horizontal and vertical transmission dynamics of wild-type Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV-WT) and a genetically modified variant

  3. The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longatti, Andrea

    2015-12-17

    Exosomes are small nanovesicles of about 100 nm in diameter that act as intercellular messengers because they can shuttle RNA, proteins and lipids between different cells. Many studies have found that exosomes also play various roles in viral pathogenesis. Hepatitis A virus (HAV; a picornavirus) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV; a flavivirus) two single strand plus-sense RNA viruses, in particular, have been found to use exosomes for viral transmission thus evading antibody-mediated immune responses. Paradoxically, both viral exosomes can also be detected by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) leading to innate immune activation and type I interferon production. This article will review recent findings regarding these two viruses and outline how exosomes are involved in their transmission and immune sensing.

  4. Gag sequence variation in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission cluster influences viral replication fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Esther F.; van Nuenen, Ad C.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2013-01-01

    Three men from a proven homosexual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission cluster showed large variation in their clinical course of infection. To evaluate the effect of evolution of the same viral variant in these three patients, we analysed sequence variation in the capsid

  5. Demonstration of terabit-scale data transmission in silicon vertical slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chengcheng; Li, Chao; Yang, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-20

    We design and fabricate silicon vertical slot waveguides for terabit-scale data transmission. The designed silicon photonic device is composed of apodized grating couplers, strip waveguides, strip-to-slot/slot-to-strip mode converters, and slot waveguide. Tight light confinement in the nano-scale air slot region is achieved in the silicon vertical slot waveguide which features relatively lower nonlinearity compared to silicon strip waveguide. Using the fabricated silicon photonic devices, we first demonstrate ultra-wide bandwidth 1.8-Tbit/s data transmission through a 2-mm-long silicon vertical slot waveguide using 161 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) channels each carrying 11.2-Gbit/s orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal. All 161 WDM channels achieve bit-error rate (BER) less than 1e-3 after on-chip data transmission. We further demonstrate terabit-scale data transmission through four silicon vertical slot waveguides with different lengths (1 mm, 2 mm, 3.1 mm, 12.2 mm). The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of data transmission through four silicon vertical slot waveguides are 1, 2, 3.2 and 4.5 dB at a BER of 1e-3, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the presented silicon vertical slot waveguide might be an alternative promising candidate facilitating chip-scale high-speed optical interconnections.

  6. PMTCT Programme reduced vertical transmission of HIV in Abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-16

    Apr 16, 2016 ... Abstract: Objective: To deter- mine the rate of mother to child transmission of HIV following the introduction of PMTCT program in Abuja. Method: A prospective study of. 355 seropositive mothers and their newborns was conducted at the. National Hospital Abuja and. Asokoro District Hospital Abuja over a 12 ...

  7. Sero - Prevalence of Viral Transfusion-transmissible Infections amongst voluntary Blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Elrashid Mohamed Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the Sero-prevalence of viral transfusion-transmissible Infectious diseases among blood donors, namely immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C transmissible infections (TTIs like HBV, HCV. HIV (Human immune viruses.. sero-prevalence of viral transmissible infections. The donated blood for specific antibodies for infections agents. Can largely reduce the risk of TTIs, virus among blood donors. The study was carried out in the blood bank at Khartoum Teaching Hospital, centre, Sudan. Screening of blood samples for hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV Antibodies were done using (ELISA enzyme link immunoassay. The study included (1184 voluntary Blood donors, all were males. The overall prevalence of viral transfusion transmissible Infections were (11.84%. The sero-prevalence for antibody against HIV (6 and hepatitis C Virus was positive in 8 (0.06 and (0.08% donors respectively while HBsAg was detected in 98 (9.8% donors.  situation that need for strict criteria for selection of blood donors and also methods of laboratory assays. Services are high in Sudan due to the endemicity of infections like malaria, nutritional problem and obstetrical emergencies associated with blood loss. Little is known about the level of these infections in Sudan so; this study was conducted to investigate the sero-prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infectious diseases in particular human B and hepatitis Immunodeficiency, hepatitis C viruses. The mode of transmission for HIV, HBV and HCV is the same and includes unsafe Sexual sharp materials Contact, using contaminated with body fluid, mother to Child and transfusion of blood and blood Products.

  8. Bifurcation analysis of vertical transmission model with preventive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosalamang Ricardo Kelatlhegile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and analyze a deterministic mathematical model for the prevention of a disease transmitted horizontally and vertically in a population of varying size. The model incorporates prevention of disease on individuals at birth and adulthood and allows for natural recovery from infection. The main aim of the study is to investigate the impact of a preventive strategy applied at birth and at adulthood in reducing the disease burden. Bifurcation analysis is explored to determine existence conditions for establishment of the epidemic states. The results of the study showed that in addition to the disease-free equilibrium there exist multiple endemic equilibria for the model reproduction number below unity. These results may have serious implications on the design of intervention programs and public health policies. Numerical simulations were carried out to illustrate analytical results.

  9. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  10. Prevalence and Identification of Serum Markers Associated with Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B in Pregnant Women in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Lucien Honoré Etame; Voufo, Roger Ahouga; Dimodi, Henriette Thérèse; Kengne, Michel; Gueguim, Cédric; Ngah, Nnanga; Oben, Julius; Ngondi, Judith Laure

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women and identify markers associated with vertical transmission of HBV. Prospective and cross-sectional study over 10 months on 298 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Cité Verte and Efoulan District hospitals in Cameroon. A dry tube blood collection was performed on all pregnant women and babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Serum from the women was used to test for HBsAg through immunochromatography and then confirmed by ELISA. The test for HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb and dosage of transaminases were performed on the serum of HBsAg-positive women. Only HBsAg was tested in babies within 24 hours after birth. HBsAg was present in 23 (7.7%) mothers while 275 (92.3%) tested negative. Due to loss to follow-up, we assessed vertical transmission in 20 babies born to20 mothers. In all, eight babies tested HBsAg-positive; six mothers tested positive with HBeAg; 10 mothers with HBeAb and two were simultaneously infected with HBV and HIV. HBeAg and increase in liver transaminases were serum markers associated with the vertical transmission of HBV while HBeAb and anti-HIV therapy were protective markers. There is need to systematically screen all pregnant women for hepatitis B, follow up those that are positive, and administer a dose of gammaglobulin anti-HBs to their children to reduce the risks of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (CHC) and curb mortality and morbidity due to viral hepatitis B.

  11. Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission is not related to mother-child class-1 HLA concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, C; Indolfi, G; Betti, L; Moriondo, M; Massai, C; Becciolini, L; Bertelli, L; Poggi, G M; De Martino, M; Resti, M

    2007-01-01

    Mother-child human leukocyte antigen (HLA)diversity is protective for vertical transmission of some viruses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of mother-child HLA diversity on hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission. Forty consecutive HCV infected and 46 consecutive control uninfected children born to HCV-RNA positive mothers were evaluated for HLA class-1 type concordance with their mothers. No significant difference in the degree of HLA concordance was found between HCV infected and uninfected children both when A, B, C (p=0.30) and when only A and B alleles were evaluated (p=0.59). Mother-infant HLA concordance does not affect HCV vertical transmission.

  12. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.

  13. Estimating the timing of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 using a viral molecular evolution model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Chaillon

    Full Text Available Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT is responsible for most pediatric HIV-1 infections worldwide. It can occur during pregnancy, labor, or breastfeeding. Numerous studies have used coalescent and molecular clock methods to understand the epidemic history of HIV-1, but the timing of vertical transmission has not been studied using these methods. Taking advantage of the constant accumulation of HIV genetic variation over time and using longitudinally sampled viral sequences, we used a coalescent approach to investigate the timing of MTCT.Six-hundred and twenty-two clonal env sequences from the RNA and DNA viral population were longitudinally sampled from nine HIV-1 infected mother-and-child pairs [range: 277-1034 days]. For each transmission pair, timing of MTCT was determined using a coalescent-based model within a Bayesian statistical framework. Results were compared with available estimates of MTCT timing obtained with the classic biomedical approach based on serial HIV DNA detection by PCR assays.Four children were infected during pregnancy, whereas the remaining five children were infected at time of delivery. For eight out of nine pairs, results were consistent with the transmission periods assessed by standard PCR-based assay. The discordance in the remaining case was likely confused by co-infection, with simultaneous introduction of multiple maternal viral variants at the time of delivery.The study provided the opportunity to validate the Bayesian coalescent approach that determines the timing of MTCT of HIV-1. It illustrates the power of population genetics approaches to reliably estimate the timing of transmission events and deepens our knowledge about the dynamics of viral evolution in HIV-infected children, accounting for the complexity of multiple transmission events.

  14. Heat Transmission of Slab-on-Ground Industrial Floors with Vertical Perimeter Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    The surface heat loss of slab-on-ground industrial floors that are vertically insulated along the footing wall (with the insulation reaching under the ground level), is closely linked with the relatively large floor area of industrial halls. To give a comprehensive heat transmission analysis, the present paper first provides an overview of the U-value requirements for such floors in Hungary and Germany. For the determination of the heat transmission coefficient of slab-on-ground floors with v...

  15. Probability of vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis estimated from national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkila, Minna; Wikström, Erika; Renko, Marjo; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Pokka, Tytti; Ikäheimo, Irma; Uhari, Matti; Tapiainen, Terhi

    2017-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis colonisation is common in pregnant women, and it has been claimed that mother-to-child transmission may occur in 10%-70% of deliveries. C. trachomatis infections are nevertheless rarely encountered in infants in clinical practice. In order to evaluate the reason for this discrepancy, we designed a nationwide study of the C. trachomatis vertical transmission. Children with a possible C. trachomatis infection were identified from two national health registries in 1996-2011. Copies of the children's medical records were reviewed and maternal serum bank samples obtained during the index pregnancies were analysed for C. trachomatis antibodies. The risk of vertical transmission was calculated using data from two earlier studies in which nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) positivity and seroconversion rates among women in the general population were reported. Altogether 206 children had a possible C. trachomatis infection, which represents 0.22 per 1000 live births (95% CI 0.19 to 0.25). The risk of vertical transmission among the estimated 24 901 NAAT-positive mothers was 0.8% (95% CI 0.7 to 0.9). Based on the annual seroconversion rate of maternal antitrachomatis antibodies, the risk of vertical transmission was 1.8% (95% CI 1.5 to 2.0). Altogether 35% of the maternal serum samples obtained in the first trimester of a pregnancy leading to a C. trachomatis infection in the infant were negative, implying that the infection was acquired during pregnancy. C. trachomatis infections in infants were rare, with a population-based occurrence of 0.22 per 1000 live births. The risk of vertical transmission of C. trachomatis in the population was <2%, which is significantly lower than reported earlier. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A Case of Vertical Transmission of Chagas Disease Contracted via Blood Transfusion in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Fearon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in many countries in Latin America, where infected bugs of the Triatominea subfamily carry the parasite in the gut and transmit it to humans through fecal contamination of a bite. However, vertical transmission and transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation is well documented. Increasing immigration from endemic countries to North America has prompted blood operators, including Canadian Blood Services and Hema Quebec, to initiate blood donor testing for Chagas antibody. In the present report, an unusual case of vertical transmission from a mother, most likely infected through blood transfusion, and detected as part of a concurrent seroprevalence study in blood donors is described.

  17. Similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipkema, Detmer; de Caralt, Sònia; Morillo, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges host diverse communities of microorganisms that are often vertically transmitted from mother to oocyte or embryo. Horizontal transmission has often been proposed to co-occur in marine sponges, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To assess the impact of the mode of transmission...... on the microbial assemblages of sponges, we analysed the microbiota in sympatric sponges that have previously been reported to acquire bacteria via either vertical (Corticium candelabrum and Crambe crambe) or horizontal transmission (Petrosia ficiformis). The comparative study was performed by PCR......-DGGE and pyrosequencing of barcoded PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. We found that P. ficiformis and C. candelabrum each harbor their own species-specific bacteria, but they are similar to other high-microbial-abundance sponges, while the low-microbial-abundance sponge C. crambe hosts microbiota of a very different...

  18. Chikungunya viral fitness measures within the vector and subsequent transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V-Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors.

  19. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaze Rosangela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.

  20. EFFECT OF LAMIVUDINE TREATMENT IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER IN HEPATITIS B POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN IN DECREASING THE VIRAL LOAD AND SUBSEQUENT FOETAL TRANSMISSION

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    Beena Guhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hepatitis B infection is most commonly acquired through perinatal or horizontal transmission. The combined immunity of hepatitis B vaccine and high-titre hepatitis B immunoglobulin HBIG has excellent efficacies in blocking the maternal-foetal transmission of hepatitis B virus. This study was aimed to stop such transmission from mothers with high hepatitis B virus DNA viral loads by giving them lamivudine antenatally. The aim of the study is to study the effect of lamivudine treatment to decrease hepatitis B virus DNA viral load in the third trimester in hepatitis B surface antigen pregnant positive women and its effect on vertical transmission of hepatitis B. MATERIALS AND METHODS The hepatitis B surface antigen positive pregnant women attending the department who satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for this prospective case-control study of 30 in each group. Hepatitis B viral DNA load was seen at 28 weeks in both groups and lamivudine started at 32 weeks in the case group. Both groups were followed up antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum till 1 month and babies till 6 months. DNA viral load 1 month postpartum for the mother and hepatitis B surface antigen positivity observed in the babies till the age of 6months. RESULTS The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was more in the age group of 25-30 years. A high transmission rate of 36.1% was observed in hepatitis B envelope antigen positive mothers. There was a significant fall in the DNA viral load in the range of 10 log 4 to 10 log 6 in the case group, p value 0.000. 48.3% hepatitis B envelope antigen positive mothers in the case group became hepatitis B envelope antigen negative at the end of the study. 46.7% babies in the control group versus only 16.7% in the case group were hepatitis B surface antigen positive at the end. CONCLUSION Lamivudine treatment of highly viraemic hepatitis B surface antigen positive women during the final months of pregnancy has reduced the

  1. Fatores que influenciam a transmissão vertical do vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 Risk factors for vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1

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    Geraldo Duarte

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos mais expressivos avanços visando controlar a dispersão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 (HIV-1 ocorreu no contexto da transmissão vertical (TV, reduzindo-a de cifras que chegavam a 40% para menos de 3%. O progresso tecnológico, aliado ao melhor conhecimento fisiopatológico dessa infecção, permitiu elencar as situações e os fatores que elevam as taxas de transmissão perinatal desse vírus, indicando quais as intervenções mais adequadas para o seu controle. Estas situações de maior risco para a TV do HIV-1 podem ser agrupadas em fatores maternos, anexiais, obstétricos, fetais, virais e pós-natais. Dos fatores maternos destaca-se a carga viral, o principal indicador do risco desta forma de transmissão. No entanto, a despeito da relevância da carga viral, ela não é a única variável desta equação, devendo ser lembrado o uso de drogas ilícitas, parceria sexual múltipla com sexo desprotegido, desnutrição, tabagismo, doença materna avançada e falta de adesão ou de acesso aos anti-retrovirais. Dos fatores anexiais apontam-se a corioamniorrexe prolongada, a perda da integridade placentária e a expressão dos receptores secundários no tecido placentário. Entre os fatores obstétricos deve ser lembrado que intervenções invasivas sobre o feto ou câmara amniótica, cardiotocografia interna, tipo de parto e contato do feto/recém-nascido com sangue materno também são importantes elementos a serem controlados. Dos fatores fetais são citados a expressão de receptores secundários para o HIV-1, a suscetibilidade genética, a função reduzida dos linfócitos T-citotóxicos e a prematuridade. Sobre os fatores virais aventa-se que a presença de mutações e cepas indutoras de sincício sejam fatores de risco para a TV. Finalmente, há os fatores pós-natais, representados pela carga viral elevada no leite, baixa concentração de anticorpos neste fluído, mastite clínica e les

  2. Daytime behavior of Pteropus vampyrus in a natural habitat: the driver of viral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengjan, Yupadee; Pramono, Didik; Takemae, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Iida, Keisuke; Ando, Takeshi; Kasmono, Supratikno; Basri, Chaerul; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Arifin, Eko M Z; Ohmori, Yasushige; Maeda, Ken; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Hondo, Eiichi

    2017-06-29

    Flying foxes, the genus Pteropus, are considered viral reservoirs. Their colonial nature and long flight capability enhance their ability to spread viruses quickly. To understand how the viral transmission occurs between flying foxes and other animals, we investigated daytime behavior of the large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus) in the Leuweung Sancang conservation area, Indonesia, by using instantaneous scan sampling and all-occurrence focal sampling. The data were obtained from 0700 to 1700 hr, during May 11-25, 2016. Almost half of the flying foxes (46.9 ± 10.6% of all recorded bats) were awake and showed various levels of activity during daytime. The potential behaviors driving disease transmission, such as self-grooming, mating/courtship and aggression, peaked in the early morning. Males were more active and spent more time on sexual activities than females. There was no significant difference in time spent for negative social behaviors between sexes. Positive social behaviors, especially maternal cares, were performed only by females. Sexual activities and negative/positive social behaviors enable fluid exchange between bats and thus facilitate intraspecies transmission. Conflicts for living space between the flying foxes and the ebony leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) were observed, and this caused daily roosting shifts of flying foxes. The ecological interactions between bats and other wildlife increase the risk of interspecies infection. This study provides the details of the flying fox's behavior and its interaction with other wildlife in South-East Asia that may help explain how pathogen spillover occurs in the wild.

  3. Costs and benefits of vertical and horizontal transmission of dengue virus.

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    Ruiz-Guzmán, Gloria; Ramos-Castañeda, José; Hernández-Quintero, Angélica; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge

    2016-11-15

    Parasites can be transmitted vertically and/or horizontally, but the costs or benefits for the host of infection have only been tested after horizontal transmission. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the survival, reproduction and infection of Aedes aegypti during vertical and horizontal transmission of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). Females infected horizontally produced more eggs, with a sex ratio skewed towards males, compared with uninfected controls. However, there was no significant difference in the number of emerging adults or in survival of mothers. In contrast, dengue-infected female offspring (vertical transmission) had a shorter lifespan but there were no significant differences in the number of eggs or sex ratio, compared with controls. Finally, the corroboration of infection revealed that virus infected about 11.5% and 8.8% of pools of mothers and of daughters, respectively. These results suggest that the mode of infection and the contact with the virus has no reproductive costs to female mosquitoes, which may explain why both types of transmission are evolutionarily maintained. In addition, we suggest that more attention should be paid to the male contribution to virus dissemination within and among populations and as reservoirs of the infection for human diseases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

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    Naucke Torsten J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L. infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72. The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78. Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany.

  5. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus during pregnancy and delivery in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Nina; Cowan, Susan; Hallager, Sofie; Dröse, Sandra; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjær; Grønbæk, Karin; Jensen, Janne; Gerstoft, Jan; Madsen, Lone G; Clausen, Mette Rye; Lunding, Suzanne; Tarp, Britta D; Barfod, Toke S; Sloth, Stine; Holm, Dorte Kinggaard; Jensen, Jesper; Krarup, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    In Denmark, pregnant women have been screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) since 2005, and children born to HBV-infected mothers offered hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth, vaccination against HBV at birth and after 1, 2 and 12 months. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of vertical HBV transmission in children born to mothers with chronic HBV infection, to investigate the antibody response in the children and to investigate possible maternal predictive risk factors for HBV transmission. Through the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C, we identified 589 HBV-infected women who had given birth to 686 children, of whom 370 children were born to 322 women referred to hospital. 132 (36%) children, born to 109 mothers, were included in the study; 128 children had blood samples tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc (total), anti-HBs and HBV-DNA and four children had saliva samples tested for anti-HBc. We found vertical HBV transmission in Denmark to be 2.3% [95% CI: 0.5, 6.5], a high proportion of HBsAg-negative children with low levels of anti-HBs (18.4%) and a high proportion (15.2%) with resolved HBV infection. No maternal risk factor was statistically significantly associated with HBV vertical transmission. In a HBV low prevalence setting as Denmark, despite a national vaccination program, vertical HBV transmission occurred in 2.3% of children born to HBV-infected mothers. In addition, a high proportion of the children had insufficient anti-HBs levels and a high proportion had serological signs of resolved HBV infection.

  6. Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    2011-01-01

    and across the driving direction (FRIDA model). The tillage-induced reduction in topsoil strength lead to more even stress distribution at the tyre–soil interface but did not significantly affect the measured vertical stresses at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m depth. The vertical stresses at 0.3 m depth were equivalent...... properties. However, the model performed well from 0.3 to 0.9 m depth. Hence, an alternative to the model of Söhne is needed for the calculation of stress transmission in the frequently tilled topsoil of arable soils from the tyre–soil interface....

  7. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

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    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  8. Conhecimento dos obstetras sobre a transmissão vertical da hepatite B Knowledge of obstetricians about the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus

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    Joseni Santos da Conceição

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A transmissão vertical é responsável por 35% a 40% dos novos casos de hepatite B no mundo e a infecção precoce pelo vírus da hepatite B aumenta o risco de evolução para a hepatite crônica, cirrose e carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVO: Determinar o conhecimento dos obstetras sobre as práticas para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B em gestantes e as condutas para a prevenção desta infecção em recém-nascidos de mães infectadas. MÉTODOS: Foram sorteados aleatoriamente profissionais de saúde cadastrados na Sociedade de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia da Bahia, que foram convidados a responder um questionário anônimo com informações sobre sua formação acadêmica, o local de trabalho, o contato com estudantes e as suas práticas profissionais em relação ao vírus da hepatite B. Adotou-se como critério de exclusão o não exercício atual da obstetrícia e a não residência na Bahia. A análise dos dados foi feita através do programa estatístico Epiinfo e para análise das correlações foi adotado intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 301 obstetras, dos quais 90,3% reconheciam a transmissibilidade vertical do vírus da hepatite B e 81,7% solicitavam algum exame para detecção de hepatite B durante o pré-natal de suas pacientes. Sessenta e seis por cento dos médicos entrevistados referiram o AgHBs como o marcador sorológico mais adequado para avaliar a presença de infecção pelo VHB. Apenas 13,0% destes profissionais indicavam de modo sistemático a vacina contra a hepatite B e a administração de imunoglobulina nas primeiras 12 horas de vida do recém-nascido de mães infectadas. O número de respostas corretas quanto à transmissibilidade vertical do VHB, ao marcador sorológico mais adequado e à conduta para o recém-nascido de mãe infectada foi maior entre os obstetras que possuíam o Título de Especialista em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia que entre os demais

  9. Obstetric management does not influence vertical transmission of HCV infection: results of the ALHICE group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jérôme; Barjoan, Eugènia Mariné; Berrébi, Alain; Laffont, Catherine; Benos, Paul; Pradier, Christian; Bongain, André

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the impact of variation in obstetric practice during labor and childbirth upon the rate of neonatal transmission of HCV. Pregnant mothers were included in this prospective study from six hospitals in Southern France on the basis of positive HCV serology. Data recorded for the study included maternal factors, delivery details and laboratory data concerning mother and child. Pediatric follow-up was documented for a minimum of 1 year and for up to 2 years for children with circulating HCV RNA. Two hundred and fourteen mother-child pairs were investigated. HIV/HCV co-infected mothers had a rate of HCV transmission significantly higher (11%) than that observed for mono-infected mothers (3.8%) (odds ratio=3.08 [95% CI:0.95 to 9.99] p=0.05). When the HCV viral load was greater than or equal to 6 log copies/ml, the transmission rate was 14.3% [95% CI:5.4-28.5], this representing a risk of transmission four times higher than for women with a lower viral load (OR=4 [95% CI:1.3-12.4]). Among co-infected mothers, the risk of transmission was significantly increased even when the load was less than 6 log copies/ml (p=0.006). Risk factors were identified related to labor (duration and induction type); the birth process (rupture of the amniotic sac, complete opening of the sac, appearance of the amniotic fluid); fetal characteristics (prematurity) and obstetric maneuvers (instrumental extractions, spontaneous or induced perineal trauma) and none of these factors were associated with an increased rate of HCV maternal-fetal transmission. HCV infection does not appear to be a legitimate indication for modifying obstetric practices with regards to type of induction, monitoring of labor, route of delivery, fetal and perineal obstetric maneuvers or care of the newborn in the delivery room.

  10. How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact route.

  11. Characterization of a Borna disease virus field isolate which shows efficient viral propagation and transmissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Okamoto, Minoru; Kamitani, Wataru; Yanai, Hideyuki; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yohei; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the biological characteristics of field isolates of Borna disease virus (BDV), as well as to understand BDV infections outside endemic countries, we isolated the virus from brain samples of a heifer with Borna disease in Japan. We demonstrate that the brain lysate contained replication products of BDV and induced viral propagation in rat glioma cells, suggesting that a replication-competent BDV existed in the bovine brain. This field strain of BDV, named Bo/04w, showed efficient viral release and transmissibility and also displayed a distinct pattern of expression of viral phosphoprotein (P) during infection, as compared with laboratory-adapted BDV strains. Interestingly, we found the level of P to be significantly low in cells infected with Bo/04w, and the transcription of this isolate to be more efficient than that of laboratory strain of BDV. These results indicated that the field isolate may regulate the expression of P at an optimal level in infected cells. We also confirmed that Bo/04w maintains biological significance in neonatal gerbil brain. Sequencing revealed that despite the biological differences, the field isolate is closely related genetically to the laboratory strains of BDV. We discuss here the sequence similarities between BDV isolates from endemic and nonendemic countries.

  12. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  13. Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes of the Aedes scutellaris group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, J E; Rosen, L

    1987-11-01

    Seventeen strains of mosquitoes belonging to 12 species in the Aedes scutellaris subgroup were tested for an ability to transmit one or more dengue virus serotype(s) vertically. Strains of virus employed for dengue types 1, 2, 3, and 4 were from Fiji, Bangkok, Burma, and Medan, respectively. After parental females were infected by intrathoracic inoculation, F1 larval and pupal progeny were tested for the presence of virus by inoculating aliquots of triturated suspensions into Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes. Dengue type 1 was transmitted vertically by 11 strains of mosquitoes representing 8 species with the highest filial infection rates observed for Ae. cooki (1.2%). Vertical transmission of the other dengue virus serotypes was observed for fewer species of mosquitoes, however the filial infection rates of those demonstrating vertical transmission were between 1%-2% for types 2 and 3, and about 0.5% for type 4. Tests with the progeny of individual Ae. cooki and Ae. polynesiensis infected with dengue virus types 1 and 3, respectively, showed that approximately greater than or equal to 50% of the parental females transmitted virus to their progeny. Highest filial infection rates were 6.7% for Ae. cooki and 4.6% for Ae. polynesiensis.

  14. A Mouse Model of Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Vaginal Viral Replication

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    William Weihao Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Case reports of Zika virus (ZIKV sexual transmission and genital persistence are mounting. Venereal transmission and genital persistence threaten public health within and beyond the range of ZIKV’s mosquito vectors. In this study, we administered ZIKV into the vaginas of AG129 mice and LysMCre+IFNARfl/fl C57BL/6 mice after hormonal treatments. Mice infected during estrus-like phase were resistant to vaginal infection. In contrast, when infected during diestrus-like phase, AG129 mice succumbed to infection, whereas LysMCre+IFNARfl/fl mice experienced transient illness. Patency of transgenital transmission (TGT in diestrus-like mice was demonstrated by detection of viremia and ZIKV replication in spleen and brain, and viral RNA persisted in vaginal washes as late as 10 days post-infection. In these lethal and sublethal mouse models, this study indicates that intravaginal deposition of ZIKV can cause TGT, hormonal changes in the female reproductive tract (FRT influence transmission, and ZIKV replication persists in the FRT for several days.

  15. Disruption of vector transmission by a plant-expressed viral glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Rotenberg, Dorith; Leach-Kieffaber, Alexandria; Schneweis, Brandi A; Park, Sunghun; Park, Jungeun K; German, Thomas L; Whitfield, Anna E

    2014-03-01

    Vector-borne viruses are a threat to human, animal, and plant health worldwide, requiring the development of novel strategies for their control. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the 10 most economically significant plant viruses and, together with other tospoviruses, is a threat to global food security. TSWV is transmitted by thrips, including the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Previously, we demonstrated that the TSWV glycoprotein GN binds to thrips vector midguts. We report here the development of transgenic plants that interfere with TSWV acquisition and transmission by the insect vector. Tomato plants expressing GN-S protein supported virus accumulation and symptom expression comparable with nontransgenic plants. However, virus titers in larval insects exposed to the infected transgenic plants were three-log lower than insects exposed to infected nontransgenic control plants. The negative effect of the GN-S transgenics on insect virus titers persisted to adulthood, as shown by four-log lower virus titers in adults and an average reduction of 87% in transmission efficiencies. These results demonstrate that an initial reduction in virus infection of the insect can result in a significant decrease in virus titer and transmission over the lifespan of the vector, supportive of a dose-dependent relationship in the virus-vector interaction. These findings demonstrate that plant expression of a viral protein can be an effective way to block virus transmission by insect vectors.

  16. A Mouse Model of Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Vaginal Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William Weihao; Young, Matthew Perry; Mamidi, Anila; Regla-Nava, Jose Angel; Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-12-20

    Case reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) sexual transmission and genital persistence are mounting. Venereal transmission and genital persistence threaten public health within and beyond the range of ZIKV's mosquito vectors. In this study, we administered ZIKV into the vaginas of AG129 mice and LysMCre+IFNARfl/fl C57BL/6 mice after hormonal treatments. Mice infected during estrus-like phase were resistant to vaginal infection. In contrast, when infected during diestrus-like phase, AG129 mice succumbed to infection, whereas LysMCre+IFNARfl/fl mice experienced transient illness. Patency of transgenital transmission (TGT) in diestrus-like mice was demonstrated by detection of viremia and ZIKV replication in spleen and brain, and viral RNA persisted in vaginal washes as late as 10 days post-infection. In these lethal and sublethal mouse models, this study indicates that intravaginal deposition of ZIKV can cause TGT, hormonal changes in the female reproductive tract (FRT) influence transmission, and ZIKV replication persists in the FRT for several days. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV: A STUDY PERFORMED AT THE MUNICIPALITY OF SOUTHWEST BAIANO

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    Maria Tereza Magalhães Morais

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is a Retrovirus RNA of simple filament, responsible for the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. The virus affects the body's immunologic system destroying the defense cells, particularly the CD4 + T lymphocytes. By the infection of women of reproductive age comes another form of HIV transmission, the vertical transmission, it is a kind of contamination from mother to fetus or to newborn. Such transmission can occur during pregnancy, through birth or through breastfeeding. The research's scope was to evaluate the social and economic profile of HIV positive pregnant women among 2007- 2012, in a city located in southwestern of Bahia (Brazil country. Through data primaries gathered by analyzing records research and notification of HIV positive pregnant women living in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, registered in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN could be verified records of 110 cases of pregnant women infected by HIV in the city among the researched period. Through the research, could be verified a high rate of young women with low education level and living in the urban area of city, as well a low rate of vertical transmission.

  18. Vertical transmission of the hip rolls due to wearing of TLSO for scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovessis, P; Stamatakis, M; Baikousis, A; Kirkos, C; Kavouris, A

    1996-08-01

    Cosmesis is important in the treatment of adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis. It has been shown that although bracing reduces the rib hump, it induces several complications. The aim of this study was to describe a new disturbing complication due to wearing a thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: the vertical transmission of the hip rolls (trochanteric lipomatosis) in girls and its pathogenetic mechanisms. Trochanteric lipomatosis is common in the female population, particularly after adolescence, and is responsible for the characteristic appearance of the hip rolls. No data have been reported concerning vertical transmission of normal trochanteric lipomatosis with subsequent disturbance of aesthetic appearance while wearing the TLSO. In this prospective study, 300 consecutive adolescent girls who were treated with the TLSO for progressive idiopathic scoliosis were followed and evaluated for development of any vertical transmission of the hip rolls after application of the brace for an average of 2.5 years after termination of the treatment. Almost simultaneously, 290 age-matched, randomly selected adolescent girls served as controls and were examined by two unbiased observers during the school screening program to estimate the prevalence of trochanteric lipomatosis in female adolescents of the same geographic area. In this series, bracing reduced the thoracic scoliosis from 34.4 +/- 5 degrees to 18.5 +/- 6 degrees and the lumbar scoliosis from 29.4 +/- 4 degrees to 16.7 +/- 4 degrees 6 months after initiation of brace wearing. The average prevalence of normal trochanteric lipomatosis in girls in the control group was 26% (range, 12.2-68.4%) for the ages 9-14 years and was increasing with the age and weight. No correlation was found between amount of reduction of scoliosis and prevalence of the complication. Vertical transmission of the hip rolls was observed in 69 (23%) of the girls with scoliosis 6 months after

  19. Vertical transmission of HPV in pregnancy. A prospective clinical study of HPV-positive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jach, Robert; Galarowicz, Bartłomiej; Huras, Hubert; Pawlik, Dorota; Basta, Tomasz; Streb, Joanna; Wolski, Hubert; Ludwin, Artur; Ludwin, Inga

    2014-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Data reporting vertical transmission of HPV from the mother to the fetus are inconsistent and scant. Vertical transmission may occur by hematogenic route (transplacental), or by ascending contamination, or through the birth canal, which may result in the dreaded and rare laryngeal papillomatosis. Infected sperm at fertilization is a potential route of infection, too. The objective of the study was to evaluate the rate of vertical transmission of HPV in HPV-positive pregnant women to their newborn infants, as well as the risk factors of HPV vertical transmission. The clinical material was provided by 136 pregnant women, aged 18-45 years. Out of this group, 30 (22.05%) women with abnormal Pap test and positive DNA HPV test were prospectively observed Neonatal status, i.e. DNA HPV from the nasopharyngeal smear was recorded in all infants during the perinatal period. The conventional Pap test was performed with the cervix brush in all women. The Bethesda 2011 classification system was applied. An average C Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration in the studied pregnant women was 711.6083 (Std Dev--12.93). The most frequent cytological findings in the cervical smears from the examined women were ASCUS, n = 13 (43.3%), then--LSIL, n = 10 (33.3%), HSIL--n = 5 (16.7%) and AGC--n = 2 (6.7%). In the neonates, the presence of LR HPV DNA was detected in 9 cases (30.0%) and HR HPV DNA in 7 cases (23.3%). Fourteen neonates (46.7%) tested HPV DNA negative in the perinatal period. HPV infection (incidental or chronic) is observed in approximately 22% of pregnant women from the Matopolska province. Neonatal HPV infection in HPV-positive women was observed in 53.3% of the subjects. CRP concentration > 10 mg/dl in the serum of pregnant women statistically significantly (p 0.001) reduces the risk of vertical transmission of HPV from the mother to the fetus.

  20. Feasibility study of transmission of OTV camera control information in the video vertical blanking interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Preston A., III

    1994-01-01

    The Operational Television system at Kennedy Space Center operates hundreds of video cameras, many remotely controllable, in support of the operations at the center. This study was undertaken to determine if commercial NABTS (North American Basic Teletext System) teletext transmission in the vertical blanking interval of the genlock signals distributed to the cameras could be used to send remote control commands to the cameras and the associated pan and tilt platforms. Wavelength division multiplexed fiberoptic links are being installed in the OTV system to obtain RS-250 short-haul quality. It was demonstrated that the NABTS transmission could be sent over the fiberoptic cable plant without excessive video quality degradation and that video cameras could be controlled using NABTS transmissions over multimode fiberoptic paths as long as 1.2 km.

  1. Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim

    2011-05-01

    It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined. © 2011 American Physical Society

  2. Tracking viral particles in the intestinal contents of the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonucci,A.M.; Catroxo,M.H.; Hipolito,M.; Takemoto,R.M.; Melo,N.A.; França,F.M.; Teixeira,P.C.; Ferreira,C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Feces are an important viral agent elimination route for infected carrier animals and in aquatic organisms these pathogenic agents can very rapidly propagate due to the habitation environment. The objective of this work is to track viral particles in the intestinal contents of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from five commercial frog farms in the region of Vale do Paraíba, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, using negative contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Coronaviridae,...

  3. Estratégias que reduzem a transmissão vertical do vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 Strategies to avoid vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Duarte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos fatores ou situações que influenciam a transmissão vertical (TV do vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 (HIV-1 levou à adoção de estratégias com redução de taxas ao longo dos anos: de 40% para menos de 3% na atualidade. Um dos maiores avanços foi o uso profilático da zidovudina (AZT, administrada durante o pré-natal (via oral, no período anteparto (via endovenosa e ao recém-nascido (via oral. Esta intervenção reduz a TV do HIV-1 em 68%, fazendo com que seja considerada a estratégia isolada de maior efetividade. Na seqüência cronológica dos avanços, observou-se que a carga viral elevada é o principal indicador do risco para esta forma de transmissão. Como o AZT não reduz a carga viral e não consegue controlar a taxa residual observada na TV do HIV-1, a utilização dos esquemas profiláticos utilizando três anti-retrovirais foi objetivamente impulsionada. Completando o ciclo das estratégias obstétricas de maior impacto na redução da TV do HIV-1 está a cesárea eletiva, cuja efetividade está ligada à observação dos critérios de sua indicação: carga viral aferida após a 34ª semana de gravidez apresentando contagem maior que 1000 cópias/ml, gestação com mais de 38 semanas confirmada por ultra-sonografia, membranas corioamnióticas íntegras e fora de trabalho de parto. Nos casos em que a via de parto tem indicação obstétrica, deve ser lembrado que a corioamniorrexe prolongada, manobras invasivas sobre o feto, parto instrumentalizado e a episiotomia são situações que devem ser evitadas. Das intervenções pós-natais consideradas importantes para a redução da TV do HIV-1 são apontadas a recepção pediátrica (deve ser efetivada por profissional treinado evitando microtraumatismos de mucosa nas manobras aspirativas, utilização do AZT neonatal (por período de seis semanas e a amamentação artificial. Especial atenção deve ser dispensada às orientações para as nutrizes

  4. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdete Maria Ramos; Elisabeth Niglio de Figueiredo; Regina Célia de Menezes Succi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care...

  5. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: A tale of multiple outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Soudeyns, Hugo; Larouche, Ariane; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Martinez-Guarneros, Armando; Vazquez-Chacon, Carlos A.; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Yamasaki, Lilian H.T.; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 130 million people and 3 million new infections occur annually. HCV is also recognized as an important cause of chronic liver disease in children. The absence of proofreading properties of the HCV RNA polymerase leads to a highly error prone replication process, allowing HCV to escape host immune response. The adaptive nature of HCV evolution dictates the outcome of the disease in many ways. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of HCV in three unrelated children who acquired chronic HCV infection as a result of mother-to-child transmission, two of whom were also coinfected with HIV-1. The persistence of discrete HCV variants and their population structure were assessed using median joining network and Bayesian approaches. While patterns of viral evolution clearly differed between subjects, immune system dysfunction related to HIV coinfection or persistent HCV seronegativity stand as potential mechanisms to explain the lack of molecular evolution observed in these three cases. In contrast, treatment of HCV infection with PegIFN, which did not lead to sustained virologic responses in all 3 cases, was not associated with commensurate variations in the complexity of the variant spectrum. Finally, the differences in the degree of divergence suggest that the mode of transmission of the virus was not the main factor driving viral evolution. PMID:24140559

  6. Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    2011-01-01

    of stresses. We quantified the effect of soil water content of topsoil/subsoil layers (wet/wet, wet/dry, and dry/dry) on stress transmission. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under a towed wheel (800/50R34) were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol. The tyre was loaded with 60 kN, and we used...... the recommended tyre inflation pressure for traffic in the field (100 kPa). Seven stress transducers were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil at each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m) and covering the width of the wheeled area. The vertical stresses at the tyre–soil contact area...

  7. Coinfection and vertical transmission of Brucella and Morbillivirus in a neonatal sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) in Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kristi L; Levine, Gregg; Jacob, Jessica; Jensen, Brenda; Sanchez, Susan; Colegrove, Kathleen; Rotstein, David

    2015-01-01

    The viral genus Morbillivirus and the bacterial genus Brucella have emerged as important groups of pathogens that are known to affect cetacean health on a global scale, but neither pathogen has previously been reported from endangered sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). A female neonate sperm whale stranded alive and died near Laie on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, US, in May of 2011. Congestion of the cerebrum and enlarged lymph nodes were noted on the gross necropsy. Microscopic findings included lymphoid depletion, chronic meningitis, and pneumonia, suggesting an in utero infection. Cerebrum, lung, umbilicus, and select lymph nodes (tracheobronchial and mediastinal) were positive for Brucella by PCR. Brucella sp. was also cultured from the cerebrum and from mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Twelve different tissues were screened for Morbillivirus by reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and select tissues by immunohistochemistry, but only the tracheobronchial lymph node and spleen were positive by RT-PCR. Pathologic findings observed were likely a result of Brucella, but Morbillivirus may have played a key role in immune suppression of the mother and calf. The in utero infection in this individual strongly supports vertical transmission of both pathogens.

  8. The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanotakis, Elena; Peacock, Dean; Wilcher, Rose

    2012-07-11

    The recently launched "Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive" sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. A growing body of evidence suggests that gender inequality, including gender-based violence, is a key obstacle to better outcomes related to all four components of a comprehensive PMTCT programme. Gender inequality affects the ability of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV, prevent unintended pregnancies and access and continue to use HIV prevention, care and treatment services. In light of this evidence, global health donors and international bodies increasingly recognize that it is critical to address the gender disparities that put women and children at increased risk of HIV and impede their access to care. The current policy environment provides unprecedented opportunities for PMTCT implementers to integrate efforts to address gender inequality with efforts to expand access to clinical interventions for preventing vertical HIV transmission. Effective community- and facility-based strategies to transform harmful gender norms and mitigate the impacts of gender inequality on HIV-related outcomes are emerging. PMTCT programmes must embrace these strategies and expand beyond the traditional focus of delivering ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women living with HIV. Without greater implementation of comprehensive, gender transformative PMTCT programmes, elimination of vertical transmission of HIV will remain elusive.

  9. The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Peacock

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues: The recently launched “Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive” sets forth ambitious targets that will require more widespread implementation of comprehensive prevention of vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes. As PMTCT policymakers and implementers work toward these new goals, increased attention must be paid to the role that gender inequality plays in limiting PMTCT programmatic progress. Description: A growing body of evidence suggests that gender inequality, including gender-based violence, is a key obstacle to better outcomes related to all four components of a comprehensive PMTCT programme. Gender inequality affects the ability of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV, prevent unintended pregnancies and access and continue to use HIV prevention, care and treatment services. Lessons Learned: In light of this evidence, global health donors and international bodies increasingly recognize that it is critical to address the gender disparities that put women and children at increased risk of HIV and impede their access to care. The current policy environment provides unprecedented opportunities for PMTCT implementers to integrate efforts to address gender inequality with efforts to expand access to clinical interventions for preventing vertical HIV transmission. Effective community- and facility-based strategies to transform harmful gender norms and mitigate the impacts of gender inequality on HIV-related outcomes are emerging. PMTCT programmes must embrace these strategies and expand beyond the traditional focus of delivering ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women living with HIV. Without greater implementation of comprehensive, gender transformative PMTCT programmes, elimination of vertical transmission of HIV will remain elusive.

  10. Chagasic megaesophagus and megacolon diagnosed in childhood and probably caused by vertical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA-COSTA-PINTO Elizete Aparecida Lomazi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on children presenting symptoms compatible with the chronic phase of Chagas disease are sporadic. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy who had megaesophagus and megacolon, both of them a consequence of the trypanosomiasis. The etiology was established by means of laboratory and histological features. Based on epidemiological data, the authors concluded that vertical transmission was the most probable route of acquisition. This diagnosis should be considered in children presenting similar complaints, even those living away from endemic areas.

  11. Vertical transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions evaluated in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J; Brun, A; Díaz-San Segundo, F; Salguero, F J; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Pintado, B; Ramírez, M A; del Riego, L; Torres, J M

    2005-07-01

    In this work we show evidence of mother-to-offspring transmission in a transgenic mouse line expressing bovine PrP (boTg) experimentally infected by intracerebral administration of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions. PrP(res) was detected in brains of newborns from infected mothers only when mating was allowed near to the clinical stage of disease, when brain PrP(res) deposition could be detected by Western blot analysis. Attempts to detect infectivity in milk after intracerebral inoculation in boTg mice were unsuccessful, suggesting the involvement of other tissues as carriers of prion dissemination. The results shown here prove the ability of BSE prions to spread centrifugally from the central nervous system to peripheral tissues and to offspring in a mouse model. Also, these results may complement previous epidemiological data supporting the occurrence of vertical BSE transmission in cattle.

  12. Vertical transmission of Indian Ocean Lineage of chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Boonserm, Rungfar; Phumee, Atchara; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2016-04-23

    The re-emergence of chikungunya (CHIK) fever in Thailand has been caused by a novel lineage of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) termed the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL). The Aedes albopictus mosquito is thought to be a primary vector of CHIK fever in Thailand, whereas Ae. aegypti acts as a secondary vector of the virus. The vertical transmission is believed to be a primary means to maintain CHIKV in nature and may be associated with an increased risk of outbreak. Therefore, the goal of this study was to analyze the potential of these two Thai mosquito species to transmit the virus vertically and to determine the number of successive mosquito generations for the virus transmission. Two-hundred-and-fifty female Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were artificially fed a mixture of human blood and CHIKV IOL. Mosquito larvae and adults were sampled and screened for CHIKV by one-step qRT-PCR. LLC-MK2 cell line was used to isolate CHIKV in the mosquitoes each generation. The virus isolate was identified by immunocytochemical staining and was confirmed by sequencing. Both mosquito species fed on human blood without CHIKV and uninfected LLC-MK2 cells were used as controls. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were able to transmit CHIKV vertically to F5 and F6 progenies, respectively. The virus isolated from the two mosquito species caused cytopathic effect in LLC-MK2 cells by 2 days post-infection and immunocytochemical staining showed the reaction between CHIKV IOL antigen and specific monoclonal antibody in the infected cells. DNA sequence confirmed the virus transmitted vertically as CHIKV IOL with E1-A226V mutation. No CHIKV infection was observed in both mosquito species and LLC-MK2 cells from control groups. The study demonstrated that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from Thailand are capable of transmitting CHIKV IOL vertically in the laboratory. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus is more susceptible and has a greater ability to transmit the virus

  13. Cultural macroevolution on neighbor graphs : vertical and horizontal transmission among Western North American Indian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Grote, Mark N; Venti, Jay; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-09-01

    What are the driving forces of cultural macroevolution, the evolution of cultural traits that characterize societies or populations? This question has engaged anthropologists for more than a century, with little consensus regarding the answer. We develop and fit autologistic models, built upon both spatial and linguistic neighbor graphs, for 44 cultural traits of 172 societies in the Western North American Indian (WNAI) database. For each trait, we compare models including or excluding one or both neighbor graphs, and for the majority of traits we find strong evidence in favor of a model which uses both spatial and linguistic neighbors to predict a trait's distribution. Our results run counter to the assertion that cultural trait distributions can be explained largely by the transmission of traits from parent to daughter populations and are thus best analyzed with phylogenies. In contrast, we show that vertical and horizontal transmission pathways can be incorporated in a single model, that both transmission modes may indeed operate on the same trait, and that for most traits in the WNAI database, accounting for only one mode of transmission would result in a loss of information.

  14. Vertical transmission of sublethal granulovirus infection in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, J P; Griffiths, C M; Cory, J S; Smith, P; Sait, S M

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of pathogen persistence in relation to fluctuations in host density is crucial to our understanding of disease dynamics. In the case of insect baculoviruses, which are typically transmitted horizontally via a lifestage that can persist outside the host, a key issue that remains to be elucidated is whether the virus can also be transmitted vertically as a sublethal infection. We show that RNA transcripts for the Plodia interpunctella GV granulin gene are present in a high proportion of P. interpunctella insects that survive virus challenge. Granulin is a late-expressed gene that is only transcribed after viral genome replication, its presence thus strongly indicates that viral genome replication has occurred. Almost all insects surviving the virus challenge tested positive for viral RNA in the larval and pupal stage. However, this proportion declined in the emerging adults. Granulin mRNA was also detected in both the ovaries and testes, which may represent a putative mechanism by which reduced fecundity in sublethally affected hosts might be manifested. RNA transcripts were also detected in 60-80% of second-generation larvae that were derived from mating surviving adults, but there was no difference between the sexes, with both males and females capable of transmitting a sublethal infection to their offspring. The data indicate that low-level persistent infection, with at least limited gene expression, can occur in P. interpunctella following survival of a granulovirus challenge. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a persistent, sublethal infection by a baculovirus to be initiated by a sublethal virus dose. We hypothesize that the 'latent' baculovirus infections frequently referred to in the literature may also be low level persistent, sublethal infections resulting from survival from initial baculovirus exposure.

  15. Expanding the role of community mobilization to accelerate progress towards ending vertical transmission of HIV in Uganda: the Networks model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Gitau; Iorpenda, Kate; Muwanga, Fred

    2012-07-11

    Efforts to prevent vertical transmission of HIV have gained momentum globally since the launch of the "Global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive", reflecting the growing consensus that we now have low-cost, efficacious interventions that promise to end vertical transmission of HIV. Uganda is one of the 22 focus countries in the global plan and one of the 10 countries with the highest need for prevention of vertical transmission globally. In the context of current shortfalls in the prevention of vertical HIV transmission, this paper presents the results of the Networks project, a community mobilisation model implemented by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Uganda, and draws out the theoretical foundations and promising community mobilization practices relevant to prevention of vertical transmission. A retrospective review of the Network project's activities, documentation and evaluation was performed. The Networks project, through community mobilisation and greater involvement of people living with HIV, reached an estimated 1.3 million people with at least one health service. By clustering 750 groups of people living with HIV into larger coalitions, the project supported existing groups to amalgamate their collective strengths and skills in outreach, referral and literacy activities; and improved reach and coverage of HIV services through strengthened linkages with healthcare facilities. Our analysis of the Networks model shows that it could contribute to the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV as a replicable and sustainable community mobilisation approach. In particular, the Networks model increased the uptake of decentralized interventions for preventing vertical transmission through community referrals; promoted male involvement through peer sensitisation; and linked communities to advocacy channels for advancing maternal health and prevention of vertical HIV transmission. BY

  16. [Knowledge of obstetricians about the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Joseni Santos da; Diniz-Santos, Daniel Rui; Ferreira, Cibele Dantas; Paes, Fernanda Nunes; Melo, Clotildes Nunes; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Vertical transmission is responsible for 35%-40% of the new cases of hepatitis B worldwide and it is associated with an increased risk of chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To describe obstetricians' knowledge on the recommended measures to the diagnosis of the infection by the hepatitis virus B in pregnant women and to prevent the transmission of this infection to the babies of infected mothers. Obstetricians registered at the 'Sociedade de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da Bahia', Salvador, BA, Brazil were randomly selected and invited to answer a questionnaire with questions regarding their academic formation, workplace, contact with medical students and their practices about the hepatitis virus B. Individuals who were not currently working as obstetricians or were not living in the state of Bahia were excluded from the study. Data were analyzed with the EpiInfo software with a 95% confidence interval. Three hundred and one obstetricians answered the questionnaire: 90.3% of them recognized that the hepatitis virus B could be transmitted vertically and 81.7% routinely screened their patients for hepatitis virus B infection during prenatal consultations; 66.0% considered HBsAg the best serological marker to be employed on the screening. Only 13.0% systematically recommended the vaccination against hepatitis virus B and the administration of immunoglobulin to the newborns of infected mothers in the first 12 hours of life. The frequency of correct answers about the vertical transmission of hepatitis virus B, the best serological marker for screening and the management of infected mothers and their newborns was higher among professionals who had the 'Título de Especialista em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (TEGO)' than among the remaining ones (P = 0.018, P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). We observed that the knowledge of the obstetricians about the diagnosis and management of hepatitis virus B infection during pregnancy is not adequate

  17. Widespread recombination, reassortment, and transmission of unbalanced compound viral genotypes in natural arenavirus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Stenglein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are one of the largest families of human hemorrhagic fever viruses and are known to infect both mammals and snakes. Arenaviruses package a large (L and small (S genome segment in their virions. For segmented RNA viruses like these, novel genotypes can be generated through mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Although it is believed that an ancient recombination event led to the emergence of a new lineage of mammalian arenaviruses, neither recombination nor reassortment has been definitively documented in natural arenavirus infections. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to survey the viral diversity present in captive arenavirus-infected snakes. From 48 infected animals, we determined the complete or near complete sequence of 210 genome segments that grouped into 23 L and 11 S genotypes. The majority of snakes were multiply infected, with up to 4 distinct S and 11 distinct L segment genotypes in individual animals. This S/L imbalance was typical: in all cases intrahost L segment genotypes outnumbered S genotypes, and a particular S segment genotype dominated in individual animals and at a population level. We corroborated sequencing results by qRT-PCR and virus isolation, and isolates replicated as ensembles in culture. Numerous instances of recombination and reassortment were detected, including recombinant segments with unusual organizations featuring 2 intergenic regions and superfluous content, which were capable of stable replication and transmission despite their atypical structures. Overall, this represents intrahost diversity of an extent and form that goes well beyond what has been observed for arenaviruses or for viruses in general. This diversity can be plausibly attributed to the captive intermingling of sub-clinically infected wild-caught snakes. Thus, beyond providing a unique opportunity to study arenavirus evolution and adaptation, these findings allow the investigation of unintended anthropogenic impacts on

  18. Highly effective therapy for maternal malaria associated with a lower risk of vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poespoprodjo, J R; Fobia, W; Kenangalem, E; Hasanuddin, A; Sugiarto, P; Tjitra, E; Anstey, N M; Price, R N

    2011-11-15

    The epidemiology of congenital malaria was investigated in a hospital-based malaria surveillance study in Papua, Indonesia. From April 2005 to January 2010, 4878 delivering women and their newborns underwent prospective clinical review and malaria screening by peripheral blood microscopy. Congenital malaria occurred in 8 per 1000 (38/4884) live births, with Plasmodium falciparum accounting for 76.3% (29) and P. vivax for 15.8% (6) of infections. Maternal malaria at delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2-21.5; P < .001), age ≤ 16 years (AOR, 4; 95% CI, 1.4-12.1; P = .011), and prior malaria during pregnancy (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4, P = .022) were independent risk factors for vertical transmission. Of 29 mothers and neonates with contemporaneous peripheral parasitemia, 17% (5) had discordant parasite species, suggesting possible antenatal malaria transmission. Newborns with malaria were at significantly greater risk of low birth weight (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.6; P = .002). Following introduction of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for uncomplicated malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, congenital malaria incidence fell from 3.2% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, .03-.15; P < .001). Congenital malaria is an important cause of neonatal morbidity in this region co-endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The introduction of artemisinin-combination therapy was associated with a significant risk reduction in the vertical transmission of malaria.

  19. Risk of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus throughout pregnancy: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Much controversy still exists about maternal-to-infant transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, specifically about the magnitude of the risk and the route and timing of such vertical transmission. This prospective cohort study examines the risk of vertical transmission of maternal HPV in each trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty three healthy pregnant women were followed longitudinally throughout pregnancy and cervical swabs obtained in each trimester and postpartum for HPV detection. Cord blood, neonatal nasopharyngeal aspirates, and placental biopsies were collected at delivery. DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and hybridization were performed using the GG HPV Genotyping Chip Kit (Goodgene Inc., Seoul, Korea. Detection of HPV in neonates was defined as the presence of HPV DNA in either cord blood or neonatal nasopharyngeal aspirate. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 14%(22/153 of healthy women in the first trimester, 18%(22/124 in the second trimester, and 10%(15/153 in the third trimester; 24%(37/153 were positive for HPV DNA on at least one occasion in pregnancy. At birth, 5.2%(8/153 of neonates were HPV DNA positive. Seven of these eight infants were born to HPV-positive mothers. Placental HPV DNA was positive in 3.3%(5/152 of cases, and all five cases were from mothers with at least one HPV-positive test. Detection of HPV DNA in neonates was associated with detection of HPV in mothers during any of the three trimesters of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: HPV DNA was detected at birth in 5.2%(8/153 of neonates born to healthy women, and was associated with the detection of HPV in mothers during any of the three trimesters of pregnancy.

  20. Is the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium lolii in perennial ryegrass the only possible way to the spread of endophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiewióra

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi live their whole life within host tissues usually without any visible symptoms. Their vertical transmission (seed-plant-seed has been well described and documented. However, horizontal transmission (plant-plant needs more clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which endophytes move vertically in ecotypes of perennial ryegrass and whether there is evidence for the horizontal transmission of endophytes. Ecotypes from grasslands in Poland were collected in the form of living plants and used for vertical transmission analysis. Plants, the seed collected from these plants and plants grown from this collected seed were tested for endophytic infection. Provided that all produced seeds were viable and able to germinate and produce seedlings, the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium endophytes in perennial ryegrass ecotypes was nearly complete. For the horizontal transmission experiment, endophyte-hosting plants (E+ and endophyte-free plants (E- of four cultivars were planted in the field in close proximity on small plots that were frequently mown. These studies revealed that after 7 months of growth next to E+ plants, the characteristic Neotyphodium spp. mycelia were found in E- plants, which was especially true for plants growing in close proximity to the infected plants. The occurrence of horizontal transmission of endophytes has not been previously demonstrated.

  1. Natural vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus in Aedes aegypti populations in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Norma E; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Castro, Cipriano; Ibarra-López, Jesus; Bibiano-Marín, Wilbert; López-Damián, Leonardo; Martini-Jaimes, Andrés; Huerta, Herón; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    We carried out dengue virus surveillance in Aedes aegypti populations from 47 neighborhoods of Acapulco during the rainy season of 2011 following a standard national protocol and as an improvement of the entomological surveillance of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 4,146 Ae. aegypti adults collected indoors and/or emerged from eggs, larvae, or pupae from households with dengue reports (probable or confirmed cases), were grouped into pools and processed using a standardized serotype-specific 4-plex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Overall, only 2 (0.9%) of 226 pools of Ae. aegypti adults (1 pool of adults emerged from field-collected larvae, and another of indoor-collected adults) were positive for dengue virus 1 (DENV-1). This is appears to be the 1st report of evidence on the vertical and transovarial transmission of DENV-1 in field-caught Ae. aegypti in Mexico.

  2. AIDS em gestantes: possibilidade de reduzir a transmissão vertical

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    Fernanda Scherer Wiethäuper

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, buscamos investigar o conhecimento que gestantes possuem sobre a transmissão vertical, o comprometimento do feto e o significado do resultado soropositivo que a identifica como infectada pelo HIV. A pesquisa exploratória, de natureza qualitativa, foi desenvolvida em Unidades Sanitárias de São Leopoldo/RS. A análise permitiu captar a percepção de 63 gestantes entre 16 e 40 anos sobre os motivos e os significados para realização do teste, os conhecimentos e vivências do cotidiano e as perspectivas e cuidados com o bebê. Os resultados trazem um alerta aos profissionais que atuam no pré-natal, visto que necessitam atender uma complexidade de situações que emergem quando se vincula gestação e AIDS.

  3. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus during pregnancy and delivery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Nina; Cowan, Susan; Hallager, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    589 HBV-infected women who had given birth to 686 children, of whom 370 children were born to 322 women referred to hospital. 132 (36%) children, born to 109 mothers, were included in the study; 128 children had blood samples tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc (total), anti-HBs and HBV-DNA and four children...... had saliva samples tested for anti-HBc. RESULTS: We found vertical HBV transmission in Denmark to be 2.3% [95% CI: 0.5, 6.5], a high proportion of HBsAg-negative children with low levels of anti-HBs (18.4%) and a high proportion (15.2%) with resolved HBV infection. No maternal risk factor...

  4. Transmissão vertical do HIV em população atendida no serviço de referência Vertical transmission of HIV in the population treated at a reference center

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    Sueli Teresinha Cruz Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a taxa de transmissão vertical do HIV e avaliar os fatores envolvidos em partes materna e fetal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado. Foram investigados 102 prontuários de mulheres com HIV que deram à luz a recém-nascidos vivos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de 6,6% de transmissão vertical. Entre as crianças infectadas: 40,0% de mães sem pré-natal e 75% sem a profilaxia com anti-retrovirais durante o pré-natal, 50,0% sem profilaxia com AZT com oral e amamentado. Entre as crianças não infectadas: 91,5% iniciaram a profilaxia com AZT oral ao nascimento e 84,1% das mães receberam ARV. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência de transmissão vertical do HIV no serviço de referência correspondeu a 6,6%, o que indica uma alta prevalência.OBJECTIVE: To identify the rate of vertical transmission of HIV and assess the factors involved in maternal and fetal share. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in the Specialized Care Service. We investigated 102 clinical records of HIV positive women who had given birth to live newborns. The primary variable was the occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV and the secondary variables were the factors associated with vertical transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Prevalence of 6.6% of vertical transmission. Among the infected children: 40.0% of mothers with out prenatal care and 75% without prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs during the prenatal, 50.0% without AZT prophylaxis with oral and breast-fed. Among the uninfected children: 91.5% were started on prophylaxis with oral AZT at birth and 84.1% of mothers received ARV delivery. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV in the reference service corresponded to 6.6%, indicating a high prevalence.

  5. Evidence of vertical transmission and tissue tropism of Streptococcosis from naturally infected red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.

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    Padmaja Jayaprasad Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcosis is a highly problematic disease in the aquaculture of freshwater fishes, especially for tilapia. The possibility of vertical transmission of streptococcosis and the pattern of tissue tropism of this pathogen in various organs was examined in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Healthy broodstock without any clinical signs of Streptococcus spp. were selected from a farm earlier reported to have the disease and a total of 10 pairs were forced spawned to provide samples of gametes and progeny for pathogen testing. A colorimetric LAMP assay was used to confirm whether the bacterial pathogens Streptococcus. agalactiae and Streptococcus. iniae was present in samples of milt, unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs, and offspring at various stages of development, as well as internal organs of broodstock (reproductive organs, gill, liver, spleen, kidney and brain as well as samples of water from culture systems. The majority of samples of milt (9/10 and unfertilized eggs (7/10 collected from the broodstock were infected with S. iniae at the time of spawning and was transmitted to all of their offspring. Nevertheless, when the same samples of gametes were analyzed for S. agalactiae, they were all found to be negative but the pathogen was found to be present in some 10-day-old larval offspring (4/10. However, when the pathogenic presence was analyzed from the reproductive organs of the parents, both S. agalactiae (11/20 and S. iniae (18/20 bacterium were common. Although, all broodstock were asymptomatic, almost all broodstock harboured the bacteria in many organs. Confirmation of vertical transmission of streptococcosis in tilapia means that intergenerational break cannot be used as a reliable and simple means of reducing or eliminating the prevalence of these difficult pathogens in aquaculture stock.

  6. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Among People Who Inject Drugs: Viral Stability and Association With Drug Preparation Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerrbecker, Juliane; Behrendt, Patrick; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Ciesek, Sandra; Riebesehl, Nina; Wilhelm, Corinne; Steinmann, Joerg; Pietschmann, Thomas; Steinmann, Eike

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs remains a challenging public health problem. We investigated the risk of HCV transmission by analyzing the direct association of HCV with filters, water to dilute drugs, and water containers. Methods. Experiments were designed to replicate practices by people who inject drugs and include routinely used injection equipment. HCV stability in water was assessed by inoculation of bottled water with HCV. Viral association with containers was investigated by filling the containers with water, inoculating the water with HCV, emptying the water, and refilling the container with fresh water. Transmission risk associated with drug preparation filters was determined after drawing virus through a filter and incubating the filter to release infectious particles. Results. HCV can survive for up to 3 weeks in bottled water. Water containers present a risk for HCV transmission, as infectious virions remained associated with water containers after washing. Physical properties of the water containers determined the degree of HCV contamination after containers were refilled with water. HCV was also associated with filter material, in which around 10% of the viral inoculum was detectable. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the potential risk of HCV transmission among injection drug users who share water, filters, and water containers and will help to define public health interventions to reduce HCV transmission. PMID:23129759

  7. Simultaneous measurement of lateral and vertical size of nanoparticles using transmission scanning electron microscopy (TSEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, E.; Bug, M. U.; Bergmann, D.; Cizmar, P.; Frase, C. G.

    2017-03-01

    A scanning electron microscope operated in transmission mode (TSEM) enables both the measurement of the lateral and vertical size (thickness) of nanoparticles. The lateral size is measured with a previously described technique where the particle boundary is determined in the TSEM image. Particle thickness is deduced from the TSEM signal level measured at the centre of the particle, which requires prior knowledge of the expected TSEM signal level. We applied different and well-known Monte-Carlo based simulation tools (Geant4 and MCSEM) to describe the electron diffusion in solid states and to calculate the expected TSEM signals taking into account particle and instrument properties. The simulation results of the different simulation models differ slightly revealing current limits of small-angle and low-energy electron scattering modelling in solid states. Nonetheless, the method allows one to correlate lateral and vertical particle thickness and thus to obtain additional information about the 3D morphology of nanoparticles. We demonstrate the method for silica particles with sizes in the range of about 10 nm-100 nm.

  8. Potential impact of viral load and genetic makeup of HIV type 1 on mother-to-child transmission: characterization of env-C2V3C3 and nef sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, Elizabeth; Parreira, Ricardo; Tendeiro, Rita; Nunes, Baltazar; Castela, João; Soares, Isabel; Mouzinho, Ana; Reis, Eduarda; Paixão, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in terms of the molecular characterization of the env and nef genomic regions and quantification of maternal RNA viral loads. Assignment of viral subtype was achieved by direct sequencing of PCR 1172 products amplified from proviral DNA in 45 HIV-1-nontransmitting mothers (NTM), along with 13 pairs of HIV-1-transmitting mothers (TM) and their infected children (C). Analysis of the env C2V3C3 and nef sequences revealed that subtypes G and B, and their genetic combinations (AG, BG), accounted for over 84.5% of all viruses identified. The genetic structure form envA-nefG was the most commonly observed, with a lower frequency in the NTM (13.3%) compared to the TM (23.1%) group. A greater number of genetic forms was observed among NTM, namely the presence of sequences assigned to subtypes D and F, as well as the intergenetic A/J, and C/U, recombinant forms, along with a mosaic provirus with a complex putative envA-nefEGE genetic structure. No significant differences were found when RNA viral loads were evaluated as a function of the viral subtypes. Nevertheless, a relatively high quantification of HIV-1 RNA was obtained in the NTM group, emphasizing the importance of the compliance and effectiveness of therapeutic schemes to control viral replication and reduce the risk of HIV vertical transmission. V3 sequences displaying features associated with the R5 phenotype dominated in both groups. Both C2V3C3 and Nef's functional domains were conserved during HIV-1 vertical transmission.

  9. Bona fide evidence for natural vertical transmission of infectious salmon anemia virus in freshwater brood stocks of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Ramírez, Ramón; Labra, Alvaro; Carmona, Marisela; Muñoz, Cristián

    2014-06-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a severe disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), causing outbreaks in seawater in most salmon-producing countries worldwide, with particular aggressiveness in southern Chile. The etiological agent of this disease is a virus belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family, named infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Although it has been suggested that this virus can be vertically transmitted, even in freshwater, there is a lack of compelling experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we demonstrate significant putative viral loads in the ovarian fluid as well as in the eggs of two brood stock female adult specimens that harbored the virus systemically but without clinical signs. The target virus corresponded to a highly polymorphic region 3 (HPR-3) variant, which is known to be virulent in seawater and responsible for recent and past outbreaks of this disease in Chile. Additionally, the virus recovered from the fluid as well as from the interior of the eggs was fully infective to a susceptible fish cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first robust evidence demonstrating mother-to-offspring vertical transmission of the infective virus on the one hand and the asymptomatic transmission of a virulent form of the virus in freshwater fish on the other hand. The robustness of the data presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the biology of the virus but most importantly will constitute a key management tool in the control of an aggressive agent constantly threatening the sustainability of the global salmon industry.

  10. Viral phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M Volz

    Full Text Available Viral phylodynamics is defined as the study of how epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes act and potentially interact to shape viralphylogenies. Since the coining of the term in 2004, research on viral phylodynamics has focused on transmission dynamics in an effort to shed light on how these dynamics impact viral genetic variation. Transmission dynamics can be considered at the level of cells within an infected host, individual hosts within a population, or entire populations of hosts. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses, rapidly accumulate genetic variation because of short generation times and high mutation rates. Patterns of viral genetic variation are therefore heavily influenced by how quickly transmission occurs and by which entities transmit to one another. Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread[2], spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics[3], zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism[4], and antigenic drift[5]. The quantitative investigation of these processes through the consideration of viral phylogenies is the central aim of viral phylodynamics.

  11. Translocation of Bacillus thuringiensis in Phaseolus vulgaris tissues and vertical transmission in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Suárez, R; Verduzco-Rosas, L A; Del Rincón-Castro, M C; Délano-Frier, J P; Ibarra, J E

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate the ability of Bacillus thuringiensis to penetrate as spore-crystal complex to the internal tissues of bean plants, and keep its insecticidal activity. To test the vertical transmission of the spore-crystal complex in Arabidopsis thaliana. The experimental strain was transformed with the pMUTIN-gfp plasmid which labelled the spores of B. thuringiensis HD-73 with the GFP protein. Once the rhizosphere of the bean plants was inoculated with the labelled strain, the bacterium was recovered from leaves, stems, and petioles. Furthermore, toxicity of treated plants was significantly higher than control plants when bio-assayed on cabbage looper larvae. The labelled strain was recovered from the dead insects. When the rhizosphere of A. thaliana plants was inoculated with the labelled strain, mature seeds from these plants were surface-sterilized and grown under in vitro conditions. The labelled strain was recovered from the seedlings. We showed that B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (HD-73) in the rhizosphere can translocate to upper tissues of bean plants, and keep its insecticidal activity. Transmission of the labelled B. thuringiensis strain passed to the next generation of A. thaliana. The role of B. thuringiensis as a potential facultative endophyte bacterium and the possible biotechnological repercussions are discussed. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Vertical transmission explains the specific Burkholderia pattern in Sphagnum mosses at multi-geographic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia is known for its versatile interactions with its hosts that can range from beneficial to pathogenic. A plant-beneficial-environmental (PBE) Burkholderia cluster was recently separated from the pathogen cluster, yet still little is known about burkholderial diversity, distribution, colonization, and transmission patterns on plants. In our study, we applied a combination of high-throughput molecular and microscopic methods to examine the aforementioned factors for Burkholderia communities associated with Sphagnum mosses – model plants for long-term associations – in Austrian and Russian bogs. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons libraries revealed that most of the Burkholderia are part of the PBE group, but a minor fraction was closely related to B. glathei and B. andropogonis from the pathogen cluster. Notably, Burkholderia showed highly similar composition patterns for each moss species independent of the geographic region, and Burkholderia-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization of Sphagnum gametophytes exhibited similar colonization patterns in different Sphagnum species at multi-geographic scales. To explain these patterns, we compared the compositions of the surrounding water, gametophyte-, and sporophyte-associated microbiome at genus level and discovered that Burkholderia were present in the Sphagnum sporophyte and gametophyte, but were absent in the flark water. Therefore, Burkholderia is a part of the core microbiome transmitted from the moss sporophyte to the gametophyte. This suggests a vertical transmission of Burkholderia strains, and thus underlines their importance for the plants themselves. PMID:24391630

  13. Vertical transmission of endobacteria in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita through generation of vegetative spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciotto, V; Genre, A; Jargeat, P; Lumini, E; Bécard, G; Bonfante, P

    2004-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiotic association with the roots of vascular plants have also been shown to host endocellular rod-shaped bacteria. Based on their ribosomal sequences, these endobacteria have recently been identified as a new taxon, Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum. In order to investigate the cytoplasmic stability of the endobacteria in their fungal host and their transmission during AM fungal reproduction (asexual), a system based on transformed carrot roots and single-spore inocula of Gigaspora margarita was used. Under these in vitro sterile conditions, with no risk of horizontal contamination, the propagation of endobacteria could be monitored, and it was shown, by using primers designed for both 16S and 23S ribosomal DNAs, to occur through several vegetative spore generations (SG0 to SG4). A method of confocal microscopy for quantifying the density of endobacteria in spore cytoplasm was designed and applied; endobacteria were consistently found in all of the spore generations, although their number rapidly decreased from SG0 to SG4. The study demonstrates that a vertical transmission of endobacteria takes place through the fungal vegetative generations (sporulation) of an AM fungus, indicating that active bacterial proliferation occurs in the coenocytic mycelium of the fungus, and suggests that these bacteria are obligate endocellular components of their AM fungal host.

  14. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in India through service integration: lessons from Mysore District, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K S; Piang, L L K; Tiwari, V K; Raj, Sherin; Nandan, Deoki

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the needs of HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring is critical to India's political and financial commitment to achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. This review of the strategy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV in Mysore district, Karnataka, highlights the need to integrate prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) and reproductive and child health (RCH) services. All key officials who were involved in the integration of services at the state and district levels were interviewed by use of semistructured protocols. Policy documents and guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Family Welfare and Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society were reviewed, as were records and official orders issued by the office of District Health and Family Welfare Officer and District HIV/AIDS Programme Office, Mysore. Routine data were also collected from all health facilities. This review found that 4.5 years of PPTCT-RCH integration resulted not only in a rise in antenatal registrations but also in almost all pregnant women counselled during antenatal care undergoing HIV tests. Based on the findings, we propose recommendations for successful replication of this strategy. Integration of PPTCT services with RCH should take place at all levels - policy, administration, facility and community. The increased demand for HIV counselling and testing resulting from service integration must be met by skilled human resources, sufficient facilities and adequate funds at the facility level.

  15. Threading through history: the vertical transmission of Davy, Faraday and Tyndall’s lecture demonstration practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Pitches

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the extent to which residues of the practices inherent in nineteenth-century science lecture-demonstrations from the Royal Institution of Great Britain (RI are evident in contemporary forms of Science Museum Group (SMG Explainer presentations. The discipline of Performance Studies offers a number of models to discuss such a consideration and this essay draws particularly on the connected, transgenerational theories of vertical transmission, embodied knowledge and intertheatricality. Specifically, the focus is on three notable scientists, selected here for their particular influence on the lecture-demonstration practices at the RI during the nineteenth century: Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday and John Tyndall. It suggests that aspects of their embodied performances in the lecture theatre have been transmitted through subsequent generations of RI practitioners. Extending this transmission, via specific events in 1954 that led to Science Museum Guide Lecturers observing RI practices, it suggests that these practices were then inherited and passed down through generations of lecturing and explaining staff at the museum.

  16. Inter-species transmission of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna Amanda; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    barriers. The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus with high economic impact on the aquaculture industry, has developed an exceptionally wide host range across marine and freshwater environments. Transmission of VHSV between host species therefore represents a potential risk......Successful viral infection is a complex mechanism, involving many host–pathogen interactions that developed during coevolution of host and pathogen, and often result in host-species specificity. Nevertheless, many viruses are able to infect several host species and sporadically cross species...... for aquaculture, which currently is not addressed in biosecurity managements. The objective of this study was to investigate the inter-species transmission potential of VHSV and evaluate whether infected marine wild fish pose a potential risk on marine cultured rainbow trout. A cohabitation infection trial...

  17. [Mechanisms of viral emergence and interspecies transmission: the exemple of simian foamy viruses in Central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessain, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    A large proportion of viral pathogens that have emerged during the last decades in humans are considered to have originated from various animal species. This is well exemplified by several recent epidemics such as those of Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Avian flu, Ebola, Monkeypox, and Hantaviruses. After the initial interspecies transmission per se, the viruses can disseminate into the human population through various and distinct mechanisms. Some of them are well characterized and understood, thus allowing a certain level of risk control and prevention. Surprisingly and in contrast, the initial steps that lead to the emergence of several viruses, and of their associated diseases, remain still poorly understood. Epidemiological field studies conducted in certain specific high-risk populations are thus necessary to obtain new insights into the early events of this emergence process. Human infections by simian viruses represent increasing public health concerns. Indeed, by virtue of their genetic andphysiological similarities, non-human primates (NHPs) are considered to be likely the sources of viruses that can infect humans and thus may pose a significant threat to human population. This is well illustrated by retroviruses, which have the ability to cross species, adapt to a new host and sometimes spread within these new species. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic studies have thus clearly showed that the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in humans have resulted from several independent interspecies transmissions of different SIV types from Chimpanzees and African monkeys (including sooty mangabeys), respectively, probably during the first part of the last century. The situation for Human T cell Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is, for certain aspects, quite comparable. Indeed, the origin of most HTLV-1 subtypes appears to be linked to interspecies transmission between STLV-1-infected monkeys and humans, followed by

  18. Phylogeography, phylodynamics and transmission chains of bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1f in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Moreno, Ana; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in Italy is characterized by high genetic diversity, with at least 20 subtypes. Subtype 1f is endemic in a restricted geographic area, meaning that it has local distribution. We investigated the population dynamics of BVDV-1f in Northern Italy and characterized the transmission chains of a subset of samples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley regions. A total of 51 samples from 1966 to 2013 were considered and 5' UTR sequences were used for phylogeography. A subset of 12 samples was selected for Npro gene sequencing and further characterization of the transmission chains using both molecular and epidemiological data. Phylogeography estimated the root of BVDV-1f tree in Veneto in 1965. Four significant subclades included sequences clustering by region: Lombardy (n=3), Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna (n=7), Piedmont (n=17), Piedmont and Aosta Valley (n=21). The Piedmont-only subclade has a ladder-like branching structure, while the Piedmont and Aosta Valley subclade has a nearly complete binary structure. In the subset, the outbreak reconstruction identified one sample from Piedmont as the most probable source of infection for the Aosta Valley cases. An ad hoc questionnaire submitted to public veterinarians revealed connections between sampled and non-sampled farms by means of trades, exhibitions and markets. According to the phylogeography, BVDV-1f moved westward, entering from Veneto, and spreading to Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in the early 1990s, and finally to Piedmont and Aosta Valley in the first decade of 2000s. Both phylogeographic analyses on the whole dataset and on the selection of Npro dataset pointed out that subtype 1f entered Aosta Valley from Piedmont. The integration of molecular and epidemiological data revealed connections between farms, and such approach should be considered in any control plan. In Aosta Valley, the study showed that BVDV1f can be controlled only monitoring the introduction of cattle from Piedmont

  19. Mother-to-infant transmission of multiple blood-borne viral infections from multi-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Moriondo, Maria; Galli, Luisa; Azzari, Chiara; Poggi, Giovanni Maria; Resti, Massimo; de Martino, Maurizio

    2007-06-01

    Infants born from mothers with multiple blood-borne viral infections are at risk of multiple transmissions. Whether the risk of transmission of multiple infections increases with the number of viruses infecting the mother is still unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the risk of mother-to-infant transmission of multiple infections from multi-infected mothers. Sixty-four pregnant women infected by at least two viruses among human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus, TT virus, and GB virus type C, together with their 64 infants, were studied. Maternal blood samples were collected in the third trimester of pregnancy and all infants were prospectively followed for evaluation of transmission within 3 months after birth and two times in the subsequent 24 months. Transmission of single and of dual infection from mothers infected by two viruses was, respectively, 10/40 (25%) and 5/40 (12.5%) and from mothers infected by three viruses 9/20 (45%) and 2/20 (10%). One (25%) infant infected by one virus was born from the four mothers infected by four viruses. Transmission of single or dual infection was not significantly associated with the number of viruses infecting the mother (P = 0.9) in the linear regression analysis. Present study suggests the absence of a synergistic effect from viral interactions toward mother-to-infant transmission of multiple infections and supports the hypothesis that transmission from multi-infected mothers is the result of the specific interaction between each virus and the host. These observations may be of clinical relevance in perinatal counseling. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sero-epidemiological analysis of vertical transmission relative risk of Borna disease virus infection in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tatsuya; Takino, Tadashi; Makita, Kohei; Tajima, Motoshi; Koiwa, Masateru; Hagiwara, Katsuro

    2016-12-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a virus that causes a neurological disease in domestic animals, including a variety of animal species in Japan. Few studies have examined the mode of transmission of this virus in cattle, and the exact mechanisms underlying the transmission of the virus need to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the contribution of vertical transmission of the virus, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from the mother to offspring during gestation or birth. We used an epidemiological approach. The relative risk (RR) was calculated for cattle born to BDV sero-positive cows from farms with a higher within-herd prevalence of BDV (56.8%). We tested the sera of 1,122 dairy cattle from 24 dairy herds in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, for BDV infection using the ELISA and western blotting method. The overall level of BDV sero-prevalence was 22.1%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in closed-breeding herds that do not have buying in cows (39.7%) than in farms that restock cattle by buying in cows (4.4%, P<0.01). The overall RR of BDV vertical transmission from infected mothers to their daughters was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54-2.56). Our results show that vertical transmission contributes significantly to BDV transmission in the farms tested in this study.

  1. Altered natural killer cells subsets distribution in children with hepatitis C following vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indolfi, G; Mangone, G; Moriondo, M; Serranti, D; Bartolini, E; Azzari, C; Resti, M

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells number, phenotypes and function have been evaluated in many studies in adults with hepatitis C as compared with healthy controls or dynamically during interferon-based and interferon-free treatments. Overall, in adults with chronic infection number of circulating NK cells has been reported to be lower when compared to spontaneous resolvers and healthy subjects. Different studies yielded inconsistent findings due to patient and virus heterogeneity. To evaluate NK cells in children according to the different outcomes of the infection. In this cross-sectional study, we examined numbers and phenotypes of circulating NK cells from a homogenous cohort of Italian children with vertically acquired hepatitis C. We compared 31 children who developed chronic infection with nine who presented spontaneous clearance and 13 controls. CD56(+) CD3(-) NK cell numbers were consistently lower in the persistently infected group (P = 0.03 and 0.04). This decrease was due to depletions of CD56(dim) NK cells (P = 0.03 chronic infection vs. spontaneous clearance), while CD56(bright) NK cells were expanded (P = 0.03). No significant difference was found in the frequencies of CD56(+) CD16(+) and CD56(dim) CD16(-) cells. Perforin expression was higher in children with chronic infection (P = 0.03 vs. spontaneous clearance). Altered NK cells number and phenotypes could impact the outcome of HCV infection in children following vertical transmission. This study suggests for the first time that NK cells cytolytic function, featured by CD56(dim) cells, contributes to the elimination of HCV in children presenting spontaneous clearance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The contribution of family planning towards the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hladik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT to that of existing family planning (FP use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the demographic software Spectrum, a baseline mathematical projection to estimate the current pediatric HIV burden in Uganda was compared to three hypothetical projections: 1 without ARV-PMTCT (to estimate the effect of ARV-PMTCT, 2 without contraception (effect of existing FP use, 3 without unwanted fertility (effect of unmet FP needs. Key input parameters included HIV prevalence, ARV-PMTCT uptake, MTCT probabilities, and TFR. We estimate that in 2007, an estimated 25,000 vertical infections and 17,000 pediatric AIDS deaths occurred (baseline projection. Existing ARV-PMTCT likely averted 8.1% of infections and 8.5% of deaths. FP use likely averted 19.7% of infections and 13.1% of deaths. Unwanted fertility accounted for 21.3% of infections and 13.4% of deaths. During 2008-2012, an estimated 131,000 vertical infections and 71,000 pediatric AIDS deaths will occur. The projected scale up of ARV-PMTCT (from 39%-57% may avert 18.1% of infections and 24.5% of deaths. Projected FP use may avert 21.6% of infections and 18.5% of deaths. Unwanted fertility will account for 24.5% of infections and 19.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Existing FP use contributes as much or more than ARV-PMTCT in mitigating pediatric HIV in Uganda. Expanding FP services can substantially contribute towards PMTCT.

  3. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  4. Quantification of vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in dairy cows in Minas Gerais, Brazil Quantificação da transmissão vertical de Neospora caninum em vacas leiteiras de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Raquel Ribeiro Dias Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of Neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The frequency of cows seropositive for N.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT was 39.4% (93/236 for Farm A and 31.4% (32/102 for the Farm B (p > 0.05. The mean vertical transmission rates for N. caninum were 29% and 9% for the herds of Farms A and B, respectively. No negative effects (p > 0.05 from infection by N.caninum were observed regarding milk production and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in herds A and B.O objetivo deste estudo transversal foi estimar a taxa de transmissão vertical e investigar a transmissão horizontal de Neospora caninum, e a ocorrência de alterações reprodutivas em vacas leiteiras soropositivas em duas fazendas no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A frequência de vacas soropositivas a N. caninum pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI foi de 39,4% (93/236 e 31,4% (32/102 para as fazendas A e B, respectivamente. A taxa média de transmissão vertical de N. caninum, respectivamente, foi de 29% e 9% para os rebanhos A e B. Não foi observado nenhum efeito negativo (p > 0,05 da infecção por N. caninum sobre a produção de leite e a ocorrência de alterações reprodutivas nos rebanhos A e B.

  5. Temporal variation in viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus antibodies in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) indicates cyclic transmission in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Rothering, Anna; Marcquenski, Susan; Koenigs, Ryan P.; Bruch, Ronald; Kamke, Kendall; Isermann, Daniel A.; Thurman, Andrew; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Goldberg, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in multiple fish species. In 2007, the Great Lakes freshwater strain, type IVb, caused a large die-off of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, USA. To evaluate the persistence and transmission of VHSV, freshwater drum from Lake Winnebago were tested for antibodies to the virus using recently developed virus neutralization (VN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Samples were also tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect viral RNA. Of 548 serum samples tested, 44 (8.03%) were positive by VN (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) and 45 (8.21%) were positive by ELISA, including 7 fish positive by both assays. Antibody prevalence increased with age and was higher in one northwestern area of Lake Winnebago than in other areas. Of 3,864 tissues sampled from 551 fish, 1 spleen and 1 kidney sample from a single adult female fish collected in the spring of 2012 tested positive for VHSV by rRT-PCR, and serum from the same fish tested positive by VN and ELISA. These results suggest that VHSV persists and viral transmission may be active in Lake Winnebago even in years following outbreaks and that wild fish may survive VHSV infection and maintain detectable antibody titers while harboring viral RNA. Influxes of immunologically naive juvenile fish through recruitment may reduce herd immunity, allow VHSV to persist, and drive superannual cycles of transmission that may sporadically manifest as fish kills.

  6. Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: Relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery

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    Park Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to consistent epidemiologic evidence of the role of sexual transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV in adults, various routes may be related to HPV infection in infants. We have assessed the extent of HPV infection during the perinatal period, and the relationship between mode of delivery and vertical transmission. Results A total of 291 pregnant women over 36 weeks of gestation were enrolled with informed consent. Exfoliative cells were collected from maternal cervix and neonatal buccal mucosa. HPV infection and genotypes were determined with an HPV DNA chip, which can recognise 24 types. The HPV-positive neonates were re-evaluated 6 months after birth to identify the presence of persistent infection. HPV DNA was detected in 18.9 % (55/291 of pregnant women and 3.4 % (10/291 of neonates. Maternal infection was associated with abnormal cytology (p = 0.007 and primiparity (p = 0.015. The infected neonates were all born to HPV-positive mothers. The rate of vertical transmission was estimated at 18.2 % (10/55 which was positively correlated with maternal multiple HPV infection (p = 0.003 and vaginal delivery (p = 0.050, but not with labour duration and premature rupture of membranes. The rate of concordance of genotype was 100 % in mother-neonate pairs with vertical transmission. The neonatal HPV DNAs found at birth were all cleared at 6 months after delivery. Conclusions Vertical transmission of HPV DNA from HPV infected mother to the neonate increased when the infant was delivered through an infected cervix. However, the absence of persistent infection in infants at 6 months after delivery may suggest temporary inoculation rather than true vertical infection.

  7. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  8. Transmission of vertical stress in a real soil profile. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    2011-01-01

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge about stress transmission in real soils that suffer heavy loads of agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in an annually ploughed Stagnic Luvisol continuously cropped with small grain...... used rated tyre inflation pressures for traffic in the field (≤10 km h−1 driving speed). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil at each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative...... ground pressure and the tyre inflation pressure. The maximum stresses measured at 0.9 m depth were correlated with the wheel load (57 and 60 kPa at 60 kN load; 27 and 25 kPa at 30 kN load) and did not reflect the surface-related stress expressions. Our results show that the use of wide, low pressure...

  9. Linking social and spatial networks to viral community phylogenetics reveals subtype-specific transmission dynamics in African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Packer, Craig; Troyer, Jennifer L; VanderWaal, Kimberly; Robinson, Stacie; Jacquot, Maude; Craft, Meggan E

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. Here, we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype-specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle ) in African lions (Panthera leo) at multiple scales in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We used FIVPle molecular data to examine the role of social organization and lion density in shaping transmission pathways and tested to what extent vertical (i.e., father- and/or mother-offspring relationships) or horizontal (between unrelated individuals) transmission underpinned these patterns for each subtype. Using the same data, we constructed subtype-specific FIVPle co-occurrence networks and assessed what combination of social networks, spatial networks or co-infection best structured the FIVPle network. While social organization (i.e., pride) was an important component of FIVPle transmission pathways at all scales, we find that FIVPle subtypes exhibited different transmission pathways at within- and between-pride scales. A combination of social and spatial networks, coupled with consideration of subtype co-infection, was likely to be important for FIVPle transmission for the two major subtypes, but the relative contribution of each factor was strongly subtype-specific. Our study provides evidence that pathogen heterogeneity is important in understanding pathogen transmission, which could have consequences for how endemic pathogens are managed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that community phylogenetic ecology coupled with phylodynamic techniques can reveal insights into the differential evolutionary pressures acting on virus

  10. High-pass filtering and dynamic gain regulation enhance vertical bursts transmission along the mossy fiber pathway of cerebellum

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    Jonathan Mapelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Signal elaboration in the cerebellum mossy fiber input pathway presents controversial aspects, especially concerning gain regulation and the spot-like (rather than beam-like appearance of granular-to-molecular layer transmission. By using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging in rat cerebellar slices (Mapelli et al., 2010, we found that mossy fiber bursts optimally excited the granular layer above ~50 Hz and the overlaying molecular layer above ~100 Hz, thus generating a cascade of high-pass filters. NMDA receptors enhanced transmission in the granular, while GABA-A receptors depressed transmission in both the granular and molecular layer. Burst transmission gain was controlled through a dynamic frequency-dependent involvement of these receptors. Moreover, while high-frequency transmission was enhanced along vertical lines connecting the granular to molecular layer, no high-frequency enhancement was observed along the parallel fiber axis in the molecular layer. This was probably due to the stronger effect of Purkinje cell GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition occurring along the parallel fibers than along the granule cell axon ascending branch. The consequent amplification of burst responses along vertical transmission lines could explain the spot-like activation of Purkinje cells observed following punctuate stimulation in vivo .

  11. Risk factors of HIV-1 vertical transmission (VT) and the influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Maria F M; de Oliveira, Gisele R; Lobato, Rubens C; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A; Martínez, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Carla V

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of intervention, the rate of vertical transmission of HIV can range from 15-45%. With the inclusion of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and the choice of delivery route this amounts to less than 2%. However ARV use during pregnancy has generated several questions regarding the adverse effects of the gestational and neonatal outcome. This study aims to analyze the risk factors for vertical transmission of HIV-1 seropositive pregnant women living in Rio Grande and the influence of the use of ARVs in pregnancy outcome. Among the 262 pregnant women studied the rate of vertical transmission of HIV was found to be 3.8%. Regarding the VT, there was a lower risk of transmission when antiretroviral drugs were used and prenatal care was conducted at the referral service. However, the use of ART did not influence the outcome of pregnancy. However, initiation of prenatal care after the first trimester had an influence on low birth weight, as well as performance of less than six visits increased the risk of prematurity. Therefore, the risk factors analyzed in this study appear to be related to the realization of inadequate pre-natal and maternal behavior.

  12. RISK FACTORS OF HIV-1 VERTICAL TRANSMISSION (VT AND THE INFLUENCE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY (ART IN PREGNANCY OUTCOME

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    Maria F.M. Barral

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of intervention, the rate of vertical transmission of HIV can range from 15-45%. With the inclusion of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and the choice of delivery route this amounts to less than 2%. However ARV use during pregnancy has generated several questions regarding the adverse effects of the gestational and neonatal outcome. This study aims to analyze the risk factors for vertical transmission of HIV-1 seropositive pregnant women living in Rio Grande and the influence of the use of ARVs in pregnancy outcome. Among the 262 pregnant women studied the rate of vertical transmission of HIV was found to be 3.8%. Regarding the VT, there was a lower risk of transmission when antiretroviral drugs were used and prenatal care was conducted at the referral service. However, the use of ART did not influence the outcome of pregnancy. However, initiation of prenatal care after the first trimester had an influence on low birth weight, as well as performance of less than six visits increased the risk of prematurity. Therefore, the risk factors analyzed in this study appear to be related to the realization of inadequate pre-natal and maternal behavior.

  13. An Infectious cDNA Clone of Zika Virus to Study Viral Virulence, Mosquito Transmission, and Antiviral Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chao; Xie, Xuping; Muruato, Antonio E; Rossi, Shannan L; Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Yang, Yujiao; Tesh, Robert B; Bourne, Nigel; Barrett, Alan D; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2016-06-08

    The Asian lineage of Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused epidemics and severe disease. Unraveling the mechanisms causing increased viral transmissibility and disease severity requires experimental systems. We report an infectious cDNA clone of ZIKV that was generated using a clinical isolate of the Asian lineage. The cDNA clone-derived RNA is infectious in cells, generating recombinant ZIKV. The recombinant virus is virulent in established ZIKV mouse models, leading to neurological signs relevant to human disease. Additionally, recombinant ZIKV is infectious for Aedes aegypti and thus provides a means to examine virus transmission. The infectious cDNA clone was further used to generate a luciferase ZIKV that exhibited sensitivity to a panflavivirus inhibitor, highlighting its potential utility for antiviral screening. This ZIKV reverse genetic system, together with mouse and mosquito infection models, may help identify viral determinants of human virulence and mosquito transmission as well as inform vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Host growth conditions regulate the plasticity of horizontal and vertical transmission in Holospora undulata, a bacterial parasite of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltz, Oliver; Koella, Jacob C

    2003-07-01

    A parasite might be prohibited from investing simultaneously in horizontal (infection of new hosts) and vertical (infection of the current host's offspring) transmission because of developmental, physiological, or evolutionary costs and constraints. Rather, these constraints may select for adaptive phenotypic plasticity, where the parasite uses the transmission pathway that maximizes transmission in the current ecological and epidemiological conditions. By varying environmental conditions for the host's replication, we investigated the plasticity of vertical and horizontal transmission of Holospora undulata, a micronucleus-specific bacterial parasite of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum. We observed a negative correlation between the host's growth rate and the parasite's investment in horizontal transmission. In rapidly dividing hosts, the parasite remained in the reproductive stage and was passed on vertically to the daughter nuclei during mitotic division of the Paramecium. In contrast, at low or negative growth rates of the host, the parasite's reproductive forms differentiated into infectious forms, the agents of horizontal transmission. Furthermore, in treatments that were initiated with a high proportion of individuals harboring horizontally transmitted infectious forms, rapid replication resulted in a switch back from predominantly horizontal to almost exclusively vertical transmission. These results suggest a trade-off between the efficacies of vertical and horizontal transmission, with the parasite switching to horizontal transmission only if conditions for host replication, and thus vertical transmission, deteriorate.

  15. A qualitative investigation into knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding mastitis in sub-Saharan Africa: what implications for vertical transmission of HIV?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis constitutes an important risk factor in HIV vertical transmission. Very little, however, is known on how women in sub-Saharan Africa conceptualise health problems related to breastfeeding, such as mastitis, and how they act when sick. We aimed at filling this gap in knowledge, by documenting the indigenous nosography of mastitis, health seeking behaviour, and remedies for prophylaxis and treatment in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The study was conducted in the Nouna Health District, rural Burkina Faso. We employed a combination of in-depth individual interviews and focus group discussions reaching both women and guérisseuers. All material was transcribed, translated, and analysed inductively, applying data and analyst triangulation. Results Respondents perceived breast problems related to lactation to be highly prevalent and described a sequence of symptoms which resembles the biomedical understanding of pathologies related to breastfeeding, ranging from breast engorgement (stasis to inflammation (mastitis and infection (breast abscess. The aetiology of disease, however, differed from biomedical notions as both women and guerisseurs distinguished between "natural" and "unnatural" causes of health problems related to breastfeeding. To prevent and treat such pathologies, women used a combination of traditional and biomedical therapies, depending on the perceived cause of illness. In general, however, a marked preference for traditional systems of care was observed. Conclusion Health problems related to breastfeeding are perceived to be very common in rural Burkina Faso. Further epidemiological research to assess the actual prevalence of such pathologies is urgently needed to inform the design of adequate control measures, especially given the impact of mastitis on HIV vertical transmission. Our investigation into local illness concepts and health care seeking behaviour is useful to ensure that such measures be

  16. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparian, Shahram; Abdulahnejad, Ahad; Rashidi, Farzad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2016-06-17

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 10(9) sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks.

  17. Excreção e transmissão do vírus da diarréia viral bovina por bezerros persistentemente infectados Shedding and transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus by persistently infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arenhart

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bezerros persistentemente infectados (PI nascidos de vacas infectadas com amostras não-citopáticas do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV se constituem nos principais reservatórios do vírus na natureza. Este trabalho relata uma investigação do padrão de excreção e transmissão viral por cinco bezerros PI produzidos experimentalmente pela inoculação de vacas prenhes com isolados brasileiros do BVDV. Cinco bezerros que sobreviveram a infecção intrauterina nasceram saudáveis, soronegativos e com a presença de vírus no sangue. Após o desmame - e desaparecimento dos anticorpos colostrais - os bezerros PI foram monitorados semanalmente durante 150 dias para a presença de vírus e títulos virais no soro e em secreções (ocular, oral, nasal e genital. Os títulos virais no soro de cada animal apresentaram pequenas variações durante o período (com exceção de um animal que apresentou um aumento de título tardiamente, mas os títulos variaram amplamente entre os animais (entre 10² e 10(6TCID50/ml. O vírus também foi excretado continuamente nas secreções de todos os animais, com pequenas variações de título entre as coletas. Os maiores títulos virais foram geralmente detectados nas secreções nasais e oculares (títulos de 10(4 a 10(6TCID50/mL, enquanto as secreções orais e genitais usualmente continham títulos virais baixos (10² a 10³TCID50/mL. Com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica de transmissão viral, um bezerro PI foi introduzido em um grupo de 10 bezerros soronegativos, mantido com uma alta densidade animal e submetido a manejo diário para simular as condições de manejo semi-intensivo. Após 30 dias de convívio com o bezerro PI, todos os demais animais haviam soroconvertido ao BVDV. Para investigar a transmissão viral sob condições extensivas, outro bezerro PI foi incorporado a um rebanho de 48 animais mantido a campo, com baixa densidade animal e submetido a manejo extensivo. Dentre estes animais, 8

  18. Transfusion-transmissible viral infections among blood donors at the North Gondar district blood bank, northwest Ethiopia: A three year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadgo, Belete; Shiferaw, Elias; Woldu, Berhanu; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-transmissible viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), remain a major public health problem in developing countries. The prevalence of these viral infections among blood donors may reflect the burden of these diseases among populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sero-prevalence of transfusion-transmissible viral infections among blood donors. A retrospective study was conducted using data obtained from registration books of blood donors from the Ethiopian North Gondar District Blood Bank from 2010 to 2012. Descriptive statistics, such as percentages, medians and interquartile ranges were computed. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with each viral infection. The odds ratio with a 99% confidence interval was calculated. A p-value < 0.01 was considered statistically significant. A total of 6,471 blood donors were included in the study. Of these, 5,311 (82.1%) were male, and 382 (5.9%) were voluntary blood donors. Overall, 424 (6.55%) of the blood donors were sero-reactive for at least one transfusion-transmissible viral infection. Of all study participants, 233 (3.6%) were sero-reactive for HBV, 145 (2.24%) were sero-reactive for HIV, and 51 (0.8%) were sero-reactive for HCV. Four (0.062%) of the study's participants were co-infected: 3 (75%) with HBV-HCV and 1 (25%) with HIV-HBV-HCV. Being a farmer, unemployed or employed donor was significantly associated with transfusion-transmissible viral infections compared to being a student donor. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible viral infections is substantial and has increased overtime. Hence, it demands more vigilance in routine screening of donated blood prior to transfusion. Further community-based studies to identify societal risk factors are necessary.

  19. Melanotic pathology and vertical transmission of the gut commensal Elizabethkingia meningoseptica in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idir G Akhouayri

    Full Text Available The resident gut flora is known to have significant impacts on the life history of the host organism. Endosymbiotic bacterial species in the Anopheles mosquito gut are potent modulators of sexual development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, and thus proposed as potential control agents of malaria transmission.Here we report a melanotic pathology in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, caused by the dominant mosquito endosymbiont Elizabethkingiameningoseptica. Transfer of melanised tissues into the haemolymph of healthy adult mosquitoes or direct haemolymph inoculation with isolated E. meningoseptica bacteria were the only means for transmission and de novo formation of melanotic lesions, specifically in the fat body tissues of recipient individuals. We show that E. meningoseptica can be vertically transmitted from eggs to larvae and that E. meningoseptica-mono-associated mosquitoes display significant mortality, which is further enhanced upon Plasmodium infection, suggesting a synergistic impact of E. meningoseptica and Plasmodium on mosquito survival.The high pathogenicity and permanent association of E. meningoseptica with An. Gambiae through vertical transmission constitute attractive characteristics towards the potential design of novel mosquito/malaria biocontrol strategies.

  20. Evidence of environmental and vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2014-10-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Evidence of Environmental and Vertical Transmission of Burkholderia Symbionts in the Oriental Chinch Bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. PMID:25038101

  2. Ecological Interactions between Humans, Wildlife Viral Reservoirs, and Key Environmental Drivers of Hantaan Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS are closely related to environmental variability, so it is essential to clarify the complex relationships among the environment, hantavirus transmission, and the population dynamics of its wildlife hosts. Tian et al. analyzed a large, long-term dataset describing the circulation of hantavirus in rodents and its spillover into humans. Their article incorporates several mathematical models and argues that the interaction between environmental and human behavioral factors drives the observed seasonality and interannual variations in important zoonotic diseases. The ecological cascade effect of a drought in 2002 is highlighted, and the role of seasonality in agricultural activity is emphasized in that study.

  3. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J.; Janssen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly or...

  4. Efficacy of strain RB51 vaccine in protecting infection and vertical transmission against Brucella abortus in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Baek, Byeong-Kirl; Lee, Sung-Il

    2009-09-01

    Immunizing animals in the wild against Brucella (B.) abortus is essential to control bovine brucellosis because cattle can get the disease through close contact with infected wildlife. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine in protecting infection as well as vertical transmission in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats against B. abortus biotype 1. Virgin female SD rats (n = 48) two months of age were divided into two groups: one group (n = 24) received RB51 vaccine intraperitoneally with 3 x 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) and the other group (n = 24) was used as non-vaccinated control. Non-vaccinated and RB51-vaccinated rats were challenged with 1.5 x 10(9) CFU of virulent B. abortus biotype 1 six weeks after vaccination. Three weeks after challenge, all rats were bred. Verification of RB51-vaccine induced protection in SD rats was determined by bacteriological, serological and molecular screening of maternal and fetal tissues at necropsy. The RB51 vaccine elicited 81.25% protection in SD rats against infection with B. abortus biotype 1. Offspring from rats vaccinated with RB51 had a decreased (p RB51 vaccination efficacy against the vertical transmission of B. abortus in the SD rat model.

  5. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-02-17

    The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent isolate Nc-Spain7, the three anti-malarial compounds failed to exhibit any activity, since treatment did not reduce the parasite burden in brains and lungs compared to untreated controls. Thus, these compounds were not further evaluated in pregnant mice. On the other hand, buparvaquone, shown earlier to be effective in reducing the parasite load in the lungs in an acute neosporosis disease model, was further assessed in the pregnant mouse model. Buparvaquone efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in Balb/c mice experimentally infected at day 7 of pregnancy, reduced clinical signs in the pups, but had no effect on cerebral infection in the dams. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that drug repurposing may lead to the discovery of an effective compound against neosporosis that can protect offspring from vertical transmission and disease.

  6. [Incidence of congenital syphilis and factors associated with vertical transmission: data from the Birth in Brazil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2016-06-20

    The objectives were to estimate incidence of congenital syphilis and verify factors associated with vertical transmission. A national hospital-based study was performed in 2011-2012 with 23,894 postpartum women using an in-hospital interview and data from patient charts and prenatal cards. Univariate logistic regression was performed to verify factors associated with congenital syphilis. Estimated incidence of congenital syphilis was 3.51 per 1,000 live births (95%CI: 2.29-5.37) and vertical transmission rate was 34.3% (95%CI: 24.7-45.4). Congenital syphilis was associated with lower maternal schooling, black skin color, higher rate of risk factors for prematurity, late initiation of prenatal care, fewer prenatal visits, and lower rate of prenatal serological testing. Fetal mortality was six times higher in congenital syphilis, and newborns with congenital syphilis showed higher hospital admission rates. Congenital syphilis is a persistent public health problem in Brazil and is associated with greater social vulnerability and gaps in prenatal care.

  7. A viral vectored prime-boost immunization regime targeting the malaria Pfs25 antigen induces transmission-blocking activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Goodman

    Full Text Available The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63, human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a heterologous prime-boost regime. Immunization of mice with AdHu5 Pfs25 at week 0 and MVA Pfs25 at week 10 (Ad-MVA Pfs25 resulted in high anti-Pfs25 IgG titers, consisting of predominantly isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a. A single priming immunization with ChAd63 Pfs25 was as effective as AdHu5 Pfs25 with respect to ELISA titers at 8 weeks post-immunization. Sera from Ad-MVA Pfs25 immunized mice inhibited the transmission of P. falciparum to the mosquito both ex vivo and in vivo. In a standard membrane-feeding assay using NF54 strain P. falciparum, oocyst intensity in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes was significantly reduced in an IgG concentration-dependent manner when compared to control feeds (96% reduction of intensity, 78% reduction in prevalence at a 1 in 5 dilution of sera. In addition, an in vivo transmission-blocking effect was also demonstrated by direct feeding of immunized mice infected with Pfs25DR3, a chimeric P. berghei line expressing Pfs25 in place of endogenous Pbs25. In this assay the density of Pfs25DR3 oocysts was significantly reduced when mosquitoes were fed on vaccinated as compared to control mice (67% reduction of intensity, 28% reduction in prevalence and specific IgG titer correlated with efficacy. These data confirm the utility of the adenovirus-MVA vaccine platform for the induction of antibodies with transmission-blocking activity, and support the continued development of this alternative approach to transmission-blocking malaria subunit

  8. Breastfeeding, vertical disease transmission and the volition of medicines in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, R.; Pell, C.; Kaunda, B.N.; Mathanga, D.; Gysels, M.H.; Liamputtong, P.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is based on data collected in central Malawi as part of a large multi-centre acceptability study of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi). It describes women’s perceptions of breast milk as being ‘good’ or ‘bad’, their beliefs about the transmission of malaria

  9. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infections in Mice Lead to Tropism to the Reproductive Organs, and Horizontal and Vertical Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Biteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, transmitted by the tsetse fly, is the main causative agent of Human African trypanosomosis in West Africa and poses a significant health risk to 70 million people. Disease progression varies depending on host immunity, but usually begins with a haemo-lymphatic phase, followed by parasite invasion of the central nervous system. In the current study, the tropism of T. b. gambiense 1135, causing a low level chronic 'silent' infection, was monitored in a murine model using bioluminescence imaging and PCR. A tropism to the reproductive organs, in addition to the central nervous system, after 12-18 months of infection was observed. Bioluminescent analysis of healthy females crossed with infected males showed that 50%, 62.5% and 37.5% of the female mice were subsequently positive for parasites in their ovaries, uteri and brain respectively. Although PCR confirmed the presence of parasites in the uterus of one of these mice, the blood of all mice was negative by PCR and LAMP. Subsequently, bioluminescent imaging of the offspring of infected female mice crossed with healthy males indicated parasites were present in the reproductive organs of both male (80% and female (60% offspring. These findings imply that transmission of T. b. gambiense 1135 occurs horizontally, most probably via sexual contact, and vertically in a murine model, which raises the possibility of a similar transmission in humans. This has wide reaching implications. Firstly, the observations made in this study are likely to be valid for wild animals acting as a reservoir for T. b. gambiense. Also, the reproductive organs may act as a refuge for parasites during drug treatment in a similar manner to the central nervous system. This could leave patients at risk of a relapse, ultimately allowing them to act as a reservoir for subsequent transmission by tsetse and possibly, horizontally and vertically.

  10. Expectations of vertical transmission of hiv from HIV-infected mothers in a research process at Sorocaba/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Assis Pereira

    2014-04-01

    Introduction: Vertical transmission of AIDS is defined as a transmission that occurs from mother to child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding and is today the main route of HIV infection in children under 13 in the world. Objective: in order to understand the history of life and the therapeutic itinerary of HIV positive pregnant women, it was conducted a study with a qualitative approach to social phenomenology as theoretical and methodological references. Methods: For the study, a Likert-type questionnaire and a semi structured interview were applied for each participant. Results and Discussion: The study revealed the dilemmas faced and the actions taken by these women, HIV positive mothers, waiting for the diagnosis of the fetus, both participants in the Zero Vertical Transmission Program Clinic STD / AIDS in the city of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo. Prejudice and stigma related to AIDS is the leading source stressful and promoter of social isolation of this population, which faces the prejudice by relying mainly on their children and on their religiosity/spirituality as the second largest mainstay. Women often do not see their companion as supportive and fight back the situation of suffering, anguish, fear, and disappointment with their own courage and hope to overcome the adversity caused by the disease. Conclusion: The implications of this study suggest the risk and protective factors promoting resilience in this clientele, besides suggesting creating spaces that encourage discussion of the medical context, cultural, social and economic development in which these women are entered and that influence their daily decisions

  11. Seven Years Trends in Prevalence of Transfusion-Transmissible Viral Infections in Yazd blood Transfusion Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadeh Shahshahani, H; Vaziri, M; Mansouri, F

    2013-01-01

    Increasing blood supply safety is one of the most important goals of blood services in the world. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence rate and the trends of three main infections in whole blood donations and strategies for improving blood safety in Yazd blood transfusion center, Iran. In this cross sectional study, data on hepatitis B, C and HIV infection were extracted from Iranian Donor Database of blood donation from 2004 to 2010 in Yazd province. All donors with positive confirmatory test were included. The data was analyzed by SPSS software due to demographic factors. The prevalence rate of hepatitis B, C and HIV infection decreased during these years (From 0.37%, 0.14% and 0 percent in 2004 to 0.14%, 0.05% and 0 in 2010, respectively). Both hepatitis B and C infections were significantly more in first-time blood donors with BSc or BA educational level. The prevalence rate of hepatitis B was significantly higher in donors with less than 20 year-old and female donors. The prevalence rate of hepatitis C was higherin30-39 age group (P-value= 0.014). The results showed that the strategies used for improving blood safety were efficient. Increasing public knowledge on blood-borne infections and their routes of transmission, importance of donating blood only by healthy donors are necessary to have a safe blood supply in future.

  12. Viral sequence analysis from HIV-infected mothers and infants: molecular evolution, diversity, and risk factors for mother-to-child transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulterys, Philip L; Dalai, Sudeb C; Katzenstein, David A

    2010-12-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis, treatment, and transmission of HIV and the factors influencing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Many questions regarding the molecular evolution and genetic diversity of HIV in the context of MTCT remain unanswered. Further research to identify the selective factors governing which variants are transmitted, how the compartmentalization of HIV in different cells and tissues contributes to transmission, and the influence of host immunity, viral diversity, and recombination on MTCT may provide insight into new prevention strategies and the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Mallorca, Spain. Impact of antiretroviral therapy from 1995 to 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyes, María; Ciria, Luis; Ruiz De Gopegui, Rosa; Sánchez, Emilia; Villalonga, Concepción; de La Peña, Andrés; Riera, Melchor; Salas, Ana; Ribas, Angeles

    2002-03-23

    Our objective was to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission in a population of HIV-infected pregnant women. We studied prospectively all HIV-infected pregnant women attended in our hospital from January 1995 to December 2000. We offered treatment with zidovudine (ZDV) alone or in combination according to women's requirements. There were 98 mother-infant pairs and we studied 93 of them. The rate of vertical transmission was 1.4% when ART was started in pregnancy. Risk of HIV transmission was greater in mothers not being treated with ART during pregnancy (relative risk [RR]: 18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-145.4), in mothers who only received ZDV at delivery and child vs those who received ART during pregnancy (RR: 16.4; 95% CI: 1.8-145.6) and in mothers who were active intravenous drug users (RR: 9.3; 95% CI: 2.2-38.5), with significant differences between vaginal delivery and caesarean section. We observed a substantial benefit from ART, especially in the group of HIV-infected pregnant women who started treatment during pregnancy. Preventive interventions are needed.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy study of vertical quantum dots molecules grown by droplet epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, D., E-mail: david.hernandez@uca.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Herrera, M.; Sales, D.L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alonso-Gonzalez, P.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8 (PTM), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Pizarro, J.; Galindo, P.L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Molina, S.I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The compositional distribution of InAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs capped InAs quantum dots has been studied in this work. Upper quantum dots are nucleated preferentially on top of the quantum dots underneath, which have been nucleated by droplet epitaxy. The growth process of these nanostructures, which are usually called as quantum dots molecules, has been explained. In order to understand this growth process, the analysis of the strain has been carried out from a 3D model of the nanostructure built from transmission electron microscopy images sensitive to the composition.

  15. [Detection of HIV infection in pregnant women by rapid testing: a successful strategy to reduce its vertical transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quian, Jorge; Visconti, Ana; Gutiérrez, Stella; Galli, Ana; Maturo, María; Galeano, Virginia; Serra, Margarita; Lioni, Marta

    2005-12-01

    A high percentage of Uruguayan pregnant women are not under medical control. As a consequence, vertically transmission of HIV infection reaches to 50%. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women who did not know their serological status and to decrease mother-to-child transmission. from January 2002 to January 2004 the HIV rapid test was performed to every pregnant woman that assisted to a public Uruguayan hospital unaware of her condition. The proper prophylactic decisions were adopted according to gestational age. The newborn infants were classified according to CDC criteria. HIV infection prevalence in pregnant women and in their newborn infants was calculated. there were 34,338 obstetric consultations and 4,599 rapid tests were performed. Fifty-nine turned out positive in 58 women, 8 of them knew their serological status previously. The HIV infection prevalence was 1.1% (IC95% 0.8-1.4). Five cases were discharged: 1 false positive and 3 miscarriages and 1 abortion. Ten women dropped out in the follow up. Twelve women received TARV during pregnancy for over a week. Thirty-nine infants could be controlled: 33 seroreverted, 4 were exposed and 2 became infected. Mother-to-child transmission was 5.1%. If all patients who dropped out the follow up were infected, the transmission rate should be of 20.4%; therefore the infection would have been prevented in 16 children. As many women and children were lost, other complementary actions as counseling and social worker interview should be adopted in order to improve the yield of rapid test screening strategy.

  16. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  17. [On the possibility of vertical transmission of Trichinella and the impact of its invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    Whether experimentally infected female rats can transmit Trichinella in utero and its invasion may affect the immunity of their offspring has been investigated. There is evidence that maternal antibodies have a significant impact on the humoral immunity of the offspring and as a result on the number of Trichinella larvae accustomed in the muscles. Immune interlayer formation in the populations of carnivorous mammals in the endemic areas occurs due to reinvasions and passive transmission of maternal antibodies to the offspring. High-tension immunity in the population and animals contributes to a reduction in the onset of invasion and to a predominance of the subclinical course of the disease and asymptomatic carriage in a specific focus. Passive immunity transmitted from the Trichinella-infected mother to its offspring is of importance in the development of epidemic and epizootic processes in the natural and synanthropic foci of trichinosis.

  18. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410 had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436. The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral, identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous

  19. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Vidgen, Miranda; Goldspink, Lauren; Broos, Alice; Melville, Deb; Kristoffersen, Joanna; de Jong, Carol; McLaughlin, Amanda; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Jordan, David; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus) were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs) were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410) had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436). The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral), identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous spread, and with

  20. Maternidade e projetos vitais em jovens infectadas com HIV por transmissão vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo relata una investigación cualitativa con el objetivode analizar a través de entrevistas narrativas, autobiográficas, cómo los jóvenes VIH positivos,infectadas con trasmisión vertical, construyen sus proyectos de vida y sobretodo de maternidad. Elanálisis de las entrevistas se basó teóricamente en Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD. Emergierondos ejes de discusión: Proyecto Vital y Maternidad. Las narrativas apuntan hacia una construcciónde proyecto vital basadas en cuatro elementos complementarios: estudio, trabajo, conyugalidad yfuturo. El eje discursivo Maternidad, se comprehende a través de seis elementos clave: la maternidad,embarazo planeado y no planeado, parto y puerperio, la lactancia, El VIH versus hijo(a sano(a yculpa y responsabilidad. Factores particulares, como prejuicio, aspiraciones y miedos, atraviesan lacotidianidad de quien vive con VIH/Sida. Las participantes perciben que la sociedad no las consideraaptas para crear una familia y luchar por sus proyectos de vida.

  1. Maternidade e projetos vitais em jovens infectadas com HIV por transmissão vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Eid, Brasil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico Este artículo relata una investigación cualitativa con el objetivo de analizar a través de entrevistas narrativas, autobiográficas, cómo los jóvenes VIH positivos, infectadas con trasmisión vertical, construyen sus proyectos de vida y sobretodo de maternidad. El análisis de las entrevistas se basó teóricamente en Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD. Emergieron dos ejes de discusión: Proyecto Vital y Maternidad. Las narrativas apuntan hacia una construcción de proyecto vital basadas en cuatro elementos complementarios: estudio, trabajo, conyugalidad y futuro. El eje discursivo Maternidad, se comprehende a través de seis elementos clave: la maternidad, embarazo planeado y no planeado, parto y puerperio, la lactancia, El VIH versus hijo(a sano(a y culpa y responsabilidad. Factores particulares, como prejuicio, aspiraciones y miedos, atraviesan la cotidianidad de quien vive con VIH/Sida. Las participantes perciben que la sociedad no las considera aptas para crear una familia y luchar por sus proyectos de vida.

  2. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  3. Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Høyer, M.J.; Grøndahl, C.

    2006-01-01

    the affected mousedeer family the captive population in a Zoo was analysed. The maternal line of PI animals was maintained, whereas a PI male was able to reproduce and have a non-PI calf. As a consequence of this, six female PI mousedeer were killed; subsequent autopsies did not reveal any lesions. Sequencing...

  4. Natural killer cell dependent within-host competition arises during multiple MCMV infection: consequences for viral transmission and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R McWhorter

    2013-01-01

    dynamics of viral shedding and potentially select for the transmission of more virulent virus strains.

  5. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, PB; Summers, DM; Robb, M; Hulme, W; Ushiro-Lumb, I.; Watson, CJE; Neuberger, J; Bradley, AJ

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{BACKGROUND}$: Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. $\\textbf{METHODS}$: We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003-2015 with a disclosed hist...

  6. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Invasion fitness for gene-culture co-evolution in family-structured populations and an application to cumulative culture under vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullon, Charles; Lehmann, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    Human evolution depends on the co-evolution between genetically determined behaviors and socially transmitted information. Although vertical transmission of cultural information from parent to offspring is common in hominins, its effects on cumulative cultural evolution are not fully understood. Here, we investigate gene-culture co-evolution in a family-structured population by studying the invasion fitness of a mutant allele that influences a deterministic level of cultural information (e.g., amount of knowledge or skill) to which diploid carriers of the mutant are exposed in subsequent generations. We show that the selection gradient on such a mutant, and the concomitant level of cultural information it generates, can be evaluated analytically under the assumption that the cultural dynamic has a single attractor point, thereby making gene-culture co-evolution in family-structured populations with multigenerational effects mathematically tractable. We apply our result to study how genetically determined phenotypes of individual and social learning co-evolve with the level of adaptive information they generate under vertical transmission. We find that vertical transmission increases adaptive information due to kin selection effects, but when information is transmitted as efficiently between family members as between unrelated individuals, this increase is moderate in diploids. By contrast, we show that the way resource allocation into learning trades off with allocation into reproduction (the "learning-reproduction trade-off") significantly influences levels of adaptive information. We also show that vertical transmission prevents evolutionary branching and may therefore play a qualitative role in gene-culture co-evolutionary dynamics. More generally, our analysis of selection suggests that vertical transmission can significantly increase levels of adaptive information under the biologically plausible condition that information transmission between relatives is

  8. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  9. Emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants after triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission.

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    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT, nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. METHOD: 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F, NVP (K103N/Y181C and 3TC (M184V at detection limits of <1%. RESULTS: 50/87 HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64; all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40% women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%, NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18% and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%. Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. CONCLUSION: Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase

  10. Calomys callosus chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii clonal type II strain and reinfected by Brazilian strains is not able to prevent vertical transmission

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    Priscila Silva Franco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Toxoplasma gondii has shown high genetic diversity in Brazil, the aim of this study was to determine whether C. callosus chronically infected by the ME-49 strain might be susceptible to reinfection by these Brazilian strains, including vertical transmission of the parasite. Survival curves were analyzed in non-pregnant females chronically infected with ME-49 and reinfected with the TgChBrUD1 or TgChBrUD2 strain, and vertical transmission was analyzed after reinfection of pregnant females with these same strains. On the 19th day of pregnancy, placentas, uteri, fetuses, liver, spleen and lung were processed for detection of the parasite. Blood samples were collected for humoral and cellular immune response analyses. All non-pregnant females survived after reinfection and no changes were observed in body weight and morbidity scores. In pregnant females, parasites were detected in the placentas of ME-49 chronically infected females and reinfected females, but were only detected in the fetuses of reinfected females. TgChBrUD2 reinfected females showed more impaired pregnancy outcomes, presenting higher numbers of animals with fetal loss and a higher resorption rate, in parallel with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IgG2a subclass antibodies. Vertical transmission resulting from chronic infection of immunocompetent C. callosus is considered a rare event, being attributed instead to either reactivation or reinfection. That is, the pregnancy may be responsible for reactivation of the latent infection or the reinfection may promote T. gondii vertical transmission. Our results clearly demonstrate that, during pregnancy, protection against T. gondii can be breached after reinfection with parasites belonging to different genotypes, particularly when non-clonal strains are involved in this process and in this case the reinfection promoted vertical transmission of both type II and Brazilian T. gondii strains.

  11. Profilaxia da transmissão vertical do HIV: cuidado e adesão desvelados por casais

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    Tassiane Ferreira Langendorf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: desvelar o movimento existencial do casal ao realizar a profilaxia da transmissão vertical do HIV. Método: investigação qualitativa, com abordagem fenomenológica de Martin Heidegger. Foi realizada entrevista fenomenológica com 14 participantes entre dezembro/2011 e fevereiro/2012 no ambulatório de um hospital universitário, Brasil. Foi desenvolvida análise compreensiva e interpretativa heideggeriana. Resultados: o casal compreende que seguiu a orientação dos profissionais de saúde conforme o que foi indicado. Ao não poder amamentar, a mulher não deixou de ser mãe, mas não foi uma vivência completa. Desvelaram-se os sentidos da ocupação do ser-casal em realizar o tratamento profilático e o da facticidade diante do fato de não amamentar. Conclusão: indica-se repensar o cuidado, propondo uma relação profissional que transcenda o impessoal que dita com o que o casal deve se ocupar, viabilizando sua participação de maneira ativa nas decisões e ações de cuidado.

  12. Oral transmission as a route of infection for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna Amanda; Hansen, M. H. H.; Jørgensen, H. B. H.

    2012-01-01

    replication in stomach and kidney tissue was detected through bioluminescence activity of luciferase and qRT‐PCR. Replication was detected in both tissues, irrespective of transmission route. Replication patterns, however, differed among transmission routes. In trout infected through oral transmission...

  13. Avaliação da prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil Evaluación de la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH en Belo Horizone, MG, Brasil Prevention evaluation of HIV vertical transmission in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Felix Lana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o pré-natal ofertado na rede básica de saúde do Distrito Leste do município de Belo Horizonte e as ações direcionadas à prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV. Foi discutida a permanência de taxas significativas de transmissão do HIV na vigência de tecnologias adequadas para a sua prevenção. Por meio de uma análise descritiva e univariada, que abordou os bancos de dados Sisprenatal e Sinan, identificou-se entraves que se relacionam diretamente a problemas observados na captação precoce de gestantes e na instituição da terapêutica em tempo adequado. O envolvimento dos gestores e a capacitação dos profissionais envolvidos é essencial para o correto direcionamento de ações que possibilitem a prevenção efetiva da transmissão vertical do HIV.Este trabajo de investigación tuve como objetivo analizar la atención prenatal de la red básica del Distrito Este del municipio de Belo Horizonte y las acciones que buscan prevenir la transmisión del VIH de madre a hijo. Se discutió el porqué de las altas tasas de transmisión vertical de dicho virus cuando hay tecnologías adecuadas para su prevención. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y univariado de información de los bancos de datos Sisprenatal y Sinan. Se identificaron obstáculos para los problemas observados en la captación temprana de embarazadas y en la institución de la terapéutica en tiempo adecuado. El compromiso de los gestores y la capacitación de los profesionales son esenciales para orientar acciones de prevención efectiva de la transmisión vertical del VIH.The study had as objective to analyze the prenatal care services offered by the East District's primary healthcare network of the city of Belo Horizonte as well as actions for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. It discussed the still significant rates of transmission of HIV in the presence of appropriate technologies for its prevention. Barriers

  14. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES

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    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical, segundo o perfil socioeconômico dos bairros de residência das mães. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório utilizando a base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação de gestantes HIV-positivas e aids em crianças notificadas entre 2000 e 2006 em Vitória, ES. Para análise das informações socioeconômicas foi utilizado o Índice de Qualidade Urbana. A prevalência de HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical foram calculadas. A distribuição espacial dos casos foi realizada no programa Terraview 3.2.0. Para verificar a associação entre a qualidade urbana e a prevalência de HIV em gestantes utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Um total de 137 gestantes e 14 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical foi notificado no período. Sete crianças correspondiam a mães HIV-positivas sem notificação de caso no período analisado. A prevalência de infecção em gestantes no período foi de 0,44% e a taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 9,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a transmissão vertical associam-se à qualidade urbana do bairro de residência, indicando que os bairros com menor qualidade urbana devem ser priorizados quanto às ações para redução da transmissão vertical.

  15. Inter-species transmission of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus between turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, Anna; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    fish, VHSV has an exceptional wide host range of more than 70 species across marine and aquatic environments. To establish such a wide host range host-specific adaptation would be disadvantageous, nevertheless, host-specific differences in pathogenicity have been observed for VHSV. The divergence...... host species through host-specific adaptation. To investigate the existence of inter-species transmission and host-specificity a cohabitation challenge between turbot and rainbow trout was conducted with turbot as intermediate- and rainbow trout as final host species, respectively. Turbot were ip...... challenged with one turbot- and one rainbow trout adapted VHSV isolate, respectively, subsequently grouped with naïve rainbow trout, and mortality and viral shed was monitored daily. Both virus isolates showed signs of host-specific adaptation based on differences in replication dynamics, viral production...

  16. Experimentally infected domestic ducks show efficient transmission of Indonesian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, but lack persistent viral shedding.

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    Hendra Wibawa

    Full Text Available Ducks are important maintenance hosts for avian influenza, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. A previous study indicated that persistence of H5N1 viruses in ducks after the development of humoral immunity may drive viral evolution following immune selection. As H5N1 HPAI is endemic in Indonesia, this mechanism may be important in understanding H5N1 evolution in that region. To determine the capability of domestic ducks to maintain prolonged shedding of Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 virus, two groups of Pekin ducks were inoculated through the eyes, nostrils and oropharynx and viral shedding and transmission investigated. Inoculated ducks (n = 15, which were mostly asymptomatic, shed infectious virus from the oral route from 1 to 8 days post inoculation, and from the cloacal route from 2-8 dpi. Viral ribonucleic acid was detected from 1-15 days post inoculation from the oral route and 1-24 days post inoculation from the cloacal route (cycle threshold <40. Most ducks seroconverted in a range of serological tests by 15 days post inoculation. Virus was efficiently transmitted during acute infection (5 inoculation-infected to all 5 contact ducks. However, no evidence for transmission, as determined by seroconversion and viral shedding, was found between an inoculation-infected group (n = 10 and contact ducks (n = 9 when the two groups only had contact after 10 days post inoculation. Clinical disease was more frequent and more severe in contact-infected (2 of 5 than inoculation-infected ducks (1 of 15. We conclude that Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus does not persist in individual ducks after acute infection.

  17. Failure of daily tenofovir to prevent HIV transmission or the establishment of a significant viral reservoir despite continued antiretroviral therapy

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    Olubanke Davies

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Truvada is licenced for HIV-1 prevention in the USA and is available in the private sector. Tenofovir performed as well as Truvada in the PARTNERS PrEP study and is used as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP in some settings. The clinical efficacy of Tenofovir for PrEP outside a clinical trial is unknown. Antiretroviral therapy (ART at acute HIV-1 infection (AHI limits the size of the reservoir, optimizing the chance of maintaining viral control off therapy. As such ART at acute HIV infection is proposed to offer a functional cure in a minority of subjects. We present two cases where Tenofovir PrEP failed to prevent HIV acquisition and failed to limit viral reservoir. Materials and Methods: Two individuals receiving tenofovir monotherapy for Hepatitis B monoinfection were diagnosed with AHI as defined by a negative HIV antibody test within three months of a positive HIV test following unsafe sex with casual male partners. In-depth histories were taken. Viral genotypes and Tenofovir drug levels were measured from samples taken as close to HIV seroconversion as possible and subsequent samples were analyzed for proviral Total HIV-1 DNA by qPCR. Results: Patient A had received tenofovir for the preceding six years and always maintained an undetectable Hepatitis B viral load with no concerns about adherence. Two weeks preceding the positive HIV antibody test, he experienced mild symptoms (fever, pharyngitis of HIV seroconversion. HIV status was confirmed by a repeat fourth generation HIV antibody test and by Western Blot and an HIV viral load was undetectable. Tenofovir trough level at HIV diagnosis was within normal limits. The regimen was intensified to Eviplera and a total HIV-1 DNA was 1381 copies/million CD4 T cells. Patient B received four regimens for hepatitis B treatment before starting tenofovir monotherapy in 2011 and subsequently maintained an undetectable hepatitis B viral load. After three years of tenofovir monotherapy he

  18. Maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with vertical transmission of ophthalmia neonatorum in neonates receiving health care in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msukwa, Gerald; Batumba, Nkume; Drucker, Mitchell; Menezes, Lynette; Ranjit, Roshni

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal conjunctivitis is associated with poor prenatal care worldwide. Data on neonatal conjunctivitis is scarce in Malawi. This study describes risk factors associated with conjunctivitis in neonates born in a large tertiary care hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Medical records of a retrospective cohort of 231 neonates diagnosed with conjunctivitis from January 2006 to December 2009 at a large tertiary hospital in Malawi were reviewed. All subjects were clinically diagnosed with ophthalmia neonatorum. Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical features. The frequencies were calculated of various risk factors in neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum and their mothers as well as the treatments administered. Mean age of the mother was 23.45 years (range, 15-40 years), and the mean number of previous deliveries was 2.3 (range, 1-7) children. Nearly, 80% of mothers delivered preterm infants via spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mean birth weight of neonates was 2869.6 grams (1100-5000 grams). Among mothers, premature rupture of membranes was the leading risk factor (24%) followed by sepsis during labor (9%), and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (7%). Neonates presented with low Apgar scores (19%), fever (8%), and/or meconium aspiration (5%). Providers treated patients empirically with a varied combination of benzyl penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline eye ointment, and saline eye wash. Tetracycline with a saline eyewash was used frequently (34%) compared with combinations of benzyl penicillin and gentamicin. Improving prenatal care to reduce sepsis, traumatic deliveries, and early diagnosis of STI with appropriate treatment may potentially reduce vertical transmission of neonatal conjunctivitis in this understudied population.

  19. Dendritic cell maturation, but not type I interferon exposure, restricts infection by HTLV-1, and viral transmission to T-cells.

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    Gergès Rizkallah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Both CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs infected with HTLV-1 are found in peripheral blood from HTLV-1 carriers. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs are more susceptible to HTLV-1 infection than autologous primary T-cells, suggesting that DC infection precedes T-cell infection. However, during blood transmission, breast-feeding or sexual transmission, HTLV-1 may encounter different DC subsets present in the blood, the intestinal or genital mucosa respectively. These different contacts may impact HTLV-1 ability to infect DCs and its subsequent transfer to T-cells. Using in vitro monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs, TGF-β DCs and IFN-α DCs that mimic DCs contacting HTLV-1 in vivo, we show here that despite their increased ability to capture HTLV-1 virions, IFN-α DCs restrict HTLV-1 productive infection. Surprisingly, we then demonstrate that it is not due to the antiviral activity of type-I interferon produced by IFN-α DCs, but that it is likely to be linked to a distinct trafficking route of HTLV-1 in IL-4 DCs vs. IFN-α DCs. Finally, we demonstrate that, in contrast to IL-4 DCs, IFN-α DCs are impaired in their capacity to transfer HTLV-1 to CD4 T-cells, both after viral capture and trans-infection and after their productive infection. In conclusion, the nature of the DCs encountered by HTLV-1 upon primo-infection and the viral trafficking route through the vesicular pathway of these cells determine the efficiency of viral transmission to T-cells, which may condition the fate of infection.

  20. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  1. Results of the implementation of three national guidelines for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission in Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Carlos; Departamento de Neonatología, Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Perú. Médico Pediatra.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is performed in three successive periods between the years 1996 and 2009, in order to evaluate the impact of the implementation of three national guidelines for the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. 275 births were included in 13 years. Significant statistical differences were found in the percentage of HIV cases in the children exposed to the virus between the three periods: 15% during the period in which only zidovudine (AZT) was administered to the pr...

  2. Transmissão vertical do HIV: situação encontrada em uma maternidade de Teresina Transmisión vertical del HIV: situación encontrada en una maternidade de Teresina Vertical transmission of HIV: situation found in a maternity of Teresina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Mendes de Araújo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Oaumento dos casos de AIDS em mulheres evidencia um progressivo aumento da transmissão vertical do HIV, no Brasil e no Piauí. Considerando a relevância do tema o presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar as condições da implementação das normas e medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde para prevenir a transmissão vertical do HIV em uma maternidade de Teresina - PI. O caminho teórico-metodológico compreendeu o estudo da dinâmica organizacional e dos seus atores, por meio de abordagem qualitativa. Para obtenção dos dados foram realizadas 17 entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os resultados mostraram que as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde não foram atendidas na sua totalidade evidenciando a precariedade da assistência prestada para o binômio mãe/filho.El aumento de los casos de AIDS en mujeres, evidencia un progresivo aumento de la transmisión vertical de lo HIV en el Brasil, e en el Piauí. Considerando la relevancia del tema, el presente estudio tuve como objetivo analizar las condiciones de la implementación de las reglas y medidas recomendadas por el Ministerio de la Salud para prevenir la transmisión vertical del HIV en una maternidad de Teresina-PI. El camino teórico-metodológico comprendió el estudio de la dinámica organizacional y de sus actores, a través del abordaje cualitativa.. Para la obtención de los datos fueran realizados 17 entrevistas medio-estructuradas. Los resultados mostraran que las recomendaciones del Ministerio de la Salud non fueran atendidas en la suya totalidad, evidenciando la precariedad de la asistencia prestada, para el binomio madre / hijo.The increase of the number of cases of AIDS among women reveals a progressive increase of the vertical transmission of HIV in Brazil, as well as in Piauí. Considering the relevance of the subject, this study had as objective to analyze the conditions of the implementation of the rules and measures recommended by the Ministry of Health to

  3. Medidas de prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV empregadas por mães de crianças o positivas Medidas de prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH empleadas por madres de niños seropositivos HIV vertical transmission preventive measurements used by mothers of seropositive children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline da Fonseca Leal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analisar as medidas de prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV empregadas pelas mães de meninos HIV positivos que foram acompanhadas pelo Serviço de Atendimento Especializado (SAE do município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil. Metodologia. Investigação qualitativa com abordagem descritiva e exploratório. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas a cinco mães de meninos HIV positivo; a análise da informação se fez por categorização temática. Resultados. Observou-se que o principal fator que põe obstáculos a realização de medidas de prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV foi a omissão do pessoal de saúde de solicitar a prova do HIV. A maioria das interrogadas mostrou conhecimento sobre a doença e das medidas pára de prevenção da mesma. Conclusão. Existe a necessidade de capacitar aos profissionais da saúde na difusão de medidas preventivas com o fim de melhorar o atendimento pré-natal.Objetivo. Analizar las medidas de prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH empleadas por las madres de niños VIH positivos que fueron acompañadas por el Servicio de Atención Especializado (SAE del municipio de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil. Metodología. Investigación cualitativa con abordaje descriptivo y exploratorio. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante de entrevistas semi-estructuradas a cinco madres de niños VIH positivos; el análisis de la información se hizo por categorización temática. Resultados. El principal factor que obstaculiza la realización de medidas de prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH fue la omisión del personal de salud de solicitar la prueba del VIH. La mayoría de las encuestadas mostró conocimiento sobre la enfermedad y de las medidas de prevención de la misma. Conclusión. Existe la necesidad de capacitar a los profesionales de la salud en la difusión de medidas preventivas con el fin de mejorar la atención prenatal

  4. Vertical Transmission of Hypopituitarism: Critical Importance of Appropriate Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Levothyroxine Therapy During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Christopher J.; Radovick, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Background Typically, newborns with congenital hypothyroidism are asymptomatic at birth, having been exposed to euthyroid mothers. However, hypopituitarism may be associated with central hypothyroidism, preserved fertility, and autosomal dominant inheritance, requiring increased attention to thyroid management during pregnancy. Patient Findings A woman with a history of growth hormone deficiency and central hypothyroidism gave birth to a term male neonate appropriate for gestational age. Due to low thyrotropin (TSH) in the second trimester, the levothyroxine dose was decreased by the obstetrician, and free T4 was low throughout the latter half of pregnancy. The neonatal laboratory evaluation showed central hypothyroidism with a low T4 of 2.1 μg/dL (4.5–11.5) and an inappropriately normal TSH of 0.98 uIU/mL (0.5–4.5); undetectable growth hormone, IGF-I, and IGFBP3; a normal cortisol level; and a normal gonadotropin surge. After initiation of levothyroxine in the first week, both tone and feeding tolerance improved. However, the patient was found to have hearing loss, gross motor delay, and speech delay. Summary In this report, we review a case of vertical transmission of a dominant negative POU1F1 mutation in which fetal abnormalities due to the hypothyroxinemic state during gestation may have been exacerbated by a decrease in the mother's levothyroxine dose based on a low TSH in early gestation. Both mother and fetus were unable to synthesize sufficient thyroid hormone, which may be responsible for the patient's clinical presentation. Conclusion This case underscores several important points in the management of women with hypopituitarism. First, it is important that patients and clinicians are both aware of the differences in etiology, as well as appropriate screening and treatment, of primary versus central hypothyroidism. Second, it is necessary to monitor the thyroid hormone status closely during pregnancy to prevent fetal sequelae of maternal

  5. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.

  6. Coexistence of three microsporidia parasites in populations of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli: evidence for vertical transmission and positive effect on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Eleanor R; Brondani, Emilie; Hume, Kevin D; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Gaillard, Maria; Rigaud, Thierry

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, transmission mode and fitness effects of infections by obligatory intracellular, microsporidian parasites in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli. We found three different microsporidia species in this host, all using transovarial (vertical) transmission. All three coexist at different prevalences in two host populations, but bi-infected individuals were rarely found, suggesting no (or very little) horizontal transmission. It is predicted that vertically-transmitted parasites may exhibit sex-specific virulence in their hosts, or they may have either positive or neutral effects on host fitness. All three species differed in their transmission efficiency and infection intensity and our data suggest that these microsporidia exert sex-specific virulence by feminising male hosts. The patterns of infection we found exhibit convergent evolution with those of another amphipod host, Gammarus duebeni. Interestingly, we found that infected females breed earlier in the reproductive season than uninfected females. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report a positive effect of microsporidian infection on female host reproduction.

  7. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

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    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los conocimientos y prácticas de profesores escolares en la prevención de hepatitis viral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en tres ciudades de Brasil, de agosto a noviembre de 1999. La muestra estuvo constituida por 360 sujetos: 334 mujeres y 26 hombres, 81 (22.5% de Belém, 123 (34.2% de Nataly 156 (43.3% de Río de Janeiro. Se

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  9. Unifying Viral Genetics and Human Transportation Data to Predict the Global Transmission Dynamics of Human Influenza H3N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemey, Philippe; Rambaut, Andrew; Bedford, Trevor; Faria, Nuno; Bielejec, Filip; Baele, Guy; Russell, Colin A.; Smith, Derek J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Brockmann, Dirk; Suchard, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Information on global human movement patterns is central to spatial epidemiological models used to predict the behavior of influenza and other infectious diseases. Yet it remains difficult to test which modes of dispersal drive pathogen spread at various geographic scales using standard epidemiological data alone. Evolutionary analyses of pathogen genome sequences increasingly provide insights into the spatial dynamics of influenza viruses, but to date they have largely neglected the wealth of information on human mobility, mainly because no statistical framework exists within which viral gene sequences and empirical data on host movement can be combined. Here, we address this problem by applying a phylogeographic approach to elucidate the global spread of human influenza subtype H3N2 and assess its ability to predict the spatial spread of human influenza A viruses worldwide. Using a framework that estimates the migration history of human influenza while simultaneously testing and quantifying a range of potential predictive variables of spatial spread, we show that the global dynamics of influenza H3N2 are driven by air passenger flows, whereas at more local scales spread is also determined by processes that correlate with geographic distance. Our analyses further confirm a central role for mainland China and Southeast Asia in maintaining a source population for global influenza diversity. By comparing model output with the known pandemic expansion of H1N1 during 2009, we demonstrate that predictions of influenza spatial spread are most accurate when data on human mobility and viral evolution are integrated. In conclusion, the global dynamics of influenza viruses are best explained by combining human mobility data with the spatial information inherent in sampled viral genomes. The integrated approach introduced here offers great potential for epidemiological surveillance through phylogeographic reconstructions and for improving predictive models of disease control

  10. Knowledge and behaviour of nurse/midwives in the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

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    Onibokun Adenike

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV remains the main mode of acquisition of HIV in children. Transmission of HIV may occur during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Studies have shown that some specific interventions help to reduce the transmission of the virus to the baby. In order to target safe, rational and effective intervention to reduce MTCT of HIV, it is necessary to ensure that the nurse/midwife has knowledge of the strategies for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. Method The cross-sectional design was utilized to determine the knowledge and behaviour of nurse/midwives in the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The study sample consisted of 155 nurse/midwives drawn from three selected hospitals through stratified random sampling method. Official permission was obtained from the institutions and consent from participants. Data was collected through the use of a self administered questionnaire. Information sought included respondents' demographic characteristics, knowledge about and behaviour of prevention of vertical transmission as well as factors influencing behaviour. Results Findings revealed that nurse/midwives had moderate level of knowledge with mean score of 51.4%. The mean score on behaviour was 52.5%, major factors that influence behaviour in these settings were mainly fear of getting infected, irregular supply of resources like gloves, goggles, sharp boxes, and water supply was not regular also. Hypotheses tested revealed that there is a positive relationship between knowledge and behaviour (r = 0.583, p = 0.00. Knowledge level of nurse/midwives who had educational exposure was not different from those who did not (t = 1.439, p = 0.152. There was a significant difference in the knowledge of nurse/midwives who had experience in managing pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS and those who did not (t = 2.142, p = 0.03. Also, there was a significant

  11. Prevention of vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 expressing N. caninum protective antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Jain, Neeta; Lindsay, David S; Schurig, Gerhardt S; Boyle, Stephen M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2007-11-01

    Bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. Infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. Neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. Brucella abortus strain RB51, a commercially available vaccine for bovine brucellosis, can also be used as a vector to express plasmid-encoded proteins from other pathogens. Neospora caninum protective antigens MIC1, MIC3, GRA2, GRA6 and SRS2 were expressed in strain RB51. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with a recombinant strain RB51 expressing N. caninum antigen or irradiated tachyzoites, boosted 4 weeks later and then bred. Antigen-specific IgG, IFN-gamma and IL-10 were detected in vaccinated pregnant mice. Vaccinated mice were challenged with 5 x 10(6)N. caninum tachyzoites between days 11-13 of pregnancy. Brain tissue was collected from pups 3 weeks after birth and examined for the presence of N. caninum by real-time PCR. The RB51-MIC3, RB51-GRA6, irradiated tachyzoite vaccine, pooled strain RB51-Neospora vaccine, RB51-MIC1 and RB51-SRS2 vaccines elicited approximately 6-38% protection against vertical transmission. However, the differences in parasite burden in brain tissue of pups from the control and vaccinated groups were highly significant for all groups. Thus, B. abortus strain RB51 expressing the specific N. caninum antigens induced substantial protection against vertical transmission of N. caninum in mice.

  12. Vertical transmission and successive location of symbiotic bacteria during embryo development and larva formation in Corticium candelabrum (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt Bosch, de S.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the transfer of heterotrophic bacteria from parental tissue to oocytes in the Mediterranean bacteriosponge Corticium candelabrum (Homosclerophorida) and the description of the successive locations of the microsymbionts during embryo development through transmission and scanning

  13. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease.To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil.A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG, Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%.The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62-72.86. The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74-67.32. The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3-7.3 suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4-45.6.These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical

  14. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. Objective To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Methods A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. Results The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62–72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74–67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3–7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4–45.6). Conclusions These results show an elevated prevalence of

  15. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62-72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74-67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3-7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4-45.6). These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of T

  16. Risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibilitystatus of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) in some sites in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Osei, Joseph H; Sasaki, Akihiro; Adimazoya, Michelle; Appawu, Maxwell; Boakye, Daniel; Ohta, Nobuo; Dadzie, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti in some sites in Accra, Ghana. Larval surveys were carried to inspect containers within households and estimate larval indices and adult Aedes mosquitoes were collected using human landing collection technique. WHO tube assays was used to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes. Ae. aegypti were the most prevalent species, 75.5% and followed by Ae. vittatus, 23.9 %. Ae. albopictus and Ae. granti were in smaller numbers. Household index (HI), Breteau index (BI), and container index were calculated as 8.2%, 11.2% and 10.3% respectively with man-vector contact rate of 0.67 bites/man-hour estimated for the area. The mortalities recorded for Ae. aegypti from WHO tube assays was 88%, 94%, 80% and 99% for DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) respectively. The survey results indicated that the density of Aedes mosquitoes was considered to be sufficient to promote an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fevers on Legon Campus. Aedes mosquitoes were found to be resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and lamdacyhalothrin, but susceptible to permethrin. This study was supported in part by Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-Grid).

  17. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela: A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzmán, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a high seroprevalence (77.4%), with 10% of people experiencing recent infections. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poverty-related socioeconomic factors (place and duration of residence, crowding, household size, and living in a shack) and factors/constraints related to intradomiciliary potential mosquito breeding sites (storing water and used tires) were linked with a greater risk of acquiring a dengue infection. Our results also suggest that transmission occurs mainly at home. The combination of increasingly crowded living conditions, growing population density, precarious homes, and water storage issues caused by enduring problems in public services in Maracay are the most likely factors that determine the permanent dengue transmission and the failure of vector control programs. PMID:25223944

  18. Dengue seroprevalence and risk factors for past and recent viral transmission in Venezuela: a comprehensive community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I; Sierra, Gloria M; Guzmán, Diamelis M; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C; Tami, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a high seroprevalence (77.4%), with 10% of people experiencing recent infections. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poverty-related socioeconomic factors (place and duration of residence, crowding, household size, and living in a shack) and factors/constraints related to intradomiciliary potential mosquito breeding sites (storing water and used tires) were linked with a greater risk of acquiring a dengue infection. Our results also suggest that transmission occurs mainly at home. The combination of increasingly crowded living conditions, growing population density, precarious homes, and water storage issues caused by enduring problems in public services in Maracay are the most likely factors that determine the permanent dengue transmission and the failure of vector control programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Influence of HLA class I, HLA class II and KIRs on vertical transmission and chronicity of hepatitis C virus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Extremera, A; Pavón-Castillero, E J; Florido, M; Muñoz de Rueda, P; Muñoz-Gámez, J A; Casado, J; Carazo, A; Quiles, R; Jiménez-Ruiz, S M; Gila, A; Luna, J D; León, J; Salmerón, J

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that maternal viral load of HCV during delivery influences the risk for Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), but this does not explain all cases. We study the role of the immunogenetic profile (HLA, KIRs and KIR-ligand binding) of mothers and children in HCV-MTCT and in chronicity in the children. 79 HCV-RNA (+) mothers and their 98 children were included. 24 children were infected, becoming chronic in 8 cases and clearing in 16. HLA-class-I and II and KIRs were determined by Luminex. MTCT study: The presence of HLA-C1-ligand in mothers and/or their children reduces the risk of transmission (mothers: Pc = 0.011, children: P = 0.033), whereas the presence of HLA-C2C2-ligand in mothers increases it (Pc = 0.011). In children KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 is a protector factor (Pc = 0.011). Chronicity in children study: Maternal DQA1*01 allele (Pc = 0.027), KIR2DS1 (Pc = 0.011) or KIR3DS1 (Pc = 0.011) favours chronicity in the child. The presence of the DQB1*03 allele (Pc = 0.027) and KIR2DS3 (P = 0.056) in the child and homozygosity for KIR3DL1/3DL1 (Pc = 0.011) and for the HLA-Bw4/Bw4 ligand (P = 0.027) is associated with viral clearance, whereas the presence of HLA-Bw6 ligand (P = 0.027), the binding of KIR3DS1-HLA-Bw4 (P = 0.037) and heterozygosity for KIR3DL1/3DS1 (Pc = 0.011) favour viral chronicity. Mother/child allele matching: In the joint HLA analysis, matching was greater between mothers and children with chronic infection vs those who had cleared the virus (67%±4.1 vs 57%±1.2, P = 0.003). The HLA-C1 ligand in the mother is related to MTCT, while several genetic factors of the mother or child are involved in the chronification or clearance of infection in the child. Matching allelic data is considered to be an indicator of HCV chronicity in the child and can be used as a potential prognostic test. This implies that NK cells may play a previously undocumented role in protecting against MTCT and that both NK cell immunity and adaptive T-cell responses may

  20. Influence of HLA class I, HLA class II and KIRs on vertical transmission and chronicity of hepatitis C virus in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available There is evidence that maternal viral load of HCV during delivery influences the risk for Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, but this does not explain all cases. We study the role of the immunogenetic profile (HLA, KIRs and KIR-ligand binding of mothers and children in HCV-MTCT and in chronicity in the children.79 HCV-RNA (+ mothers and their 98 children were included. 24 children were infected, becoming chronic in 8 cases and clearing in 16. HLA-class-I and II and KIRs were determined by Luminex.MTCT study: The presence of HLA-C1-ligand in mothers and/or their children reduces the risk of transmission (mothers: Pc = 0.011, children: P = 0.033, whereas the presence of HLA-C2C2-ligand in mothers increases it (Pc = 0.011. In children KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 is a protector factor (Pc = 0.011. Chronicity in children study: Maternal DQA1*01 allele (Pc = 0.027, KIR2DS1 (Pc = 0.011 or KIR3DS1 (Pc = 0.011 favours chronicity in the child. The presence of the DQB1*03 allele (Pc = 0.027 and KIR2DS3 (P = 0.056 in the child and homozygosity for KIR3DL1/3DL1 (Pc = 0.011 and for the HLA-Bw4/Bw4 ligand (P = 0.027 is associated with viral clearance, whereas the presence of HLA-Bw6 ligand (P = 0.027, the binding of KIR3DS1-HLA-Bw4 (P = 0.037 and heterozygosity for KIR3DL1/3DS1 (Pc = 0.011 favour viral chronicity. Mother/child allele matching: In the joint HLA analysis, matching was greater between mothers and children with chronic infection vs those who had cleared the virus (67%±4.1 vs 57%±1.2, P = 0.003.The HLA-C1 ligand in the mother is related to MTCT, while several genetic factors of the mother or child are involved in the chronification or clearance of infection in the child. Matching allelic data is considered to be an indicator of HCV chronicity in the child and can be used as a potential prognostic test. This implies that NK cells may play a previously undocumented role in protecting against MTCT and that both NK cell immunity and adaptive T-cell responses may

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV types Western blot (WB band profiles as potential surrogate markers of HIV disease progression and predictors of vertical transmission in a cohort of infected but antiretroviral therapy naïve pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe

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    Chirenje Mike Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expensive CD4 count and viral load tests have failed the intended objective of enabling access to HIV therapy in poor resource settings. It is imperative to develop simple, affordable and non-subjective disease monitoring tools to complement clinical staging efforts of inexperienced health personnel currently manning most healthcare centres because of brain drain. Besides accurately predicting HIV infection, sequential appearance of specific bands of WB test offers a window of opportunity to develop a less subjective tool for monitoring disease progression. Methods HIV type characterization was done in a cohort of infected pregnant women at 36 gestational weeks using WB test. Student-t test was used to determine maternal differences in mean full blood counts and viral load of mothers with and those without HIV gag antigen bands. Pearson Chi-square test was used to assess differences in lack of bands appearance with vertical transmission and lymphadenopathy. Results Among the 64 HIV infected pregnant women, 98.4% had pure HIV-1 infection and one woman (1.7% had dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infections. Absence of HIV pol antigen bands was associated with acute infection, p = 0.002. All women with chronic HIV-1 infection had antibody reactivity to both the HIV-1 envelope and polymerase antigens. However, antibody reactivity to gag antigens varied among the women, being 100%, 90%, 70% and 63% for p24, p17, p39 and p55, respectively. Lack of antibody reactivity to gag p39 antigen was associated with disease progression as confirmed by the presence of lymphadenopathy, anemia, higher viral load, p = 0.010, 0.025 and 0.016, respectively. Although not statistically significant, women with p39 band missing were 1.4 times more likely to transmit HIV-1 to their infants. Conclusion Absence of antibody reactivity to pol and gag p39 antigens was associated with acute infection and disease progression, respectively. Apart from its use in HIV disease

  2. Quantifying vertical stress transmission and compaction-induced soil structure using sensor mat and X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of stress transmission in soil and quantification of compaction-induced soil pore structure is important for efficient soil use and management. Continuum mechanics have so far mostly been applied for agricultural soils, even if topsoil structure is aggregated due to regular...... tillage. In this study, partially confined uniaxial compression tests were carried out on intact topsoil columns placed on subsoil columns. Two methods were employed for estimation of stress transmission in soil: (i) soil deformation patterns were quantified using X-ray CT and converted to stress...... distributions, and (ii) a tactile sensor mat was employed for measuring stresses at the interface of the topsoil and subsoil columns. The resulting soil pore structure under applied stresses was quantified using X-ray CT and by air-permeability measurements. In topsoil discrete stress transmission patterns were...

  3. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddow, Andrew D., E-mail: adhaddow@gmail.com [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Haddow, Alastair D. [Mercy Clinic, 2115 S. Fremont, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  4. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective optical control of synaptic transmission in the subcortical visual pathway by activation of viral vector-expressed halorhodopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Kaneda

    Full Text Available The superficial layer of the superior colliculus (sSC receives visual inputs via two different pathways: from the retina and the primary visual cortex. However, the functional significance of each input for the operation of the sSC circuit remains to be identified. As a first step toward understanding the functional role of each of these inputs, we developed an optogenetic method to specifically suppress the synaptic transmission in the retino-tectal pathway. We introduced enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR, a yellow light-sensitive, membrane-targeting chloride pump, into mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs by intravitreously injecting an adeno-associated virus serotype-2 vector carrying the CMV-eNpHR-EYFP construct. Several weeks after the injection, whole-cell recordings made from sSC neurons in slice preparations revealed that yellow laser illumination of the eNpHR-expressing retino-tectal axons, putatively synapsing onto the recorded cells, effectively inhibited EPSCs evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve layer. We also showed that sSC spike activities elicited by visual stimulation were significantly reduced by laser illumination of the sSC in anesthetized mice. These results indicate that photo-activation of eNpHR expressed in RGC axons enables selective blockade of retino-tectal synaptic transmission. The method established here can most likely be applied to a variety of brain regions for studying the function of individual inputs to these regions.

  6. Prevalência de HIV em gestantes e transmissão vertical segundo perfil socioeconômico, Vitória, ES Factores asociados a recidiva en hanseníasis en Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil HIV prevalence in pregnant women and vertical transmission in according to socioeconomic status, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical, segundo o perfil socioeconômico dos bairros de residência das mães. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório utilizando a base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação de gestantes HIV-positivas e aids em crianças notificadas entre 2000 e 2006 em Vitória, ES. Para análise das informações socioeconômicas foi utilizado o Índice de Qualidade Urbana. A prevalência de HIV em gestantes e a taxa de transmissão vertical foram calculadas. A distribuição espacial dos casos foi realizada no programa Terraview 3.2.0. Para verificar a associação entre a qualidade urbana e a prevalência de HIV em gestantes utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Um total de 137 gestantes e 14 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical foi notificado no período. Sete crianças correspondiam a mães HIV-positivas sem notificação de caso no período analisado. A prevalência de infecção em gestantes no período foi de 0,44% e a taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 9,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção por HIV em gestantes e a transmissão vertical associam-se à qualidade urbana do bairro de residência, indicando que os bairros com menor qualidade urbana devem ser priorizados quanto às ações para redução da transmissão vertical.OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la ocurrencia de recidiva en hanseníasis. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo caso-control con 159 pacientes mayores de 15 años diagnosticados con hanseníasis en cinco municipios del Estado de Mato Grosso, Centro-oeste de Brasil, cuyas unidades de salud eran consideradas de referencia para el atendimiento. El grupo de casos incluyó 53 individuos con recidiva de 2005 a 2007 y fue comparado con el grupo control (106 con alta por cura en 2005, pareados por sexo y clasificación operacional. Se usaron datos del Sistema de Informaci

  7. Viral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, M V; Sherman, K E; Jordan, J A

    2010-07-01

    Despite continuous improvement in safety and purity of blood products for individuals with haemophilia, transmissible agents continue to affect individuals with haemophilia. This chapter addresses three viral pathogens with significant clinical impact: HIV, hepatitis C and parvovirus B19. Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis and the major co-morbid complication of haemophilia treatment. Clinically, asymptomatic intermittent alanine aminotransferase elevation is typical, with biopsy evidence of advanced fibrosis currently in 25%. Current treatment is effective in up to 70%, and many new agents are in development. For those progressing to end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation outcomes are similar to those in non-haemophilia subjects, although pretransplant mortality is higher. HIV infection, the second leading co-morbid condition in haemophilia, is managed as a chronic infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART also slows hepatitis C virus (HCV) progression in those with HIV/HCV co-infection. Viral inactivation and recombinant technologies have effectively prevented transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens in haemophilia. Human parvovirus B19 infection, typically associated with anaemia or, rarely severe aplastic crisis, is a non-lipid enveloped virus, for which standard inactivation techniques are ineffective. Thus, nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen the blood supply for B19 DNA is currently under consideration by the Food and Drug Administration. To the extent, viral inactivation, recombinant, and NAT technologies are available worldwide, and the lifespan for those with haemophilia is approaching that of the normal population. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an update on three clinically significant transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens.

  8. Experimental toxoplasmosis in Balb/c mice. Prevention of vertical disease transmission by treatment and reproductive failure in chronic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fux

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of congenital transmission during acute infection of Toxoplasma gondii, 23 pregnant Balb/c mice were inoculated orally with two cysts each of the P strain. Eight mice were inoculated 6-11 days after becoming pregnant (Group 1. Eight mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy (Group 2 were treated with 100 mg/kg/day of minocycline 48 h after inoculation. Seven mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy were not treated and served as a control (Group 3. Congenital transmission was evaluated through direct examination of the brains of the pups or by bioassay and serologic tests. Congenital transmission was observed in 20 (60.6% of the 33 pups of Group 1, in one (3.6% of the 28 pups of Group 2, and in 13 (54.2% of the 24 pups of Group 3. Forty-nine Balb/c mice were examined in the study of congenital transmission of T. gondii during chronic infection. The females showed reproductive problems during this phase of infection. It was observed accentuated hypertrophy of the endometrium and myometrium. Only two of the females gave birth. Our results demonstrate that Balb/c mice with acute toxoplasmosis can be used as a model for studies of congenital T. gondii infection. Our observations indicate the potential of this model for testing new chemotherapeutic agents against congenital toxoplasmosis.

  9. Vertical transmission and successive location of symbiotic bacteria during embryo development and larva formation in Corticium candelabrum (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Caralt Bosch, de, S.; Uriz, M. J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the transfer of heterotrophic bacteria from parental tissue to oocytes in the Mediterranean bacteriosponge Corticium candelabrum (Homosclerophorida) and the description of the successive locations of the microsymbionts during embryo development through transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Eight different types of symbiotic bacteria are described morphologically. These eight bacteria morphotypes are found in both adult individuals and larvae. Sym...

  10. Une approche socioculturelle de l'hygiène au Cambodge : pratiques soignantes et risques de transmission virale

    OpenAIRE

    Hancart Petitet, Pascale; Faurand Tournaire, Anne Laure; Desclaux, Alice; Sirenda, Vong; Céline, Dumas

    2011-01-01

    Les modalités de la transmission nosocomiale du VIH, du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) et le virus de l'hépatite C (VHC), et les logiques socioculturelles sous-jacentes qui la favorisent semblent assez mal connues et peu étudiées à l'échelle mondiale. La question de l'hygiène en milieu sanitaire a été abordée à l'heure actuelle, essentiellement d'un point de vue biologique [1,2].Or, celle-ci est traversée et modelée par des normes et des représentations socioculturelles qui sous-tendent les prat...

  11. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  12. Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded Cephamycinase-Producing Enterobacteria in the Broiler Hatchery as a Potential Mode of Pseudo-Vertical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projahn, Michaela; Daehre, Katrin; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance through extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and transferable (plasmid-encoded) cephamycinases (pAmpCs) represents an increasing problem in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing commensal enterobacteria in farm animals, such as broiler chickens, is considered one possible source of food contamination and could therefore also be relevant for human colonization. Studies on transmission routes along the broiler production chain showed that 1-day-old hatchlings are already affected. In this study, ESBL-/pAmpC-positive broiler parent flocks and their corresponding eggs, as well as various environmental and air samples from the hatchery, were analyzed. The eggs were investigated concerning ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria on the outer eggshell surface (before/after disinfection), the inner eggshell surface, and the egg content. Isolates were analyzed concerning their species, their phylogroup in the case of Escherichia coli strains, the respective resistance genes, and the phenotypical antibiotic resistance. Of the tested eggs, 0.9% (n = 560) were contaminated on their outer shell surface. Further analyses using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a relationship of these strains to those isolated from the corresponding parent flocks, which demonstrates a pseudo-vertical transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria into the hatchery. Resistant enterobacteria were also found in environmental samples from the hatchery, such as dust or surfaces which could pose as a possible contamination source for the hatchlings. All 1-day-old chicks tested negative directly after hatching. The results show a possible entry of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria from the parent flocks into the hatchery; however, the impact of the hatchery on colonization of the hatchlings seems to be low. ESBL-/pAmpC-producing enterobacteria occur frequently in broiler-fattening farms. Recent studies investigated the prevalence and

  13. Evidence for Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Symbionts from Adult to Embryo in the Caribbean Sponge Svenzea zeai

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-07-31

    The Caribbean reef sponge Svenzea zeai was previously found to contain substantial quantities of unicellular photosynthetic and autotrophic microbes in its tissues, but the identities of these symbionts and their method of transfer from adult to progeny are largely unknown. In this study, both a 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting technique (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and clone library analysis were applied to compare the bacterial communities associated with adults and embryos of S. zeai to test the hypothesis of vertical transfer across generations. In addition, the same techniques were applied to the bacterial community from the seawater adjacent to adult sponges to test the hypothesis that water column bacteria could be transferred horizontally as sponge symbionts. Results of both DGGE and clone library analysis support the vertical transfer hypothesis in that the bacterial communities associated with sponge adults and embryos were highly similar to each other but completely different from those in the surrounding seawater. Sequencing of prominent DGGE bands and of clones from the libraries revealed that the bacterial communities associated with the sponge, whether adult or embryo, consisted of a large proportion of bacteria in the phyla Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria, while most of the sequences recovered from the community in the adjacent water column belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria. Altogether, 21 monophyletic sequence clusters, comprising sequences from both sponge adults and embryos but not from the seawater, were identified. More than half of the sponge-derived sequences fell into these clusters. Comparison of sequences recovered in this study with those deposited in GenBank revealed that more than 75% of S. zeai-derived sequences were closely related to sequences derived from other sponge species, but none of the sequences recovered from the seawater column overlapped with those from adults or embryos of S. zeai. In

  14. Experimental infection of pregnant sows with African swine fever (ASFV Georgia 2007): Clinical outcome, pathogenesis and vertical transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Nielsen, Jens

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs. The disease was introduced from the African continent to Georgia in 2007 and has since spread throughout the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. ASF is now established in Eastern Europe and outbreaks have occurred...... in domestic pigs and wild boar in Poland and the Baltic countries in 2014. Therefore, there is an increased risk of further transmission across Europe. The present study investigates the properties and the effect of the circulating ASF virus strain in Danish pregnant sows...

  15. Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of chikungunya and dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martínez, Norma E; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutiérrez-Castro, Cipriano; López-Damián, Leonardo; Ibarra-López, Jesús; Martini-Jaimes, Andres; Bibiano-Marín, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero. Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez and Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using RT-PCR. We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 and 4), CHIKV and their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV and DENV 3 and 4 suggesting vertical transmission. Entomo-virological surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV and DENV and provided a trigger for timely and focalized vector control actions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The first evidence for vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] in a litter of Central Asian Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J Mierzejewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppies of a Central Asian Shepherd dog. Immediately following the first case of infection, blood samples were collected from all the pups in the litter (n=10 and from the female. Detection of Babesia infection was performed by molecular and microscopical techniques. [b]Results.[/b] The presence of[i] B. canis [/i]DNA was detected using PCR in three pups, presenting at the time or 24–48 hours later with babesiosis symptoms, and in their asymptomatic mother. The isolates derived from the pups and the female – 520 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment – were compared and analyzed. All isolates from the pups and their mother were identical and showed 100% homology with [i]B. canis[/i] group B (EU622793, supporting the same source of infection. Additionally, the USG of the peritoneal cavity was performed in the female, presenting evidence for splenomegaly. [b]Conclusions.[/b] On the basis of (1 the same timing of three pup cases; (2 the identical [i]B. canis[/i] sequences derived from all positive dogs; (3 evident splenomegaly in the asymptomatic female, this provides the first evidence of the vertical transmission of this piroplasm in dogs.

  17. Avaliação da cascata de cuidado na prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Espinosa Miranda

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a cascata de cuidado da redução da transmissão vertical do HIV nos estados do Amazonas, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul e no Distrito Federal, usando dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN. Entre os anos de 2007 e 2012, cresceu a taxa de detecção de HIV na gestação em 5 estados, variando de 7,3% no Distrito Federal a 46,1% no Amazonas, com redução de 18,6% no Rio de Janeiro. Menos de 90% das mulheres usaram antirretroviral durante o pré-natal, incluídas as que já se sabiam portadoras do HIV. A realização de cesárea eletiva foi baixa. A taxa de detecção de AIDS em crianças menores de 5 anos como proxy da transmissão vertical do HIV apresentou uma redução de 6,3% entre 2007 e 2012, sendo a maior no Rio Grande do Sul (50%, que apresentou as maiores taxas do período, enquanto no Espírito Santo ocorreu o maior aumento (50%. A avaliação da cascata do cuidado do HIV na gestante apontou falhas em todos os pontos. É necessária uma conexão entre a atenção básica e os centros de referência para HIV/AIDS, ordenando o cuidado da família e o melhor desfecho para a criança.

  18. Investigation of the link between broodstock infection, vertical transmission, and prevalence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in eggs and progeny of Rainbow Trout and Coho Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Amy; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

    2014-06-01

    The etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), Flavobacterium psychrophilum, can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Outbreaks of BCWD can result in significant losses in salmonid aquaculture. Reduction of outbreaks in fry may be possible through implementation of a management strategy in which progeny of heavily infected broodstock are culled from the general population. Diagnostic assays to quantify F. psychrophilum concentrations in tissue samples and confirm presence of the bacterium in ovarian fluid have been previously validated. In the current study, these assays were used to screen 60 female Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and 60 female Coho Salmon O. kisutch broodstock at two aquaculture facilities. Eyed eggs from 10 female broodstock (five fish from each facility) exhibiting graded levels of infection were transferred to the University of Idaho and monitored through early life stages for the presence of F. psychrophilum. Female Rainbow Trout broodstock were not positive for F. psychrophilum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and prevalence was low in these progeny. However, ELISA optical density values for kidney correlated to F. psychrophilum prevalence in progeny (r = 0.938, P vertical transmission in either species as broodstock ovarian fluid results did not correlate to F. psychrophilum prevalence in eyed eggs. Further research with these assays is necessary; however, results from this study indicate that broodstock screening may be a potential tool for evaluating F. psychrophilum infection levels, which could become an important component for disease management.

  19. Evaluation of T Cell Immunity against Human Cytomegalovirus: Impact on Patient Management and Risk Assessment of Vertical Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Freer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is one of the most common infectious agents, infecting the general population at an early age without causing morbidity most of the time. However, on particular occasions, it may represent a serious risk, as active infection is associated with rejection and disease after solid organ transplantation or fetal transmission during pregnancy. Several methods for CMV diagnosis are available on the market, but because infection is so common, careful selection is needed to discriminate primary infection from reactivation. This review focuses on methods based on CMV-specific T cell reactivity to help monitor the consequences of CMV infection/reactivation in specific categories of patients. This review makes an attempt at discussing the pros and cons of the methods available.

  20. [Viral superantigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us, Dürdal

    2016-07-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial proteins produced by various microorganisms that elicit excessive and strong stimulation of T cells via an unconventional mechanism. They cause polyclonal activation of T cells in a non-specific manner, by binding to a particular variable-beta (Vβ) chain of T-cell receptor (TCR) and MHC class II molecule, in unprocessed form and outside of peptide-binding cleft, forming a bridge between the antigen presenting cell and the T cell. SAgs are classified into three groups, namely 1) exogenous (soluble proteins and exotoxins secreted by microorganisms), 2) endogenous (transmembrane proteins encoded by viruses which are integrated into the genome) and 3) B-cell SAgs (proteins which stimulate predominantly B cells). The best characterized and mostly studied SAgs are staphylococcal and streptococcal exotoxins, however it is well-known that many other microorganisms also possess SAg activities. Despite the presence of several viruses that cause severe infections in humans, the number of viruses that have proteins identified with SAg property in their pathogenesis, is relatively low. To date, the defined viruses that encoded SAgs are as follows; mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (Marrack, et al. 1991), rabies virus (Lafon, et al. 1992), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Sutkowski, et al. 1996), human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) (Conrad, et al. 1997), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Posnett, et al. 1995; Torres, et al. 1996; Townsley-Fuchs, et al. 1997) and Ebola virus (Leroy, et al. 2011). SAgs were first described in the MMTV, a polymorphic B-type retrovirus that is either contained in the genome as an endogenous provirus (germline transmission) or exogenous infectious virus that transmits vertically via breast milk. Both MMTV forms encode SAgs. The SAg-mediated massive T cell activation is required for the spread of exogenous MMTV from intestines to mammary glands, facilitating the transmission of infectious virus. On the other hand

  1. Hepatite C e gestação: análise de fatores associados à transmissão vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vidal Cardoso Gardenal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Informações sobre hepatite C durante a gestação em serviços brasileiros são escassas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os fatores associados à transmissão vertical do vírus da hepatite C em gestantes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, realizado em gestantes procedentes do município de Campo Grande/MS, que apresentaram sorologia reagente e confirmada para VHC, no período de 2002 a 2005. Considerou-se transmissão vertical sorologia VHC positiva por ELISA, confirmada com PCR, após os 18 meses de vida do recém-nascido. Considerou-se fatores associados a TV: tipo de parto, tempo de rotura de membranas, amamentação, histórico de transfusões sanguíneas prévias, uso de drogas ilícitas, número de parceiros sexuais e presença de tatuagens pelo corpo. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se 58 gestantes portadoras do VHC, revelando prevalência de infecção de 0,2% (58/31.187. Das 58 pacientes, 23 (39,6% preencheram os critérios de inclusão no estudo. A taxa de TV foi de 13% (3/23, sendo os subtipos virais mais frequentes: 1a (53%, 1b (30%, 2b (4% e 3a (13%. Duas (8,7% pacientes apresentaram co-infecção pelo HIV. Houve associação (p 2,5x10(6 e entre TV e uso de drogas ilícitas pela mãe (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo demonstra que elevada viremia materna e o uso de drogas ilícitas pela mãe associam-se a transmissão materno-fetal do VHC.

  2. Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Atkinson, Claire; Nduati, Ruth; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Boeckh, Michael; Overbaugh, Julie; Emery, Vincent; Slyker, Jennifer A

    2016-03-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers. Between 1993 and 1998 pregnant, HIV-infected women in Nairobi, Kenya, were randomly assigned to breastfeed or formula-feed their infants in an HIV transmission study. Women were allocated equally between treatment arms, and the study was not blinded. The primary endpoint of this nested study was time to infant CMV infection. CMV infection was assessed in 138 breastfed and 134 formula-fed infants. Baseline characteristics were similar between arms. Breastfed infants acquired CMV earlier than formula-fed infants (median age of acquisition, 4.26 vs 9.87 months; P < .001) and had a higher 1-year probability of CMV infection (0.89 vs 0.69; P < .001). Breastfeeding was associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk of infant CMV acquisition independent of infant HIV status (multivariable hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.16; P = .002). Approximately one third of CMV infections occurred during the peripartum period, with 40% acquired through breastfeeding and the remainder acquired through modes other than breast milk. Preventing CMV acquisition may be a priority for HIV-exposed infants, but there is a narrow window of opportunity for intervention. Approaches that reduce maternal cervical and breast milk CMV reactivation may help delay infant infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  4. Clinical features and viral diagnosis of two cases of infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus: a report of nosocomial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guery, Benoit; Poissy, Julien; el Mansouf, Loubna; Séjourné, Caroline; Ettahar, Nicolas; Lemaire, Xavier; Vuotto, Fanny; Goffard, Anne; Behillil, Sylvie; Enouf, Vincent; Caro, Valérie; Mailles, Alexandra; Che, Didier; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Mathieu, Daniel; Fontanet, Arnaud; van der Werf, Sylvie

    2013-06-29

    Human infection with a novel coronavirus named Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East in September, 2012, with 44 laboratory-confirmed cases as of May 23, 2013. We report detailed clinical and virological data for two related cases of MERS-CoV disease, after nosocomial transmission of the virus from one patient to another in a French hospital. Patient 1 visited Dubai in April, 2013; patient 2 lives in France and did not travel abroad. Both patients had underlying immunosuppressive disorders. We tested specimens from the upper (nasopharyngeal swabs) or the lower (bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum) respiratory tract and whole blood, plasma, and serum specimens for MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR targeting the upE and Orf1A genes of MERS-CoV. Initial clinical presentation included fever, chills, and myalgia in both patients, and for patient 1, diarrhoea. Respiratory symptoms rapidly became predominant with acute respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Both patients developed acute renal failure. MERS-CoV was detected in lower respiratory tract specimens with high viral load (eg, cycle threshold [Ct] values of 22·9 for upE and 24 for Orf1a for a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from patient 1; Ct values of 22·5 for upE and 23·9 for Orf1a for an induced sputum sample from patient 2), whereas nasopharyngeal specimens were weakly positive or inconclusive. The two patients shared the same room for 3 days. The incubation period was estimated at 9-12 days for the second case. No secondary transmission was documented in hospital staff despite the absence of specific protective measures before the diagnosis of MERS-CoV was suspected. Patient 1 died on May 28, due to refractory multiple organ failure. Patients with respiratory symptoms returning from the Middle East or exposed to a confirmed case should be isolated and investigated for MERS-CoV with

  5. Transmissão Vertical Zero: parceria entre o serviço público e o terceiro setor Transmisión Vertical Cero: sociedad entre el servicio público y el Tercer Sector Project Zero Perinatal HIV Transmission: partnership between public and private agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Maria de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Divulgar experiência multidisciplinar de parceria entre gestores da rede pública de saúde e organizações não-governamentais voltadas à atenção à gestante HIV positivo; e caracterizar as situações de exposição ao HIV por gestantes atendidas pelo Projeto Transmissão Vertical Zero do Município de Sorocaba - SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com emprego de fontes documentais, e com levantamento de dados para caracterização sócio-demográfica e situações de exposição ao risco de infecção pelo HIV de 120 gestantes atendidas pelo Projeto, entre 1998 e 2004. RESULTADOS: O compartilhamento de ações entre o público e o terceiro setor constituiu-se em eficiente alternativa de assistência à mulher soropositiva para o HIV, ainda que 56,7% das gestantes desconhecessem a sorologia do parceiro e 73,3% nunca terem usado preservativo. CONCLUSÃO: A parceria contribuiu para a redução da transmissão vertical do HIV em Sorocaba - SP.OBJETIVOS: Divulgar la experiencia multidisciplinaria de sociedad entre gestores de la red pública de salud y organizaciones no gubernamentales dirigidas a la atención de la gestante VIH positivo; y caracterizar las situaciones de exposición al VIH por gestantes atendidas por el Proyecto Transmisión Vertical Zero del Municipio de Sorocaba - SP. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo realizado con el empleo de fuentes documentales, y con el levantamiento de datos para caracterización socio-demográfica y situaciones de exposición al riesgo de infección por el VIH de 120 gestantes atendidas por el Proyecto, entre 1998 y 2004. RESULTADOS: El compartir acciones entre el público y el tercer sector se constituye en una eficiente alternativa de asistencia a la mujer seropositiva para el VIH, aunque el 56,7% de las gestantes desconociese la serología de la pareja y el 73,3% nunca haya usado preservativo. CONCLUSIÓN: La sociedad contribuyó a la reducción de la transmisión vertical

  6. High HIV incidence in the postpartum period sustains vertical transmission in settings with generalized epidemics: a cohort study in Southern Mozambique

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    Caroline De Schacht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infection with HIV in the postpartum period results in a high risk of vertical transmission through breastfeeding. A study was done to determine the HIV incidence rate and associated risk factors among postpartum women in Southern Mozambique, where HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 21%. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in six rural health facilities in Gaza and Maputo provinces from March 2008 to July 2011. A total of 1221 women who were HIV-negative on testing at delivery or within two months postpartum were recruited and followed until 18 months postpartum. HIV testing, collection of dried blood spot samples and administration of a structured questionnaire to women were performed every three months. Infant testing by DNA-PCR was done as soon as possible after identification of a new infection in women. HIV incidence was estimated, and potential risk factors at baseline were compared using Poisson regression. Results: Data from 957 women were analyzed with follow-up after the enrolment visit, with a median follow-up of 18.2 months. The HIV incidence in postpartum women is estimated at 3.20/100 women-years (95% CI: 2.30–4.46, with the highest rate among 18- to 19-year-olds (4.92 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 2.65–9.15. Of the new infections, 14 (34% were identified during the first six months postpartum, 11 (27% between 6 and 12 months and 16 (39% between 12 and 18 months postpartum. Risk factors for incident HIV infection include young age, low number of children, higher education level of the woman's partner and having had sex with someone other than one's partner. The vertical transmission was 21% (95% CI: 5–36 among newly infected women. Conclusions: Incidence of HIV is high among breastfeeding women in Southern Mozambique, contributing to increasing numbers of HIV-infected infants. Comprehensive primary prevention strategies targeting women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and

  7. Transmisión vertical del VIH: Comprendiendo el sentimiento de los padres por la técnica proyectiva HIV Vertical Transmission: Understanding the parents' feelings through the projective technique

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    Janie Maria de Almeida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo realizado con padres de lactantes expuestos al VIH, cuya madre está inscrita en el Programa Transmisión Vertical Cero, Sorocaba, SP. El objetivo es identificar sentimientos relacionados con la fe religiosa de estos padres ante la indefinición del diagnóstico para el VIH del lactante. La investigación fue aprobada por un Comité de Ética en Investigación y siguió la Resolución 196/96. Para la recolección de datos se empleó la técnica proyectiva con montaje elaborada a partir de la pregunta "¿como ha sido para ustedes vivir el día-a-día esperando el resultado final de la prueba antiVIH del bebé?". La narrativa sobre su significado fue el paso siguiente. Se verificó que esta técnica fue eficiente para desencadenar el pensamiento de los participantes, para conducir y sustentar sus relatos. De los datos emergieron cinco temas, de los cuales destacamos religiosidad y espiritualidad que muestran que tienen fe y esperanza en un futuro saludable para el hijo expuesto al VIH.Qualitative study carried out with parents of newborn babies exposed to HIV whose mothers are registered at the Zero Vertical Transmission Program in Sorocaba, SP. The study aimed to identify feelings concerning the parents' religious faith while the baby seropositivity diagnosis for HIV is not defined yet. The research was approved by the Ethical Committee in Research according to Resolution 196/96. The projective technique was used for data collection in order to get answers for the following question: "how do you feel living your daily routine while you wait for your baby anti HIV test final result?" Speaking about its meaning was the next step. This technique has proved to be efficient in triggering the participants' thoughts and also in leading and supporting their reports. Five topics came up from the data collection; we highlighted two topics, religiosity and spirituality, which showed that having faith means being hopeful about the exposed

  8. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  9. Extended Microbiological Characterization of Göttingen Minipigs in the Context of Xenotransplantation: Detection and Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus.

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    Vladimir A Morozov

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation has been proposed as a solution to the shortage of suitable human donors. Pigs are currently favoured as donor animals for xenotransplantation of cells, including islet cells, or organs. To reduce the xenotransplantation-associated risk of infection of the recipient the pig donor should be carefully characterised. Göttingen minipigs from Ellegaard are often used for biomedical research and are regularly tested by their vendor for the presence of numerous bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. However, screening for some pathogens transmittable to humans had not been performed.The presence of microorganisms was examined in Göttingen Minipigs by PCR methods. Since zoonotic transmission of porcine hepatitis E virus HEV to humans has been demonstrated, extended search for HEV was considered as a priority. RNA from sera, islet and other cells from 40 minipigs were examined for HEV using different real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCRs, among them two newly established. In addition, sera were examined by Western blot analysis using two recombinant capsid proteins of HEV as antigens. HEV RNA was not detected in pigs older than one year including gilts, but it was detected in the sera of three of ten animals younger than 1 year. Furthermore, HEV was also detected in the sera of three sows six days after delivery and their offspring, indicating vertical transmission of the virus. PCR amplicons were cloned, sequenced and the viruses were found to belong to the HEV genotype (gt 3/4. Anti-HEV immunoglobulins G were detected in one sow and maternal antibodies in her six day old piglet. Since Göttingen minipigs were negative for many xenotransplantation-relevant microorganisms, they can now be classified as safe. HEV may be eliminated from the Ellegaard herd by selection of negative animals and/or by treatment of the animals.

  10. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  12. Vertical transmission of highly similar blaCTX-M-1-harboring IncI1 plasmids in Escherichia coli with different MLST types in the poultry production pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Wang, Juan; Klumpp, Jochen; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Fanning, Séamus; Stephan, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize sets of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae collected longitudinally from different flocks of broiler breeders, meconium of 1-day-old broilers from theses breeder flocks, as well as from these broiler flocks before slaughter. Methods: Five sets of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were studied by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), phylogenetic grouping, PCR-based replicon typing and resistance profiling. The blaCTX-M-1-harboring plasmids of one set (pHV295.1, pHV114.1, and pHV292.1) were fully sequenced and subjected to comparative analysis. Results: Eleven different MLST sequence types (ST) were identified with ST1056 the predominant one, isolated in all five sets either on the broiler breeder or meconium level. Plasmid sequencing revealed that blaCTX-M-1 was carried by highly similar IncI1/ST3 plasmids that were 105 076 bp, 110 997 bp, and 117 269 bp in size, respectively. Conclusions: The fact that genetically similar IncI1/ST3 plasmids were found in ESBL-producing E. coli of different MLST types isolated at the different levels in the broiler production pyramid provides strong evidence for a vertical transmission of these plasmids from a common source (nucleus poultry flocks). PMID:25324838

  13. Vertical transmission of highly similar blaCTX-M-1-harbouring IncI1 plasmids in Escherichia coli with different MLST types in the poultry production pyramid

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    Katrin eZurfluh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize sets of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae collected longitudinally from different flocks of broiler breeders, meconium of one-day-old broilers from theses breeder flocks, as well as from these broiler flocks before slaughter.Methods: Five sets of ESBL-producing E. coli were studied by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, phylogenetic grouping, PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT and resistance profiling. The blaCTX-M-1-harbouring plasmids of one set (pHV295.1, pHV114.1 and pHV292.1 were fully sequenced and subjected to comparative analysis.Results: Eleven different MLST sequence types (ST were identified with ST1056 the predominant one, isolated in all five sets either on the broiler breeder or meconium level. Plasmid sequencing revealed that blaCTX-M-1 was carried by highly similar IncI1/ST3 plasmids that were 105 076 bp, 110 997 bp and 117 269 bp in size, respectively. Conclusions: The fact that genetically similar IncI1/ST3 plasmids were found in ESBL-producing E. coli of different MLST types isolated at the different levels in the broiler production pyramid provides strong evidence for a vertical transmission of these plasmids from a common source (nucleus poultry flocks.

  14. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs: Humoral immune response, estimation of specific IgG avidity and the challenges of reproducing vertical transmission in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Grimm, Felix; Ruetten, Maja; Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp. 3). Besides, six 4.5 week-old piglets inoculated per os with 5×10(3) oocysts were also included in the serological investigations. All animals seroconverted (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine ELISA, Prionics, Switzerland) by 2-3 weeks post inoculation (wpi) and remained seropositive for at least 38 weeks or until euthanasia. Four chronically infected sows from Exp. 1 and 2 were serologically monitored during a further pregnancy and no reactivation, but a decrease of the antibody levels was observed at farrowing (Exp. 4). In all experiments, the specific IgG-avidity was initially low, increased during the course of infection and after re-inoculations. An avidity index (AI) ≥40% could be used to rule out recent infections (toxoplasmosis in pigs are still unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transmissão vertical do HIV: expectativas e ações da gestante soropositiva Transmisión vertical del VHI: expectativas y acciones de la gestante seropositiva HIV perinatal transmission: expectations and actions of hiv-positive pregnant women

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    Edilene Lins de Moura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, foi motivado pelo elevado número de casos de transmissão vertical do HIV. Teve como objetivo identificar as expectativas e ações da gestante HIV positivo quanto à gravidez e ao concepto. A amostra constituiu-se de 14 gestantes infectadas, assintomáticas, que conheciam sua soropositividade antes da gravidez e que estavam no 3º trimestre de gestação. Utilizou-se entrevista para a coleta de dados que ocorreu em 2001 e 2002. Empregou-se o Método do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo para analisar os dados. Verificou-se que, quanto à maternidade, as gestantes tinham expectativas semelhantes, adaptaram-se à gravidez, e acreditavam na soronegatividade do bebê e na efetividade do tratamento. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de implementação de orientação para a saúde direcionada à mulher com enfoque na transmissão vertical do HIV/aids.Este estudio descriptivo, con aproximación cualitativa, fue motivado por el gran número de niños con transmisión vertical del VHI. Tuvo como objetivo identificar las expectativas y acciones de la gestante VHI positivo en cuanto al embarazo y al concepto. La muestra se constituyó de 14 gestantes infectadas, asintomáticas, que conocían su seropositividad antes del embarazo y que estaban en el 3.er trimestre de gestación. Para la recolección de los datos, realizada en el período de 2001 y 2002, se utilizó la entrevista. El Método de Discurso de Sujeto Colectivo fue empleado para analizar los datos. Se verificó que, en cuanto a la maternidad, las gestantes tenían expectativas semejantes. Se adaptaron a la gestación, confiaban en que el bebé seria suero negativo y en la efectividad del tratamiento realizado. Las conclusiones orientan hacia la necesidad de implementación de orientación sobre la salud de la mujer con acercamiento en la transmisión vertical del VHI/SIDA.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach was motivated by the high number

  16. Viral encephalitis

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    Marcus Tulius T Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While systemic viral infections are exceptionally common, symptomatic viral infections of the brain parenchyma itself are very rare, but a serious neurologic condition. It is estimated that viral encephalitis occurs at a rate of 1.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Geography is a major determinant of encephalitis caused by vector-borne pathogens. A diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be a challenge to the clinician, since almost 70% of viral encephalitis cases are left without an etiologic agent identified. In this review, the most common viral encephalitis will be discussed, with focus on ecology, diagnosis, and clinical management.

  17. Beta 2-microglobulin, HIV-1 p24 antibody and acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24 antigen levels: predictive markers for vertical transmission of HIV-1 in pregnant Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J B; Kataaha, P; Hom, D L; Mmiro, F; Guay, L; Ndugwa, C; Marum, L; Piwowar, E; Brewer, K; Toedter, G

    1993-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of plasma beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) levels, acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24 antigen, and HIV-1 p24-antibody titers in predicting HIV-1 vertical transmission in 227 HIV-1-infected Ugandan pregnant women. Plasma beta 2M levels, acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24-antigen positivity, and HIV-1 p24-antibody titers were determined using commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in a Ugandan cohort of 52 HIV-1-seropositive transmitting mothers, 175 HIV-1-seropositive non-transmitting mothers, and 52 seronegative mothers within 6 weeks prior to delivery. Transmitter mothers had significantly higher plasma concentrations of beta 2M (1.80 +/- 1.13 mg/l) than non-transmitter seropositive mothers (1.32 +/- 0.81 mg/l; P = 0.0013). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of transmitter mothers had detectable p24 antigen than non-transmitter mothers [six out of 51 (11.8%) versus six out of 173 (3.5%); P = 0.03]. Compared with the vertical transmission rate of 23% in the seropositive group, the positive predictive values of a beta 2M level > 1.5 mg/l or detectable HIV-1 p24 antigen for vertical transmission were 34 and 50%, respectively. Five of six (83.3%) seropositive mothers with both a beta 2M level > 1.5 mg/l and detectable p24 antigenemia transmitted HIV-1 infection to their infants compared with 25 of 124 (20.2%) seropositive mothers with values below the cut-off values for both tests (P = 0.00249). However, beta 2M was not found to be a significant independent predictor of vertical transmission when analyzed in a multivariate model with p24 antigenemia. There was no significant difference in HIV-1 p24-antibody titers in transmitter mothers versus non-transmitter mothers (P = 0.299). beta 2M levels and acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24-antigen assays may be used to predict which HIV-1-infected pregnant women are at greatest risk for vertical transmission. However, only the p24-antigen test was independently predictive of vertical transmission and its

  18. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  19. Imported viral haemorrhagic fever with a potential for person-to-person transmission: review and recommendations for initial management of a suspected case in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebunders, R; Van Esbroeck, M; Moreau, M; Borchert, M

    2002-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers are caused by a wide range of viruses. There are 4 types of viruses well known to spread from person to person and able to cause nosocomial outbreaks with a high case fatality rate: an arenavirus (Lassa fever and more exceptionally the Junin and Machupo virus), a bunyavirus (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever) and the Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg viruses). So far there have been only a limited number of imported cases of viral haemorrhagic fever in industrialized countries. In recent years an increasing number of outbreaks of filovirus infections have occurred in Africa and in 2000 5 cases of Lassa fever were brought from Sierra Leone to Europe. Therefore European physicians should consider the possibility of a viral haemorrhagic fever in an acutely ill patient just returning from Africa or South-America with fever for which there is no obvious cause. Such patients should be questioned for risk factors for viral haemorrhagic fever. Using universal precautions for handling blood and body fluids and barrier nursing techniques there is little risk that if a patient with viral haemorrhagic fever arrives in Belgium there will be secondary cases.

  20. Community voices: barriers and opportunities for programmes to successfully prevent vertical transmission of HIV identified through consultations among people living with HIV

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    Christoforos Mallouris

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP +  were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. Discussion: The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries, an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries, and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants. The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers’ attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. Conclusions: The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants’ experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy

  1. Option B+ for prevention of vertical HIV transmission has no influence on adverse birth outcomes in a cross-sectional cohort in Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempis, Eva M; Schnack, Alexandra; Decker, Sarah; Braun, Vera; Rubaihayo, John; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Busingye, Priscilla; Harms, Gundel; Theuring, Stefanie

    2017-03-07

    While most Sub-Saharan African countries are now implementing the WHO-recommended Option B+ protocol for prevention of vertical HIV transmission, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of Option B+ exposure on adverse birth outcomes (ABOs). Against this background, we assessed ABOs among delivering women in Western Uganda. A cross-sectional, observational study was performed within a cohort of 412 mother-newborn-pairs in Virika Hospital, Fort Portal in 2013. The occurrence of stillbirth, pre-term delivery, and small size for gestational age (SGA) was analysed, looking for influencing factors related to HIV-status, antiretroviral drug exposure and duration, and other sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Among 302 HIV-negative and 110 HIV-positive women, ABOs occurred in 40.5%, with stillbirth in 6.3%, pre-term delivery in 28.6%, and SGA in 12.2% of deliveries. For Option B+ intake (n = 59), no significant association was found with stillbirth (OR 0.48, p = 0.55), pre-term delivery (OR 0.97, p = 0.92) and SGA (OR 1.5, p = 0.3) compared to seronegative women. Women enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) before conception (n = 38) had no different risk for ABOs than women on Option B+ or HIV-negative women. Identified risk factors for stillbirth included lack of formal education, poor socio-economic status, long travel distance, hypertension and anaemia. Pre-term delivery risk was increased with poor socio-economic status, primiparity, Malaria and anaemia. The occurrence of SGA was influenced by older age and Malaria. In our study, women on Option B+ showed no difference in ABOs compared to HIV-negative women and to women on ART. We identified several non-HIV/ART-related influencing factors, suggesting an urgent need for improving early risk assessment mechanisms in antenatal care through better screening and triage systems. Our results are encouraging with regard to continued universal scale-up of Option B+ and ART programmes.

  2. Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert; Ip, Hon S.

    2017-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America. We evaluated three hypotheses about novel HPAIV introduced into wild and domestic bird hosts: (i) transmission of novel HPAIVs in wild birds was restricted by mechanisms associated with highly pathogenic phenotypes; (ii) the HPAIV poultry outbreak was not self-sustaining and required viral input from wild birds; and (iii) reassortment of the EA H5N8 generated reassortant EA/NA AIVs with a fitness advantage over fully Eurasian lineages in North American wild birds. We used a time-rooted phylodynamic model that explicitly incorporated viral population dynamics with evolutionary dynamics to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and viral migration among host types in domestic and wild birds, as well as between the EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. We did not find evidence to support hypothesis (i) or (ii) as our estimates of the transmission parameters suggested that the HPAIV outbreak met or exceeded the threshold for persistence in wild birds (R0 > 1) and poultry (R0 ≈ 1) with minimal estimated transmission among host types. There was also no evidence to support hypothesis (iii) because R0 values were similar among EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. Our results suggest that this novel HPAIV and reassortments did not encounter any transmission barriers sufficient to prevent persistence when introduced to wild or domestic birds.

  3. Pemasaran ViralViral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, James Rianto

    2010-01-01

    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  4. A novel class of anti-HIV agents with multiple copies of enfuvirtide enhances inhibition of viral replication and cellular transmission in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chang

    Full Text Available We constructed novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitors that may overcome the current limitations of enfuvirtide, the first such therapeutic in this class. The three prototypes generated by the Dock-and-Lock (DNL technology to comprise four copies of enfuvirtide tethered site-specifically to the Fc end of different humanized monoclonal antibodies potently neutralize primary isolates (both R5-tropic and X4-tropic, as well as T-cell-adapted strains of HIV-1 in vitro. All three prototypes show EC(50 values in the subnanomolar range, which are 10- to 100-fold lower than enfuvirtide and attainable whether or not the constitutive antibody targets HIV-1. The potential of such conjugates to purge latently infected cells was also demonstrated in a cell-to-cell viral inhibition assay by measuring their efficacy to inhibit the spread of HIV-1(LAI from infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Jurkat T cells over a period of 30 days following viral activation with 100 nM SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. The IgG-like half-life was not significantly different from that of the parental antibody, as shown by the mean serum concentration of one prototype in mice at 72 h. These encouraging results provide a rationale to develop further novel anti-HIV agents by coupling additional antibodies of interest with alternative HIV-inhibitors via recombinantly-produced, self-assembling, modules.

  5. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  6. Reproduction of hemangioma by infection with subgroup J avian leukosis virus: the vertical transmission is more hazardous than the horizontal way

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yan; Xia, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fuyan; Yu, Songcheng; Zou, Nianli; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical cases of hemangioma associated with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) have been reported in commercial chicken layer flocks since 2006. We attempted to reproduce hemangioma through experimental infection with ALV-J to evaluate viral pathogenicity in layer birds and their progenies. Results Body weight and indexes for immune organs of chickens infected with ALV-J strain SCDY1 were lower than those in controls. Proliferation of lymphocytes was observed in many tissues,...

  7. HIV positive mothers' beliefs about mother-to-child transmission Creencias de las madres seropositivas respecto a la transmisión vertical del HIV Crenças das mães soropositivas ao HIV acerca da transmissão vertical da doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Aparecida de Souza Neves

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs can influence health behavior. This qualitative study aimed to understand the beliefs that influence HIV positive mothers' behaviors towards prevention methods against mother-to-child transmission. Fourteen women were interviewed. Our research was based on the theoretical Health Belief Model, formed by the following dimensions: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and perceived obstacles. Data analysis showed reflections that evidence the paradox in the AIDS epidemic: knowledge does not change behavior; gender relations; fear of death; fear of stigma; financial problems; disbelief in the virus' existence. Identifying beliefs and understanding how to influence the conduction of the health problem can help services to promote patients' adherence.Las creencias son capaces de influenciar el comportamiento del hombre. El objetivo de este estudio cualitativo fue comprender las creencias que influencian el comportamiento de las madres HIV respecto a las medidas profilácticas de la transmisión vertical. Fueron entrevistadas 14 mujeres portadoras de HIV. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando como referencial teórico el Modelo de Creencias de la Salud, que es compuesto por las dimensiones de susceptibilidad percibida, severidad percibida, beneficios percibidos y barreras percibidas. Fueron observadas las contradicciones de la epidemia de SIDA: el conocimiento no muda comportamiento; miedo de la muerte; subestimación del HIV; dificultades financieras; no creer en la existencia del virus. Identificar y comprender las creencias puede ayudar los servicios de salud a promover la adhesión de la clientela.As crenças parecem influenciar diretamente nas atitudes dos seres humanos. Neste estudo qualitativo buscamos identificar as crenças que influenciam a adesão das mães portadoras do HIV às medidas profiláticas da transmissão vertical. Foram entrevistadas 14 mães soropositivas. A análise foi feita utilizando

  8. Projetos de vida de adultos jovens portadores de HIV por transmissão vertical: estudo exploratório com usuários de um ambulatório de infectologia Life projects of young adults with HIV acquired by vertical transmission: an exploratory study with patients of an infectious diseases' outpatients department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédice Lino de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o intuito de conhecer os projetos de vida de jovens adultos que convivem com o HIV/aids a partir da transmissão vertical, com relação a: estudo, trabalho e constituição familiar. Outro objetivo foi o de conhecer sua vivência no que diz respeito à assistência recebida. Como instrumentos, foram utilizados: questionário sociodemográfico e entrevista semiestruturada. Foram realizadas 16 entrevistas com jovens de idade entre 18 e 22 anos, usuários de um ambulatório de um hospital público especializado na área de Infectologia. O material obtido nas entrevistas foi analisado segundo os princípios da análise temática. Foram encontradas seis categorias temáticas: estudo e escolaridade; trabalho e emprego; sexualidade e constituição familiar; vivência de preconceito; adesão ao tratamento; acolhimento. Os entrevistados referiram que a escola é importante meio para a inserção social e para a conquista da autonomia. O trabalho foi apresentado como principal fonte de subsistência e de independência. O exercício da sexualidade foi marcado pela situação de existência do HIV, determinando cuidados especiais; quanto à conjugalidade, os projetos dos entrevistados são variados: união informal, casamento oficial, vida sem cônjuge. No que diz respeito à maternidade/paternidade, os projetos são marcadamente influenciados pela portabilidade do HIV, despertando dúvidas e receios. Os entrevistados relataram a existência do preconceito em vários contextos. Quanto à adesão ao tratamento, revelaram a existência tanto de dificuldades como de mecanismos criados para enfrentá-las. O acolhimento por parte de familiares, amigos e profissionais da saúde foi considerado fundamental para o desenvolvimento e a manutenção de seus projetos de vida.This research had the intention to understand the life projects of young adults living with HIV/Aids infected through vertical transmission: how they deal with studies, work

  9. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  10. Transmission of clonal hepatitis C virus genomes reveals the dominant but transitory role of CD8¿ T cells in early viral evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callendret, Benoît; Bukh, Jens; Eccleston, Heather B

    2011-01-01

    occurred slowly over several years of chronic infection. Together these observations indicate that during acute hepatitis C, virus evolution was driven primarily by positive selection pressure exerted by CD8(+) T cells. This influence of immune pressure on viral evolution appears to subside as chronic......The RNA genome of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) diversifies rapidly during the acute phase of infection, but the selective forces that drive this process remain poorly defined. Here we examined whether Darwinian selection pressure imposed by CD8(+) T cells is a dominant force driving early amino acid...... virus at frequent intervals revealed that most acute-phase nonsynonymous mutations were clustered in class I epitopes and appeared much earlier than those in the remainder of the HCV genome. Moreover, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, a measure of positive selection pressure...

  11. Preclinical in vitro activity of QR-435 against influenza A virus as a virucide and in paper masks for prevention of viral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, John S; Lambkin, Robert; Guralnik, Mario; Rosenbloom, Richard A; Petteruti, Michael P; Digian, Kelly; Lefante, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Prophylaxis against influenza is difficult, and current approaches against pandemics may be ineffective because of shortages of the two proven classes of antivirals in the face of a large-scale infection. Herbal/natural products may represent an effective alternative to conventional attempts to protect against infection by avian influenza virus. QR-435, an all-natural compound of green tea extract and other agents, has been developed to provide protection against a wide range of viral infections. The antiviral activities of several QR-435 preparations as well as QR-435 (1) green tea extract were tested against A/Sydney/5/97 and A/Panama-Resvir 17 strains of avian influenza virus H3N2 by means of an assay based on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Toxic effects of QR-435 formulations on these cells were also evaluated as were the virucidal properties of a commercially available mask impregnated with QR-435. The efficacy of a QR-435/mask combination was compared with that of the QR control/mask combination, an untreated mask, and no mask. QR-435 had significant in vitro activity against H3N2 at concentrations that were not associated with significant cellular toxic effects. The antiviral activity of QR-435 (1) was similar to that of QR-435. Masks impregnated with QR-435 were highly effective in blocking the passage of live H3N2 virus. These preclinical results warrant further evaluation of the prophylactic use of QR-435 against viral infection in humans.

  12. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE and subtype B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyomopito, Rebecca A; Chen, Yen-Ju; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantor, Rami; Merati, Tuti; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Sirisanthana, Thira; Li, Patrick CK; Kantipong, Pacharee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Chris KC; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ditangco, Rossana; Huang, Szu-Wei; Sohn, Annette H; Law, Matthew; Chen, Yi Ming A

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV-exposure, patient gender, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of males within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p <0.001) as did HIV exposures (Heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p <0.001). After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men-who-have-sex with-men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (OR = 2.4, p <0.001). We further describe four transmission clusters of 8–15 treatment naive, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE). Risk-group sub-populations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had a higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focussing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola. PMID:26362956

  13. Genética de las poblaciones virales y transmisión del dengue Population genetics of dengue virus and transmission of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falcón-Lezama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento endémico de la fiebre por dengue en México durante los últimos cinco años ha generado gran preocupación en todos los sectores relacionados con la salud. Los esfuerzos para interrumpir la transmisión se han concentrado en el control vectorial; sin embargo, al margen de la efectividad de las intervenciones, resulta importante establecer con claridad cuáles son los elementos determinantes de la transmisión del dengue para establecer medidas de control y vigilancia eficaces. En cuanto a los determinantes moleculares de la transmisión, mucho se ha avanzado con el desarrollo de la genómica y la bioinformática. Esta revisión pretende ofrecer un panorama de los desarrollos más recientes en ese aspecto con un énfasis en la situación de México.The endemic behavior of dengue fever in Mexico during the past five years is of major concern to every sector related with public health and the effort to control the transmission has been focused on vector control. However, regardless of the effectiveness of the intervention measures it is important to know which elements determine dengue transmission. With regard to the molecular basis for dengue transmission, a great deal of progress has been made due to the introduction of genomic and bioinformatic approaches. The goal of this review is to describe the most recent developments in this area with emphasis on the Mexican situation.

  14. Refinement of a viral transmission risk model for blood donations in seroconversion window phase screened by nucleic acid testing in different pool sizes and repeat test algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusten, Jos; Vermeulen, Marion; van Drimmelen, Harry; Lelie, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In minipool nucleic acid test (MP-NAT) screening protocols, the donations implicated in reactive test pools are released for transfusion when they are nonreactive in a repeat test on the individual samples, but in individual-donation (ID)-NAT screening algorithms the release of nonrepeatable reactive (NRR) donations is under discussion. A previously developed window phase (WP) transmission risk model for NAT-screened blood transfusions has been refined to take the effect of repeat tests of initially reactive (IR) MP- or ID-NAT results into account. The model has then been applied to simulate the effect of different screening algorithms with ULTRIO and the new-generation ULTRIO Plus assay (Novartis Diagnostics) on transmission risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We calculated WP risk-day equivalents for MP16-, MP8-, and ID-NAT with and without duplicate retesting of IR results of 3.1, 2.7, 1.5, and 1.3 days for HCV; 6.3, 5.5, 3.3, and 2.9 days for HIV; and 24.4, 22.2, 15.6, and 14.1 days for HBV, respectively. These latter infectious HBV WPs reduced to 20.4, 18.2, 11.6, and 10.3 days, respectively, with the more sensitive ULTRIO Plus assay. ULTRIO Plus ID-NAT screening reduces the virus transmission risk in the WP by 54% to 58% compared to ULTRIO MP16-NAT, while the incremental risk caused by releasing donations with duplicate ID-NAT NRR results is 5% to 6%. To achieve maximum safety and specificity a similar repeat test algorithm can be applied to ID-NAT as used for serologic assays. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Transmission of different variants of PCV2 and viral dynamics in a research facility with pigs mingled from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Kitt; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) has been identified in most swine-producing countries worldwide. The disease has resulted in significant health challenges and economic damage to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to determine horizontal transmission of porcine...... the aisle and pens in other compartments). By DNA sequence analysis, eight variants of genotype PCV-2b were identified in the research facility. From the spread of these PCV2-variants it was concluded that PCV2 primarily infects through close contact and nose-to-nose contact. PCV2 genome sequences were...

  16. Potential risk of viral transmission from flying foxes to domestic animals and humans on the southern coast of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Chaerul; Arifin, Eko Muhammad Zainal; Takemae, Hitoshi; Hengjan, Yupadee; Iida, Keisuke; Sudarnika, Etih; Zahid, Abdul; Soejoedono, Retno Damayanti; Susetya, Heru; Sumiarto, Bambang; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Hondo, Eiichi

    2017-09-29

    Flying foxes have been considered to be involved in the transmission of serious infectious diseases to humans. Using questionnaires, we aimed to determine the direct and/or indirect contacts of flying foxes in an Indonesian nature conservation area with domestic animals and humans living in the surrounding area. We surveyed 150 residents of 10 villages in West Java. Villages were classified into 3 groups: inside and/or within 1 km from the outer border of the conservation area and 1-5 km or 5-10 km away from the reserve's outer border. Data were collected by direct interview using a structured questionnaire consisting of the respondent characteristics (age, sex and occupation); histories of contacts between flying foxes and humans, dogs and other domestic animals; and knowledge about infectious diseases, mainly rabies, in flying foxes. We found that flying foxes from the nature conservation area often enter residential areas at night to look for food, especially during the fruit season. In these residential areas, flying foxes had direct contacts with humans and a few contacts with domestic animals, especially dogs. People who encounter flying foxes seldom used personal protective equipment, such as leather gloves, goggles and caps. The residents living around the conservation area mostly had poor knowledge about flying foxes and disease transmission. This situation shows that the population in this region is at a quite high risk for contracting infectious diseases from flying foxes.

  17. Chimeric classical swine fever (CSF)-Japanese encephalitis (JE) viral replicon as a non-transmissible vaccine candidate against CSF and JE infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Wu, Rui; Li, Robert W; Li, Ling; Xiong, Zhongliang; Zhao, Haizhong; Guo, Deyin; Pan, Zishu

    2012-04-01

    A trans-complemented chimeric CSF-JE virus replicon was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of the CSF virus (CSFV) Alfort/187 strain. The CSFV E2 gene was deleted, and a fragment containing the region encoding a truncated envelope protein (tE, amino acid 292-402, domain III) of JE virus (JEV) was inserted into the resultant plasmid, pA187delE2, to generate the recombinant cDNA clone pA187delE2/JEV-tE. Porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells that constitutively express the CSFV E2p7 proteins were then transfected with in vitro-transcribed RNA from pA187delE2/JEV-tE. As a result, the chimeric CSF-JE virus replicon particle (VRP), rv187delE2/JEV-tE, was rescued. In a mouse model, immunization with the chimeric CSF-JE VRP induced strong production of JEV-specific antibody and conferred protection against a lethal JEV challenge. Pigs immunized with CSF-JE VRP displayed strong anti-CSFV and anti-JEV antibody responses and protection against CSFV and JEV challenge infections. Our evidence suggests that E2-complemented CSF-JE VRP not only has potential as a live-attenuated non-transmissible vaccine candidate against CSF and JE but also serves as a potential DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine for CSF in pigs. Together, our data suggest that the non-transmissible chimeric VRP expressing foreign antigenic proteins may represent a promising strategy for bivalent DIVA vaccine design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  19. Viral Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis in adults: drinking plenty of liquids such as fruit juices, sports ... as the child is hungry giving infants breast milk or full strength ... solutions Older adults and adults with weak immune systems should also ...

  20. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  1. Incidência de sífilis congênita e fatores associados à transmissão vertical da sífilis: dados do estudo Nascer no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Maria do Carmo Leal

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo foi estimar a incidência de sífilis congênita ao nascimento e verificar os fatores associados à transmissão vertical da sífilis. Estudo nacional, de base hospitalar, realizado em 2011-2012 com 23.894 puérperas, por meio de entrevista hospitalar, dados de prontuário e cartão de pré-natal. Realizada regressão logística univariada para verificar os fatores associados à sífilis congênita. Estimada incidência de sífilis congênita de 3,51 por mil nascidos vivos (IC95% 2,29-5,37) ...

  2. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  3. Proviral Loads and Clonal Expansion of HTLV-1-Infected Cells following Vertical Transmission: A 10-Year Follow-Up of Children in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Kazumi; Hisada, Michie; Maloney, Elizabeth M.; Hanchard, Barrie; Okayama, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective Few studies have specifically examined proviral load (PVL) and clonal evolution of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells in vertically infected children. Methods Sequential samples (from ages 1 to 16 years) from 3 HTLV-1-infected children (cases A, B and C) in the Jamaica Mother Infant Cohort Study were analyzed for their PVL and clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by inverse-long PCR. Results The baseline PVL (per 100,000 PBMCs) of case A was 260 (at 1 year of age) and of case B it was 1,867 (at 3 years of age), and they remained constant for more than 10 years. Stochastic patterns of clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells were predominately detected. In contrast, case C, who had lymphadenopathy, seborrheic dermatitis and hyperreflexia, showed an increase in PVL from 2,819 at 1.9 years to 13,358 at 13 years of age, and expansion of 2 dominant clones. Conclusion The clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells is induced in early childhood after infection acquired from their mothers. Youths with high PVL and any signs and symptoms associated with HTLV-1 infection should be closely monitored. PMID:19468234

  4. Comparison of 454 Ultra-Deep Sequencing and Allele-Specific Real-Time PCR with Regard to the Detection of Emerging Drug-Resistant Minor HIV-1 Variants after Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Vertical Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available Pregnant HIV-infected women were screened for the development of HIV-1 drug resistance after implementation of a triple-antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis as recommended by the WHO in 2006. The study offered the opportunity to compare amplicon-based 454 ultra-deep sequencing (UDS and allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR for the detection of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT.Plasma samples from 34 Tanzanian women were previously analysed by ASPCR for key resistance mutations in the viral RT selected by AZT, 3TC, and NVP (K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, T215Y/F. In this study, the RT region of the same samples was investigated by amplicon-based UDS for resistance mutations using the 454 GS FLX System.Drug-resistant HIV-variants were identified in 69% (20/29 of women by UDS and in 45% (13/29 by ASPCR. The absolute number of resistance mutations identified by UDS was twice that identified by ASPCR (45 vs 24. By UDS 14 of 24 ASPCR-detected resistance mutations were identified at the same position. The overall concordance between UDS and ASPCR was 61.0% (25/41. The proportions of variants quantified by UDS were approximately 2-3 times lower than by ASPCR. Amplicon generation from samples with viral loads below 20,000 copies/ml failed more frequently by UDS compared to ASPCR (limit of detection = 650 copies/ml, resulting in missing or insufficient sequence coverage.Both methods can provide useful information about drug-resistant minor HIV-1 variants. ASPCR has a higher sensitivity than UDS, but is restricted to single resistance mutations. In contrast, UDS is limited by its requirement for high viral loads to achieve sufficient sequence coverage, but the sequence information reveals the complete resistance patterns within the genomic region analysed. Improvements to the UDS limit of detection are in progress, and UDS could then facilitate monitoring of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 quasispecies.

  5. Viral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavetz, Barry I; Balakrishnan, Lata

    2015-01-01

    DNA tumor viruses including members of the polyomavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, and herpes virus families are presently the subject of intense interest with respect to the role that epigenetics plays in control of the virus life cycle and the transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. To date, these studies have primarily focused on the role of histone modification, nucleosome location, and DNA methylation in regulating the biological consequences of infection. Using a wide variety of strategies and techniques ranging from simple ChIP to ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq to identify histone modifications, nuclease digestion to genome wide next generation sequencing to identify nucleosome location, and bisulfite treatment to MeDIP to identify DNA methylation sites, the epigenetic regulation of these viruses is slowly becoming better understood. While the viruses may differ in significant ways from each other and cellular chromatin, the role of epigenetics appears to be relatively similar. Within the viral genome nucleosomes are organized for the expression of appropriate genes with relevant histone modifications particularly histone acetylation. DNA methylation occurs as part of the typical gene silencing during latent infection by herpesviruses. In the simple tumor viruses like the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and papillomaviruses, transformation of the cell occurs via integration of the virus genome such that the virus's normal regulation is disrupted. This results in the unregulated expression of critical viral genes capable of redirecting cellular gene expression. The redirected cellular expression is a consequence of either indirect epigenetic regulation where cellular signaling or transcriptional dysregulation occurs or direct epigenetic regulation where epigenetic cofactors such as histone deacetylases are targeted. In the more complex herpersviruses transformation is a consequence of the expression of the viral latency proteins and RNAs which again can

  6. Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process. PMID:11500406

  7. Prospective study on the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from 1996 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini Dal Fabbro

    Full Text Available This prospective study, involving 76 pregnant women infected with HIV, paired with their 79 exposed infants, was carried out between May 1996 and October 2001, at the Reference Department for Pregnant Women Infected with HIV in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. The mean age of the pregnant women was 24 years; 88% (67/76 apparently were infected due to sexual practices; 88% (67/76 were housewives; 823% (63/76 graduated from junior high school; 14.5% (11/76 reported co-infection with Hepatitis C, 9.2% with Syphilis; 51% (39/76 learned the diagnosis during prenatal care; 67% (51/76 reported HIV clinical symptomatology and 9.2% (7/76 reported opportunistic infections. Elective cesareans were performed in 57% (43/76. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks and we found 12.5% (10/80 pronatis; 97% (74/76 had a ruptured membrane time after less than four hours and one child (1.3% was nursed. ACTG 076 Protocol (AIDS Clinical Trial Group 076 was used in 80% (61/76 of the pregnant women, with 100% adherence; 62% (38/61 used zidovudine plus another antiretroviral in the gestation; 92% (73/79 of the infants used zidovudine after the birth and 19% (14/73 used zidovudine and lamivudine. The transmission rate in this study was 2.5%.

  8. Cost effectiveness of single-dose nevirapine regimen for mothers and babies to decrease vertical HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseille, E; Kahn, J G; Mmiro, F; Guay, L; Musoke, P; Fowler, M G; Jackson, J B

    1999-09-04

    Identification of economical interventions to decrease HIV-1 transmission to children is an urgent public-health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the cost effectiveness of the HIVNET 012 nevirapine regimen. We assessed cost effectiveness in a hypothetical cohort of 20,000 pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our main outcome measures were programme cost, paediatric HIV-1 cases averted, cost per case averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY). We compared HIVNET 012 with other short-course antiretroviral regimens. We also compared two implementation strategies: counselling and HIV-1 testing before treatment (targeted treatment), or nevirapine for all pregnant women (universal treatment, no counselling and testing). We did univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. For universal treatment with 30% HIV-1 seroprevalence, the HIVNET 012 regimen would avert 603 cases of HIV-1 in babies, cost US$83,333, and generate 15,862 DALYs. The associated cost-effectiveness ratios were $138 per case averted or $5.25 per DALY. At 15% seroprevalence, the universal treatment option would cost $83,333 and avert 302 cases at $276 per case averted or $10.51 per DALY. For targeted treatment at 30% seroprevalence, HIVNET 012 would cost $141,922 and avert 476 cases at $298 per case averted or $11.29 per DALY. With seroprevalence higher than 3.0% for universal and 4.5% for targeted treatment, the HIVNET 012 regimen was likely to be as cost effective as other public-health interventions. The cost effectiveness of HIVNET 012 was robust under a wide range of parameters in the sensitivity analysis. The HIVNET 012 regimen can be highly cost-effective in high seroprevalence settings. In lower seroprevalence areas, when multidose regimens are not cost effective, nevirapine therapy could have a major public-health impact at a reasonable cost.

  9. Modoc Viral Infections in the Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James W.; Hardy, James L.; Reeves, William C.

    1974-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Modoc virus and its mechanism of transmission were investigated in Peromyscus maniculatus gambeli (deer mouse) as a model to understand the natural history of this virus. Animals were readily infected by the intranasal or subcutaneous route of inoculation. Virus could be detected by direct isolation techniques in many organs and body fluids during the first 7 to 9 days after intranasal inoculation. Increases in viral titers were detectable first in lungs and then the spleen, salivary-submaxillary glands, and lymph nodes. Viremias were low titered and ephemeral. Virus was recovered from urine and throat swabs 4 to 6 days and 4 to 7 days after inoculation, respectively. Serum dilution neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, or complement fixation antibodies were detected in sera of some animals 13 days after infection and in all animals after 20 days. Antibodies persisted for the 168-day period of observation. Persistent viral infection was demonstrable by in vitro culturing of lungs or pooled lungs, salivary glands, and kidneys from 14 of 69 mice that were sacrificed from 1 to 6 months after intranasal inoculation. Attempts to demonstrate horizontal or vertical transmission of Modoc virus among mice were generally unsuccessful. Female deer mice infected with virus before mating passed maternal antibodies to their young. PMID:4215763

  10. Viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Plint, Amy C; Zorc, Joseph J

    2017-01-14

    Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract. Management is largely supportive, focusing on maintaining oxygenation and hydration of the patient. Evidence suggests no benefit from bronchodilator or corticosteroid use in infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis. Evidence for other treatments such as hypertonic saline is evolving but not clearly defined yet. For infants with severe disease, the insufficient available data suggest a role for high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure use in a monitored setting to prevent respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotype and specificity of T cells in primary human cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy: IL-7Rpos long-term memory phenotype is associated with protection from vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Federico; Fornara, Chiara; Jarrossay, David; Furione, Milena; Arossa, Alessia; Spinillo, Arsenio; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Gerna, Giuseppe; Sallusto, Federica; Lilleri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the major cause of birth defects and a precise definition of the HCMV-specific T-cell response in primary infection may help define reliable correlates of immune protection during pregnancy. In this study, a high throughput method was used to define the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for four HCMV proteins in the naïve compartment of seronegative subjects and the effector/memory compartments of subjects with primary/remote HCMV infection. The naïve repertoire displayed comparable frequencies of T cells that were reactive with HCMV structural (pp65, gB and the pentamer gHgLpUL128L) and non-structural (IE-1) proteins. Whereas, following natural infection, the majority of effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognized either gB or IE-1, respectively, and pp65. The pattern of T cell reactivity was comparable at early and late stages of infection and in pregnant women with primary HCMV infection transmitting or not transmitting the virus to the fetus. At an early stage of primary infection, about 50% of HCMV-reactive CD4+ T cells were long-term IL-7Rpos memory cells, while 6-12 months later, the frequency of these cells increased to 70%, approaching 100% in remote infections. In contrast, only 10-20% of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells were long-term memory cells up to 12 months after infection onset, thereafter increasing to 70% in remote infections. Interestingly, a significantly higher frequency of HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells with a long-term IL-7Rpos memory phenotype was observed in non-transmitting compared to transmitting women. These findings indicate that immunodominance in HCMV infection is not predetermined in the naïve compartment, but is the result of virus-host interactions and suggest that prompt control of HCMV infection in pregnancy is associated with the rapid development of long-term IL-7Rpos memory HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells and a low risk of virus transmission to the fetus.

  12. Viral Regulation of Prokaryotic Carbon Metabolism in a Hypereutrophic Freshwater Reservoir Ecosystem (Villerest, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Ram, Angia Sriram; Colombet, Jonathan; Perriere, Fanny; Thouvenot, Antoine; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2016-01-01

    The current consensus concerning the viral regulation of prokaryotic carbon metabolism is less well-studied, compared to substrate availability. We explored the seasonal and vertical distribution of viruses and its relative influence on prokaryotic carbon metabolism in a hypereutrophic reservoir, Lake Villerest (France). Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses to determine viral abundance (VA; range = 6.1–63.5 × 107 ml-1) and viral infection rates of prokaryotes (range = 5.3–32%) respectively suggested that both the parameters varied more significantly with depths than with seasons. Prokaryotic growth efficiency (PGE, considered as a proxy of prokaryotic carbon metabolism) calculated from prokaryotic production and respiration measurements (PGE = prokaryotic production/[prokaryotic production + prokaryotic respiration] × 100) varied from 14 to 80% across seasons and depths. Viruses through selective lyses had antagonistic impacts on PGE by regulating key prokaryotic metabolic processes (i.e., production and respiration). Higher viral lysis accompanied by higher respiration rates and lower PGE in the summer (mean = 22.9 ± 10.3%) than other seasons (mean = 59.1 ± 18.6%), led to significant loss of carbon through bacterial-viral loop and shifted the reservoir system to net heterotrophy. Our data therefore suggests that the putative adverse impact of viruses on the growth efficiency of the prokaryotic community can have strong implications on nutrient flux patterns and on the overall ecosystem metabolism in anthropogenic dominated aquatic systems such as Lake Villerest. PMID:26903963

  13. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  14. CD4, viral load response, and adherence among antiretroviral-naive breast-feeding women receiving triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonji, Jully A; Zeh, Clement; Weidle, Paul J; Williamson, John; Akoth, Benta; Masaba, Rose O; Fowler, Mary G; Thomas, Timothy K

    2012-10-01

    Health benefits and survival of an exclusively breast-fed infant is dependent on the mother's health; thus, the need for antiretroviral (ARV) intervention for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Achieving maternal health benefits from these regimens requires adherence to the treatments and close monitoring. We evaluated virologic, immunologic responses, and adherence among women receiving maternal triple ARV prophylaxis consisting of lamivudine/zidovudine and nevirapine or nelfinavir in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study. We analyzed baseline demographic data, trends in CD4 count, and viral load (VL) at enrollment (32-34 weeks gestation), delivery, 14 and 24 weeks postpartum among 434 women who remained in the study at 24 weeks postpartum. Adherence rates were determined using pill counts reinforced by self-report and drug calendar. We dichotomized adherence as ≥95% versus <95%. Among the 434 women, 84% (n = 366) had adherence ≥95%. The proportion of women with undetectable VL (<400 copies/mL) increased from 6% at baseline to 79%, and that of those with CD4 count <250 cells per microliter decreased from 23% (100) at baseline to 5% (22) at 24 weeks postpartum. In discrete-survival model, time to achieving VL suppression was associated with baseline VL <5.0 log copies per milliliter, parity ≥2, and use of nelfinavir- versus nevirapine-based ARV. Association between undetectable VL with duration of therapy (P < 0.0001) and adherence with suppression of VL (P = 0.001) was observed. High baseline VL and short exposure to ARVs for PMTCT are risk factors for failing to achieve undetectable VL. These findings support the new WHO guidelines for early initiation of ARV prophylaxis for PMTCT for maximal reduction of maternal VL.

  15. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  16. Vertical transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Barati, Farid; Kahroba, Hooman; Jolodar, Abbas; Rashidi, Fardokht

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period...

  17. Sperm viral infection and male infertility: focus on HBV, HCV, HIV, HPV, HSV, HCMV, and AAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Barzon, Luisa; Foresta, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Chronic viral infections can infect sperm and are considered a risk factor in male infertility. Recent studies have shown that the presence of HIV, HBV or HCV in semen impairs sperm parameters, DNA integrity, and in particular reduces forward motility. In contrast, very little is known about semen infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpesviruses (HSV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV). At present, EU directives for the viral screening of couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques require only the evaluation of HIV, HBV, and HCV. However, growing evidence suggests that HPV, HSV, and HCMV might play a major role in male infertility and it has been demonstrated that HPV semen infection has a negative influence on sperm parameters, fertilization, and the abortion rate. Besides the risk of horizontal or vertical transmission, the negative impact of any viral sperm infection on male reproductive function seems to be dramatic. In addition, treatment with antiviral and antiretroviral therapies may further affect sperm parameters. In this review we attempted to focus on the interactions between defined sperm viral infections and their association with male fertility disorders. All viruses considered in this article have a potentially negative effect on male reproductive function and dangerous infections can be transmitted to partners and newborns. In light of this evidence, we suggest performing targeted sperm washing procedures for each sperm infection and to strongly consider screening male patients seeking fertility for HPV, HSV, and HCMV, both to avoid viral transmission and to improve assisted or even spontaneous fertility outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Práticas Alimentares de Crianças Expostas à Transmissão Vertical do HIV Acompanhadas em Quatro Serviços Especializados de Porto Alegre/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Soldateli Paim

    2010-09-01

    Resultados: No total, 156 crianças foram incluídas no estudo, 153 (98% crianças iniciaram o uso da fórmula infantil logo após o nascimento. Neste estudo, 26,3% das crianças receberam leite de vaca antes dos seis meses. Quanto à introdução de alimentos líquidos antes do sexto mês, 66% das crianças recebeu água, sendo 39,7% já no primeiro mês de vida. Em relação ao chá, 84% receberam antes dos seis meses, dos quais 63,5% no primeiro mês. Cento e quarenta e uma (90,4% crianças receberam algum alimento (sólido ou líquido antes do sexto mês. O açúcar foi introduzido por 89 mães (57,1% antes dos seis meses. O uso do mel foi referido em 29,5% das entrevistas, sendo 16,7% já no primeiro mês de vida do bebê. Conclusão: Concluiu-se através deste estudo que a alimentação de bebês expostos à transmissão vertical do HIV esta aquém do ideal, mostrando-se inadequada, com introdução precoce dos alimentos complementares.

  19. Pregnant and breastfeeding women: A priority population for HIV viral load monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Essajee, Shaffiq; Broyles, Laura N; Watts, D Heather; Lesosky, Maia; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-08-01

    Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.

  20. Resultados de la aplicación de tres guías nacionales para prevenir la transmisión vertical del VIH en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Perú Results of the implementation of three national guidelines for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission in instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis retrospectivo de tres periodos sucesivos entre los años 1996 al 2009, para evaluar el impacto de la aplicación de tres guías nacionales para la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH. Se incluyeron 275 nacimientos en los 13 años de estudio. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de casos de VIH entre los niños expuestos al virus en los tres periodos: 15 % durante el periodo en el cual solo se administraba zidovudina (AZT a la gestante; 6,4 % durante el segundo (administración de AZT a la gestante sin criterios de inicios de TARGA, y TARGA a las que tenían criterios para este tratamiento, y 4 % durante el tercer periodo en el cual se aplicó TARGA a todas las gestantes con infección por VIH. El 95 % de las gestantes culminaron el embarazo por cesárea y el 100 % de niños recibió fórmula maternizada. Los cambios realizados en las guías nacionales han producido un impacto favorable en la disminución de nacimientos de niños infectados por el VIH en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal en Perú.A retrospective analysis is performed in three successive periods between the years 1996 and 2009, in order to evaluate the impact of the implementation of three national guidelines for the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. 275 births were included in 13 years. Significant statistical differences were found in the percentage of HIV cases in the children exposed to the virus between the three periods: 15% during the period in which only zidovudine (AZT was administered to the pregnant woman, 6.4% during the second period (administration of AZT to the pregnant woman not fulfilling HAART initiation criteria and HAART to those fulfilling criteria for this treatment, and 4% during the third period in which HAART was applied to all pregnant women with HIV infection. 95% of pregnant women ended their pregnancy by cesarean section and the 100% of children received infant formula

  1. CTL Escape and Viral Fitness in HIV/SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses exert a suppressive effect on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Under the CTL pressure, viral CTL escape mutations are frequently selected with viral fitness costs. Viruses with such CTL escape mutations often need additional viral genome mutations for recovery of viral fitness. Persistent HIV/SIV infection sometimes shows replacement of a CTL escape mutation with an alternative escape mutation toward higher viral fitness. Thus, multiple viral genome changes under CTL pressure are observed in the chronic phase of HIV/SIV infection. HIV/SIV transmission to HLA/MHC-mismatched hosts drives further viral genome changes including additional CTL escape mutations and reversions under different CTL pressure. Understanding of viral structure/function and host CTL responses would contribute to prediction of HIV evolution and control of HIV prevalence.

  2. Viral Skin Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect on transmission of HIV-1 resistance of timing of implementation of viral load monitoring to determine switches from first to second-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Pillay, Deenan; Garnett, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    There is concern that antiretroviral therapy (ART) use with only clinical monitoring for failure will result in high rates of transmission of virus with resistance to drugs currently in use.......There is concern that antiretroviral therapy (ART) use with only clinical monitoring for failure will result in high rates of transmission of virus with resistance to drugs currently in use....

  4. Control of mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases in Brazil: progress in HIV/AIDS and failure in congenital syphilis Controle da transmissão vertical de doenças infecciosas no Brasil: avanços na infecção pelo HIV/AIDS e descompasso na sífilis congênita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, syphilis and HIV infection are considered serious public health problems. However, in practice, epidemiological surveillance, prevention measures, and prenatal care seem to be more effective in the control of mother-to-child transmission of the HIV than in the control of transmission of the Treponema pallidum. Here we discuss the differences in surveillance, prenatal care, and care of the newborn. Important differences were identified. It is concluded that there is an urgent need to establish prevention of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis as a public health priority, using an integrated approach including women's health, children's health, primary health care, and STD/AIDS programs on all governmental levels. These issues also need to be discussed with all stakeholders involved. Important aspects related to the problem are the training of public health professionals, as well as the participation of the community. The elimination of congenital syphilis does not require expensive drugs, and diagnostic tools, but a long-term sustainable approach.No Brasil, a infecção pelo Treponema pallidum e pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana são eventos considerados prioritários. No entanto, apesar das políticas públicas, a resposta em termos das ações de vigilância e prevenção, assistência pré-natal e ao recém-nascido, é diferenciada, parecendo ser mais bem estruturada para a redução da transmissão vertical do HIV do que para a do T. pallidum. No presente artigo, potenciais diferenças são analisadas quanto ao desenvolvimento das ações. Identificou-se que as desigualdades existentes na atenção aos dois problemas apresentam dimensões diferenciadas nas regiões do país. Reconheceu-se a necessária e urgente priorização da sífilis na gravidez, envolvendo áreas técnicas como atenção básica, saúde da mulher, saúde da criança e controle de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, em todas as esferas de governo

  5. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HIV rapid testing as a key strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Brazil Prueba rápida para el HIV como una estrategia para la prevención de la transmisión vertical en Brasil Teste rápido para o HIV como estratégia de prevenção da transmissão vertical no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiléa G Veloso

    2010-10-01

    de Janeiro (4/47 y en seis casos en Porto Alegre (6/79. CONCLUSIONES: La estrategia se mostró factible en las maternidades de Rio de Janeiro y de Porto Alegre. Esfuerzos deben ser emprendidos para maximizar la evaluación durante el trabajo de parto. Fuerte soporte social precisa ser acoplado a esa estrategia para garantizar el acceso de dicha población al sistema de salud posterior a ser dado de alta de la maternidad.OBJETIVO: Analisar a viabilidade da testagem rápida para o HIV entre gestantes na admissão à maternidade e de intervenções para reduzir a transmissão perinatal do HIV. MÉTODOS: Amostra de conveniência de mulheres que desconheciam sua situação sorológica para o HIV quando admitidas para o parto em maternidades públicas do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, e de Porto Alegre, RS, entre março de 2000 e abril de 2002. As mulheres foram aconselhadas e testadas com teste rápido Determine HIV1/2 na maternidade. Infecção pelo HIV foi confirmada pelo algoritmo brasileiro para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV. A transmissão intra-útero foi determinada pelo PCR-DNA-HIV. Foram realizadas análises descritivas dos dados sociodemográficos, número de gestações e de abortos prévios, número de visitas de pré-natal, momento da testagem para o HIV, resultado do teste rápido para o HIV, intervenções recebidas pelos recém-natos e de transmissão vertical do HIV, de acordo com cada cidade. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de HIV entre as mulheres foi 6,5% (N=1.439 em Porto Alegre e 1,3% (N=3.778 no Rio de Janeiro. A maioria foi testada durante o trabalho de parto em Porto Alegre e no pós-parto, no Rio de Janeiro. Cento e quarenta e quatro crianças nasceram de 143 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV. Todos os recém-natos receberam ao menos a profilaxia com zidovudina oral, exceto um em cada cidade. Foi possível evitar qualquer exposição ao leite materno em 96,8% e 51,1% dos recém-natos em Porto Alegre e no Rio de Janeiro, respectivamente. A zidovudina injet

  7. Surveillance of viral haemorrhagic fevers in Ghana: entomological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 2804 households were surveyed to estimate larval indices and man-vector contacts of potential vectors of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Yellow fever and ... variations and the dry season was identified as the high-risk period for transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and possible disease outbreaks.

  8. Viral lysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lønborg, C.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2013-01-01

    The viral mediated transformation of phytoplankton organic carbon to dissolved forms (“viral shunt”) has been suggested as a major source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine systems. Despite the potential implications of viral activity on the global carbon fluxes, studies investigating

  9. Viral infection, proliferation, and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells and absence of inflammation characterize the placental pathology of fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-06-01

    Attention is increasingly focused on the potential mechanism(s) for Zika virus infection to be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus. This communication addresses current evidence for the role of the placenta in vertical transmission of the Zika virus. Placentas from second and third trimester fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection were examined with routine staining to determine the spectrum of pathologic changes. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for macrophages and nuclear proliferation antigens was performed. Viral localization was identified using RNA hybridization. These observations were combined with the recent published results of placental pathology to increase the strength of the pathology data. Results were correlated with published data from experimental studies of Zika virus infection in placental cells and chorionic villous explants. Placentas from fetuses with congenital Zika virus infection are concordant in not having viral-induced placental inflammation. Special stains reveal proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of placental stromal macrophages, termed Hofbauer cells, in the chorionic villi of infected placentas. Zika virus infection is present in Hofbauer cells from second and third trimester placentas. Experimental studies and placentae from infected fetuses reveal that the spectrum of placental cell types infected with the Zika virus is broader during the first trimester than later in gestation. Inflammatory abnormalities of the placenta are not a component of vertical transmission of the Zika virus. The major placental response in second and third trimester transplacental Zika virus infection is proliferation and hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells, which also demonstrate viral infection.

  10. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  11. Viral Marketing Past Present Future

    OpenAIRE

    Nessipbekova, Zarina

    2010-01-01

    The work studies the viral marketing. These are past viral campaigns, viral campaigns today, and evaluates their actuality. The work tries to predict the development of viral marketing on the basis of the research done by the author.

  12. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a community-based antiretroviral clinic in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Felicity C; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaplan, Richard; Myer, Landon; Lawn, Stephen D; Wood, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the uptake of ART among pregnant women referred to an ART service and the associated rates and risk factors for vertical HIV transmission. Method Retrospective analysis of an observational cohort at a community ART clinic in Cape Town. Results Between 2002 and 2008, 367 treatment-naïve pregnant women accessed the clinic. The median age was 27.5 years, and median gestation at presentation was 28 weeks. The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 134 cells/µl and 28 282 copies/ml. Two hundred and sixty-five women (72%) commenced ART before giving birth, 73 women (20%) were referred for prevention of mother-to-child transmission therapy (PMTCT), and 29 (8%) received no intervention. Among ART-eligible women, 13% were lost to follow-up. Of those starting ART, median duration of therapy prior to birth was 7.6 weeks (interquartile range (IQR) 4 – 11.9). The HIV transmission rate was 5.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8 – 9.0%). Factors associated with transmission were advanced maternal WHO disease stage (odds ratio (OR) 9.57, p=0.02), and follow-up viral load above 50 copies/ml (OR 3.64, p=0.03). Each additional week on ART reduced transmission by 20% (p=0.05). There was no HIV transmission among women who received more than 8 weeks’ therapy. Conclusions The rate of HIV transmission in this study was higher than reported in high-income countries. Prevention of vertical transmission with ART was hindered by women presenting late in pregnancy and with advanced stage of HIV disease. Interventions that facilitate earlier ART commencement and improve programmatic retention of pregnant women are required. PMID:21414276

  13. Viral Entry into Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2010-09-01

    Successful viral infection of a healthy cell requires complex host-pathogen interactions. In this talk we focus on the dynamics specific to the HIV virus entering a eucaryotic cell. We model viral entry as a stochastic engagement of receptors and coreceptors on the cell surface. We also consider the transport of virus material to the cell nucleus by coupling microtubular motion to the concurrent biochemical transformations that render the viral material competent for nuclear entry. We discuss both mathematical and biological consequences of our model, such as the formulation of an effective integrodifferential boundary condition embodying a memory kernel and optimal timing in maximizing viral probabilities.

  14. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J

    2016-04-01

    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  15. A peptide-based viral inactivator inhibits Zika virus infection in pregnant mice and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zou, Peng; Wang, Qian; Dai, Yanyan; Yu, Fei; Du, Lanying; Zhang, Na-Na; Tian, Min; Hao, Jia-Nan; Meng, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Fuk-Woo Chan, Jasper; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2017-07-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, has spread rapidly to more than 70 countries and territories. However, no specific vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the stem region of ZIKV envelope protein, designated Z2, potently inhibits infection of ZIKV and other flaviviruses in vitro. We show that Z2 interacts with ZIKV surface protein and disrupts the integrity of the viral membrane. Z2 can penetrate the placental barrier to enter fetal tissues and is safe for use in pregnant mice. Intraperitoneal administration of Z2 inhibits vertical transmission of ZIKV in pregnant C57BL/6 mice and protects type I or type I/II interferon receptor-deficient mice against lethal ZIKV challenge. Thus, Z2 has potential to be further developed as an antiviral treatment against ZIKV infection in high-risk populations, particularly pregnant women.

  16. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Novel viral translation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Hilda H T; Jan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Viral genomes are compact and encode a limited number of proteins. Because they do not encode components of the translational machinery, viruses exhibit an absolute dependence on the host ribosome and factors for viral messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. In order to recruit the host ribosome, viruses have evolved unique strategies to either outcompete cellular transcripts that are efficiently translated by the canonical translation pathway or to reroute translation factors and ribosomes to the viral genome. Furthermore, viruses must evade host antiviral responses and escape immune surveillance. This review focuses on some recent major findings that have revealed unconventional strategies that viruses utilize, which include usurping the host translational machinery, modulating canonical translation initiation factors to specifically enhance or repress overall translation for the purpose of viral production, and increasing viral coding capacity. The discovery of these diverse viral strategies has provided insights into additional translational control mechanisms and into the viral host interactions that ensure viral protein synthesis and replication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE and subtype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Oyomopito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p < 0.001 as did HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p < 0.001. After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men who have sex with men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (odds ratio = 2.4, p < 0.001. We further describe four transmission clusters of eight to 15 treatment naïve, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE. Risk-group subpopulations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.

  19. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  20. Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Keller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae. Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B. constrictor clutches with offspring ranging in age from embryos over perinatal abortions to juveniles. The mother and/or father of each clutch were initially diagnosed with BIBD and/or reptarenavirus infection by detection of the pathognomonic inclusion bodies (IB and/or reptarenaviral RNA. By applying next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly we determined the "reptarenavirome" of each clutch, yielding several nearly complete L and S segments of multiple reptarenaviruses. We further confirmed vertical transmission of the co-infecting reptarenaviruses by species-specific RT-PCR from samples of parental animals and offspring. Curiously, not all offspring obtained the full parental "reptarenavirome". We extended our findings by an in vitro approach; cell cultures derived from embryonal samples rapidly developed IB and promoted replication of some or all parental viruses. In the tissues of embryos and perinatal abortions, viral antigen was sometimes detected, but IB were consistently seen only in the juvenile snakes from the age of 2 mo onwards. In addition to demonstrating vertical transmission of multiple species, our results also indicate that reptarenavirus infection induces BIBD over time in the offspring.

  1. HIV community viral load trends in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Weissman, Sharon; Duffus, Wayne A; Hossain, Akhtar; Varma Samantapudi, Ashok; Iyer, Medha; Albrecht, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Community viral load is an aggregate measure of HIV viral load in a particular geographic location, community, or subgroup. Community viral load provides a measure of disease burden in a community and community transmission risk. This study aims to examine community viral load trend in South Carolina and identify differences in community viral load trends between selected population subgroups using a state-wide surveillance dataset that maintains electronic records of all HIV viral load measurements reported to the state health department. Community viral load trends were examined using random mixed effects models, adjusting for age, race, gender, residence, CD4 counts, HIV risk group, and initial antiretroviral regimen during the study period, and time. The community viral load gradually decreased from 2004 to 2013 ( p HIV risk group, and single-tablet regimen versus multiple-tablet regimen subgroups. Slower declines in community viral load among females, those in rural areas, and heterosexuals suggest possible disparities in care that require further exploration. The association between using single-tablet regimen and faster community viral load decline is noteworthy.

  2. Suspicion of viral gastroenteritis does improve compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, S; Oude-Aost, J; Stollbrink-Peschgens, C; Haefner, H; Waitschies, B; Wagner, N; Lemmen, S W

    2011-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is common on pediatric wards, increasing the need for adherence with hand hygiene recommendations in order to prevent cross-transmission. Therefore, we investigated hand hygiene reflecting complete work-day activities on pediatric wards and focused on the influence of viral gastroenteritis. There are, so far, no studies representing complete working days on pediatric wards or addressing the influence of viral gastroenteritis. This was a prospective, observational study (144 h in each group) on hand hygiene behavior in the care for children with and without suspected or proven viral gastroenteritis. We documented 40 and 30 hand hygiene opportunities per patient-day for ward-associated healthcare workers for children with and without viral gastroenteritis, respectively (P = 0.316). Healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene recommendations was significantly higher in children with viral gastroenteritis compared to those without, i.e., 72 versus 67% (P = 0.033), especially among physicians, being 92 versus 50% (P = 0.032). Compliance tended to be higher after patient contact than before, especially in the children with gastroenteritis (78 vs. 62%; P = 0.083). We conclude that viral gastroenteritis seemed to increase the number of daily opportunities for hand hygiene and did significantly increase compliance. In particular, this effect was seen after patient contact. Further research might address the awareness of undiagnosed transmissible diseases in order to prevent cross-transmissions.

  3. Phylodynamic analysis of a viral infection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiichiro eShiino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections by sexual and droplet transmission routes typically spread through a complex host-to-host contact network. Clarifying the transmission network and epidemiological parameters affecting the variations and dynamics of a specific pathogen is a major issue in the control of infectious diseases. However, conventional methods such as interview and/or classical phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences have inherent limitations and often fail to detect infectious clusters and transmission connections. Recent improvements in computational environments now permit the analysis of large datasets. In addition, novel analytical methods have been developed that serve to infer the evolutionary dynamics of virus genetic diversity using sample date information and sequence data. This type of framework, termed phylodynamics, helps connect some of the missing links on viral transmission networks, which are often hard to detect by conventional methods of epidemiology. With sufficient number of sequences available, one can use this new inference method to estimate theoretical epidemiological parameters such as temporal distributions of the primary infection, fluctuation of the pathogen population size, basic reproductive number, and the mean time span of disease infectiousness. Transmission networks estimated by this framework often have the properties of a scale-free network, which are characteristic of infectious and social communication processes. Network analysis based on phylodynamics has alluded to various suggestions concerning the infection dynamics associated with a given community and/or risk behavior. In this review, I will summarize the current methods available for identifying the transmission network using phylogeny, and present an argument on the possibilities of applying the scale-free properties to these existing frameworks.

  4. Successful prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant in Brazil using a multidisciplinary team approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Susie A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the HIV vertical transmission rate (VTR and associated risk factors by use of zidovudine and infant care education in Brazil. METHODS: Since 1995, a prospective cohort of HIV infected pregnant women has been followed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the best available strategy to prevent maternal-infant HIV transmission. Patients with AIDS or low CD4 and high viral load received anti-retroviral drugs in addition to zidovudine. Children were considered infected if they had 2 positive PCR-RNA tests between 1 and 4 months of age, or were HIV antibody positive after 18 months. Education regarding infant treatment and use of formula instead of breast feeding was provided. RESULTS: Between 1995 and August, 2000, HIV status was determined for 145 infants. Compliance with intra-partum treatment, infant treatment and use of formula was 88.2%. Intra-partum zidovudine treatment was completed in 134/145 (92.6% of patients; 88.1% had rupture of membranes 4 hours were associated with increased HIV transmission. CONCLUSION: HIV vertical transmission in Brazil was reduced to a level similar to other countries with the most effective prevention programs using a multidisciplinary team approach. A high level of compliance for use of anti-retroviral drugs, the provision of health education to mothers, and use of formula for all exposed infants.

  5. Retraction RETRACTION of "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant", by L.-H. Cao, P.-L. Zhao, Z.-M. Liu, S.-C. Sun, D.-B. Xu, J.-D. Zhang and Z.-H. Shao - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR. There are parts copied from "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus", by Li-Hau Cao, Pei-Li Zhao, Zhi-Min Liu, Shao-Chun Sun, et al. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6): 2251-2256 (2015) - DOI: 10.3892/etm.2015.2379. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  6. Viral Hepatitis in Pregnancy--A study of its Effect on Maternal and Foetal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Shweta; Mishra, Vaibhav; Ganga, Deepak; Jatav, O P

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of Hepatitis during pregnancy has been observed to be widely different by various authors, ranging from the benign to fatal. A poor outcome has increasingly been observed in pregnant women suffering from Hepatitis in Central India. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the incidence, causative organisms and chief prognostic factors affecting the outcome of viral hepatitis in pregnant women. Sixty-eight pregnant women reporting to the hospital with jaundice were enrolled as cases and their Haematological, Biochemical and Viral profiles were studied. Sixteen non- pregnant women were enrolled as controls and a similar workup was done. A comparison was done between the two groups We also divided the cases into two groups--survivors and non- survivors and tried to find out the factors predicting mortality. The unpaired student t test and chi square test were used to find out whether the differences were statistically significant. Viral Hepatitis in pregnancy caused a very high maternal mortality (19.1%) and foetal wastage (42.6%). Hepatitis E virus was the commonest causative organism (77.9%) responsible for viral hepatitis during pregnancy. It also caused the highest maternal mortality due to fulminant hepatic failure. Maternal mortality was significantly higher in those women presenting with features of encephalopathy, SIRS, high bilirubin levels and prolonged prothrombin time. Vertical transmission was noted in Hepatitis B and E. Hepatitis E is the chief causative organism causing fulminant hepatic failure in pregnant women in Central India. It lead to very high rates of maternal mortality and foetal wastage.

  7. Viral marketing on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Štverák, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Thesis provides an overview of viral marketing. It describes the process by which you can be inspired to implement viral campaign. The thesis includes analysis of specific viral Web project. The aim of this thesis is to create a breakdown of the various components of viral marketing, to establish conditions that should be satisfied for the viral marketing to success, suggesting how to use viral marketing on social network Facebook and evaluate the various components of this service for the pr...

  8. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2008-03-08

    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  9. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  10. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  12. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  13. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  14. Treatment of viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Renan Barros

    2009-03-01

    Several viruses may cause central nervous system diseases with a broad range of clinical manifestations. The time course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Pathologically there are encephalitis with direct viral entry into the CNS in which brain parenchyma exhibits neuronal damaging and viral antigens and there are postinfectious autoimmune encephalitis associated with systemic viral infections with brain tissue presenting perivascular aggregation of immune cells and myelin damaging. Some virus affect previously healthy individuals while others produce encephalitis among imunocompromised ones. Factors such evolving lifestyles and ecological changes have had a considerable impact on the epidemiology of some viral encephalitis [e.g. West-Nile virus, and Japanese B virus]. Citomegalovirus and JC virus are examples of infections of the brain that have been seen more frequently because they occur in immunocompromised patients. In the other hand many scientific achievements in neuroimaging, molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapy, immunomodulatory treatments, and neurointensive care have allowed more precise and earlier diagnoses and more efficient treatments, resulting in improved outcomes. In this article, we will present the current drug options in the management of the main acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system of immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, focusing on drugs mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. The early diagnosis and correct management of such diseases can reduce mortality and neurological sequelae; however, even with recent treatment advances, potentially devastating outcomes are still possible.

  15. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  16. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  17. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  18. VIRAL DISEASES IN SEA FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Mato Hacmanjek; Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac; Emin Teskeredžić

    1996-01-01

    Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection). Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater ph...

  19. Resultados de la aplicación de tres guías nacionales para prevenir la transmisión vertical del VIH en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Perú Results of the implementation of three national guidelines for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission in instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Se realiza un análisis retrospectivo de tres periodos sucesivos entre los años 1996 al 2009, para evaluar el impacto de la aplicación de tres guías nacionales para la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH. Se incluyeron 275 nacimientos en los 13 años de estudio. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de casos de VIH entre los niños expuestos al virus en los tres periodos: 15 % durante el periodo en el cual solo se administraba zidovudina (AZT) a la gestante; 6,4 % ...

  20. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  1. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  2. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  3. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum lactate levels in infants exposed peripartum to antiretroviral agents to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Agence Nationale de Recherches Sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales 1209 study, Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Touré, Ramata; Becquet, Renaud; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Rouet, François; Towne-Gold, Besigin; Fassinou, Patricia; Leroy, Valériane; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial toxicity was described in infants exposed to long-term antiretroviral regimens (ARVs) containing nucleoside analogues for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We measured the serum lactate levels in children born to HIV-1 infected (HIV+) African women receiving short-term ARV PMTCT regimens. Methods A prospective study was conducted in women-child pairs from the third trimester of pregnancy to three months of life. The exposed group was formed by children exposed in utero to nucleoside analogue ARVs, zidovudine (ZDV) or ZDV + lamivudine (3TC) from 32–36 weeks of amenorrhea until delivery. All these women received nevirapine single-dose (NVPsd) at the beginning of labor. The children received ZDV during the first 7 days of life and a NVPsd at day 3. The control group was formed by infants born to HIV+ women who had received NVPsd only and not exposed to nucleoside analogue ARVs. Serum lactate levels were measured at 4, 6 and 12 weeks of life by Cobas Integra 400™. Results A total of 836 blood samples from 338 infants were collected (262 exposed and 76 controls). Median lactacidemia was 1.8 mmol/l, Interquartile Range [1.2–2.7 mmol/l]). Overall serum lactate levels ≥2.5 mmol/l, defining hyperlactatemia were observed in 39 of the 292 infants who had at least two serum lactate measurements, 13.4%, 95% confidence Interval [9.6–17.8%]. The three-month period prevalence of hyperlactatemia did not differ between the exposed group (13.1%) and the control group (14.3%) (p=0.84). All serum lactate levels returned to normal values in all subsequent samples No case of symptomatic hyperlactatemia was detected during the study period. Conclusion Increased lactate levels were identified equally in infants whose mother received a short-term of nucleoside analogues or NVPsd for PMTCT. Although not rare, hyperlactatemia was not related to short-term exposure to nucleoside analogue ARVs PMID:16950945

  5. Surveillance of mother-to-child HIV transmission: socioeconomic and health care coverage indicators Vigilância da transmissão vertical do HIV: indicadores socioeconômicos e de cobertura de atenção à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovam Barcellos

    2009-12-01

    TODOS: Estudo ecológico tendo como unidade de análise as áreas de abrangência de unidades básicas de saúde em Porto Alegre, RS, em 2003. Foram utilizados Sistema de Informações Geográficas e ferramentas de análise espacial para calcular indicadores de cobertura da atenção básica à saúde, condições socioeconômicas e prevalência de nascidos vivos expostos ao HIV durante a gravidez e perinatal. Os dados analisados foram obtidos em sistemas de informação nacionais. A associação entre os diferentes indicadores foi avaliada por meio de teste não-paramétrico de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Observou-se associação entre infecção pelo HIV em gestantes com taxas de natalidade (r=0,22, p<0,01 e falta de assistência pré-natal (r=0,15, p<0,05. As maiores taxas de infecção por HIV em gestantes foram verificadas em áreas com piores condições socioeconômicas e dificuldades de acesso a serviços de saúde (r=0,28, p<0,01. No entanto, a relação observada entre a maior freqüência de assistência pré-natal entre gestantes HIV positivas e maior cobertura vacinal nas áreas (r=0,35, p<0,01 indica a capacidade de detecção precoce da infecção pelo HIV em áreas com melhores serviços de atenção básica. CONCLUSÕES: A pobreza urbana representa um forte condicionante da transmissão vertical do HIV mas a atuação de serviços de vigilância em saúde articulados com a atenção básica podem vencer essa tendência.

  6. An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of ...

  7. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get some forms of viral hepatitis the same way you get HIV—through unprotected sexual contact and injection drug use. HAV, which causes a short-term but occasionally severe illness, is usually spread when the virus is ingested from contact with ...

  8. VIRAL FEVER WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Anand Hakki

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is an alarming increase in the incidence of fever with thrombocytopenia especially during monsoon and peri-monsoon period. Infections with protozoa, bacteria and viruses can cause thrombocytopenia with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. Commonly, dengue, malaria, scrub typhus and other rickettsial infections, meningococci, Leptospira and certain viral infections present as fever with thrombocytopenia. Occasionally, these patients can go on to devel...

  9. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  10. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  11. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  12. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Obstetric Outcome in Couples when The Male Partner Has A Chronic Viral Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART with washed semen can achieve pregnancy with minimal risk of horizontal and vertical transmission of chronic viral diseases (CVD such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV among serodiscordant couples. However, few studies have been made of the use made by these couples of ARTs or of the obstetric results achieved. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 93 men who were seropositive for HIV, HCV or HBV and who underwent assisted reproduction treatment at our centre (Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain were included. Washed semen was tested to detect viral particles. Non-infected women were tested before and after each treatment, as were the neonates at birth and after three months. Results: A total of 62 sperm samples were washed, and none were positive for the detection of viral molecules. Semen samples from 34 HBV positive males were not washed since the female partner had immunity to hepatitis B. In total, 38 clinical pregnancies were achieved (22% per cycle and 40.9% per couple out of 173 cycles initiated, and 28 births were achieved (16.2% per cycle and 30.1% per couple, producing 34 live births. The rate of multiple pregnancies was 21.4%. Obstetric and neonatal results were similar in the groups of couples studied. At follow-up, no seroconversion was detected in the women or neonates. Conclusion: Sperm washing and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are shown to be a safe and effective option for reducing the risk of transmission or super infection in serodiscordant or concordant couples who wish to have a child. Pregnancies obtained by ART in couples when the male is CVD infected achieve good obstetric and neonatal results.

  13. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  14. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  15. Engineering resistance to virus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, John Peter; Groen, SC; Wamonje, Francis; Murphy, Alexandra Marie

    2017-01-01

    Engineering plants for resistance to virus transmission by invertebrate vectors has lagged behind other forms of plant protection. Vectors typically transmit more than one virus. Thus, vector resistance could provide a wider range of protection than defenses directed solely against one virus or virus group. We discuss current knowledge of vector-host-virus interactions, the roles of viral gene products in host and vector manipulation, and the effects of semiochemicals on host-vector interact...

  16. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  17. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  18. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  19. PROFILE OF VIRAL CONJUCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kishan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Viral conjunctivitis is most commonly seen in the outpatient department. A variety of viruses which are responsible for conjunctival infection , of which Adenovirus is the most common. It is highly contagious during the first 2 weeks of infection. It can cause corneal involvement within 4 - 5 days after the onset of symptoms. Corneal lesions range from SPK (Superficial Punctat e Keratitis to epithelial defects. These corneal lesions may cause intense photophobia and impairment of vision. AIM : To find out the commonest etiological agent , to study the clinical features and complications related to it. METHODOLOGY : This study was carried out prospectively. 100 patients who came to outpatient department between October 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in the study. All the age groups and both the genders were included. Patients underwent slit lamp examination and were diagnosed cl inically. 25 cases were submitted for Gram staining and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR study to know the type of virus and serotype . RESULT : 100 patients were diagnosed with viral conjunctivitis and were kept on follow up. 21percent of patients developed SPK. Adenovirus 8 was found to be more common than other viruses. CONCLUSION : The present study showed Adeno virus to be the most common etiological agent causing viral conjunctivitis and complications like subepithelial opacities and diminished vision

  20. Global viral hepatitis elimination by the year 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a report by Stanaway et al.(1 in 2016, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. For example, the number of global deaths due to viral hepatitis increased from 0.89 million to 1.45 million, indicating a need for its reduction. In this connection, on 28 May 2016 the 69th World Health Assembly adopted the global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis for the period 2016–2021,(2 as outlined in the report A69/32 of the Secretariat,(3 with the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis B and C by the year 2030. The global health sector strategy (GHSS on viral hepatitis has constructed a roadmap toward the elimination of viral hepatitis B and C, targeting five priority prevention and treatment interventions. Prevention involves universal hepatitis B immunization of infants, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, increased injection safety and blood safety, and increased harm reduction, the implementation of which will contribute toward universal health coverage, which is the target for Goal 3 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In combination with treatment of chronic hepatitis, the goal is to achieve by the year 2030 a reduction in the incidence of viral hepatitis by 90% and mortality by 65%.(3,4

  1. Mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus: prospective study of risk factors and timing of infection in children born to women seronegative for HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara; Mannelli, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Novembre, Elio; de Martino, Maurizio; Vierucci, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors for and timing of vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in women who are not infected with HIV-1. Design: Follow up for a median of 28 (range 24-38) months of babies born to women with antibodies to hepatitis C virus but not HIV-1. Subjects: 442 mothers and babies, of whom 403 completed the study. Main outcome measures: Presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus and viral RNA and alanine aminotransferase activity in babies. Presence of viral RNA, method of infection with hepatitis C, method of delivery, and type of infant feeding in mothers. Results: 13 of the 403 children had acquired hepatitis C virus infection at the end of follow up. All these children were born to women positive for hepatitis C virus RNA; none of the 128 RNA negative mothers passed on the infection (difference 5%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 7%). 6 children had viral RNA immediately after birth. 111 women had used intravenous drugs and 20 had received blood transfusions. 11 of the infected children were born to these women compared with 2 to the 144 with no known risk factor (difference 7%, 2% to 12%). Conclusions: This study suggests that in women not infected with HIV only those with hepatitis C virus RNA are at risk of infecting their babies. Transmission does seem to occur in utero, and the rate of transmission is higher in women who have had blood transfusions or used intravenous drugs than in women with no known risk factor for infection. Key messages Little information exists on vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in women not infected with HIV This study in a large unselected population of infants born to HIV-1 negative mothers suggests that intravenous drug use itself is an important risk factor for transmission of hepatitis C virus Maternal post-transfusional hepatitis is also an important risk factor for infection of infants Viral genotype, maternal viraemia, type of delivery (vaginal delivery or caesarean section) and breast

  2. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaré, S.; Lazennec, J. Y.; Camelot, C.; Saillant, G.; Hansen, S.; Trabelsi, R.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.

  3. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  4. Viral Transmissions: Safer Sex Videos, Disability, and Queer Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karisa Butler-Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bringing disability studies into conversation with queer histories of AIDS activism, this article examines the relationship between disability and queer politics in safer sex videos created by AIDS activists in the 1980s. As a form of what the author terms "guerrilla biopolitics," safer sex videos insisted on the viability of queer life and sexual expression at a historical moment of intense homophobia and sex negativity. At the same time, the vision of sexual health and identity they offered risked reproducing racialized and classed ideologies of ableism. Seeking to "crip" our understandings of safer sex discourses and practices, this study explores how risk reduction techniques have been historically linked to imperatives of compulsory able-bodiedness, precluding alternative expressions of queer/crip life.

  5. Viral transfusion transmissible infections amongst blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in cross border traffic following independence and the return of displaced nationals, may have unforeseen effects on the health of the population. The pattern of diseases across East Africa is defined by infectious conditions such as malaria and HIV. It has been suggested that the relocation of individuals from hyperendemic ...

  6. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  7. Composition of vertical gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Vertical gardens are fully functional gardens in areas where there is less oxygen and space, ideal for residential and urban cities where there is no vegetation; occupy a special place in interiors furniture. The gardens occupy an important aesthetic problem. Aesthetic task in vertical gardens can be achieved by forming sectors of identification in the urban landscape through the choice of a particular plant spatial composition and composition, to create comfort and representation in commu...

  8. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  9. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...from what we might expect at a first glance. An analogous scenario researched in NLP is understanding the semantics of “That’s what she said!” jokes...and will require NLP and Computer Vision for understanding. 4.1. Intrinsic context We first examine whether humans and machines can pre- dict just by

  10. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  11. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Charlebois, Patrick; Gnerre, Sante; Coole, Matthew G; Lennon, Niall J; Levin, Joshua Z; Qu, James; Ryan, Elizabeth M; Zody, Michael C; Henn, Matthew R

    2012-09-13

    Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  12. Determining mutant spectra of three RNA viral samples using ultra-deep sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H

    2012-06-06

    RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates that enable the virus to adapt to new host environments and even jump from one species to another. As part of a viral transmission study, three viral samples collected from naturally infected animals were sequenced using Illumina paired-end technology at ultra-deep coverage. In order to determine the mutant spectra within the viral quasispecies, it is critical to understand the sequencing error rates and control for false positive calls of viral variants (point mutantations). I will estimate the sequencing error rate from two control sequences and characterize the mutant spectra in the natural samples with this error rate.

  13. The most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology : Question 1. Could the vertical transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection account for the cause, characteristics, and epidemiology of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma, non-smoking East Asian female lung adenocarcinoma, and/or East Asian triple-negative breast carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Joseph T S; Poh, Sharon Shuxian

    2017-01-16

    Specific research foci: (1) Mouse models of gamma-herpes virus-68 (γHV-68) and polyomavirus (PyV) infections during neonatal versus adult life. (2) For human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC)-(a) Asking the question: Is oral sex a powerful carcinogen? (b) Examining the evidence for the vertical transmission of HPV infection. (c) Examining the relationship between HPV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in West European, East European, and East Asian countries. (d) Examining the association between HPV-positive OPC and human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (3) For non-smoking East Asian female lung adenocarcinoma-(a) Examining the incidence trends of HPV-positive OPC and female lung adenocarcinoma according to birth cohorts. (b) Examining the association between female lung adenocarcinoma and HPV. (c) Examining the associations of lung adenocarcinoma with immune modulating factors. (4) For triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) in East Asians-(a) Examining the association between TNBC and HPV. (b) Examining the unique epidemiological characteristics of patients with TNBC. A summary "epidemiological" model tying some of these findings together.

  14. An HIV epidemic model based on viral load dynamics: value in assessing empirical trends in HIV virulence and community viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Herbeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends in HIV virulence have been monitored since the start of the AIDS pandemic, as studying HIV virulence informs our understanding of HIV epidemiology and pathogenesis. Here, we model changes in HIV virulence as a strictly evolutionary process, using set point viral load (SPVL as a proxy, to make inferences about empirical SPVL trends from longitudinal HIV cohorts. We develop an agent-based epidemic model based on HIV viral load dynamics. The model contains functions for viral load and transmission, SPVL and disease progression, viral load trajectories in multiple stages of infection, and the heritability of SPVL across transmissions. We find that HIV virulence evolves to an intermediate level that balances infectiousness with longer infected lifespans, resulting in an optimal SPVL∼4.75 log10 viral RNA copies/mL. Adaptive viral evolution may explain observed HIV virulence trends: our model produces SPVL trends with magnitudes that are broadly similar to empirical trends. With regard to variation among studies in empirical SPVL trends, results from our model suggest that variation may be explained by the specific epidemic context, e.g. the mean SPVL of the founding lineage or the age of the epidemic; or improvements in HIV screening and diagnosis that results in sampling biases. We also use our model to examine trends in community viral load, a population-level measure of HIV viral load that is thought to reflect a population's overall transmission potential. We find that community viral load evolves in association with SPVL, in the absence of prevention programs such as antiretroviral therapy, and that the mean community viral load is not necessarily a strong predictor of HIV incidence.

  15. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders.

  16. [Psychosocial aspects in a cohort of vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Cristina; García, Isabel; Medín, Gabriela; Ramos-Amador, José Tomás; Navarro-Gómez, Marisa; Mellado-Peña, M José; Gómez, M I de José; Cortés, Marisol; Zamora Crespo, Berta; Muñoz-Fernandez, M Angeles; Gamero, Daniel Blázquez; González-Tomé, M Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Thanks to advances in antiretroviral treatment, children with HIV infections through vertical transmission have improved their life expectancy. However, new challenges have emerged. We propose this study in order to determine the psychosocial aspects and knowledge of infections in a cohort of adolescents with vertically transmitted HIV infections. Patients with vertically-acquired HIV infection between 12 and 19 years old were included. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews and a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for emotional and behavioral disorders screening. We evaluated 96 patients (58% females) with a median age of 15 years (11-19.1) and a median age at diagnosis of 1.70 years (0-12.2). The median CD4 count was 626cells/mm(3) (132-998), and the viral load was<50cp/ml in 72% of patients. Among them, 90% attended school and 60% repeated at least one course. Although 81% of them knew of their diagnosis, only 30% understood their disease, with 18.2% having discussed it with friends. Six unwanted pregnancies occurred during the study period. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire showed hyperactivity risk in 33%. A high percentage of adolescents show difficulties in several areas (disease knowledge, peer relationship, school failure...) that can have an impact on their adult lives. Further studies are needed to evaluate their origin and development in depth, as well as interventions to modify this situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Classification of viral zoonosis through receptor pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Hyeon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral zoonosis, the transmission of a virus from its primary vertebrate reservoir species to humans, requires ubiquitous cellular proteins known as receptor proteins. Zoonosis can occur not only through direct transmission from vertebrates to humans, but also through intermediate reservoirs or other environmental factors. Viruses can be categorized according to genotype (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA and dsRNA viruses. Among them, the RNA viruses exhibit particularly high mutation rates and are especially problematic for this reason. Most zoonotic viruses are RNA viruses that change their envelope proteins to facilitate binding to various receptors of host species. In this study, we sought to predict zoonotic propensity through the analysis of receptor characteristics. We hypothesized that the major barrier to interspecies virus transmission is that receptor sequences vary among species--in other words, that the specific amino acid sequence of the receptor determines the ability of the viral envelope protein to attach to the cell. Results We analysed host-cell receptor sequences for their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity characteristics. We then analysed these properties for similarities among receptors of different species and used a statistical discriminant analysis to predict the likelihood of transmission among species. Conclusions This study is an attempt to predict zoonosis through simple computational analysis of receptor sequence differences. Our method may be useful in predicting the zoonotic potential of newly discovered viral strains.

  18. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  19. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  20. Viral gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheño-Corvo, P; Martín-Duque, P

    2006-12-01

    Cancer is a multigenic disorder involving mutations of both tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. A large body of preclinical data, however, has suggested that cancer growth can be arrested or reversed by treatment with gene transfer vectors that carry a single growth inhibitory or pro-apoptotic gene or a gene that can recruit immune responses against the tumor. Many of these gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery of therapeutic genes, made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems. The viral vectors recently in laboratory and clinical use are based on RNA and DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges. Particular viruses have been selected as gene delivery vehicles because of their capacities to carry foreign genes and their ability to efficiently deliver these genes associated with efficient gene expression. These are the major reasons why viral vectors derived from retroviruses, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, herpesvirus and poxvirus are employed in more than 70% of clinical gene therapy trials worldwide. Because these vector systems have unique advantages and limitations, each has applications for which it is best suited. Retroviral vectors can permanently integrate into the genome of the infected cell, but require mitotic cell division for transduction. Adenoviral vectors can efficiently deliver genes to a wide variety of dividing and nondividing cell types, but immune elimination of infected cells often limits gene expression in vivo. Herpes simplex virus can deliver large amounts of exogenous DNA; however, cytotoxicity and maintenance of transgene expression remain as obstacles. AAV also infects many non-dividing and dividing cell types, but has a limited DNA capacity. This review discusses current and emerging virusbased genetic engineering strategies for the delivery of therapeutic molecules or several approaches for cancer treatment.

  1. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  2. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  3. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-24

    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  4. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...... this strategic behavior, yields better market performance than Cournot beliefs...

  5. Hunting Voronoi vertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrucci, V.; Overmars, Mark; Rao, A.; Vleugels, J.

    1994-01-01

    Given three objects in the plane, a Voronoi vertex is a point that is equidistant simultaneously from each. In this paper, we consider the problem of computing Voronoi vertices for planar objects of xed but possibly unknown shape; we only require the ability to query the closest point on an object

  6. Vertical shaft windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  7. VIRAL DISEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection. Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater phase of host development, although recordings exist that the virus is carried on in surving samples which succeed in making it to the sea. As the number of sea fish species increases in controlled culture a increasing number of pathological cases are observed, which is caused by viruses. Therefore, in this area it is necessary to emphasize future investigations.

  8. SAGE III Meteor-3M L1B Solar Event Transmission Data (Native) V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 1B pixel group transmission profiles for a single solar event (Suggested Usage: Vertical transmission profiles for input into an inversion algorithm)

  9. Determinants of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Ana M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtypes may have distinct biological, immunological and pathogenic properties. Efficiency of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT may be among those properties, but few and controversial results have been described so far. In this study, 102 children born from HIV-1-infected mothers between 1998 and 2004 in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil were analyzed for potential risk factors associated with MTCT. That geographic region is characterized by a high proportion of subtype C-infected subjects, and it allowed comparison between subtypes B and C and their influence on MTCT. The analysis also included clinical, obstetric and immunological parameters. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the parameters on MTCT, and prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI95 were also calculated. A surprisingly high prevalence of subtype C of over 70% was found. Only the HIV viral load and the use of ACTG 076 protocol were predictive of MTCT. HIV subtype and CD4 T-cell counts were not associated with increased risk of transmission. Although a clear expansion of subtype C is evident in southern Brazil, it does not seem to correlate with increased risk of vertical transmission.

  10. Vertical gastroplasty: evolution of vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E E; Doherty, C; Cullen, J J; Scott, D; Rodriguez, E M; Maher, J W

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the goals, technical requirements, advantages, and potential risks of gastroplasty for treatment of severe obesity. Gastroplasty is preferred to more complex operations, as it preserves normal digestion and absorption and avoids complications that are peculiar to exclusion operations. The medical literature and a 30-year experience at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) provides an overview of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) evolution. Preliminary 10-year results with the VBG technique currently used at UIHC are included. At UIHC the VBG is preferred to other gastroplasties because it provides weight control that extends for at least 10 years and the required objective, intraoperative quality control required for a low rate of reoperation. It is recommended that modifications of the operative technique not be attempted until a surgeon has had experience with the standardized operation--and then only under a carefully designed protocol. Realistic goals for surgery and criteria of success influence the choice of operation and the optimum, lifelong risk/benefit ratio. In conclusion, VBG is a safe, long-term effective operation for severe obesity with advantages over complex operations and more restrictive simple operations.

  11. Oregon ESA 2010 BKD vertical transmission - Test of analyses for bacterial kidney disease as predictors of vertical transmission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Although the pathogen causing bacterial kidney disease is known to be transmitted from broodstock female to offspring, there is large uncertainty around the...

  12. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  13. Determinantes de la transmisión vertical del VIH en Cataluña (1997-2001: ¿es posible su eliminación? Determinants of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Catalonia, Spain [1997-2001]: is it possible to eliminate it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar y describir los factores que han hecho posible la existencia de nuevas infecciones de VIH por transmisión vertical desde la implementación del tratamiento antirretroviral en la gestante seropositiva (1997-2001 en Cataluña. Métodos: Revisión sistemática de casos identificados en servicios de pediatría de todos los hospitales de Cataluña. Resultados: Se identificaron 28 casos de infección pediátrica por VIH: 9, 9, 8, 2 y 0 por año de nacimiento de 1997 a 2001, respectivamente. De 16 madres con diagnóstico de infección por VIH conocido antes o durante el embarazo, 9 realizaron profilaxis antirretroviral durante éste (5 con buena adhesión, uno desconocido y el resto con mala adhesión y 7 no realizaron profilaxis (6 por rechazo y uno no se conoce. De 12 diagnosticadas después del parto, 5 fueron embarazos no controlados y el resto poco o bien controlados. De estos últimos, en 6 no se practicó serología para VIH y en uno fue negativa en el primer trimestre. Conclusiones: La transmisión vertical del VIH en Cataluña ha disminuido en los últimos años, pero se han producido infecciones por la mala implementación en algún caso de las medidas preventivas conocidas. Debería ofrecerse la prueba diagnóstica para VIH a toda gestante no sólo en el primer trimestre de embarazo sino también al final, si se sospecha exposición al virus, y en caso de gestaciones no controladas hay que usar pruebas diagnósticas de lectura rápida en la sala de partos.Objectives: To identify and describe the factors that have led to new cases of HIV infection through mother-to-child transmission since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-seropositive pregnant women (1997-2001 in Catalonia. Methods: Systematic review of cases identified in the pediatric services of all the hospitals in Catalonia. Results: Twenty-eight cases of pediatric HIV infection were identified: 9, 9, 8, 2 and 0 per year of birth from 1997 to 2001

  14. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent HIV transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer, Maryam; Horvath, Hacsi; Mmeje, Okeoma; van der Poel, Sheryl; Semprini, Augusto; Rutherford, George; Brown, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in HIV-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected Design Systematic review and meta-analysis Setting All countries Patient(s) Forty single-arm, open label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen Intervention(s) Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI Main outcome measure(s) Primary outcome: HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy Result(s) No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction using washed semen among 3,994 women (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0–0.0001). Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women following 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction using washed semen (95%CI= 0–0.0006). Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission (0/1,026, 95% CI= 0–0.0029). Overall, 56.3% (2,357/4,184, 95%CI=54.8%–57.8%) of couples achieved a clinical pregnancy using washed semen. Conclusion(s) Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized, controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help further reduce the spread of HIV. PMID:26688556

  15. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer, Maryam; Horvath, Hacsi; Mmeje, Okeoma; van der Poel, Sheryl; Semprini, Augusto E; Rutherford, George; Brown, Joelle

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Forty single-arm open-label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen. Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI. HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy. No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen among 3,994 women. Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women after 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen. Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission. Overall, 56.3% of couples (2,357/4,184) achieved a clinical pregnancy with the use of washed semen. Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help to further reduce the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  17. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Torres-Flores

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  18. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  19. Phytopathogenic fungus hosts a plant virus: A naturally occurring cross-kingdom viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, Ida Bagus; Wei, Shuang; Cao, Chunmei; Salaipeth, Lakha; Kondo, Hideki; Sun, Liying

    2017-11-14

    The transmission of viral infections between plant and fungal hosts has been suspected to occur, based on phylogenetic and other findings, but has not been directly observed in nature. Here, we report the discovery of a natural infection of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani by a plant virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The CMV-infected R. solani strain was obtained from a potato plant growing in Inner Mongolia Province of China, and CMV infection was stable when this fungal strain was cultured in the laboratory. CMV was horizontally transmitted through hyphal anastomosis but not vertically through basidiospores. By inoculation via protoplast transfection with virions, a reference isolate of CMV replicated in R. solani and another phytopathogenic fungus, suggesting that some fungi can serve as alternative hosts to CMV. Importantly, in fungal inoculation experiments under laboratory conditions, R. solani could acquire CMV from an infected plant, as well as transmit the virus to an uninfected plant. This study presents evidence of the transfer of a virus between plant and fungus, and it further expands our understanding of plant-fungus interactions and the spread of plant viruses.

  20. Plasma HIV Viral Rebound following Protocol-Indicated Cessation of ART Commenced in Primary and Chronic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Ewings, Fiona M; Porter, Kholoud

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of HIV viral rebound following ART cessation has consequences for clinical outcome and onward transmission. We compared plasma viral load (pVL) rebound after stopping ART initiated in primary (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI). DESIGN: Two populations with protocol...

  1. Blood protein derivative viral safety: observations and analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    The well-documented viral safety of albumin arises from several factors operating in concert, including virus removal during preparation, immune neutralization, serendipitous inactivation, virus sterilization through pasteurization. Safety with respect to HBV transmission was achieved even prior to the development of sensitive screening tests for HBsAg, as can be predicted given the initial virus load and the influence of factors affecting removal and inactivation. Coagulation factor concentr...

  2. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  4. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  5. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  6. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  7. Viral hepatitis in minority America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Renard A; Vega, Kenneth J

    2005-02-01

    Viral hepatitis continues as an important public health concern in the United States. Available data indicate that acute and chronic viral hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this country despite the availability of immunization for hepatitis A and B and pharmacologic therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C. Minority populations within the United States are disproportionately affected by acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Many diseases, for example, Barrett's esophagus, affect ethnic groups differently. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C may demonstrate ethnic variation with regard to their epidemiology, natural history, clinicopatholgic findings, complications, and treatment outcomes. This report will review the literature regarding these areas in hepatitis A, B, and C among the African American, Hispanic American, and Native American populations of the United States.

  8. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  9. Cell-free (RNA and cell-associated (DNA HIV-1 and postnatal transmission through breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ndirangu

    Full Text Available Transmission through breastfeeding remains important for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT in resource-limited settings. We quantify the relationship between cell-free (RNA and cell-associated (DNA shedding of HIV-1 virus in breastmilk and the risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission in the first 6 months postpartum.Thirty-six HIV-positive mothers who transmitted HIV-1 by breastfeeding were matched to 36 non-transmitting HIV-1 infected mothers in a case-control study nested in a cohort of HIV-infected women. RNA and DNA were quantified in the same breastmilk sample taken at 6 weeks and 6 months. Cox regression analysis assessed the association between cell-free and cell-associated virus levels and risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission.There were higher median levels of cell-free than cell-associated HIV-1 virus (per ml in breastmilk at 6 weeks and 6 months. Multivariably, adjusting for antenatal CD4 count and maternal plasma viral load, at 6 weeks, each 10-fold increase in cell-free or cell-associated levels (per ml was significantly associated with HIV-1 transmission but stronger for cell-associated than cell-free levels [2.47 (95% CI 1.33-4.59 vs. aHR 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.96, respectively]. At 6 months, cell-free and cell-associated levels (per ml in breastmilk remained significantly associated with HIV-1 transmission but was stronger for cell-free than cell-associated levels [aHR 2.53 (95% CI 1.64-3.92 vs. 1.73 (95% CI 0.94-3.19, respectively].The findings suggest that cell-associated virus level (per ml is more important for early postpartum HIV-1 transmission (at 6 weeks than cell-free virus. As cell-associated virus levels have been consistently detected in breastmilk despite antiretroviral therapy, this highlights a potential challenge for resource-limited settings to achieve the UNAIDS goal for 2015 of eliminating vertical transmission. More studies would further knowledge on mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission and help develop more effective

  10. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  11. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  12. Molecular Detection, Penetrance, and Transmission of an Inherited Virus Responsible for Behavioral Manipulation of an Insect Parasitoid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patot, Sabine; Lepetit, David; Charif, Delphine; Varaldi, Julien; Fleury, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    For insects, the prevalence of numerous vertically transmitted viruses can be high in their host populations. These viruses often have few, if any, pathological effects on their hosts, and consequently, many of them can remain unnoticed for long periods, despite their potential role in the evolution of the host phenotype. Some females of Leptopilina boulardi, a solitary parasitoid of Drosophila larvae, are infected by an inherited virus (LbFV) that manipulates the behavior of the wasp by increasing its tendency to lay eggs in a host that is already parasitized (superparasitism). This behavioral alteration allows horizontal transmission of the virus within superparasitized Drosophila larvae. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization with infected and uninfected lines, we identified one putative viral sequence. Based on this sequence, we developed a simple PCR test. We tested the correlation between the superparasitism phenotype and PCR amplification of the putative viral marker using several experimental conditions (including horizontal transfers) and several parasitoid genotypes. All of the results revealed that there was a perfect match between the superparasitism phenotype and the amplification profile, which validated use of the molecular marker as a tool to track the presence of the virus and provided the first genomic data for this fascinating virus. The results also show that there was very efficient horizontal and vertical transmission of LbFV, which probably explains its high prevalence in the French populations that we sampled (67 and 70% of infected females). This manipulative virus is likely to play a major role in the ecology and evolution of its parasitoid host. PMID:19060167

  13. Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

    2010-08-01

    In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants.

  14. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  15. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  16. Sequence variation in two genes determines the efficacy of transmission of citrus tristeza virus by the brown citrus aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S J; Killiny, N; Tatineni, S; Gowda, S; Cowell, S J; Shilts, T; Dawson, W O

    2016-12-01

    Vector transmission is an important part of the viral infection cycle, yet for many viruses little is known about this process, or how viral sequence variation affects transmission efficacy. Here we examined the effect of substituting genes from the highly transmissible FS577 isolate of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in to the poorly transmissible T36-based infectious clone. We found that introducing p65 or p61 sequences from FS577 significantly increased transmission efficacy. Interestingly, replacement of both genes produced a greater increase than either gene alone, suggesting that CTV transmission requires the concerted action of co-evolved p65 and p61 proteins.

  17. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  18. Vertical perturbation of high energy proton beams in the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, LP; Brandenburg, S; Post, H; Marti, F

    2001-01-01

    Using a layered target on the radial probe, we have measured the vertical beam current distribution for several high energy proton beams ranging from 150 to 190 MeV. In particular, this allows us to measure the vertical centring of the beam. The 150 MeV beam with high transmission (83 %) through the

  19. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  20. Semen banking: consideration on viral contamination in the era of new emerging viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To construct a semen bank, the collection of donated semen has to be done and an important concern is the safety of collected semen. The contamination is a big problem. Basically, the infectious pathogens can exist within donated semen, hence, a good donor screening is very important. Although viruses have an indirect role in sperm quality, but the evidence in banked semen is presently lack. This does not mean that there is no viral contamination but it might imply the inadequate concern on this issue. Contaminated semen usually means poor quality and hazardous to the recipient. The contamination of the virus in banked semen is a common problem in animal semen banking (1. The safety and transmission of each problematic virus is widely studied and well clarified in animal semen banking (2. However, this issue is not widely concerned in human semen banking. For sure, this case is an actual direct contamination and this cannot be detected if there is no specific screening in the banking process. The scenario of important new emerging viral infections will be specifically detailed in this report. West Nile virus is an emerging problematic viral infection that can cause a deadly clinical disorder. Basically, West Nile virus is classified as an arbovirus that is mainly transmitted by mosquito. However, the uncommon modes of transmissions such as transfusion related transmission are reported (3. The contamination of West Nile virus in semen is an important question in andrology. There is no evidence indicating for the presence of West Nile virus in the semen of the patients. However, American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology recommended that practitioners defer gamete donors who have confirmed or suspected West Nile virus infections (4. SARS is another deadly emerging viral infection. The new coronavirus infection is transmitted via respiratory route. The serious symptom due to this infection leads to death

  1. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. A metagenomic survey of viral abundance and diversity in mosquitoes from Hubei province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyan Shi

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes as one of the most common but important vectors have the potential to transmit or acquire a lot of viruses through biting, however viral flora in mosquitoes and its impact on mosquito-borne disease transmission has not been well investigated and evaluated. In this study, the metagenomic techniquehas been successfully employed in analyzing the abundance and diversity of viral community in three mosquito samples from Hubei, China. Among 92,304 reads produced through a run with 454 GS FLX system, 39% have high similarities with viral sequences belonging to identified bacterial, fungal, animal, plant and insect viruses, and 0.02% were classed into unidentified viral sequences, demonstrating high abundance and diversity of viruses in mosquitoes. Furthermore, two novel viruses in subfamily Densovirinae and family Dicistroviridae were identified, and six torque tenosus virus1 in family Anelloviridae, three porcine parvoviruses in subfamily Parvovirinae and a Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus in Family Rhabdoviridae were preliminarily characterized. The viral metagenomic analysis offered us a deep insight into the viral population of mosquito which played an important role in viral initiative or passive transmission and evolution during the process.

  3. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Schaut, Robert G.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Petersen, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission.

  4. Mechanism of membranous tunnelling nanotube formation in viral genome delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Peralta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems.

  5. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted...... variations at glycosylation sites. In conclusion, the viral O-glycosyl peptide epitopes may be of relevance for development of subunit vaccines and for improved serodiagnosis of viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  6. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections.

  7. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  8. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index......, an index of refraction of the second low-index layer or air being less than 2; and a thickness of the cap layer and a thickness of the grating layer, and a pitch and a duty cycle of the grating structure are selected to obtain a resonance having a free-space resonance wavelength in the interval 300 nm to 3...... microns, the cap layer comprises an active region configured to generate or absorb photons at the free-space resonance wavelength by stimulated emission or absorption when a sufficient forward or reverse bias voltage is applied across the active region, a thickness of the first low-index layer is less...

  9. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  10. Viral diseases affecting the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Jennings; Huggins, Terrill; Kummerfeldt, Carlos; DiVietro, Matthew; Walters, Kenneth; Sahn, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Viruses affect the human body in multiple ways producing various disease states. The infections of the pulmonary parenchyma have been well described. However, there has been no current review of the literature pertaining to the pleura. To review the available literature pertaining to diseases of the pleura that are caused by viral infections. A Medline search was performed and available research and review articles relating to viral infections that resulted in pleural effusions, pleural masses, pleural thickening, and pleural nodularity were reviewed. There are numerous viruses that cause diseases of the pleura. Pleural effusions and lesions within the pleura are the most common presentation of the disease state. Polymerase chain reaction has the potential to further diagnose viral infections and expand our knowledge base in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  12. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  13. Maternal HIV seroconversion at delivery without transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Paul N; Bhatia, Vineesh; Cooper, Celia

    2010-12-01

    A case of HIV seroconversion associated with high viral load occurring at or near delivery is described. The management of the case in terms of prevention of mother-to-child-transmission is described and discussed in terms of the published literature and guidelines. From this instructive case a constructive strategy for delivery and immediate post-natal care is derived. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  15. Filamentous Structures Induced by a Phytoreovirus Mediate Viral Release from Salivary Glands in Its Insect Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qianzhuo; Liao, Zhenfeng; Li, Jiajia; Liu, Yuyan; Wu, Wei; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Qian; Jia, Dongsheng; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-06-15

    Numerous viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. These viruses circulate in the vector body, enter the salivary gland, and then are released into the apical plasmalemma-lined cavities, where saliva is stored. The cavity plasmalemma of vector salivary glands thus represents the last membrane barrier for viral transmission. Here, we report a novel mechanism used by a persistent virus to overcome this essential barrier. We observed that the infection by rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), a species of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, induced the formation of virus-associated filaments constructed by viral nonstructural protein Pns11 within the salivary glands of its leafhopper vector, Recilia dorsalis Such filaments attached to actin-based apical plasmalemma and induced an exocytosis-like process for viral release into vector salivary gland cavities, through a direct interaction of Pns11 of RGDV and actin of R. dorsalis Failure of virus-induced filaments assembly by RNA interference with synthesized double-stranded RNA targeting the Pns11 gene inhibited the dissemination of RGDV into salivary cavities, preventing viral transmission by R. dorsalis For the first time, we show that a virus can exploit virus-induced inclusion as a vehicle to pass through the apical plasmalemma into vector salivary gland cavities, thus overcoming the last membrane barrier for viral transmission by insect vectors.IMPORTANCE Understanding how persistent viruses overcome multiple tissue and membrane barriers within the insect vectors until final transmission is the key for viral disease control. The apical plasmalemma of the cavities where saliva is stored in the salivary glands is the last barrier for viral transmission by insect vectors; however, the mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we show that a virus has evolved to exploit virus-induced filaments to perform an exocytosis-like process that enables viral

  16. Changes in plasma viral load and penile viral shedding after circumcision among HIV-positive men in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoyo-June, Elijah; Rogers, John H; Jaoko, Walter; Bailey, Robert C

    2013-12-15

    We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-positive men aged 18-35 years in Kisumu, Kenya to determine if medical circumcision of ART-naive HIV-positive men leads to increased viral load and penile viral shedding. From 108 HIV-positive men circumcised by forceps-guided method and followed up weekly for 6 weeks, 29 men were evaluated for penile viral shedding. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma from 19 men and in penile lavage samples from 29 men. Samples were collected before circumcision and at weekly intervals for 6 weeks or until the circumcision wound was healed. CD4 T-cell counts from 102 HIV-positive men were determined at baseline and at 2 weeks thereafter. Wounds with healthy scar, no scab or opening, and no suture tracks were deemed healed. Among 65 ART-naive men, mean CD4 T-cell count increased from 417 cells per cubic millimeter at baseline to 456 cells per cubic millimeter after 2 weeks (P = 0.04), but did not change in the 37 men on ART (P = 0.81). There was no change in HIV plasma viral load (P = 0.36), but penile viral shedding rose significantly within 1 week after circumcision then declined to undetectable levels by 6 weeks (multivariate analysis of variance; P healing. Medical circumcision among ART-naive HIV-infected men results in a transitory rise in penile viral shedding before complete wound healing, which should pose no additional risk of HIV transmission if men adhere to 6 weeks postcircumcision sexual abstinence and use condoms consistently.

  17. [Knowledge about viral hepatitis in a sample of Brazilian students from Vale do Araguaia, Legal Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos K B; Savazzi, Kamirri; Honorio-França, Adenilda C; Ferrari, Graziele S L; França, Eduardo L

    2012-06-01

    Viral and non-viral hepatitis are of great concern among developing nations because of their pathogenicity and virulence, and also their wide spreading by contaminated blood, food or water. The objective of this work was to evaluate the knowledge about hepatitis of academic students from three life/health sciences courses and also students from the last year of high school To measure the students' knowledge on hepatitis an instrument containing 22 questions was applied. Surprinsingly, it was verified that 41.9% of students had poor knowledge of viral hepatitis. Among the high school students, 31.8% ignored that viral hepatitis are infectious and transmissible diseases. Considering hepatitis symptomatology, just 18% of high school students declared knowledge of the symptons, but none of those cited the ictericia. Among the academic students, 75.9% of nursing students had adequate knowledge of hepatitis, followed by pharmacy (51.3%), and biology students (18.2%). Nursing students had also higher scores of right answers regarding viral hepatitis and chronic disease. On contrary, biology and high school students had poor knowledge of that matter (37% and 44.5%, respectively). Less than 15% of nursing and pharmacy students did not know that viral hepatitis are sexually transmissible, whereas 78.6% of the 3rd year and 52.4% of the 4th year biology course ignored the sexual transmission of viral hepatitis. Still considering the same question, 54.5% of the high school students also ignored that viral hepatitis are sexually transmitted diseases. Important conclusions can be drawn from this study, since the higher hepatitis knowledge scores were found among nursing students, followed by pharmacy academics. However, biology students, which will serve as high school teachers, had poor and insufficient knowledge on hepatitis. This finding could explain the same poor disease knowledge among high school pupils.

  18. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

    2014-04-01

    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Viral hepatitis and immigration: A challenge for the healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Gómez, J A; Salas-Coronas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Lozano-Serrano, A B; Cabezas-Fernández, M T

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a significant health problem in African countries. The increase in the immigrant population from this continent represents a challenge for the Spanish healthcare system. A descriptive study was conducted on the prevalence of the serological markers of hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV) and D (HDV) in African immigrants treated in a specialised doctor's office. The study included 2518 patients (87.7% Sub-Saharan natives), with a mean age of 31.3 years. Some 78.8% of the patients had a positive infection marker for HBV, and 638 patients (25.3%) were diagnosed with active hepatitis B (HBsAg +). In 19 cases, antibodies against HDV were detected (4 cases with detection of the viral genome). Sixty-eight patients had antibodies against HCV, 26 of whom had a positive viral load. The high prevalence of viral hepatitis in immigrants, especially HBV infection, represents a significant change in the profile of patients treated in Spain and requires measures aimed at early diagnosis and transmission prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Ellipsometric study of vertically aligned nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A.; Santamato, E.; Bennis, N.; Quintana, X.; Otón, J. M.; Tkachenko, V.; Abbate, G.

    2009-01-01

    The director tilt angle distribution in vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays has been investigated by means of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Liquid crystal vertical alignment has been realized by thermal evaporation of SiOx. By changing the deposition angle, it is possible to control the pretilt angle. The director profile inside the sample was inferred by reflection and transmission ellipsometric measurements. The tilt angle distribution inside the cell versus the applied voltage is reported and eventually, comparing it with the simulations from the elastic theory, the anchoring energy has been obtained.

  1. Price Transmission Analysis in the Fresh Vegetable Supply Chain of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alhashim, Jawad; Saghaian, Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Price transmission studies focus on how price variation at one marketing level affects the prices at other levels, either vertically or horizontally. Price movement among farms, wholesale, and retail levels is indicative of vertical price transmission. Any change in the farmer’s price is reflected in the final consumer’s price. Asymmetric price transmission (APT) can occur anywhere along the supply chain. The objective of this study is to explore the existence of APT for selected fresh vegeta...

  2. Disease transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats: what is the real risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jamie M; Speer, Brian; Opitz, Noel

    2011-11-01

    A number of common misconceptions exist regarding the degree of transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats. Concern regarding bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic transmission is generally unfounded, because disease transmission between companion parrots and dogs and cats is not well-documented. Infections with Mycobacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Giardia spp, Chlamydophila psittaci, Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptosporidium spp, and avian influenza are often considered possible transmissible diseases, causing pet caregivers unwarranted concerns.

  3. Viral Infections and Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of febrile seizures (FS in a cohort of children, ages 3 months to 5 years, living in a Netherlands province was compared with the incidence of common viral infections reported to a national registry and the results reported from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Public Health Laboratory Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

  4. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  5. Viral hepatitis B- an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... Hepatitis B e antigen. (HBeAg) is a soluble non-structural, enigmatic antigen which is often detected in the blood of patients infected with replicating HBV which results in massive viral load in the blood. Both HBe and HBc are derived from the same section of HBV DNA but the HBe transcript contains an.

  6. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Shen

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT. Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process.

  7. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  8. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  9. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  10. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duzer, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  11. Non-random patterns in viral diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Simon J.; Islam, Ariful; Johnson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether changes in viral communities will ever be predictable. Here we investigate whether viral communities in wildlife are inherently structured (inferring predictability) by looking at whether communities are assembled through deterministic (often predictable) or stocha...

  12. The C Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus UL25 Protein Is Required for Release of Viral Genomes from Capsids Bound to Nuclear Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jamie B; Daniel, Gina R; Falck-Pedersen, Erik; Huet, Alexis; Smith, Greg A; Conway, James F; Homa, Fred L

    2017-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a truncation mutant of pUL25. Live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the mutant was not impaired in penetration of the host cell or in trafficking of the capsid to the nuclear membrane. However, expression of viral proteins was absent or significantly delayed in cells infected with the pUL25 mutant virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed capsids accumulated at nuclear pores that retained the viral genome for at least 4 h postinfection. In addition, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of virion capsids did not detect any obvious differences in the location or structural organization for the pUL25 or pUL36 proteins on the pUL25 mutant capsids. Further, in contrast to wild-type virus, the antiviral response mediated by the viral DNA-sensing cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) was severely compromised for the pUL25 mutant. These results demonstrate that the pUL25 capsid protein has a critical role in releasing viral DNA from NPC-bound capsids. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. Early steps in infection include release of the capsid into the cytoplasm, docking of the capsid at a nuclear pore, and release of the viral genome into the nucleus

  13. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  14. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  15. Autopsy and Postmortem Studies Are Concordant: Pathology of Zika Virus Infection Is Neurotropic in Fetuses and Infants With Microcephaly Following Transplacental Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-01-01

    -Pathology studies have been important in concluding that Zika virus infection occurring in pregnant women can result in vertical transmission of the agent from mother to fetus. Fetal and infant autopsies have provided crucial direct evidence that Zika virus can infect an unborn child, resulting in microcephaly, other malformations, and, in some cases, death. -To better understand the etiologic role and mechanism(s) of Zika virus in causing birth defects such as microcephaly, this communication analyzes the spectrum of clinical and autopsy studies reported from fetuses and infants who developed intrauterine Zika virus infection, and compares these findings with experimental data related to Zika virus infection. -Retrospective analysis of reported clinical, autopsy, pathology, and related postmortem studies from 9 fetuses and infants with intrauterine Zika virus infection and microcephaly. -All fetuses and infants examined demonstrated an overlapping spectrum of gross and microscopic neuropathologic abnormalities. Direct cytopathic effects of infection by the Zika virus were confined to the brain; in cases where other organs were evaluated, no direct viral effects were identified. -There is concordance of the spectrum of brain damage, reinforcing previous data indicating that the Zika virus has a strong predilection for cells of the fetal central nervous system following vertical transmission. The occurrence of additional congenital abnormalities suggests that intrauterine brain damage from Zika virus interferes with normal fetal development, resulting in fetal akinesia. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies of Zika virus infection corroborate the human autopsy findings of neural specificity.

  16. Cannibalism amplifies the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Asaf; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    Cannibalism is a widespread behavior. Abundant empirical evidence demonstrates that cannibals incur a risk of contracting pathogenic infections when they consume infected conspecifics. However, current theory suggests that cannibalism generally impedes disease spread, because each victim is usually consumed by a single cannibal, such that cannibalism does not function as a spreading process. Consequently, cannibalism cannot be the only mode of transmission of most parasites. We develop simple, but general epidemiological models to analyze the interaction of cannibalism and vertical transmission. We show that cannibalism increases the prevalence of vertically transmitted pathogens whenever the host population density is not solely regulated by cannibalism. This mechanism, combined with additional, recently published, theoretical mechanisms, presents a strong case for the role of cannibalism in the spread of infectious diseases across a wide range of parasite-host systems. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  18. Antiretroviral Therapy Containing Raltegravir to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Infected Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Diego M.; Martinez, Marina G.; Morganti, Laura M.; Rodriguez, Claudia G.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study in a general hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina (2009-2015) aimed at evaluating outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women (HIPW), who were prescribed raltegravir (RAL)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 239 HIPW were enrolled in our study; among them 31 received RAL (12.9%) at different clinical stages: i) intensification (INS): addition of RAL to current ART because of detectable antepartum viral load, 13 (41.9%); ii) late presenter (LP): standard ART + RAL as fourth drug, 15 (48.4%); iii) treatment of resistant-HIV: 3 (9.7%). Median gestational age at RAL initiation was 34 weeks and median exposure was 30 days. In INS-group, median viral load (VL) decrease was 1.48 log10. In LP-group, median VL decline was 2.15 log10. No clinical adverse events or maternal intolerance attributable to RAL were observed. Elective cesarean section was done in 51.7%; mild elevation of transaminases was observed in 35% of neonates. No vertical transmission was documented. PMID:28663779

  19. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact

  20. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  1. Virale commercials: De consument als marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  2. Viral ecology of a shallow eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to give an insight into the ecology of the viral community in a shallow eutrophic lake. To achieve this, the population dynamics, diversity and control of the viral community in Lake Loosdrecht were studied, as well as the impact of the viral community on plankton mortality and

  3. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  4. Processing technologies for long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonsson, Fredrik

    2001-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) areattractive as potential inexpensive high-performance emittersfor fibre-optical communication systems. Their surface-normalemission together with the small dimensions are beneficial forlow-cost fabrication since it allows on-wafer testing,simplified packaging and effective fibre-coupling. Forhigh-speed data transmission up to hundreds of metres, 850-nmVCSELs are today the technology of choice. For higher bandwidthand longer distance networks,...

  5. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  6. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  7. Viral exanthems in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva; Cestari, Tania; Allen, Samuel H; Ramos e-Silva, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Viral exanthems are a common problem in tropical regions, particularly affecting children. Most exanthems are transient and harmless, but some are potentially very dangerous. Pregnant women and malnourished or immunocompromised infants carry the greatest risk of adverse outcome. In this article, parvovirus B19; dengue and yellow fever; West Nile, Barmah Forest, Marburg, and Ebola viruses, and human herpesviruses; asymmetric periflexural exanthema of childhood; measles; rubella; enteroviruses; Lassa fever; and South American hemorrhagic fevers will be discussed.

  8. Intuitive Mechanics: Inferences of Vertical Projectile Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Damjenić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intuitive knowledge of physics mechanics, i.e. knowledge defined through personal experience about velocity, acceleration, motion causes, etc., is often wrong. This research examined whether similar misconceptions occur systematically in the case of vertical projectiles launched upwards. The first experiment examined inferences of velocity and acceleration of the ball moving vertically upwards, while the second experiment examined whether the mass of the thrown ball and force of the throw have an impact on the inference. The results showed that more than three quarters of the participants wrongly assumed that maximum velocity and peak acceleration did not occur at the initial launch of the projectile. There was no effect of object mass or effect of the force of the throw on the inference relating to the velocity and acceleration of the ball. The results exceed the explanatory reach of the impetus theory, most commonly used to explain the naive understanding of the mechanics of object motion. This research supports that the actions on objects approach and the property transmission heuristics may more aptly explain the dissidence between perceived and actual implications in projectile motion.

  9. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  10. Maternal immunization against viral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, J; Glezen, W P; Piedra, P A

    1998-01-01

    The protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases has been recognized. The use of maternal immunization has been considered as a means to augment this protection in the young infant against disease. Advantages of maternal immunization include the fact that young infants are most susceptible to infections but least responsive to vaccines, that pregnant women are accessible to medical care and respond well to vaccines, that IgG antibodies cross the placenta well during the third trimester, and that immunization of the pregnant woman has the potential to benefit both the mother and the infant. Disadvantages include the potential inhibition of an infant's response to active immunization or natural infection and liability issues with pharmaceutical companies and physicians. Immunization of pregnant women with viral vaccines for poliovirus, influenza viruses, and rubella has been described and maternal vaccination with these vaccines has been found to be safe for both the mother and the fetus. An open-label study of post-partum women immunized with the purified fusion protein of RSV (PFP-2, Wyeth-Lederle Pediatrics and Vaccines, Inc., Pearl River, NY) demonstrated that the vaccine was non-reactogenic and immunogenic; RSV-specific antibody was detected in breast milk. Immunization of pregnant women with purified protein or subunit vaccines could be considered against neonatal viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, herpes group viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus. Further studies are needed to define the safety and efficacy of maternal immunization.

  11. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart Transmission Grids - Benefits and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco-Ramírez E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Power Systems are working near their stability limits, for this reason it is necessary and essential a transition to new transmission systems that ensure efficient delivery of electrical energy, with the objective to prevent “blackouts” that causesignificant losses in the economy of any country in the world. This paper analyzes important elements to consider having a healthy and efficient transition from a power grid vertically integrated into a smart transmission grid. A comparative analysis in the model, development, benefits and risks of the implementation of these systems, between two of the main marc of references of smart grids, the EU and the USA is presented.

  13. Transmission risk of two chikungunya lineages by invasive mosquito vectors from Florida and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W; Wiggins, Keenan; Eastmond, Bradley; Velez, Daniel; Lounibos, L Philip; Lord, Cynthia C

    2017-07-01

    Between 2014 and 2016 more than 3,800 imported human cases of chikungunya fever in Florida highlight the high risk for local transmission. To examine the potential for sustained local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Florida we tested whether local populations of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus show differences in susceptibility to infection and transmission to two emergent lineages of CHIKV, Indian Ocean (IOC) and Asian genotypes (AC) in laboratory experiments. All examined populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes displayed susceptibility to infection, rapid viral dissemination into the hemocoel, and transmission for both emergent lineages of CHIKV. Aedes albopictus had higher disseminated infection and transmission of IOC sooner after ingesting CHIKV infected blood than Ae. aegypti. Aedes aegypti had higher disseminated infection and transmission later during infection with AC than Ae. albopictus. Viral dissemination and transmission of AC declined during the extrinsic incubation period, suggesting that transmission risk declines with length of infection. Interestingly, the reduction in transmission of AC was less in Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, suggesting that older Ae. aegypti females are relatively more competent vectors than similar aged Ae. albopictus females. Aedes aegypti originating from the Dominican Republic had viral dissemination and transmission rates for IOC and AC strains that were lower than for Florida vectors. We identified small-scale geographic variation in vector competence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus that may contribute to regional differences in risk of CHIKV transmission in Florida.

  14. Transmission risk of two chikungunya lineages by invasive mosquito vectors from Florida and the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W Alto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 2014 and 2016 more than 3,800 imported human cases of chikungunya fever in Florida highlight the high risk for local transmission. To examine the potential for sustained local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV in Florida we tested whether local populations of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus show differences in susceptibility to infection and transmission to two emergent lineages of CHIKV, Indian Ocean (IOC and Asian genotypes (AC in laboratory experiments. All examined populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes displayed susceptibility to infection, rapid viral dissemination into the hemocoel, and transmission for both emergent lineages of CHIKV. Aedes albopictus had higher disseminated infection and transmission of IOC sooner after ingesting CHIKV infected blood than Ae. aegypti. Aedes aegypti had higher disseminated infection and transmission later during infection with AC than Ae. albopictus. Viral dissemination and transmission of AC declined during the extrinsic incubation period, suggesting that transmission risk declines with length of infection. Interestingly, the reduction in transmission of AC was less in Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, suggesting that older Ae. aegypti females are relatively more competent vectors than similar aged Ae. albopictus females. Aedes aegypti originating from the Dominican Republic had viral dissemination and transmission rates for IOC and AC strains that were lower than for Florida vectors. We identified small-scale geographic variation in vector competence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus that may contribute to regional differences in risk of CHIKV transmission in Florida.

  15. Transmission risk of two chikungunya lineages by invasive mosquito vectors from Florida and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Keenan; Eastmond, Bradley; Velez, Daniel; Lounibos, L. Philip; Lord, Cynthia C.

    2017-01-01

    Between 2014 and 2016 more than 3,800 imported human cases of chikungunya fever in Florida highlight the high risk for local transmission. To examine the potential for sustained local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Florida we tested whether local populations of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus show differences in susceptibility to infection and transmission to two emergent lineages of CHIKV, Indian Ocean (IOC) and Asian genotypes (AC) in laboratory experiments. All examined populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes displayed susceptibility to infection, rapid viral dissemination into the hemocoel, and transmission for both emergent lineages of CHIKV. Aedes albopictus had higher disseminated infection and transmission of IOC sooner after ingesting CHIKV infected blood than Ae. aegypti. Aedes aegypti had higher disseminated infection and transmission later during infection with AC than Ae. albopictus. Viral dissemination and transmission of AC declined during the extrinsic incubation period, suggesting that transmission risk declines with length of infection. Interestingly, the reduction in transmission of AC was less in Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, suggesting that older Ae. aegypti females are relatively more competent vectors than similar aged Ae. albopictus females. Aedes aegypti originating from the Dominican Republic had viral dissemination and transmission rates for IOC and AC strains that were lower than for Florida vectors. We identified small-scale geographic variation in vector competence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus that may contribute to regional differences in risk of CHIKV transmission in Florida. PMID:28749964

  16. Recognising and Managing Increased HIV Transmission Risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimal prelabour prophylaxis, poor adherence in the month prior to delivery, elevated maternal viral load at delivery, spontaneous preterm labour with prolonged rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis are simple clinical criteria that identify increased intra-partum transmission risk. In these increased-risk scenarios, ...

  17. Mapping clusters of chikungunya and dengue transmission in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne viral diseases that are of public health importance throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Seasonal variations in transmission of these viruses have been suggested owing to the ecology of their mosquito vectors. However, little is known about ...

  18. Innate immune factors associated with HIV-1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollakis, Georgios; Stax, Martijn J.; Paxton, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little is known with regards to the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission across a mucosal surface and more specifically what effects host factors have on influencing infection and early viral dissemination. The purpose of this review is to summarize which factors of the innate immune response

  19. Knowledge and occupational hazards of barbers in the transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: blood borne viral hepatitis transmission still ranges between 4-20% in many Ghanaian communities. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) also called liver cancer is reported as the leading cause of cancer mortality among males in Ghana. We studied the knowledge and risk factors associated with barbers' ...

  20. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Backer, J.A.; Weesendorp, E.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow

  1. Setting Up Shop: The Formation and Function of the Viral Factories of Cauliflower mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Schoelz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar to cells, viruses often compartmentalize specific functions such as genome replication or particle assembly. Viral compartments may contain host organelle membranes or they may be mainly composed of viral proteins. These compartments are often termed: inclusion bodies (IBs, viroplasms or viral factories. The same virus may form more than one type of IB, each with different functions, as illustrated by the plant pararetrovirus, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV. CaMV forms two distinct types of IBs in infected plant cells, those composed mainly of the viral proteins P2 (which are responsible for transmission of CaMV by insect vectors and P6 (required for viral intra-and inter-cellular infection, respectively. P6 IBs are the major focus of this review. Much of our understanding of the formation and function of P6 IBs comes from the analyses of their major protein component, P6. Over time, the interactions and functions of P6 have been gradually elucidated. Coupled with new technologies, such as fluorescence microscopy with fluorophore-tagged viral proteins, these data complement earlier work and provide a clearer picture of P6 IB formation. As the activities and interactions of the viral proteins have gradually been determined, the functions of P6 IBs have become clearer. This review integrates the current state of knowledge on the formation and function of P6 IBs to produce a coherent model for the activities mediated by these sophisticated virus-manufacturing machines.

  2. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  3. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  4. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  5. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  6. Blueprints for viral capsids in the family of polyomaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keef, T; Twarock, R; Elsawy, K M

    2008-08-21

    In a seminal paper, Caspar and Klug [1962. Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 1-24] derived a family of surface lattices as blueprints for the structural organisation of the protein shells, called viral capsids, which encapsulate and hence protect the viral genome. These lattices schematically encode, and hence predict, the locations of the proteins in the viral capsids. Despite the huge success and numerous applications of this theory in virology, experimental results have provided evidence for the fact that it is too restrictive to describe all known viruses [Casjens, S., 1985. Virus Structure and Assembly. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA]. Especially, the family of Polyomaviridae, which contains cancer-causing viruses, falls out of the scope of this theory. In [Twarock, R., 2004. A tiling approach to virus capsid assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477], we have shown that a member of the family of Polyomaviridae can be described via an icosahedrally symmetric tiling. We show here that all viruses in this family can be described by tilings with vertices corresponding to subsets of a quasi-lattice that is constructed based on an affine extended Coxeter group, and we use this methodology to derive their coordinates explicitly. Since the particles appear as different subsets of the same quasi-lattice, their relative sizes are predicted by this approach, and there hence exists only one scaling factor that relates the sizes of all particles collectively to their biological counterparts. It is the first mathematical result that provides a common organisational principle for different types of viral particles in the family of Polyomaviridae, and paves the way for modelling Polyomaviridae polymorphism.

  7. Transmission of equine influenza virus during an outbreak is characterized by frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Allen, Richard C; Baguelin, Marc; Hampson, Katie; Baillie, Gregory J; Elton, Debra; Newton, J Richard; Kellam, Paul; Wood, James L N; Holmes, Edward C; Murcia, Pablo R

    2012-12-01

    The ability of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to cross species barriers and evade host immunity is a major public health concern. Studies on the phylodynamics of IAVs across different scales - from the individual to the population - are essential for devising effective measures to predict, prevent or contain influenza emergence. Understanding how IAVs spread and evolve during outbreaks is critical for the management of epidemics. Reconstructing the transmission network during a single outbreak by sampling viral genetic data in time and space can generate insights about these processes. Here, we obtained intra-host viral sequence data from horses infected with equine influenza virus (EIV) to reconstruct the spread of EIV during a large outbreak. To this end, we analyzed within-host viral populations from sequences covering 90% of the infected yards. By combining gene sequence analyses with epidemiological data, we inferred a plausible transmission network, in turn enabling the comparison of transmission patterns during the course of the outbreak and revealing important epidemiological features that were not apparent using either approach alone. The EIV populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity, and in many cases we observed distinct viral populations containing a dominant variant and a number of related minor variants that were transmitted between infectious horses. In addition, we found evidence of frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks in these naturally occurring populations. These frequent mixed infections likely influence the size of epidemics.

  8. Transmission of equine influenza virus during an outbreak is characterized by frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hughes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of influenza A viruses (IAVs to cross species barriers and evade host immunity is a major public health concern. Studies on the phylodynamics of IAVs across different scales - from the individual to the population - are essential for devising effective measures to predict, prevent or contain influenza emergence. Understanding how IAVs spread and evolve during outbreaks is critical for the management of epidemics. Reconstructing the transmission network during a single outbreak by sampling viral genetic data in time and space can generate insights about these processes. Here, we obtained intra-host viral sequence data from horses infected with equine influenza virus (EIV to reconstruct the spread of EIV during a large outbreak. To this end, we analyzed within-host viral populations from sequences covering 90% of the infected yards. By combining gene sequence analyses with epidemiological data, we inferred a plausible transmission network, in turn enabling the comparison of transmission patterns during the course of the outbreak and revealing important epidemiological features that were not apparent using either approach alone. The EIV populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity, and in many cases we observed distinct viral populations containing a dominant variant and a number of related minor variants that were transmitted between infectious horses. In addition, we found evidence of frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks in these naturally occurring populations. These frequent mixed infections likely influence the size of epidemics.

  9. HPV disease transmission protection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Christensen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs represent a large collection of viral types associated with significant clinical disease of cutaneous and mucosal epithelium. HPV-associated cancers are found in anogenital and oral mucosa, and at various cutaneous sites. Papillomaviruses are highly species and tissue restricted, and these viruses display both mucosotropic, cutaneotropic or dual tropism for epithelial tissues. A subset of HPV types, predominantly mucosal, are also oncogenic and cancers with these HPV types account for more than 200,000 deaths world-wide. Host control of HPV infections requires both innate and adaptive immunity, but the viruses have developed strategies to escape immune detection. Viral proteins can disrupt both innate pathogen-sensing pathways and T-cell based recognition and subsequent destruction of infected tissues. Current treatments to manage HPV infections include mostly ablative strategies in which recurrences are common and only active disease is treated. Although much is known about the papillomavirus life cycle, viral protein functions, and immune responsiveness, we still lack knowledge in a number of key areas of PV biology including tissue tropism, site-specific cancer progression, codon usage profiles, and what are the best strategies to mount an effective immune response to the carcinogenic stages of PV disease. In this review, disease transmission, protection and control are discussed together with questions related to areas in PV biology that will continue to provide productive opportunities of discovery and to further our understanding of this diverse set of human viral pathogens.

  10. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  11. Quantification of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Transmission Rates Using Published Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers

  12. Combining epidemiological and genetic networks signifies the importance of early treatment in HIV-1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarrabi, N.; Prosperi, M.; Belleman, R.G.; Colafigli, M.; De Luca, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring disease transmission networks is important in epidemiology in order to understand and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Reconstruction of the infection transmission networks requires insight into viral genome data as well as social interactions. For the HIV-1 epidemic, current

  13. Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral