#### Sample records for vertical pneumatic conveying

1. Pneumatic conveying design guide

CERN Document Server

Mills, David

1990-01-01

Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide is a guide for the design of pneumatic conveying systems and includes detailed data and information on the conveying characteristics of a number of materials with a wide range of properties. This book includes logic diagrams for design procedures and scaling parameters for the conveying line configuration. It also explains how to improve the performance of pneumatic conveyors by optimizing, uprating, and extending the system or adapting it for a change of material. This book consists of 15 chapters divided into three sections and opens with an overview of the s

2. Particle segregation in pneumatic conveying lines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

McGlinchey, D.; Marjanovic, P.; Cook, S.; Jones, M.G. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

2000-07-01

This investigation studied segregation of particles during pneumatic transport from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Dilute phase or suspension flow and dense phase (non-suspension flow) were both considered. A computer model was generated based on the conservation equations to investigate dilute phase conditions; an initial qualitative investigation of material behaviour being conveyed in dense phase was made with plastic pellets and salt as a segregating mixture in a small test rig and the results from a full scale test rig conveying two grades of coal of different size distributions are discussed. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

3. Investigating the grindability effect of loose material conveyed pneumatically

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bandrowski, J.; Fitka, H.; Krajzel, J.; Raczek, J.; Kaczmarzyk, G.

1979-10-01

Presents a mathematical analysis of the grindability effect during pneumatic conveying of coal, coke breeze and ash. Mathematical grindability models are shown. The dependence of the grindability effect of the transported material on the following factors is analyzed: diameter of the grains, speed of their flow, concentration of grains in the air within the conveying system and the conveying time. It is noted that the results of the analysis are identical with the results of investigations described in the literature. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

4. Research status on hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system in HTR-PM

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Tianjin; Zhang He; Huang Zhiyong; Q, Weiwei; Bo Hanliang

2014-01-01

The absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor was a special application of pneumatic conveying technique. The whole conveying process was an intermittent circulation of absorber spheres between the side reflector boring and the sphere storage vessel in the reactor. The absorber spheres were designed to drop into the reflector borings by its own gravity when the sphere discharge valve was opened by the driving mechanism. The absorber spheres in the reflector boring were transported back to the sphere storage vessel when the reactor needs to be started up. The hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior characteristics of the absorber spheres were very important for the design and operation of this special pneumatic conveying system. The whole conveying process of absorber spheres was consisted of four subprocesses, i.e. the spheres discharge from the sphere storage vessel and the side reflector boring, entrainment of spheres in the feeder, conveying of spheres in the transport pipe, gas-solid separation and pile of spheres in the sphere storage vessel. The research status on hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior of the absorber spheres in the pneumatic conveying system of HTR-PM were introduced mainly from the viewpoint of granular flow and gas-solid flow. The experimental systems and apparatus constructed and numerical simulation work conducted for absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process investigation were introduced. Some typical experimental and numerical simulation results of the hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior characteristics of the absorber spheres conveying were briefly reported. (author)

5. Transport Velocities of Different Particulate Materials in Pneumatic Conveying

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

2006-01-01

Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 74-77 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization * particle processing * pneumatic conveying Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

6. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

2014-04-01

This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

7. Pneumatic conveying of sensitive compounds during nuclear fuel fabrication

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sielck, Franz-Christian; Braehler, Georg [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

2009-07-01

Any transport of nuclear material is associated with the risk of contamination after release into working areas or environment. stationary installed safe geometry vessels with pneumatic transfer between them offer unique safety features and reduce operating costs. The article describes the case of HTR fuel spheres, where a specially designed conveying system has been developed and the prototype conveyor has been tested.

8. Pneumatic conveying of sensitive compounds during nuclear fuel fabrication

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sielck, Franz-Christian; Braehler, Georg

2009-01-01

Any transport of nuclear material is associated with the risk of contamination after release into working areas or environment. stationary installed safe geometry vessels with pneumatic transfer between them offer unique safety features and reduce operating costs. The article describes the case of HTR fuel spheres, where a specially designed conveying system has been developed and the prototype conveyor has been tested.

9. Integrated DEM-CFD modeling of the contact charging of pneumatically conveyed powders

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Korevaar, M.W.; Padding, J.T.; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

2014-01-01

A model is proposed that incorporates contact charging (also known as triboelectric charging) of pneumatically conveyed powders in a DEM–CFD framework, which accounts for the electrostatic interactions, both between particles and between the particles and conducting walls. The simulation results

10. Integrated DEM–CFD modeling of the contact charging of pneumatically conveyed powders

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Korevaar, M.W.; Padding, J.T.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.

2014-01-01

A model is proposed that incorporates contact charging (also known as triboelectric charging) of pneumatically conveyed powders in a DEM–CFD framework, which accounts for the electrostatic interactions, both between particles and between the particles and conducting walls. The simulation results

11. Study on flow regimes of high-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lu Peng; Chen Xiaoping; Liang Cai; Pu Wenhao; Zhou Yun; Xu Pan; Zhao Changsui

2009-01-01

High-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal is a key technology in the field of large-scale entrained bed coal gasification. Flow regime plays an important role in two-phase flow because it affects not only flow behavior and safety operation, but also the reliability of practical processes. Few references and experiences in high-pressure and dense-phase conveying are available, especially for the flow regimes. And because of the high stickiness and electrostatic attraction of pulverized coal to the pipe wall, it is very difficult to make out the flow regimes in the conveying pipe by visualization method. Thus quartz powder was chosen as the conveyed material to study the flow regime. High-speed digital video camera was employed to photograph the flow patterns. Experiments were conducted on a pilot scale experimental setup at the pressure up to 3.6MPa. With the decrease in superficial gas velocity, three distinguishable flow regimes were observed: stratified flow, dune flow and plug flow. The characteristics of pressure traces acquired by high frequency response pressure transmitter and their EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition) characteristics were correlated strongly with the flow regimes. Combining high-speed photography and pressure signal analysis together can make the recognition of flow patterns in the high-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying system more accurate. The present work will lead to better understanding of the flow regime transition under high-pressure.

12. Investigation on wear behavior of graphite baII under different pneumatic conveying environments

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chen Zhipeng; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Yu Suyuan

2014-01-01

An experimental platform was built in the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) to investigate the wear behavior of the graphite ball under the operational condition of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel handling system. In this experimental platform, a series of experiments were carried out under different pneumatic conveying environments with the graphite balls, which were made of the material same as the fuel element matrix graphite (A3) of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR-10). The effect of the pneumatic conveying condition on the wear rate of graphite ball has been investigated, and the results include: (1) There is an obvious linear relationship between the wear rate and the feeding velocity of graphite ball elevated in the stainless steel elevating tube, and the wear rate will increase with the increase of the feeding velocity. (2) The wear rate of graphite ball under helium environment is significantly greater than that under air and nitrogen environments, which is caused by the different effects of various gas environments on mechanical properties of graphite. (author)

13. Modeling and Application of Pneumatic Conveying for Spherical Fuel Element in Pebble-Bed Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhou Shuyong; Wang Junsan; Wang Yuding; Cai Ruizhong; Zhang Xuan; Cao Jianting

2014-01-01

The fuel handling system is an important system for on-load refueling in pebble-bed modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. A dynamic model of pneumatic conveying for spherical fuel element in fuel handling system was established to describe the pneumatically conveying process. The motion characteristics of fuel elements in pipeline and the effect of fuel elements on gas velocity were studied using the model. The results show that the theoretical analyses are consistent with the experimental. The research has been used in developing full scope simulator for pebble-bed modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, also provides references for the design and optimization of the fuel handling system. (author)

14. Experimental and numerical study of granular flow characteristics of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang He; Li Tianjin; Qi Weiwei; Huang Zhiyong; Bo Hanliang

2014-01-01

Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system is the main part of absorber sphere shutdown system and closely related to granular flow. Granular flow characteristics, such as mass flow rate, angle of repose, contact forces, etc., are crucial important for the optimization of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process. Mass flow rate of granular flow through the sphere discharge valve and the bend tube are significant for the time of ball dropping and the time of conveying back rate, respectively. Experiments and DEM simulations have been conducted to investigate the granular flow characteristics. Experimental results showed that the relation between average mass flow rate through the sphere discharge valve and the valve stroke was composed of three zones i. e. the idle stroke zone, linearly zone and orifice restriction zone. The Beverloo's law was suitable for the granular flow through the multi-orifice during the orifice restriction zone. The variation of average mass flow rate with the valve stroke could be described by modified Beverloo's law based on the valve stroke. DEM simulation results showed that the drained angle of repose remained 23° at different valve strokes. Mass flow rate during steady granular flow through the sphere discharge valve at different valve strokes kept stable. The variation of mass flow rate through a bend tube was different from that through a circular orifice. (author)

15. Development of a multi-functional scarifier dislodger with an integral pneumatic conveyance retrieval system for single-shell tank remediation. FY93 summary report

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bamberger, J.A.; McKinnon, M.A.; Alberts, D.A.; Steele, D.E.; Crowe, C.T.

1994-10-01

The Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) is evaluating several hydraulic dislodger concepts and retrieval technologies to develop specifications for system that can retrieve wastes from single-shell tanks. Each of the dislodgers will be evaluated sequentially to determine its ability to fracture and dislodge various waste simulants such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid. The retrieval methods will be evaluated to determine their ability to convey this dislodged material from the tank. This report describes on-going research that commenced in FY93 to develop specifications for a scarifier dislodger coupled with a pneumatic conveyance retrieval system. The scarifier development is described in Section 3; pneumatic conveyance development is described in Section 4. Preliminary system specifications are listed in Section 5. FY94 plans are summarized in Section 6

16. Ultrasonic detection of solid phase mass flow ratio of pneumatic conveying fly ash

Science.gov (United States)

Duan, Guang Bin; Pan, Hong Li; Wang, Yong; Liu, Zong Ming

2014-04-01

In this paper, ultrasonic attenuation detection and weight balance are adopted to evaluate the solid mass ratio in this paper. Fly ash is transported on the up extraction fluidization pneumatic conveying workbench. In the ultrasonic test. McClements model and Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law model were applied to formulate the ultrasonic attenuation properties of gas-solid flow, which can give the solid mass ratio. While in the method of weigh balance, the averaged mass addition per second can reveal the solids mass flow ratio. By contrast these two solid phase mass ratio detection methods, we can know, the relative error is less.

17. Hazard of electrostatic generation in a pneumatic conveying system: electrostatic effects on the accuracy of electrical capacitance tomography measurements and generation of spark

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Liang, Yung Chii

2008-01-01

The study of the hazard of electrostatic generation in pneumatic conveying systems was attempted by examining the sensitivity of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and the phenomena of spark generation due to strong electrostatics. The influence on ECT measurement accuracy of an electrostatic charge was analysed with reference to a switch capacitor configuration model. Consequently, it was found that the electrostatic charge introduced at the bend with sharp angles influenced the ECT results most significantly in pneumatic conveying systems, especially for the cases where a spark was generated. The investigation of spark generation indicated that a strong electrostatic charge can cause major discharges inside or outside the pipeline to damage the experimental instrument in severe cases

18. Vertical-Screw-Auger Conveyer Feeder

Science.gov (United States)

Walton, Otis (Inventor); Vollmer, Hubert J. (Inventor)

2016-01-01

A conical feeder is attached to a vertically conveying screw auger. The feeder is equipped with scoops and rotated from the surface to force-feed regolith the auger. Additional scoops are possible by adding a cylindrical section above the conical funnel section. Such then allows the unit to collect material from swaths larger in diameter than the enclosing casing pipe of the screw auger. A third element includes a flexible screw auger. All three can be used in combination in microgravity and zero atmosphere environments to drill and recover a wide area of subsurface regolith and entrained volatiles through a single access point on the surface.

19. Development of a pneumatic transfer system for HTGR recycle fuel particles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mack, J.E.; Johnson, D.R.

1978-02-01

In support of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Fuel Refabrication Development Program, an experimental pneumatic transfer system was constructed to determine the feasibility of pneumatically conveying pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles of Triso and Biso designs. Tests were conducted with these particles in each of their nonpyrophoric forms to determine pressure drops, particle velocities, and gas flow requirements during pneumatic transfer as well as to evaluate particle wear and breakage. Results indicated that the material can be pneumatically conveyed at low pressures without excessive damage to the particles or their coatings

20. Measurement of the neutron flux distributions, epithermal index, Westcott thermal neutron flux in the irradiation capsules of hydraulic conveyer (Hyd) and pneumatic tubes (Pn) facilities of the KUR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chatani, Hiroshi

2001-05-01

The reactions of Au(n, γ) 198 Au and Ti(n, p) 47 or 48 Sc were used for the measurements of the thermal and epithermal (thermal + epithermal) and the fast neutron flux distributions, respectively. In the case of Hyd (Hydraulic conveyer), the thermal + epithermal and fast neutron flux distributions in the horizontal direction in the capsule are especially flat; the distortion of the fluxes are 0.6% and 5.4%, respectively. However, these neutron fluxes in the vertical direction are low at the top and high at the bottom of the capsule. These differences between the top and bottom are 14% for both distributions. On the other hand, in polyethylene capsules of Pn-1, 2, 3 (Pneumatic tubes Nos. 1, 2, 3), in contrast with Hyd, these neutron flux distributions in the horizontal direction have gradients of 8 - 18% per 2.5 cm diameter, and those on the vertical axis have a distortion of approximately 5%. The strength of the epithermal dE/E component relative to the neutron density including both thermal and epithermal neutrons, i.e., the epithermal index, for the hydraulic conveyer (Hyd) and pneumatic tube No.2 (Pn-2), in which the irradiation experiments can be achieved, are determined by the multiple foil activation method using the reactions of Au(n, γ) 198 Au and Co(n, γ) 60(m+g) Co. The epithermal index observed in an aluminum capsule of Hyd is 0.034-0.04, and the Westcott thermal neutron flux is 1.2x10 14 cm -2 sec -1 at approximately 1 cm above the bottom. The epithermal index in a Pn-2 polyethylene capsule was measured by not only the multiple foil activation method but also the Cd-ratio method in which the Au(n, γ) 198 Au reaction in a cadmium cover is also used. The epithermal index is 0.045 - 0.055, and the thermal neutron flux is 1.8x10 13 cm -2 sec -1 . (J.P.N.)

1. Practical pneumatics

CERN Document Server

Stacey, Chris

2012-01-01

Pneumatic power is ideal for the ever increasing range of 'light' applications in which a cheap, clean, adaptable source of power is needed. Used in conjunction with microprocessor control it forms the basis of manufacturing automation from basic conveying and handling lines to complex robotic assembly systems. Training courses and books aimed at the technician have not kept pace with these developments. This book is written to cover the British Fluid Power Association Pneumatics Certificate, which is also awarded as part of CGLI scheme 2340, and is in the process of NVQ accreditation at level

2. The Pneumatic Actuators As Vertical Dynamic Load Simulators On Medium Weighted Wheel Suspension Mechanism

Science.gov (United States)

Ka'ka, Simon; Himran, Syukri; Renreng, Ilyas; Sutresman, Onny

2018-02-01

3. DEM study of granular discharge rate through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet in small absorber sphere system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Li, Tianjin, E-mail: tjli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, He; Liu, Malin; Huang, Zhiyong; Bo, Hanliang; Dong, Yujie

2017-04-01

Highlights: • The work concerns granular flow in a vertical pipe with a bend. • Discharge rate fluctuation in vertical pipe are mainly from velocity fluctuation. • Steady discharge rate decreases rapidly and saturates with μ{sub s} increasing. • Steady discharge rate W{sub s} still obey the 5/2 power law of pipe internal diameter. • A correlation developed for steady discharge rate for this new geometry. - Abstract: Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying is a special application of pneumatic conveying technique in the pebble bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR or HTR). Granular discharge through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet is one of the control modes to determine solid mass flowrate which is an important parameter for the design of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying. Granular discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet in the small absorber sphere system are investigated by discrete element method simulation. The effect of geometry parameters on discharge rate, the discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe, and the effect of friction on steady discharge rate (W{sub s}) are analyzed and discussed. The phenomena of discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe are observed, which are mainly resulted from the evolution of the average downward granular velocity. The steady discharge rate decreases rapidly with sliding friction coefficient increasing from 0.125 to 0.5, and gradually saturates with the friction coefficient further increasing from 0.5 to 1. It is interesting that the linear relation between W{sub s}{sup 2/5} and pipe internal diameter D with zero intercept are found for the vertical pipe discharge with a bend outlet, which is different from the orifice discharge through a hopper or silo with none-zero intercept. A correlation similar to Beverloo’s correlation is developed to predict the steady discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet. These results are helpful for the design of sphere

4. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

Science.gov (United States)

Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

2011-01-01

This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

5. Preliminary Design and Experimental Investigation of a Novel Pneumatic Conveying Method to Disperse Natural Fibers in Thermoset Polymers

Science.gov (United States)

Fahimian, Mahi; Kortschot, Mark; Sain, Mohini

2016-01-01

Natural fibers can be attractive reinforcing materials in thermosetting polymers due to their low density and high specific mechanical properties. Although the research effort in this area has grown substantially over the last 20 years, manufacturing technologies to make use of short natural fibers in high volume fraction composites; are still limited. Natural fibers, after retting and preprocessing, are discontinuous and easily form entangled bundles. Dispersion and mixing these short fibers with resin to manufacture high quality, high volume fraction composites presents a significant challenge. In this paper, a novel pneumatic design for dispersion of natural fibers in their original discontinuous form is described. In this design, compressed air is used to create vacuum to feed and convey fibres while breaking down fibre clumps and dispersing them in an aerosolized resin stream. Model composite materials, made using proof-of-concept prototype equipment, were imaged with both optical and X-ray tomography to evaluate fibre and resin dispersion. The images indicated that the system was capable of providing an intimate mixture of resin and detangled fibres for two different resin viscosities. The new pneumatic process could serve as the basis of a system to produce well-dispersed high-volume fraction composites containing discontinuous natural fibres drawn directly from a loosely packed source. PMID:28773670

6. Preliminary Design and Experimental Investigation of a Novel Pneumatic Conveying Method to Disperse Natural Fibers in Thermoset Polymers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mahi Fahimian

2016-07-01

Full Text Available Natural fibers can be attractive reinforcing materials in thermosetting polymers due to their low density and high specific mechanical properties. Although the research effort in this area has grown substantially over the last 20 years, manufacturing technologies to make use of short natural fibers in high volume fraction composites; are still limited. Natural fibers, after retting and preprocessing, are discontinuous and easily form entangled bundles. Dispersion and mixing these short fibers with resin to manufacture high quality, high volume fraction composites presents a significant challenge. In this paper, a novel pneumatic design for dispersion of natural fibers in their original discontinuous form is described. In this design, compressed air is used to create vacuum to feed and convey fibres while breaking down fibre clumps and dispersing them in an aerosolized resin stream. Model composite materials, made using proof-of-concept prototype equipment, were imaged with both optical and X-ray tomography to evaluate fibre and resin dispersion. The images indicated that the system was capable of providing an intimate mixture of resin and detangled fibres for two different resin viscosities. The new pneumatic process could serve as the basis of a system to produce well-dispersed high-volume fraction composites containing discontinuous natural fibres drawn directly from a loosely packed source.

7. Numerical investigation of influence on heat transfer characteristics to pneumatically conveyed dense phase flow by selecting models and boundary conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Y.; Liu, Q.; Li, Y.

2012-03-01

Solids moving with a gas stream in a pipeline can be found in many industrial processes, such as power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and commodity transfer processes. A mass flow rate of the solids is important characteristic that is often required to be measured (and controlled) to achieve efficient utilization of energy and raw materials in pneumatic conveying systems. The methods of measuring the mass flow rate of solids in a pneumatic pipeline can be divided into direct and indirect (inferential) measurements. A thermal solids' mass flow-meter, in principle, should ideally provide a direct measurement of solids flow rate, regardless of inhomogeneities in solids' distribution and environmental impacts. One key issue in developing a thermal solids' mass flow-meter is to characterize the heat transfer between the hot pipe wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow. The Eulerian continuum modeling with gas-solid two phases is the most common method for pneumatic transport. To model a gas-solid dense phase flow passing through a heated region, the gas phase is described as a continuous phase and the particles as the second phase. This study aims to describe the heat transfer characteristics between the hot wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow in pneumatic pipelines by modeling a turbulence gas-solid plug passing through the heated region which involves several actual and crucial issues: selections of interphase exchange coefficient, near-wall region functions and different wall surface temperatures. A sensitivity analysis was discussed to identify the influence on the heat transfer characteristics by selecting different interphase exchange coefficient models and different boundary conditions. Simulation results suggest that sensitivity analysis in the choice of models is very significant. The simulation results appear to show that a combination of choosing the Syamlal-O'Brien interphase exchange coefficient model and the standard k-ɛ model along with

8. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Qian, Xiangchen; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao

2012-01-01

Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass–coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow. (paper)

9. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

2012-08-01

Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

10. Comparison of a pneumatic conveyor and bucket elevator on an energy and economic basis

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rothwell, T.M.; Southwell, P.H. (Agricultural and Energy Engineering Ltd., Moorefield, ON (Canada)); Vigneault, C. (Agricultural Canada Research Station, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ (Canada))

1991-07-01

Tests were performed at a commercial feed mill which was replacing an existing pneumatic conveyor with a bucket elevator, in order to compare the performance of the two types of conveyor on an energy and cost basis. The conveyors were used to transport ground corn from a hammermill at an average grinding rate of 8.5 tonnes/h. At the same conveying rate of ground product, the pneumatic conveyor required a power of 27.5 kW and an energy of 4.77 kWh/tonne while the bucket elevator required a power of 4.7 kW and an energy of 0.88 kWh/tonne. The financial costs of conveying energy were \$8,350/y for the pneumatic system and \$1,540/y for the bucket elevator, excluding peak demand charges for electricity. The tests therefore demonstrated that a bucket elevator is far more efficient than a pneumatic conveyor and should be considered in the design of new feed mills. For existing mills, a bucket elevator should be considered if there are problems with the pneumatic system already in place or if the capacity of the mill needs to be increased. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

11. Considerations over the floating speed of a particle in vacuum pneumatic conveying sytems in flour milling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tanase Tanase

2016-06-01

Full Text Available The present paper is a theoretical study aiming for to assess the influence of the different factors such as deviation from the spherical form of a particle, specific mass load of the pneumatic conveying pipe and the report between the particle diameter and the pipe diameter, over the floating speed of a particle. For a non-spherical particle, the Magnus force is affecting the floating speed of the given particle by increasing or decreasing it. The equation deducted within the present study, describes the movement of a particle or a fluid swirl under the resultant force with emphasis on the evaluation of the nature and magnitude of the Magnus force. The same Magnus Force explains the movement of the swirls in fluids, as for the wind swirls (hurricane or water swirls. The next part of the study relate the report between the particle diameter and the pipe diameter as well as the specific loads of the pipe, to the same floating speed. A differentiation in denominating the floating speed is proposed as well as that for the non-spherical particle the floating speed should be a domain, rather than a single value.

12. Minimum pickup velocity (U{sub pu}) of nanoparticles in gas–solid pneumatic conveying

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anantharaman, Aditya [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Ommen, J. Ruud van [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Netherlands); Chew, Jia Wei, E-mail: JChew@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore)

2015-12-15

This paper is the first systematic study of the pneumatic conveying of nanoparticles. The minimum pickup velocity, U{sub pu}, of six nanoparticle species of different materials [i.e., silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})] and surfaces (i.e., apolar and polar) was determined by the weight loss method. Results show that (1) due to relative lack of hydrogen bonding, apolar nanoparticles had higher mass loss values at the same velocities, mass loss curves with accentuated S-shaped profiles, and lower U{sub pu} values, (2) among the three species, SiO{sub 2}, which has the lowest Hamaker coefficient, exhibited the greatest discrepancy between apolar and polar surfaces with respect to both mass loss curves and U{sub pu} values, (3) U{sub mf,polar}/U{sub mf,apolar} was between 1 and 3.5 times that of U{sub pu,polar}/U{sub pu,apolar} due to greater extents of hydrogen bonding associated with U{sub mf}, (4) U{sub pu} values were at least an order-of-magnitude lower than that expected from the well-acknowledged U{sub pu} correlation (Kalman et al., Powder Technol 160:103–113, 2005) due to agglomeration, (5) although nanoparticles should be categorized as Zone III (Kalman et al. 2005) (or Geldart group C, Powder Technol 7:285–292, 1973), the nanoparticles, and primary and complex agglomerates agreed more with the Zone I (or Geldart group B) correlation.

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yong Yan; Byrne, Ben; Coulthard, John

1994-01-01

The application of γ-ray attenuation methods to non-intrusive measurement of the solids content in pneumatic flow lines is discussed. An instrument employing a broad single-beam interrogation geometry and a single-element detector with uniform sensitivity profile is described. It is designed primarily for metering pulverized coal, where the solids concentration is typically very low, and also often highly inhomogeneous. A detailed analysis of the factors affecting measurement accuracy is presented, together with results obtained from laboratory tests. (author)

14. Pneumatic control system for rapid vertical rectangular movements of heavy loads

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Huettel, G; Krause, H [Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf bei Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

1975-01-01

A new control system has been developed in order to realize the physically necessary short transition times between the dead points of a pneumatic oscillator even for heavy loads and high working speeds. Integral element of this system is the external control of braking process provided for in addition to the end position brake installed in the working cylinder. This control system is applicable not only to pile oscillators, but also universally applicable to pneumatic apparatuses.

15. A pneumatic control system for rapid vertical rectangular movements of heavy loads

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Huettel, G.; Krause, H.

1975-01-01

A new control system has been developed in order to realize the physically necessary short transition times between the dead points of a pneumatic oscillator even for heavy loads and high working speeds. Integral element of this system is the external control of braking process provided for in addition to the end position brake installed in the working cylinder. This control system is applicable not only to pile oscillators, but also universally applicable to pneumatic apparatuses working like that. (author)

16. Pneumatic control technology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tae, Seong Gil; Kim, Won Hoe; Nam, Dae Hyun

1993-03-01

This book contains property of pneumatic pressure drive, pneumatic pressure device like air cleaning, pressure control, lubricators, air pressure pipe, kinds and function of pneumatic pressure equipment like pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic motor, flow control valve, direction control valve, design of pneumatic control circuit, pneumatic system design, cause and measurement of pneumatic circuit failure, PLC and pneumatic control like introduction and system application and method of PLC programing.

17. Experimental Study of Fuel Element Motion in HTR-PM Conveying Pipelines

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Xin; Zhang Haiquan; Nie Junfeng; Li Hongke; Liu Jiguo; He Ayada

2014-01-01

The motion action of sphere fuel element (FE) inside fuel pipelines in HTR-PM is indeterminate. Fuel motion is closely connected with the interaction of FE and inner surface of fuel conveying pipe. In this paper, motion method of fuel elements in its conveying pipe is Experimental studied. Combined with the measurement of the fuel passing speed in stainless steel pipe and the track left by sphere ball for experiment, interaction modes of fuel and inner-surface of pipe, which is sliding friction, rolling friction and Collision, has been found. The modes of interaction can affect the speed of fuel conveying, amount of sphere waste and operation stability of fuel handling of high temperature reactor-pebble bed modules (HTR-PM). Furthermore, the motion process of fuel passing a big-elbow which is lying on the top of fuel pneumatic hoisting pipe were experimented. The result shows that the speed before and the speed after the elbow is positive correlation. But with the increase of speed before the elbow, the speed after the elbow increase less. Meanwhile the fuel conveying mode changes from friction to collision. And the conveying process is still steady. The effect can be used to controlling the speed of fuel conveying in fuel handling process of HTR-PM. (author)

18. Waste dislodging and conveyance testing summary and conclusions to date

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rinker, M.W.; Hatchell, B.K.; Mullen, O.D.

1994-09-01

This document summarizes recent work performed by the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance technology development program to provide assistance with the retrieval of wastes from the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). This work is sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Office with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. A baseline technology of high-pressure water-jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier is proposed as a means of retrieval. The tests and studies described were performed to demonstrate that at least one robust technology exists that could be effectively used with low water-addition arm-based systems. These results are preliminary and do not represent an optimized baseline. The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance work thus far has demonstrated that waterjet mobilization and air conveyance can mobilize and convey SST waste simulants at the target rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of deployment devices. The recommended technologies are well proven in industrial applications and are quite robust, yet lightweight and relatively benign to the retrieval environment. The baseline approach has versatility to continuously dislodge and convey a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes. The approach also has the major advantage of being noncontact with the waste surface under normal operation

19. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

2011-08-20

The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

20. Flow parameter determination in pneumatic dilute phase flow applications; Foerderparameterbestimmung in pneumatischen Duennstrom-Transportanwendungen

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuchs, A.; Zangl, H.; Brasseur, G. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Messsignalverarbeitung

2007-07-01

This paper investigates possible approaches towards the development of a flowmeter that allows the determination of the material velocity and the material concentration in pneumatically conveyed bulk solids. These two flow parameters yield the mass flow of material through the conveyor pipe. Measurement methods and sensor principles that satisfy requirements for the flowmeter have been realized as prototype-sensors and were tested in practical dilute phase conveying applications. In particular, the development and the application of optical principles, of a sensor based on spatial filtering, and a capacitive cross-correlation sensor are addressed in the present work. (orig.)

1. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.

1993-08-01

This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed

2. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mathew J Wedel

Full Text Available Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

3. Dreams of pneumatic servo and rail way cars in 2010; 2010 nen noyume kukiatsu servo to tetsudo sharyo

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sasaki, K. [Tokyo Precision Instruments Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-01-15

This paper describes pneumatic servo and railway cars. The comfort of railway cars is improved by reducing excess transverse centrifugal force, and longitudinal, transverse and vertical vibration. Pneumatic system plays a large role in the comfort. Pneumatic system is used for doors because of certain open/shut operation and protecting a hand caught in a door from excess tightening pressure. Pneumatic system is also used for mechanical brakes. Pneumatic spring for car suspensions improves the comfort considerably. The orifice and auxiliary tank of a pneumatic spring reduce a spring constant, and give damping to the vibration system of car bodies and springs. To reduce an outward excess centrifugal force by tilting a car body inward at curve, a body tilting equipment is used which is adopted for a pendulum car with pneumatic servo control, and a tilting car with height control of both side pneumatic springs. For transverse damping, semi-active equipment using oil damper is in wide use, while that using pneumatic servo is also in rial use. (NEDO)

4. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

Science.gov (United States)

Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

1976-01-01

NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

5. Linear pneumatic actuator

OpenAIRE

Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan

2017-01-01

The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

6. Linear pneumatic actuator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Avram Mihai

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

7. Laser-cutting pneumatics

OpenAIRE

Groenhuis, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano

2016-01-01

Pneumatic devices require tight tolerances to keep them leak-free. Specialized companies offer various off-the-shelf devices, while these work well for many applications, there are also situations where custom design and production of pneumatic parts are desired. Cost efficiency, design flexibility, rapid prototyping, and MRI compatibility requirements are reasons why we investigated a method to design and produce different pneumatic devices using a laser cutter from acrylic, acetal, and rubb...

8. Electro-Pneumatic Control System with Hydraulically Positioning Actuator Motor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. N. Pilgunov

2016-01-01

factors, which determine operation conditions of the pneumatic cylinder, have the impact on it. Experimental investigation of piston landing was conducted using the pneumatic cylinder with piston and rod diameters of 32 and 16 mm, respectively, at operating pressure of 0.8 MPa. With a vertical arrangement of the pneumatic cylinder axis, the control weights of a dead-weight pressure-gauge tester created a constant component of the load and its variation, and an indicator with resolution of 0.05 mm estimated a landing value. The article shows the calculated data of piston landing, which are in good compliance with the experimental results.To substantially reduce the piston landing for the holding period of the load varying in value and sign was designed a hydraulic positioner of pneumatic cylinder piston, and its operation quality is studied on the physical layout of electro-pneumatic control system operating in the discrete and tracking modes.For control system service, work programs of the programmable logic controller integrated in the control circuit of the hydraulic positioner in discrete mode, and, as a digital discriminator, in tracking mode are developed. In conclusion as a result of the research activities the article estimates the impact of factors on the quality of the load position at the time of its hold and notes a high efficiency of the hydraulic positioner of pneumatic cylinder piston both in discrete mode and in tracking one.

9. Improving dynamic performances of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems via a novel pneumatic circuit.

Science.gov (United States)

Taghizadeh, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Ali; Najafi, Farid

2009-10-01

In this paper, the effect of pneumatic circuit design on the input-output behavior of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems is investigated and their control performances are improved using linear controllers instead of complex and costly nonlinear ones. Generally, servo-pneumatic systems are well known for their nonlinear behavior. However, PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems have the advantage of flexibility in the design of pneumatic circuits which affects the input-output linearity of the whole system. A simple pneumatic circuit with only one fast switching valve is designed which leads to a quasi-linear input-output relation. The quasi-linear behavior of the proposed circuit is verified both experimentally and by simulations. Closed loop position control experiments are then carried out using linear P- and PD-controllers. Since the output position is noisy and cannot be directly differentiated, a Kalman filter is designed to estimate the velocity of the cylinder. Highly improved tracking performances are obtained using these linear controllers, compared to previous works with nonlinear controllers.

10. Laser-cutting pneumatics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Groenhuis, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano

Pneumatic devices require tight tolerances to keep them leak-free. Specialized companies offer various off-the-shelf devices, while these work well for many applications, there are also situations where custom design and production of pneumatic parts are desired. Cost efficiency, design flexibility,

11. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pietrala Dawid

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics. It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles shortening and values of loading forces, at a constant operational pressure (isobaric characteristics. It also shows the dependence of force generated by the muscle on the operating pressure, at a constant value of pneumatic muscles shortening (isometric characteristics. The paper also presents dynamic characteristics of a pneumatic muscle showing the response of an object to a gradual change in the operating pressure, at a constant loading force acting on the pneumatic muscle.

12. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

Science.gov (United States)

Pietrala, Dawid

The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics). It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles shortening and values of loading forces, at a constant operational pressure (isobaric characteristics). It also shows the dependence of force generated by the muscle on the operating pressure, at a constant value of pneumatic muscles shortening (isometric characteristics). The paper also presents dynamic characteristics of a pneumatic muscle showing the response of an object to a gradual change in the operating pressure, at a constant loading force acting on the pneumatic muscle.

13. Rotary pneumatic valve

Science.gov (United States)

Hardee, Harry C.

1991-01-01

A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

14. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

OpenAIRE

Pietrala Dawid

2017-01-01

The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics). It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles s...

15. Numerical simulation of 2D fluidized bed and slug-flow pnuematic conveying using the discrete element method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, Z.; Li, M.; Xie, Z.; Barron, R.M.

2002-01-01

In recent years, the two-fluids model in an Eulerian-Eulerian coordinate system has been the main tool for solving two-phase flow problems because of its convenient mathematical representation and its feasibility for large-scale computations. However, the assumptions of local equilibrium and continuity for the solid phase in the two-fluids model essentially mask the nonuniform and discontinuous features of the solid phase flow. This paper discusses a further study of the particle flow dynamics in two kinds of fluidized beds and a horizontal plug-flow pneumatic conveying pipe

16. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Akinobu Watanabe

Full Text Available Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1 highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2 anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3 apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4 a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

17. Equipment for extracting and conveying stratified minerals

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blumenthal, G.; Kunzer, H.; Plaga, K.

1991-08-14

This invention relates to equipment for extracting stratified minerals and conveying the said minerals along the working face, comprising a trough shaped conveyor run assembled from lengths, a troughed extraction run in lengths matching the lengths of conveyor troughing, which is linked to the top edge of the working face side of the conveyor troughing with freedom to swivel vertically, and a positively guided chain carrying extraction tools and scrapers along the conveyor and extraction runs.

18. 3-D pneumatic seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beliaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.V.; Kostarev, V.V.; Kuzmitchev, V.P.; Privalov, S.A.; Siro, V.A.; Krylova, I.N.; Dolgaya, A.A.; Uzdin, A.M.; Vasiliev, A.V.

2002-01-01

This paper describes the work carried at the Russian Federation Research Center of Fundamental Engineering (RCFE), in development of innovative pneumatic multicomponent low-frequency seismic isolation bearings for advanced nuclear power plants.This device incorporates both supporting spherical elements, which provide displacements in the horizontal direction, and pneumatic dampers with rubber diaphragms for displacement in the vertical direction. To decrease the relative displacements of the isolated object the system uses viscoelastic dampers. Damping devices had been specially elaborated for the reactor building seismic isolation system as a result of substantial advances in the design and operation of the HD-type hydrodampers, created at the CKTI VIBROSEISM. The procedures developed have been used for comparison of the test and computer data on model isolated steel structure (MISS) and isolated rigid mass (IRM) isolators produced by ENEA and KAERI. Most recent work has concentrated on the development of mathematical models of isolators and isolated nuclear structures. Force-deformation characteristics of the HDRB model had been calculated on the basis of a special method of non-linear elastic theory using the continual transformations method. (author)

19. Synthesis of Servo Pneumatic/Hydraulic Drive

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

K D. Efremova

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Servo pneumatic and / or hydraulic drives are widely used in modern engineering and process control. The efficiency of using pneumatic / hydraulic drives depends on their parameters and characteristics. To select the optimal drive parameters, various methods are used, based on finding the minimum of the target (target or criteria function.The objective of this paper was to apply one crucial criterion (target function that provides determination of optimal parameters of the pneumatic / hydraulic drive with the translational motion of the end-effector as well as its use in the synthesis of the servo pneumatic cylinder. The article shows the form of the target function representing a set of drive parameters that do not have direct relationships with each other in a dimensionless form for the pneumatic / hydraulic drive with the translational motion of the end-effector. To calculate the parameters of the servo drive close to the optimal ones, a two-criteria LPτ search was used. As criteria, were used the decisive criterion - the proposed target function, and the power developed by the actuator of the pneumatic / hydraulic drive, which were presented in a dimensionless form. It is shown that the criterion for solution optimality is the minimum distance of the selected point in the space of the normalized criteria from the origin. This point was determined. In addition to the proposed criteria, non-formalised requirements were taken into account: actual and mass-produced components of drive, in terms of which its parameters close to the optimal ones were determined, and the maximum relative error of the obtained useful power value of the servo pneumatic drive was estimated. The paper presents design features of two types of the servo pneumatic drive created, taking into account the proposed target function, implemented according to the schemes "hidden" and "spaced apart". The experimental static characteristic of the servo pneumatic drive is

20. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

Science.gov (United States)

Polsky, Yarom [Albuquerque, NM

2011-08-30

A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

1. Dust emissions eliminated in pneumatic harvesting

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kallio, M.

1998-01-01

Pneumatic harvesting is the most efficient milled peat production method in unsteady weather conditions. In good summers, the best contractors harvest more than 1 000 m 3 /ha milled peat from suitable production fields. The greatest problem of the method is caused by dust emissions, in particular in fields close to settled areas. About 15 % of Finland's present peat production is collected using pneumatic harvesters. A pneumatic harvester with smaller dust emissions has been developed by VTT Energy and Vapo Oy. The wagon is based on two-stage separation of peat. The main part of the coarser milled peat is first separated, e.g. in a settling chamber, and fine dry peat dust in correctly dimensioned side by side cyclones. The first series of pneumatic harvesters based on the new separation technology was employed in summer 1996. Besides decreasing the dust emissions the harvesting capacity of the new equipment was increased. The collection capacity of the pneumatic harvester can be made more effective by enlarging the container size, be decreasing the weight, by increasing the driving speed and by developing the suction capacity. Using lighter and durable construction materials combined with advanced design lighter and stronger pneumatic harvesters have been constructed. Nozzles and their mounting have also been developed. In the improvement of nozzles, the former studies with pneumatic simulator of VTT Energy, have been of great help. Studies with the pneumatic simulator and field conditions have been made in collaboration with Turveruukki Oy, Turvemetalli Oy, Raussin Metalli Oy and Vapo Oy, as well as VNIITP of St. Petersburg, Russia

2. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guido Belforte

2014-05-01

Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

3. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Deaconescu Tudor

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

4. Revisiting the Closed-Loop Pneumatic Drive Design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

K D. Efremova

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Compressibility of air used as a working medium in pneumatic control systems raise certain difficulties in calculating dynamic characteristics of the pneumatic drive and solving problems of its regulation. These difficulties are due to a number of factors:   - flow of compressed air through the narrow working splits of distributive and throttling devices of pneumatic control;   - filling in and discharging the pneumatic actuator cavities of variable volume (piston and rod cavities of the air-cylinder under conditions of heat and mass transfer;   - simultaneous filling in and discharging a pneumatic cavity of permanent volume (receiver;   - pneumatic cylinder piston end positioning alteration under variable loading and at the moment of shutdown;A number of factors have a significant impact on the piston end positioning alteration value, namely an initial positioning of the piston at the moment of its shutdown, which determines the volume of the pneumatic cylinder cavity; a value of the permanent component of the load at the moment the piston shuts down and its change during keeping time period; transmission coefficient of the positioning component of the load; a working area of the air-cylinder piston and also an atmospheric pressure reduction, which can significantly affect the operation of control systems of a small aircraft at high altitudes.With a view to deepening the problem of calculation and design of pneumatic actuators, it is shown that the relationship between the parameters of compressed air and their changes is determined by the properties of thermodynamic processes under conditions of heat and mass transfer. In pneumatic actuators for general industrial use, the pressure of compressed air does not exceed a value equal to 1 MPa. In this case, the working medium can be regarded as an ideal gas in simplified calculations.Based on the general equation of thermodynamics, the paper considers the particular cases of a changing gas

5. Pneumatic automation systems in coal mines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shmatkov, N.A.; Kiklevich, Yu.N.

1981-04-01

Giprougleavtomatizatsiya, Avtomatgormash, Dongiprouglemash, VNIIGD and other plants develop 30 new pneumatic systems for mine machines and equipment control each year. The plants produce about 200 types of pneumatic systems. Major pneumatic systems for face systems, machines and equipment are reviewed: Sirena system for remote control of ANShch and AShchM face systems for steep coal seams, UPS control systems for pump stations, PAUZA control system for stowing machines, remote control system of B100-200 drilling machines, PUSK control system for coal cutter loaders with pneumatic drive (A-70, Temp), PUVSh control system for ventilation barriers activated from moving electric locomotives, PAZ control system for skip hoist loading. Specifications of the systems are given. Economic benefit produced by the pneumatic control systems are evaluated (from 1,500 to 40,000 rubles/year). Using the systems increases productivity of face machines and other machines used in black coal mines by 5 to 30%.

6. What have pneumatic manufacturers tried in energy saving; Kukiatsu maker wa sho energy ni tsuite donoyona kokoromi wo shitekitaka

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oneyama, N [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-05-15

Presented herein are new energy-saving type products by pneumatic manufacturers. The pneumatic slide rule was developed in 1974, when the whirlwind of energy-saving as a result of the oil crisis raved all over the industries. The word energy-saving for pneumatic systems is changed into the word air-saving, which is more straightforward and directly related to saved money, and the slide rule exhibits its ability as a diagnostic tool for air-saving without adversely affecting the system functions. Noting that output required by clamping, calking and conveyance as typical works for a double acting cylinder is generated only by the forward stroke, the PFC valve was developed, in which the return stroke is set at a minimum indispensable pressure. This reduces air consumption by 20 to 30%. The other products developed include energy-saving lifter and economy valve. A new cylinder driving method was developed to reduce air consumption. The system concept of the right pressure in the right place was proposed to provide a local compressor in a production line of low pressure and high capacity. It is necessary to develop in the future an index which allows direct comparison of an energy-saving system with other driving systems. 5 refs., 14 figs.

7. Hydraulics and pneumatics

CERN Document Server

Parr, Andrew

2006-01-01

Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

8. A Study of Gas Economizing Pneumatic Cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li, T C; Wu, H W; Kuo, M J

2006-01-01

The pneumatic cylinder is the most typical actuator in the pneumatic equipment, and its mechanism is so simple that it is often used to operate point to point driving without the feedback loop in various automatic machines. But, the energy efficiency of pneumatic system is very poor compared with electrical systems and hydraulic systems. So, it is very important to discuss the energy saving for the pneumatic cylinder systems. In this thesis, we proposed three methods to apply the reduction in the air consumed for pneumatic cylinder systems. An air charge accumulator is used to absorb the exhausted compress air and a boost valve boosted the air to the higher pressure for used again. From the experiments, the direct used cylinder exhaust air may save about 40% of compress air

9. Comparison of Pneumatic Dilation with Pneumatic Dilation Plus Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Achalasia

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alireza Bakhshipour

2010-03-01

Full Text Available Among the therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation (PD, an appropriate long-term therapy, and botulinum toxin injection (BT that is a relatively short-term therapy. This study aimed to compare therapeutic effect of repetitive pneumatic dilation with a combined method (botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation in a group of achalasia patients who are low responder to two initial pneumatic dilations. Thirty- four patients with documented primary achalasia that had low response to two times PD (<50% decrease in symptom score and barium height at 5 minute in timed esophagogram after 3month of late PD were randomized to receive pneumatic dilation (n=18 or botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation by four weeks interval (n=16, PD and BT+PD groups respectively. Symptom scores were evaluated before and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a decrease in symptom score ≥ 50% of baseline. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age and achalasia type. Remission rate of patients in BT-PD group in comparison with PD group were 87.5% vs. 67.1% (P = 0.7, 87.5% vs. 61.1% (P = 0.59 and 87.5% vs. 55.5% (P = 0.53 at 1, 6 and 12 months respectively .There were no major complications in either group. The mean symptom score decreased by 62.71% in the BT-PD group (P < 0.002 and 50.77% in the PD group (P < 0.01 at the end of the first year. Despite a better response rate in BT+PD group, a difference was not statistically significant. A difference may be meaningful if a large numbers of patients are included in the study.

10. Pneumatic soil removal tool

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neuhaus, J.E.

1992-01-01

A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

11. Pneumatic soil removal tool

Science.gov (United States)

Neuhaus, John E.

1992-01-01

A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

12. A deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation in a pebble bed reactor based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu, Hongbing; He, Ayada; Du, Dong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Haiquan

2014-01-01

Highlights: • A deceleration system for fuel transportation in a pebble bed reactor is designed. • Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. • The effectiveness of the system is verified by the analysis and the experiment. • Some key design parameters are studied to achieve effective deceleration. • This research provides a guide for the design of a pebble bed reactor. - Abstract: The fuel elements cycle occurring inside and outside the core of a pebble bed reactor is carried out by pneumatic conveying. In some processes of conveyance, it is necessary to reduce the velocity of the moving fuel element in a short time to avoid damage to the fuel elements and the equipment. In this research, a deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion is designed to achieve an effective and reliable deceleration process. Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. The results show that when the fuel element is moving in the deceleration pipeline, the gas in the pipeline is compressed to create a pneumatic cushion which resists the movement of the fuel element. In this way, the velocity of the fuel element is decreased to below the target value. During this process, the deceleration is steady and reliable. On this basis some key design parameters are studied, such as the deceleration pipeline length, the ratio of the diameter of the fuel element to the internal diameter of the pipeline, etc. The experimental results are generally consistent with the analysis and demonstrate the considerable effectiveness of the deceleration process as well. This research provides a guide for the design of the fuel elements cycling system in a pebble bed reactor along with the optimization of its control

13. Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cao Junyi

2011-01-01

Full Text Available A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo system is established. The fractional-order controller for pneumatic position servo and its implementation in industrial computer is designed. The experiments with fractional-order controller are carried out under various conditions, which include sine position signal with different frequency and amplitude, step position signal, and variety inertial load. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and verify their fine control performance for pneumatic position servo system.

14. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power...

15. Modeling and Analysis of a Novel Pneumatic Artificial Muscle and Pneumatic Arm Exoskeleton

OpenAIRE

Yang, Hee Doo

2017-01-01

The soft robotics field is developing rapidly and is poised to have a wide impact in a variety of applications. Soft robots have intrinsic compliance, offering a number of benefits as compared to traditional rigid robots. Compliance can provide compatibility with biological systems such as the human body and can provide some benefits for human safety and control. Further research into soft robots can be advanced by further development of pneumatic actuators. Pneumatic actuators are a ...

16. Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems

OpenAIRE

Junyi, Cao; Binggang, Cao

2011-01-01

A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo ...

17. Preclinical evaluation of an MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for angulated needle placement in transperineal prostate interventions

Science.gov (United States)

Tokuda, Junichi; Song, Sang-Eun; Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Seifabadi, Reza; Cho, Bong Joon; Tuncali, Kemal; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

2013-01-01

Purpose To evaluate the targeting accuracy of a small profile MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement that can angulate a needle insertion path into a large accessible target volume. Methods We extended our MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement to utilize its four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) mechanism with two parallel triangular structures and support transperineal prostate biopsies in a closed-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The robot is designed to guide a needle towards a lesion so that a radiologist can manually insert it in the bore. The robot is integrated with navigation software that allows an operator to plan angulated needle insertion by selecting a target and an entry point. The targeting error was evaluated while the angle between the needle insertion path and the static magnetic field was between −5.7° and 5.7° horizontally and between −5.7° and 4.3° vertically in the MRI scanner after sterilizing and draping the device. Results The robot positioned the needle for angulated insertion as specified on the navigation software with overall targeting error of 0.8 ± 0.5 mm along the horizontal axis and 0.8 ± 0.8 mm along the vertical axis. The two-dimensional root-mean-square targeting error on the axial slices as containing the targets was 1.4 mm. Conclusions Our preclinical evaluation demonstrated that the MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement with the capability to angulate the needle insertion path provides targeting accuracy feasible for clinical MRI-guided prostate interventions. The clinical feasibility has to be established in a clinical study. PMID:22678723

18. Key issues in theoretical and functional pneumatic design

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Z. G.; Yang, D. Y.; Liu, W. M.; Liu, T. T.

2017-10-01

This paper studies the energy release of the pneumatic engine in different thermodynamic processes, the isothermal process is the highest power output process, while adiabatic process is the lowest energy output process, and the energy release of the pneumatic engine is a multi-state thermodynamic process between them. Therefore heat exchanging should be increased between the pneumatic engine and the outer space, the gas expansion process in the cylinder should be as close as possible to the isothermal process. Heat exchange should be increased between the cylinder and the external spaces. Secondly, the fin structure is studied to increase the heat exchanging between the cylinder body and the outside space. The upper part has fin structures and the lower cylinder has no fin structure, this structure improved the working efficiency of pneumatic engine. Finally the cam and the hydraulic bottle of pneumatic engines are designed. Simulation and theoretical calculation are used to the analysis of the whole structure, which lay the foundation for the manufacturing and design of the pneumatic engines.

19. Characteristic analysis and experiment of pneumatic servo valve

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Won Hee; Choi, Byung Oh

2004-01-01

Electro-pneumatic servo valve is an electro-mechanical device which converts electric signals into a proper pneumatic flow rate or pressure. In order to improve the overall performance of pneumatic servo systems, electro-pneumatic servo valves are required, which have fast dynamic characteristics, no air leakage at a null point, and can be fabricated at a low-cost. The first objective of this research is to design and to fabricate a new electro-pneumatic servo valve which satisfies the above-mentioned requirements. In order to design the mechanism of the servo valve optimally, the flow inside the valve depending upon the position of spool was analyzed variously, and on the basis of such analysis results, the valve mechanism, which was formed by combination of the spool and the sleeve, was designed and manufactured. And a tester for conducting an overall performance test was designed and manufactured, and as a result of conducting the flow rate test, the pressure test and the frequency test on the developed pneumatic servo valve

20. Pneumatic and hydraulic microactuators: a review

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

De Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

2010-01-01

The development of MEMS actuators is rapidly evolving and continuously new progress in terms of efficiency, power and force output is reported. Pneumatic and hydraulic are an interesting class of microactuators that are easily overlooked. Despite the 20 years of research, and hundreds of publications on this topic, these actuators are only popular in microfluidic systems. In other MEMS applications, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators are rare in comparison with electrostatic, thermal or piezo-electric actuators. However, several studies have shown that hydraulic and pneumatic actuators deliver among the highest force and power densities at microscale. It is believed that this asset is particularly important in modern industrial and medical microsystems, and therefore, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators could start playing an increasingly important role. This paper shows an in-depth overview of the developments in this field ranging from the classic inflatable membrane actuators to more complex piston–cylinder and drag-based microdevices. (topical review)

1. Variable camber wing based on pneumatic artificial muscles

Science.gov (United States)

Yin, Weilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yijin; Leng, Jinsong

2009-07-01

As a novel bionic actuator, pneumatic artificial muscle has high power to weight ratio. In this paper, a variable camber wing with the pneumatic artificial muscle is developed. Firstly, the experimental setup to measure the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle is designed. The relationship between the static output force and the air pressure is investigated. Experimental result shows the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle decreases nonlinearly with increasing contraction ratio. Secondly, the finite element model of the variable camber wing is developed. Numerical results show that the tip displacement of the trailing-edge increases linearly with increasing external load and limited with the maximum static output force of pneumatic artificial muscles. Finally, the variable camber wing model is manufactured to validate the variable camber concept. Experimental result shows that the wing camber increases with increasing air pressure and that it compare very well with the FEM result.

2. Achalasia: pneumatic Dilation. Experience in a reference hospital

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Garzon, Martin; Farfan, Yezid; Molano, Juan; Rey, Mario; Martinez, Julian; Marulanda, Juan

2005-01-01

Chalasia has an incidence of 1:100.000. The therapy for achalasia, focus on reducing the pressure gradient across the LES, which can be achieved by forceful pneumatic dilation of the gastroesophageal junction, surgical myotomy or by pharmacological agents, injected endoscopically or taken orally. Pneumatic balloon dilation is regarded as the first-Line treatment, with an initial success rate of 85% to 90%. The objective of this study is to show our experience with pneumatic balloon dilation in the patients with diagnosis of achalasia from the hospital La Samaritana during a period from February 2002 to February 2005. Patients diagnosed with achalasia from the department of gastroenterology and endoscopy of the Hospital La Samaritana during period of February 2002 to February 2005 was included. Procedures were made in fluoroscopy room. The patients received intravenous sedation and analgesia. We used a Regiflex balloon, 3.5 cm diameter. Balloons were inflated with saline water and water-soluble contrast during one minute. We diagnosed 19 patients with achalasia during period from February 2002 to February 2005, 14 were females and 5 males (26%); we made pneumatic dilation in 11 patients (60%), 9 were females (82%) with mean age 38.9 years (ranged from 16 to 13 years). Three patients (21%) underwent once pneumatic dilation and the rest (8 patients) underwent twice (73%). We don't report any perforation. So far we have followed the patients ambulatory during period from 6 months to 2 years. We find recurrence one year after of the pneumatic dilation in a female patient 22 years old (9%). The pneumatic dilation as cost-effective therapy, with a good initial success, but in the longer the follow-up lower the success rate and low morbidity (4). We suggest making only two pneumatic dilations. Today, there isn't consensus on the optimal endoscopic dilation technique and we believe that the sedation must be included in this procedure. In the future, we need more comparative

3. [Morphine self-administration by rats using a pneumatic syringe].

Science.gov (United States)

Akiyama, Y; Takayama, S

1988-06-01

An apparatus for drug self-administration by rats using a pneumatic syringe was developed by Weeks. A microliter syringe operated by a pneumatic cylinder supplies an accurate volume of drug solution within one second. When coefficient of variation of infusion volume was compared among pneumatic syringe, infusion pump, and peristaltic pump, pneumatic syringe showed higher accuracy in infusion volume than the other two pumps. Since the infusion speed by a pneumatic syringe is very rapid (less than one second per infusion), the effect of infusion speed on reinforcing property of morphine was investigated. When rats self-administered 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg/infusion of morphine by pneumatic syringes, the patterns of self-infusion were more stable, the number of self-infusions and the amount self-administered were larger, and a dose-response relationship was clearer in comparison with those self-infused the same doses of morphine for 5.6 seconds by infusion pumps or peristaltic pumps.

4. Experience and prospects of using the pneumatic designs in underground mining

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rakhutin, V.S. [National Mining University of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

1999-07-01

The article reviews the experience of application of pneumatic designs ('flexible shells') in coal mines (pneumatic cogs and supports), ore mines (pneumatic cofferdams and partitions in filling), and in the construction of mines and underground constructions (pneumatic casings, temporary (pilot) supports). 2 refs.

5. Vertical pneumatic conveying in dilute and dense-phase flows: experimental study of the influence of particle density and diameter on fluid dynamic behavior

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Narimatsu C.P.

2001-01-01

Full Text Available In this work, the effects of particle size and density on the fluid dynamic behavior of vertical gas-solid transport of Group D particles in a 53.4 mm diameter transport tube were studied. For the conditions tested, the experimental curves of pressure gradient versus air velocity presented a minimum pressure gradient point, which is associated with a change in the flow regime from dense to dilute phase. The increases in particle size from 1.00 to 3.68 mm and in density from 935 to 2500 kg/m³ caused an increase in pressure gradient for the dense-phase transport region, but were not relevant in dilute transport. The transition velocity between dense and dilute flow (Umin also increased with increasing particle density and diameter. An empirical equation was fitted for predicting transition air velocity for the transport of glass spheres. Additional experiments, covering a wider range of conditions and particles properties, are still needed to allow the fitting of a generalized equation for prediction of Umin.

6. Rigidified pneumatic composites

Science.gov (United States)

van Dessel, Steven

2000-10-01

The overall objective of the research presented in this dissertation was to address global issues of adequate housing for all and the need for more sustainable human settlement. In order to address these, the emerging technology of rigidified pneumatic composites was investigated. Rigidified pneumatic composites (RPC) are defined as thin flexible membrane structures that are pneumatically deployed. After deployment, these structures harden due to chemical or physical change of the membrane. Because of this change, these structures do no longer require pneumatic pressure to maintain their shape. For the first time, a systematic listing of the various means available to develop polymeric materials useful in RPC technology is presented. With the aim to reduce the cost of RPC structures, a new material was proposed, developed, and evaluated. This material involved the formation of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network based on poly vinyl chloride and an acrylate based reactive plasticizer. The economical and environmental performances of RPC structures using this new material were assessed by means of a case study. In this study, the performance of RPC technology was compared with that of a typical wood light frame structure in the application of a small single-family house. The study indicated that the cost of ownership in present day value for the RPC structure was approximately 33% less than the cost of a comparable wood light frame structure. The study also indicated that significant environmental benefits exist with the use of RPC structures. It was found that the RPC structure used significantly less resources compared to the wood light frame structure. About 3.5 times less materials coming from non-renewable fossil resources, about 2.5 times less materials coming from trees, and about 19 times less materials coming from inorganic resources was used in the RPC structure relative to the wood light frame structure. The study concluded with pointing out various

7. Treatments for pediatric achalasia: Heller myotomy or pneumatic dilatation?

Science.gov (United States)

Jung, C; Michaud, L; Mougenot, J-F; Lamblin, M-D; Philippe-Chomette, P; Cargill, G; Bonnevalle, M; Boige, N; Bellaïche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P; Gottrand, F; Cezard, J-P

2010-03-01

The treatment of achalasia consists of reducing distal esophageal obstruction by either Heller myotomy surgery or endoscopic pneumatic dilatation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short- and middle-term results of these procedures in children. For technical reasons, children under six years old (n=8) were treated by surgery only, whereas patients over six years old (n=14) were treated by either Heller myotomy or pneumatic dilatation. Of the children aged under six years, 75% were symptom-free at six months and 83% at 24 months of follow-up. Of the patients aged over six years, complete remission was achieved by Heller myotomy in 44.5% vs. 55.5% by pneumatic dilatation after six months, and in 40% vs. 65%, respectively, after 24 months. Both pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy showed significant rates of failure. These results suggest that pneumatic dilatation may be considered a primary treatment in children over six years old. Also, where necessary, Heller myotomy and pneumatic dilatation may be used as complementary treatments.

8. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

Science.gov (United States)

Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

2018-01-01

Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

9. Development of pneumatic actuator with low-wave reflection characteristics

Science.gov (United States)

Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Jwo, C. S.; Chiang, J. C.

2010-08-01

This study aims at the development of a less reflective electromagnetic pneumatic actuator often used in the anechoic chamber. Because a pneumatic actuator on the market is not appropriate for use in such a chamber and a metallic one has high dielectric constant which generates reflective electromagnetic waves to influence test parameters in the chamber. The newly developed pneumatic actuator is made from low dielectric constant plastics with less reflective of electromagnetic. A turbine-type air motor is used to develop the pneumatic actuator and a employ Prony tester is used to run the brake horsepower test for the performance test of pneumatic actuator. Test results indicate that the pneumatic actuator in the minimal starting flow is 17 l/min, and it generates a brake horsepower of 48 mW; in the maximum flow is 26 l/min, it generates a brake horsepower of 108 mW. Therefore, it works with a torque between 0.24 N-m and 0.55 N-m, and such a torque will be sufficient to drive the target button.

10. Pneumatic transfer systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bichler, H.; Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.; Buchtela, K.

1988-11-01

A pneumatic transfer system for research reactors, including a sample changer system and to be used for neutron activation analysis, is described. The system can be obtained commercially from the Atominstitut. 2 figs. (qui)

11. The relationship between presbycusis and mastoid pneumatization.

Science.gov (United States)

Pata, Yavuz Selim; Akbaş, Yucel; Unal, Murat; Duce, Meltem Nass; Akbaş, Tugana; Micozkadioğlu, Deniz

2004-02-29

Presbycusis is defined as the natural hearing loss accompanying aging, caused by degenerative changes in the inner ear. The etiology of presbycusis is uncertain. However, it would appear that a complex genetic cause is most likely. The determinants of mastoid size continue to be controversial. One of the pneumatization theories is the hereditary theory. In this study, the possible relationship between presbycusis and the extent of mastoid pneumatization was investigated. This study was carried out on 21 patients with presbycusis and 21 normal subjects of similar ages. The pneumatized volume was measured by computerized tomography. The temporal bone was scanned at 2 mm thickness intervals. Exposure (kV 130, mA105). The scan plane was parallel to the orbitomeatal line and the CT images covered the entire mastoid region. The average mastoid pneumatization in presbycusis group was 6.08 +/- 2.52 cm(3) in the right ear and 6.19 +/- 2.93 cm(3) in the left ear. However, in the control group it was 4.69 +/- 3.17 cm(3) in the right ear (p=0.12) and 5.10 +/- 3.49 cm(3) in the left ear (p=0.28). No significant difference was found between the presbycusis patients and normal subjects in terms of the volume of mastoid pneumatization.

12. Design and experiment of pneumatic EPB test platform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jianshi GONG

2017-02-01

Full Text Available In order to verify the accuracy and reliability of the function and control strategy of the pneumatic electronic parking brake(EPB system, a test platform of the pneumatic EPB system is designed. The working principle of the air pressure type EPB test platform is introduced, the composition of the platform is confirmed, including air press storage module, braking module, man-machine interaction module, signal imitation module, data collection module, and fault diagnosis module, and the function of rapid charging and discharging of the pneumatic EPB system is carried out. The results show that, compared with manual control valve, the air pressure EPB braking process is more sensitive, and the test platform can meet the test requirements of the pneumatic electronic brake system.

13. On the development a pneumatic four-legged mechanism autonomous vertical wall climbing robot

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mohamad Shukri Zainal Abidin; Shamsudin H.M. Amin . shukri@suria.fke.utm.my

1999-01-01

The paper describes the design of a prototype legged mechanism together with suction mechanism, the mechanical design, on-board controller and an initial performance test. The design is implemented in the form of a pneumatically powered multi-legged robot equipped with suction pads at the sole of the feet for wall climbing purpose. The whole mechanism and suction system is controlled by controller which is housed on-board the robot. The gait of the motion depended on the logic control patterns as dictated by the controller. The robot is equipped with sensors both at the front and rear ends that function as an obstacle avoidance facility. Once objects are detected, signals are sent to the controller to start an evasive action that is to move in the opposite direction. The mechanism has been tested and initial results have shown promising potential for an autonomous mobile. (Author)

14. The effect of pneumatic dilation in management of postfundoplication dysphagia.

Science.gov (United States)

Sunjaya, D; Podboy, A; Blackmon, S H; Katzka, D; Halland, M

2017-06-01

Fundoplication surgery is a commonly performed procedure for gastro-esophageal reflux disease or hiatal hernia repair. Up to 10% of patients develop persistent postoperative dysphagia after surgery. Data on the effectiveness of pneumatic dilation for treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify clinical factors associated with successful response to pneumatic dilation among patients with persistent postfundoplication dysphagia (PPFD). We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for PPFD between 1999 and 2016. Patients with dysphagia or achalasia prior to fundoplication were excluded. Demographic information, surgical history, severity of dysphagia, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data pertaining to esophagram, manometry, endoscopy, and pneumatic dilation were also collected. We identified 38 patients (82% female, 95% Caucasian, and median age 59 years) with PPFD who completed pneumatic dilation. The median postfundoplication dysphagia score was 2. Eleven patients had abnormal peristalsis on manometry. Seventeen patients reported response (seven complete) with an average decrease of 1 in their dysphagia score. Fifteen patients underwent reoperation due to PPFD. Hiatal hernia repair was the only factor that predicts a higher response rate to pneumatic dilation. Only one patient in our study developed complication (pneumoperitoneum) from pneumatic dilation. We found that pneumatic dilation to be a safe treatment option for PPFD with moderate efficacy. Patients who developed PPFD after a hiatal hernia repair may gain the greatest benefit after pneumatic dilation. We were not able to identify additional clinical, radiological, endoscopic, or manometric parameters that were predictive of response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

15. Development of the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choi, Cheol U; Choi, Hyeun Seok; Han, Chang Soo

2001-01-01

In this paper, the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type is developed. A pneumatic has the advantage of good compliance, high payload-to-weight and payload-to-volume ratios, high speed and force capabilities. Using pneumatic actuators which have low stiffness, the service robot can guarantee safety. By suggesting a new serial-parallel hybrid type for the service robot which separates into positioning motion and orienting motion, we can achieve large workspace and high strength-to-moving-weight ratio at the same time. A sliding mode controller can be designed for tracking the desired output using the Lyapunov stability theory and structural properties of pneumatic servo systems. Through many experiments of circular trajectory, the pneumatic service robot is evaluated and verified

16. Intelligent Switching Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulator

Science.gov (United States)

Ahn, Kyoung Kwan; Thanh, Tu Diep Cong; Ahn, Young Kong

Problems with the control, oscillatory motion and compliance of pneumatic systems have prevented their widespread use in advanced robotics. However, their compactness, power/weight ratio, ease of maintenance and inherent safety are the factors that could potentially be exploited in sophisticated dexterous manipulator designs. These advantages have led to the development of novel actuators such as the McKibben Muscle, Rubber Actuator and Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulators. However, some limitations still exist, such as deterioration of the performance of transient response due to the change of the external inertia load in the pneumatic artificial muscle manipulator. To overcome this problem, switching algorithm of control parameter using learning vector quantization neural network (LVQNN) is newly proposed, which estimates the external inertia load of the pneumatic artificial muscle manipulator. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is demonstrated through experiments with different external inertia loads.

17. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

CERN Document Server

Parr, Andrew

1991-01-01

Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician's and Engineer's Guide provides an introduction to the components and operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system. This book discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic or hydraulic systems.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of industrial prime movers. This text then examines the three different types of positive displacement pump used in hydraulic systems, namely, gear pumps, vane pumps, and piston pumps. Other chapters consider the pressure in a hydraulic system, which can be quickly and easily controlled

18. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

CERN Document Server

Parr, Andrew

2011-01-01

Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. Such movements and manipulations are frequently accomplished by means of devices driven by liquids (hydraulics) or air (pneumatics), the subject of this book. Hydraulics and Pneumatics is written by a practicing process control engineer as a guide to the successful operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians working with them. Keeping mathematics and theory to a minimum, this practical guide is thorough but accessible to technicians without a

19. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gholamhossein Pirouzi

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

20. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

Science.gov (United States)

Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

1989-12-01

The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

1. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

1988-09-01

Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

2. Buckling Pneumatic Linear Actuators Inspired by Muscle

OpenAIRE

Yang, Dian; Verma, Mohit Singh; So, Ju-Hee; Mosadegh, Bobak; Keplinger, Christoph; Lee, Benjamin; Khashai, Fatemeh; Lossner, Elton Garret; Suo, Zhigang; Whitesides, George McClelland

2016-01-01

The mechanical features of biological muscles are difficult to reproduce completely in synthetic systems. A new class of soft pneumatic structures (vacuum-actuated muscle-inspired pneumatic structures) is described that combines actuation by negative pressure (vacuum), with cooperative buckling of beams fabricated in a slab of elastomer, to achieve motion and demonstrate many features that are similar to that of mammalian muscle.

3. Variable modulus cellular structures using pneumatic artificial muscles

Science.gov (United States)

Pontecorvo, Michael E.; Niemiec, Robert J.; Gandhi, Farhan S.

2014-04-01

This paper presents a novel variable modulus cellular structure based on a hexagonal unit cell with pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) inclusions. The cell considered is pin-jointed, loaded in the horizontal direction, with three PAMs (one vertical PAM and two horizontal PAMs) oriented in an "H" configuration between the vertices of the cell. A method for calculation of the hexagonal cell modulus is introduced, as is an expression for the balance of tensile forces between the horizontal and vertical PAMs. An aluminum hexagonal unit cell is fabricated and simulation of the hexagonal cell with PAM inclusions is then compared to experimental measurement of the unit cell modulus in the horizontal direction with all three muscles pressurized to the same value over a pressure range up to 758 kPa. A change in cell modulus by a factor of 1.33 and a corresponding change in cell angle of 0.41° are demonstrated experimentally. A design study via simulation predicts that differential pressurization of the PAMs up to 2068 kPa can change the cell modulus in the horizontal direction by a factor of 6.83 with a change in cell angle of only 2.75°. Both experiment and simulation show that this concept provides a way to decouple the length change of a PAM from the change in modulus to create a structural unit cell whose in-plane modulus in a given direction can be tuned based on the orientation of PAMs within the cell and the pressure supplied to the individual muscles.

4. A new pneumatic suspension system with independent stiffness and ride height tuning capabilities

Science.gov (United States)

Yin, Zhihong; Khajepour, Amir; Cao, Dongpu; Ebrahimi, Babak; Guo, Konghui

2012-12-01

This paper introduces a new pneumatic spring for vehicle suspension systems, allowing independent tuning of stiffness and ride height according to different vehicle operating conditions and driver preferences. The proposed pneumatic spring comprises a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, two accumulators and a tuning subsystem. This paper presents a detailed description of the pneumatic spring and its working principle. The mathematical model is established based on principles of thermo and fluid dynamics. An experimental setup has been designed and fabricated for testing and evaluating the proposed pneumatic spring. The analytical and experimental results confirm the capability of the new pneumatic spring system for independent tuning of stiffness and ride height. The mathematical model is verified and the capabilities of the pneumatic spring are further proved. It is concluded that this new pneumatic spring provides a more flexible suspension design alternative for meeting various conflicting suspension requirements for ride comfort and performance.

5. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Lilly, John

2000-01-01

This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Pneumatic and hydraulic microactuators: a review

Science.gov (United States)

De Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

2010-04-01

The development of MEMS actuators is rapidly evolving and continuously new progress in terms of efficiency, power and force output is reported. Pneumatic and hydraulic are an interesting class of microactuators that are easily overlooked. Despite the 20 years of research, and hundreds of publications on this topic, these actuators are only popular in microfluidic systems. In other MEMS applications, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators are rare in comparison with electrostatic, thermal or piezo-electric actuators. However, several studies have shown that hydraulic and pneumatic actuators deliver among the highest force and power densities at microscale. It is believed that this asset is particularly important in modern industrial and medical microsystems, and therefore, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators could start playing an increasingly important role. This paper shows an in-depth overview of the developments in this field ranging from the classic inflatable membrane actuators to more complex piston-cylinder and drag-based microdevices.

7. Soft pneumatic grippers embedded with stretchable electroadhesion

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, J.; Elgeneidy, K.; Xiang, C.; Lohse, N.; Justham, L.; Rossiter, J.

2018-05-01

Current soft pneumatic grippers cannot robustly grasp flat materials and flexible objects on curved surfaces without distorting them. Current electroadhesive grippers, on the other hand, are difficult to actively deform to complex shapes to pick up free-form surfaces or objects. An easy-to-implement PneuEA gripper is proposed by the integration of an electroadhesive gripper and a two-fingered soft pneumatic gripper. The electroadhesive gripper was fabricated by segmenting a soft conductive silicon sheet into a two-part electrode design and embedding it in a soft dielectric elastomer. The two-fingered soft pneumatic gripper was manufactured using a standard soft lithography approach. This novel integration has combined the benefits of both the electroadhesive and soft pneumatic grippers. As a result, the proposed PneuEA gripper was not only able to pick-and-place flat and flexible materials such as a porous cloth but also delicate objects such as a light bulb. By combining two soft touch sensors with the electroadhesive, an intelligent and shape-adaptive PneuEA material handling system has been developed. This work is expected to widen the applications of both soft gripper and electroadhesion technologies.

8. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

1994-04-01

A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing

9. Effect of settling particles on the stability of a particle-laden flow in a vertical plane channel

Science.gov (United States)

Boronin, S. A.; Osiptsov, A. N.

2018-03-01

The stability of a viscous particle-laden flow in a vertical plane channel in the presence of the gravity force is studied. The flow is described using a two-fluid "dusty-gas" model with negligibly small volume fraction of fines and two-way coupling of the phases. Two different profiles of the particle number density in the main flow are considered: homogeneous and non-homogeneous in the form of two layers symmetric about the channel axis. The novel element of the linear-stability problem formulation is a particle velocity slip in the main flow caused by the gravity-induced settling of the dispersed phase. The eigenvalue problem for a linearized system of governing equations is solved using the orthonormalization and QZ algorithms. For a uniform particle number density distribution, it is found that there exists a domain in the plane of Froude and Stokes numbers, in which the two-phase flow in a vertical channel is stable for an arbitrary Reynolds number. This stability domain corresponds to relatively small-inertia particles and large velocity-slip in the main flow. In contrast to the flow with a uniform particle number density distribution, the stratified dusty-gas flow in a vertical channel is unstable over a wide range of governing parameters. The instability at small Reynolds numbers is determined by the gravitational mode characterized by small wavenumbers (long-wave instability), while at larger Reynolds numbers the instability is dominated by the shear mode with the time-amplification factor larger than that of the gravitational mode. The results of the study can be used for optimization of a large number of technological processes, including those in riser reactors, pneumatic conveying in pipeline systems, hydraulic fracturing, and well cementing.

10. Safe-geometry pneumatic nuclear fuel powder blender

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lyon, W.L.

1980-01-01

A safe geometry nuclear fuel powder is claimed blender of a pneumatic type having a plurality of narrow flat-walled blending chambers or ''slab tanks'' extending radially outward from a pneumatic spouting tube having an inlet and an outlet at bottom and top, respectively, open to each slab tank or blending chamber and contained within a cylindrical cone-bottomed shell filled with neutron-absorbing material between the blending chambers

11. Pneumatic pellet injectors for TFTR and JET

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.

1986-01-01

This paper describes the development of pneumatic hydrogen pellet injectors for plasma fueling applications on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). The performance parameters of these injectors represent an extension of previous experience and include pellet sizes in the range 2-6 mm in diameter and speeds approaching 2 km/s. Design features and operating characteristics of these pneumatic injectors are presented

12. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

Science.gov (United States)

Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

1993-01-01

A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

13. Radionuclide esophageal emptying study before and after pneumatic dilatation in achalasia

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ujiie, Hiroaki; Hongo, Michio; Lin, Yih-Fong; Satake, Kenzo; Asaki, Shigeru; Goto, Yoshio; Okuyama, Shinichi

1987-11-01

The therapeutic effect of pneumatic dilatation was evaluated quantitatively by radionuclide transit study in 11 achalasia patients. Before pneumatic dilatation, marked retention with more than 80 % of isotope in the esophagus at 15 minutes after ingestion was noted in all patients. Marked improvement in emptying was shown after pneumatic dilatation. Pneumatic dilatation is a safe and effective therapeutic aid for achalasia treatment, and radionuclide transit study is not only noninvasive and physiologic but also its procedure is easily performed. We conclude that radionuclide transit study is a good method to evaluate the result of the treatment quantitatively in achalasia patients.

14. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Wakai, A

2012-02-03

Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

15. Cranial base morphology and temporal bone pneumatization in Asian Homo erectus.

Science.gov (United States)

Balzeau, Antoine; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

2006-10-01

The external morphological features of the temporal bone are used frequently to determine taxonomic affinities of fossils of the genus Homo. Temporal bone pneumatization has been widely studied in great apes and in early hominids. However, this feature is rarely examined in the later hominids, particularly in Asian Homo erectus. We provide a comparative morphological and quantitative analysis of Asian Homo erectus from the sites of Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Zhoukoudian, and of Neandertals and anatomically modern Homo sapiens in order to discuss causes and modalities of temporal bone pneumatization during hominid evolution. The evolution of temporal bone pneumatization in the genus Homo is more complex than previously described. Indeed, the Zhoukoudian fossils have a unique pattern of temporal bone pneumatization, whereas Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, as well as the Neandertals, more closely resemble the modern human pattern. Moreover, these Chinese fossils are characterized by a wide midvault and a relatively narrow occipital bone. Our results support the point of view that cell development does not play an active role in determining cranial base morphology. Instead, pneumatization is related to available space and to temporal bone morphology, and its development is related to correlated morphology and the relative disposition of the bones and cerebral lobes. Because variation in pneumatization is extensive within the same species, the phyletic implications of pneumatization are limited in the taxa considered here.

16. An experimental investigation of pneumatic swirl flow induced by a three lobed helical pipe

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fokeer, S.; Lowndes, I.; Kingman, S.

2009-01-01

This paper presents a discussion of the results and conclusions drawn from a series of experiments conducted to investigate the swirl flow that are generated by a three lobed helical pipe mounted within a laboratory scale pneumatic conveying rig. The experiments employed Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) to quantify the strength of the induced vortex formations and the decay rates of the observed downstream swirl flows over a range of Reynolds number in the turbulent regime. Instantaneous point velocity measurements were resolved in three directions across regular measurement grids transcribed across parallel planes located at four distances downstream of the swirl inducing pipe section. The equivalent axial, radial and tangential velocities were subsequently computed at these grids points. The degree of swirl measured across each measurement plane was expressed in terms of a defined swirl number. It was concluded that the three lobed helical pipe gave rise to a wall jet type of swirl whose rate of observed downstream decay is related to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow and the distance downstream of the swirl pipe. The decay rates for the swirl flows were found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow. The swirl pipe was observed to create a redistribution of the downstream velocity field from axial to tangential, accompanied by a transfer of axial to angular momentum. The findings of this paper are believed to improve understanding to assist the selective use of swirl flow within lean phase particles pneumatic transport systems.

17. An experimental investigation of pneumatic swirl flow induced by a three lobed helical pipe

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fokeer, S. [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, University of Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: S.Fokeer@lboro.ac.uk; Lowndes, I.; Kingman, S. [Division of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15

This paper presents a discussion of the results and conclusions drawn from a series of experiments conducted to investigate the swirl flow that are generated by a three lobed helical pipe mounted within a laboratory scale pneumatic conveying rig. The experiments employed Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) to quantify the strength of the induced vortex formations and the decay rates of the observed downstream swirl flows over a range of Reynolds number in the turbulent regime. Instantaneous point velocity measurements were resolved in three directions across regular measurement grids transcribed across parallel planes located at four distances downstream of the swirl inducing pipe section. The equivalent axial, radial and tangential velocities were subsequently computed at these grids points. The degree of swirl measured across each measurement plane was expressed in terms of a defined swirl number. It was concluded that the three lobed helical pipe gave rise to a wall jet type of swirl whose rate of observed downstream decay is related to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow and the distance downstream of the swirl pipe. The decay rates for the swirl flows were found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow. The swirl pipe was observed to create a redistribution of the downstream velocity field from axial to tangential, accompanied by a transfer of axial to angular momentum. The findings of this paper are believed to improve understanding to assist the selective use of swirl flow within lean phase particles pneumatic transport systems.

18. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs

Science.gov (United States)

Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

2010-01-01

The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism. PMID:19801376

19. Intermittent pneumatic compression of legs increases microcirculation in distant skeletal muscle.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, K; Chen, L E; Seaber, A V; Johnson, G W; Urbaniak, J R

1999-01-01

Intermittent pneumatic compression has been established as a method of clinically preventing deep vein thrombosis, but the mechanism has not been documented. This study observed the effects of intermittent pneumatic compression of legs on the microcirculation of distant skeletal muscle. The cremaster muscles of 80 male rats were exposed, a specially designed intermittent pneumatic-compression device was applied to both legs for 60 minutes, and the microcirculation of the muscles was assessed by measurement of the vessel diameter in three categories (10-20, 21-40, and 41-70 microm) for 120 minutes. The results showed significant vasodilation in arterial and venous vessels during the application of intermittent pneumatic compression, which disappeared after termination of the compression. The vasodilation reached a maximum 30 minutes after initiation of the compression and could be completely blocked by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (10 micromol/min). A 120-minute infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, beginning coincident with 60 minutes of intermittent pneumatic compression, resulted in a significant decrease in arterial diameter that remained at almost the same level after termination of the compression. The magnitude of the decrease in diameter in the group treated with intermittent pneumatic compression and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was comparable with that in the group treated with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine alone. The results imply that the production of nitric oxide is involved in the positive influence of intermittent pneumatic compression on circulation. It is postulated that the rapid increase in venous velocity induced by intermittent pneumatic compression produces strong shear stress on the vascular endothelium, which stimulates an increased release of nitric oxide and thereby causes systemic vasodilation.

20. A survey on pneumatic muscle actuators modeling

OpenAIRE

Kelasidi, Eleni; Andrikopoulos, Georgios; Nikolakopoulos, George; Manesis, Stamatis

2012-01-01

The aim of this article is to provide a survey on the most popular modeling approaches for Pneumatic Muscle Actuators (PMAs). PMAs are highly non-linear pneumatic actuators where their elongation is proportional to the interval pressure. During the last decade, there has been an increase in the industrial and scientific utilization of PMAs, due to their advantages such as high strength and small weight, while various types of PMAs with different technical characteristics have been appeared in...

1. Fractional Order Models of Industrial Pneumatic Controllers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Abolhassan Razminia

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper addresses a new approach for modeling of versatile controllers in industrial automation and process control systems such as pneumatic controllers. Some fractional order dynamical models are developed for pressure and pneumatic systems with bellows-nozzle-flapper configuration. In the light of fractional calculus, a fractional order derivative-derivative (FrDD controller and integral-derivative (FrID are remodeled. Numerical simulations illustrate the application of the obtained theoretical results in simple examples.

2. Development of myopia as a hazard for workers in pneumatic caissons

Science.gov (United States)

Onoo, A; Kiyosawa, M; Takase, H; Mano, Y

2002-01-01

Background/aim: Pneumatic caisson engineering has been developed for large civil engineering constructions. Because of complaints of blurred vision by personnel working in pneumatic caissons, the development of myopia was suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of the blurred vision and the mechanism underlying the changes. Methods: 12 caisson workers underwent a complete ophthalmological examination after completing up to 11 weeks of work (4 days/week) in a pneumatic caisson. Six months later, nine of the workers were examined again. Results: Nine subjects were myopic at the initial examination, and seven of these were considered to have developed the myopia after starting to work in the pneumatic caisson. Six months after completion of the work, the mean refractive change was significantly towards hyperopia. Conclusions: The blurred vision in pneumatic caisson workers was in all likelihood due to the development of myopia. The refractive shift towards hyperopia after completion of work in the pneumatic caisson supports this and demonstrates that the changes were temporary. The myopia is similar to the myopia seen in patients treated by hyperbaric oxygen. Careful monitoring of the refraction of caisson workers should be performed for industrial health control. PMID:12386088

3. A study on the design of a low-friction, high-speed pneumatic cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Do Tae; Kim, Dong Soo; Ju, Min Jin

2008-01-01

Of all of pneumatic components utilized in the make up of pneumatic circuits on either automatic assembly machine or industrial equipment, the pneumatic cylinder is more oriented toward being a structural as well as a pneumatic member. The structural design must be based to a large degree on the end of application of the cylinder on the equipment it is operating. In this paper, design studies of a double-acting pneumatic cushion type cylinder with low-friction and high-speed driving have been developed. Of interest here is to investigate the structural analysis of cylinder tube, piston rod, end cover, and to analyze the buckling of piston rod. Also, a relief valve type cushion mechanism is considered. This cushion mechanism is found to be adequate under a high-speed driving of pneumatic cylinders

4. Embedded Triboelectric Active Sensors for Real-Time Pneumatic Monitoring.

Science.gov (United States)

Fu, Xian Peng; Bu, Tian Zhao; Xi, Feng Ben; Cheng, Ting Hai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

2017-09-20

Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage. Air pressures are measured from 0.04 to 0.12 MPa at a step of 0.02 MPa with a sensitivity of 49.235 V/MPa, as well as airflow from 50 to 250 L/min at a step of 50 L/min with a sensitivity of 0.002 μA·min/L. This work has first demonstrated triboelectric active sensors for pneumatic monitoring and may promote the development of TENG in intelligent pneumatic system.

5. Flutter instability of freely hanging articulated pipes conveying fluid

Science.gov (United States)

Schouveiler, Lionel; Chermette, Félix

2018-03-01

We experimentally investigate the stability of freely hanging articulated pipes made of rigid segments connected by flexible joints and with their displacements constrained in a vertical plane. When the velocity of the fluid conveyed by the pipe is increased, flutter-type instability occurs above a critical value. The critical velocity and the characteristics of the flutter modes (frequency, amplitude, and shape) are determined as a function of the number n of segments into the pipe which is varied from 2 to 5. Experimental results are compared to predictions from linear stability analysis extending previous studies by taking into account damping due to the dissipation in the joints. Qualitative agreement is found and the limits of the analysis are discussed.

6. Design and Dynamic Model of a Frog-inspired Swimming Robot Powered by Pneumatic Muscles

Science.gov (United States)

Fan, Ji-Zhuang; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Peng-Cheng; Cai, He-Gao; Liu, Gang-Feng

2017-09-01

Pneumatic muscles with similar characteristics to biological muscles have been widely used in robots, and thus are promising drivers for frog inspired robots. However, the application and nonlinearity of the pneumatic system limit the advance. On the basis of the swimming mechanism of the frog, a frog-inspired robot based on pneumatic muscles is developed. To realize the independent tasks by the robot, a pneumatic system with internal chambers, micro air pump, and valves is implemented. The micro pump is used to maintain the pressure difference between the source and exhaust chambers. The pneumatic muscles are controlled by high-speed switch valves which can reduce the robot cost, volume, and mass. A dynamic model of the pneumatic system is established for the simulation to estimate the system, including the chamber, muscle, and pneumatic circuit models. The robot design is verified by the robot swimming experiments and the dynamic model is verified through the experiments and simulations of the pneumatic system. The simulation results are compared to analyze the functions of the source pressure, internal volume of the muscle, and circuit flow rate which is proved the main factor that limits the response of muscle pressure. The proposed research provides the application of the pneumatic muscles in the frog inspired robot and the pneumatic model to study muscle controller.

7. Pneumatic wrench retains or discharges nuts or bolts as desired

Science.gov (United States)

Bouille, J. R.

1966-01-01

Pneumatic wrench grips, screws or unscrews, and discharges a nut or bolt as desired. The device consists of a standard pneumatic wrench modified with a special hex bolt head socket assembly and a diaphragm air cylinder.

8. Integration of Pneumatic Technology in Powered Mobility Devices.

Science.gov (United States)

Daveler, Brandon; Wang, Hongwu; Gebrosky, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Schneider, Urs; Cooper, Rory A

2017-01-01

Advances in electric motors, electronics, and control systems have enhanced the capability and drivability of electric power mobility devices over the last 60 years. Yet, battery technologies used in powered mobility devices (PMDs) have not kept pace. Recent advances in pneumatic technology, primarily the high torque, low speed design of rotary piston air motors, directly align with the needs of PMD. Pneumatic technology has advantages over battery-powered technology, including lighter weight, lower operating costs, decreased environmental impact, better reliability, and increased safety. Two prototypes were created that incorporated rotary piston air motors, high-pressure air tanks, and air-pressure regulators. Prototype 1 was created by modifying an existing electric PMD. Range tests were performed to determine the feasibility of pneumatic technology and the optimal combination of components to allow the longest range possible at acceptable speeds over ideal conditions. Using a 1.44 L air tank for feasibility testing, prototype 1 was capable of traveling 800 m, which confirmed the feasibility of pneumatic technology usage in PMDs. Prototype 2 was designed based on the testing results from prototype 1. After further optimization of prototype 2, the average maximum range was 3,150 m. Prototype 2 is up to 28.3% lighter than an equivalent size electric PMD and can be fully recharged in approximately 2 minutes. It decreases the cost of PMDs by approximately \$1,500, because batteries do not need to be replaced over the lifetime of the device. The results provide justification for the use of pneumatic technology in PMDs.

9. Quantification of dynamic property of pneumatic muscle actuator for design of therapeutic robot control.

Science.gov (United States)

Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Huang, He; He, Jiping

2006-01-01

Robot-assisted therapy has shown potential in neuromotor rehabilitation. A therapeutic robot driven by pneumatic muscle actuators has been developed in our research group. However, the design of fine and real-time feedback robot control is a challenge. One of the difficulties is the lack of a general dynamic model of the pneumatic muscle actuator. In this study, a phenomenological model has been developed to quantify the dynamic behavior of pneumatic muscle actuator by fitting the experimental length response of the pneumatic muscle, to a step pressure input. In addition, comparison of the dynamic responses of two pneumatic muscles of different dimensions has also been studied. Several control strategies for the pneumatic muscle actuator are discussed based on the results from this study.

10. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

2009-01-01

of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface....

11. A Study on the Bandwidth Characteristics of Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rino Versluys

2009-01-01

Full Text Available Pleated pneumatic artificial muscles have interesting properties that can be of considerable significance in robotics and automation. With a view to the potential use of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles as actuators for a fatigue test bench (high forces and small displacements, the bandwidth characteristics of a muscle-valve system were investigated. Bandwidth is commonly used for linear systems, as the Bode plot is independent of the amplitude of the input signal. However, due to the non-linear behaviour of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles, the system's gain becomes dependent on the amplitude of the input sine wave. As a result, only one Bode plot is insufficient to clearly describe or identify a non-linear system. In this study, the bandwidth of a muscle-valve system was assessed from two perspectives: a varying amplitude and a varying offset of the input sine wave. A brief introduction to pneumatic artificial muscles is given. The concept of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles is explained. Furthermore, the different test methods and experimental results are presented.

12. Introducing PneuAct: Parametrically-Designed MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Stepper Actuator

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Sojoodi Farimani, F.; Misra, Sarthak

2018-01-01

Pneumatic stepper motors are one of the promising alternative actuation methods for motion control in environments where electromagnetic (EM) motors cannot be used. Due to the lack of commercial off-the-shelf products, researchers working on MR compatible robotics have to develop their own pneumatic

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Qian, N; Ruan, J; Li, W

2006-01-01

The precise double-sided polishing process is one of the main methods to get the ultra-smooth surface of workpiece. In double-sided polishing machine, a loading system is required to be able to precisely control the load superimposed on the workpiece, while the polishing is being carried out. A pneumatic servo loading system is proposed for this purpose. In the pneumatic servo system, the servo valve, which acts both the electrical to mechanical converter and the power amplifier, has a substantial influence on the performance of the loading system. Therefore a specially designed pneumatic digital servo valve is applied in the control system. In this paper, the construction of the pneumatic servo loading system in double-sided polishing machine and control strategy associated with the digital servo valve are first addressed. The mathematical model of the system established and the hardware of the pneumatic servo system is designed. Finally, the experiments are carried out by measuring the practical load on the workpiece and the quality of the surface finish. It is demonstrated that the error rate of load is less than 5% and a super-smooth surface of silicon wafer with roughness Ra 0.401 nm can be obtained

14. Pneumatic stepper motor and device comprising at least one such pneumatic stepper motor

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

2018-01-01

The invention relates to a pneumatic stepper motor, comprising: - a housing, said housing accommodating at least part of: - a rack or geared axle comprising a plurality of gear elements; and - two pistons, each comprising at least two teeth, said pistons being arranged to cooperate with said rack or

15. Force Control for a Pneumatic Cylinder Using Generalized Predictive Controller Approach

OpenAIRE

Mohd Faudzi, Ahmad ’Athif; Mustafa, Nu’man Din; Osman, Khairuddin

2014-01-01

Pneumatic cylinder is a well-known device because of its high power to weight ratio, easy use, and environmental safety. Pneumatic cylinder uses air as its power source and converts it to a possible movement such as linear and rotary movement. In order to control the pneumatic cylinder, controller algorithm is needed to control the on-off solenoid valve with encoder and pressure sensor as the feedback inputs. In this paper, generalized predictive controller (GPC) is proposed as the control st...

16. Analytical Solution to the Pneumatic Transient Rod System at ACRR

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fehr, Brandon Michael [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2016-01-08

The ACRR pulse is pneumatically driven by nitrogen in a system of pipes, valves and hoses up to the connection of the pneumatic system and mechanical linkages of the transient rod (TR). The main components of the TR pneumatic system are the regulator, accumulator, solenoid valve and piston-cylinder assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze the flow of nitrogen through the TR pneumatic system in order to develop a motion profile of the piston during the pulse and be able to predict the pressure distributions inside both the cylinder and accumulators. The predicted pressure distributions will be validated against pressure transducer data, while the motion profile will be compared to proximity switch data. By predicting the motion of the piston, pulse timing will be determined and provided to the engineers/operators for verification. The motion profile will provide an acceleration distribution to be used in Razorback to more accurately predict reactivity insertion into the system.

17. Analytical Solution to the Pneumatic Transient Rod System at ACRR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fehr, Brandon Michael

2016-01-01

The ACRR pulse is pneumatically driven by nitrogen in a system of pipes, valves and hoses up to the connection of the pneumatic system and mechanical linkages of the transient rod (TR). The main components of the TR pneumatic system are the regulator, accumulator, solenoid valve and piston-cylinder assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze the flow of nitrogen through the TR pneumatic system in order to develop a motion profile of the piston during the pulse and be able to predict the pressure distributions inside both the cylinder and accumulators. The predicted pressure distributions will be validated against pressure transducer data, while the motion profile will be compared to proximity switch data. By predicting the motion of the piston, pulse timing will be determined and provided to the engineers/operators for verification. The motion profile will provide an acceleration distribution to be used in Razorback to more accurately predict reactivity insertion into the system.

18. Utilization of pneumatic energy in industries and Nuclear Energy Unit - a brief review

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

1984-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent of utilisation of pneumatic energy in UTN, besides depicting the capabilities of pneumatics in various field, especially in nuclear industry. Thus, a few examples of the usage of this energy in industry and UTN are explained and listed briefly. Comparisons and advantages of the pneumatics with respect to other forms of energy also discussed briefly. It is hoped that this pneumatic technology will advanced in UTN and becoming one of the alternatives of offered apart from other form of energy like hyrdaulics and electricity. (author)

19. Electric-Pneumatic Actuator: A New Muscle for Locomotion

OpenAIRE

Ahmad Sharbafi, Maziar; Shin, Hirofumi; Zhao, Guoping; Hosoda, Koh; Seyfarth, Andre

2017-01-01

A better understanding of how actuator design supports locomotor function may help develop novel and more functional powered assistive devices or robotic legged systems. Legged robots comprise passive parts (e.g., segments, joints and connections) which are moved in a coordinated manner by actuators. In this study, we propose a novel concept of a hybrid electric-pneumatic actuator (EPA) as an enhanced variable impedance actuator (VIA). EPA is consisted of a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) a...

20. Design and experiment of pneumatic EPB test platform

OpenAIRE

Jianshi GONG; Tianle JIA; Dali TIAN; Hongliang WANG; Di HUANG

2017-01-01

In order to verify the accuracy and reliability of the function and control strategy of the pneumatic electronic parking brake(EPB) system, a test platform of the pneumatic EPB system is designed. The working principle of the air pressure type EPB test platform is introduced, the composition of the platform is confirmed, including air press storage module, braking module, man-machine interaction module, signal imitation module, data collection module, and fault diagnosis module, and the funct...

1. Pneumatic Compression, But Not Exercise, Can Avoid Intradialytic Hypotension: A Randomized Trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Álvares, Valeria R C; Ramos, Camila D; Pereira, Benedito J; Pinto, Ana Lucia; Moysés, Rosa M A; Gualano, Bruno; Elias, Rosilene M

2017-01-01

Conventional hemodialysis (HD) is associated with dialysis-induced hypotension (DIH) and ineffective phosphate removal. As the main source of extracellular fluid removed during HD are the legs, we sought to reduce DIH and increase phosphate removal by using cycling and pneumatic compression, which would potentially provide higher venous return, preserving central blood flow and also offering more phosphate to the dialyzer. We evaluated 21 patients in a randomized crossover fashion in which each patient underwent 3 different HD: control; cycling exercise during the first 60 min; and pneumatic compression during the first 60 min. Data obtained included bioelectrical impedance, hourly blood pressure measurement, biochemical parameters, and direct quantification of phosphate through the dialysate. DIH was defined as a drop in mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥20 mm Hg. There was no difference in the ultrafiltration rate (p = 0.628), delta weight (p = 0.415), delta of total, intra and extracellular body water among the control, cycling, and pneumatic compression (p = 0.209, p = 0.348, and p = 0.467 respectively). Delta MAP was less changed by pneumatic compression when compared to control, cycling, and pneumatic compression respectively (-4.7 [-17.2, 8.2], -4.7 [-20.5, -0.2], and -2.3 [-8.1, 9.0] mm Hg; p = 0.021). DIH occurred in 43, 38, and 24% of patients in control, cycling, and pneumatic compression respectively (p = 0.014). Phosphate removal did not increase in any intervention (p = 0.486). Higher phosphate removal was dependent on ultrafiltration, pre dialysis serum phosphate, and higher parathyroid hormone. Pneumatic compression during the first hour of dialysis was associated with less DIH, albeit there was no effect on fluid parameters. Neither exercise nor pneumatic compression increased phosphate removal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

2. 19 CFR 162.22 - Seizure of conveyances.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a) General applicability. If it shall appear to any officer authorized to board conveyances and make seizures that there...

3. Designed pneumatic valve actuators for controlled droplet breakup and generation.

Science.gov (United States)

Choi, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Kon; Lim, Jong-Min; Yang, Seung-Man; Yi, Gi-Ra

2010-02-21

The dynamic breakup of emulsion droplets was demonstrated in double-layered microfluidic devices equipped with designed pneumatic actuators. Uniform emulsion droplets, produced by shearing at a T-junction, were broken into smaller droplets when they passed downstream through constrictions formed by a pneumatically actuated valve in the upper control layer. The valve-assisted droplet breakup was significantly affected by the shape and layout of the control valves on the emulsion flow channel. Interestingly, by actuating the pneumatic valve immediately above the T-junction, the sizes of the emulsion droplets were controlled precisely in a programmatic manner that produced arrays of uniform emulsion droplets in various sizes and dynamic patterns.

4. Development of Pneumatic Robot Hand and Construction of Master-Slave System

Science.gov (United States)

Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Nishino, Shinya; Komatsubara, Hiroyuki; Kudawara, Tatsuwo; Hirano, Masanori

Recently, research and development has focused on robots that work in place of people. It is necessary for robots to perform the same flexible motions as people. Additionally, such robots need to incorporate high-level safety features in order not to injure people. For creation of such robots, we need to develop a robot hand that functions like a human hand. At the same time, this type of robot hand can be used as an artificial hand. Here, we present artificial muscle-type pneumatic actuators as the driving source of a robot hand that is both safe and flexible. Some development of robot hands using pneumatic actuators has already taken place. But, until now, when a pneumatic actuator is used, a big compressor is needed. So, the driving system also needs to be big; enlargement of the driving system is a major problem. Consequently, in this research, we develop a low-pressure, low-volume pneumatic actuator for driving a robot hand that works flexibly and safely on the assumption that it will be in contact with people. We develop a five-fingered robot hand with pneumatic actuators. And, we construct a master-slave system to enable the robot hand to perform the same operations as a human hand. We make a 1-link arm that has one degree of freedom using a pneumatic actuator, and construct a control system for the 1-link arm and verify its control performance.

5. Costs and benefits of pneumatic collection in three specific New York City cases

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Miller, Benjamin; Spertus, Juliette; Kamga, Camille

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Pneumatic and truck collection were compared in three New York City locations. • Relative costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions varied significantly. • Variations were due to location-specific factors (e.g., route density, truck type). • Under appropriate conditions, pneumatic collection reduces TMT, BTU, and GHG. • Pneumatic capex may be offset by operating savings and externality benefits. - Abstract: Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared the economic or environmental impacts of these systems to those of truck collection. A critical factor to consider when making this comparison is the extent to which the findings reflect the specific geographic, demographic, and operational characteristics of the systems considered. This paper is based on three case studies that consider the specific characteristics of three locations, comparing pneumatic systems with conventional collection on the basis of actual waste tonnages, composition, sources, collection routes, truck trips, and facility locations. In one case, alternative upgrades to an existing pneumatic system are compared to a potential truck-collection operation. In the other cases, existing truck operations are compared to proposed pneumatic systems which, to reduce capital costs, would be installed without new trenching or tunneling through the use of existing linear infrastructure. For the two proposed retrofit pneumatic systems, up to 48,000 truck kilometers travelled would be avoided and energy use would be reduced by up to 60% at an incremental cost of up to \$400,000 USD per year over the total operating-plus-capital cost of

6. Costs and benefits of pneumatic collection in three specific New York City cases

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Miller, Benjamin, E-mail: BenjaminMiller@nyc.rr.com [University Transportation Research Center, Region 2, 910 Marshak Hall, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Spertus, Juliette, E-mail: Juliette.Spertus@gmail.com [19 Clifton Place, Brooklyn, NY 11238 (United States); Kamga, Camille, E-mail: CKamga@UTRC2.org [University Transportation Research Center, Region 2, 910 Marshak Hall, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

2014-11-15

Highlights: • Pneumatic and truck collection were compared in three New York City locations. • Relative costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions varied significantly. • Variations were due to location-specific factors (e.g., route density, truck type). • Under appropriate conditions, pneumatic collection reduces TMT, BTU, and GHG. • Pneumatic capex may be offset by operating savings and externality benefits. - Abstract: Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared the economic or environmental impacts of these systems to those of truck collection. A critical factor to consider when making this comparison is the extent to which the findings reflect the specific geographic, demographic, and operational characteristics of the systems considered. This paper is based on three case studies that consider the specific characteristics of three locations, comparing pneumatic systems with conventional collection on the basis of actual waste tonnages, composition, sources, collection routes, truck trips, and facility locations. In one case, alternative upgrades to an existing pneumatic system are compared to a potential truck-collection operation. In the other cases, existing truck operations are compared to proposed pneumatic systems which, to reduce capital costs, would be installed without new trenching or tunneling through the use of existing linear infrastructure. For the two proposed retrofit pneumatic systems, up to 48,000 truck kilometers travelled would be avoided and energy use would be reduced by up to 60% at an incremental cost of up to \$400,000 USD per year over the total operating-plus-capital cost of

7. Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wellner, A.F.

1993-10-01

Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company's testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system

8. Empirical Analysis of Pneumatic Tire Friction on Ice

OpenAIRE

Holley, Troy Nigel

2010-01-01

Pneumatic tire friction on ice is an under-researched area of tire mechanics. This study covers the design and analysis of a series of pneumatic tire tests on a flat-level ice road surface. The terramechanics rig of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) is a single-wheel test rig that allows for the experimental analysis of the forces and moments on a tire, providing directly the data for the drawbar pull of said tire, thus supporting the calculation of friction based on this data. This...

9. Predictors of treatment failure for pneumatic retinopexy.

Science.gov (United States)

Rootman, Dan B; Luu, Shelly; M Conti, Stephen; Mandell, Mark; Devenyi, Robert; Lam, Wai-Ching; Kertes, Peter J

2013-12-01

The purpose of this study was to define the overall anatomic success rate in pneumatic retinopexy and to identify morphologic features that may be predictive of treatment failure in pneumatic retinopexy. Prospective consecutive interventional case series of patients with new-onset primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachments treated with pneumatic retinopexy. In this interventional case series, consecutive patients with new-onset primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachments were treated with pneumatic retinopexy and followed prospectively. Morphologic data were collected on 3-colour fundus drawings. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, defined as requirement for scleral buckle or vitrectomy within the follow-up period. Rates of failure for each morphologic feature were compared and a logistic regression model was fit. A total of 113 eyes were included in the study. Anatomic success was achieved in 69.6% of patients. Morphologic criteria including the position and number of breaks, position and extent of lattice degeneration, size of the detached area, and macular status were all found not to be significantly related to failure. In multivariate analysis, only 3 predictors, pseudophakic status (p < 0.05, odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% CI, 1.06-7.88), presence of retinal break greater than 1 clock-hour (p < 0.05, OR 3.41, 1.06-11.02), and presence of grade C or D proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (p < 0.01, OR 31.83, 95% CI, 3.59-282.24), gained statistical significance. Only pseudophakia, a large retinal break, and/or PVR was associated with an increased likelihood of failure. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10. Use of the PZK system for pneumatic stowing along mine workings

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Makarevich, Yu S; Buzhin, N K; Churakov, V N

1983-07-01

The utilization of waste rock for pneumatic stowing in the Komsomolets Donbassa mine with coal seams to 1 m thick and dip angles from 3 to 11/sup 0/ is evaluated. Gate roads used for mine haulage by belt conveyors are controlled by cribbings made of timber and of concrete blocks, particularly at junction of working facese by belt conveyors are controlled by cribbings made of timber and of concrete blocks, particularly at junction of working faces with gate goads. Effects of pneumatic stowing on strata control cost and environmental protection are analyzed. Waste rock which has been dumped at spoil banks on the ground surface is crushed by the PZK system developed by Dongiproshakht. The PZK system is installed underground close to haulage roadways. Crushed rock material with size from 0 to 80 mm and compression strength coefficient from 3 to 5 degrees on the Protod'yakonov scale is hauled by mine cars to working faces and stowed by the DZM-2 pneumatic system. Strips of pneumatic stowing at each side of a gate road are from 12 to 15 m wide. Design of the PZM system and of a rock hopper used for accumulation of crushed rock as well as design of the DZM-2 system are shown in schemes. Economic analysis shows that use of pneumatic stowing reduces roof subsidence in the haulage gate road to 20% and eliminates cribbings. Use of pneumatic stowing for strata control in haulage gate roads economizes 65 rubles per 1 m of gate road.

11. Deep sedation during pneumatic reduction of intussusception.

Science.gov (United States)

Ilivitzki, Anat; Shtark, Luda Glozman; Arish, Karin; Engel, Ahuva

2012-05-01

Pneumatic reduction of intussusception under fluoroscopic guidance is a routine procedure. The unsedated child may resist the procedure, which may lengthen its duration and increase the radiation dose. We use deep sedation during the procedure to overcome these difficulties. The purpose of this study was to summarize our experience with deep sedation during fluoroscopic reduction of intussusception and assess the added value and complication rate of deep sedation. All children with intussusception who underwent pneumatic reduction in our hospital between January 2004 and June 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Anesthetists sedated the children using propofol. The fluoroscopic studies, ultrasound (US) studies and the childrens' charts were reviewed. One hundred thirty-one attempted reductions were performed in 119 children, of which 121 (92%) were successful and 10 (8%) failed. Two perforations (1.5%) occurred during attempted reduction. Average fluoroscopic time was 1.5 minutes. No complication to sedation was recorded. Deep sedation with propofol did not add any complication to the pneumatic reduction. The fluoroscopic time was short. The success rate of reduction was high,raising the possibility that sedation is beneficial, possibly by smooth muscle relaxation.

12. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-10-01

... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

13. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

Science.gov (United States)

Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

1974-01-01

Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

14. Pneumatization of the Temporal Bones in a Greenlandic Inuit Anthropological Material

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N

1991-01-01

The degree of pneumatization of the temporal bones correlates with exposure during childhood and adolescence to infectious middle ear diseases (IMED), both acute and chronic. The pneumatized area as seen on cranial X-rays can be measured. This was applied to an anthropological material in order...

15. Efﬁcient control of servo pneumatic actuator system utilizing by-pass ...

The issue of energy saving nowadays is very crucial. Pneumatic systems, constituting an important segment of almost every industry, represent large energy consumers. Also, a signiﬁcant problem with servo pneumatic actuators is achieving accuracy in positioning. The higher the positioning accuracy, the higher the ...

16. Force Control for a Pneumatic Cylinder Using Generalized Predictive Controller Approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Pneumatic cylinder is a well-known device because of its high power to weight ratio, easy use, and environmental safety. Pneumatic cylinder uses air as its power source and converts it to a possible movement such as linear and rotary movement. In order to control the pneumatic cylinder, controller algorithm is needed to control the on-off solenoid valve with encoder and pressure sensor as the feedback inputs. In this paper, generalized predictive controller (GPC is proposed as the control strategy for the pneumatic cylinder force control. To validate and compare the performance, proportional-integral (PI controller is also presented. Both controllers algorithms GPC and PI are developed using existing linear model of the cylinder from previous research. Results are presented in simulation and experimental approach using MATLAB-Simulink as the platform. The results show that the GPC is capable of fast response with low steady state error and percentage overshoot compared to PI.

17. Slit Tubes for Semisoft Pneumatic Actuators.

Science.gov (United States)

Belding, Lee; Baytekin, Bilge; Baytekin, Hasan Tarik; Rothemund, Philipp; Verma, Mohit S; Nemiroski, Alex; Sameoto, Dan; Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Whitesides, George M

2018-03-01

This article describes a new principle for designing soft or 'semisoft' pneumatic actuators: SLiT (for SLit-in-Tube) actuators. Inflating an elastomeric balloon, when enclosed by an external shell (a material with higher Young's modulus) containing slits of different directions and lengths, produces a variety of motions, including bending, twisting, contraction, and elongation. The requisite pressure for actuation depends on the length of the slits, and this dependence allows sequential actuation by controlling the applied pressure. Different actuators can also be controlled using external "sliders" that act as reprogrammable "on-off" switches. A pneumatic arm and a walker constructed from SLiT actuators demonstrate their ease of fabrication and the range of motions they can achieve. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

18. Pneumatic artificial muscle and its application on driving variable trailing-edge camber wing

Science.gov (United States)

Yin, Weilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yijin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2010-04-01

As a novel bionic actuator, pneumatic artificial muscle has high power to weight ratio. In this paper, the experimental setup to measure the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle was designed and the relationship between the static output force and the air pressure was investigated. Experimental result shows the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle decreases nonlinearly with increasing contraction ratio. A variable camber wing based on the pneumatic artificial muscle was developed and the variable camber wing model was manufactured to validate the variable camber concept. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel. Experimental result shows that the wing camber increases with increasing air pressure.

19. Complications of occipital bone pneumatization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moss, Mary; Roche, Jim; Biggs, Michael; Forer, Martin; Fagan, Paul; Davis, Martin

2004-01-01

Four cases of occipital bone pneumatization and subsequent complications are described, which include a pathological fracture of C 1 and the occipital bone, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumatocele formation. Reviews of the published literature and possible aetiological factors have been discussed Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

20. Mathematical Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of Electrostatic Sensor Arrays for the Flow Measurement of Fine Particles in a Square-shaped Pipe

OpenAIRE

Zhang, S; Yan, Yong; Qian, XC; Hu, YH

2016-01-01

Abstract—Square-shaped pneumatic conveying pipes are used in some industrial processes such as fuel injection systems in coal-fired power plants and circulating fluidized beds. However, little research has been conducted to characterise the gas–solid two-phase flow in a square-shaped pneumatic conveying pipe. This paper presents mathematical modelling and experimental assessment of novel non-restrictive electrostatic sensor arrays for the measurement of pulverised fuel flow in a square-shaped...

Science.gov (United States)

Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake

2005-05-01

We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.

2. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poindexter, A.M.

1977-01-01

An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal

3. Influence of Isoinertial-Pneumatic Mixed Resistances on Force-Velocity Relationship.

Science.gov (United States)

Avrillon, Simon; Jidovtseff, Boris; Hug, François; Guilhem, Gaël

2017-03-01

Muscle strengthening is commonly based on the use of isoinertial loading, whereas variable resistances such as pneumatic loading may be implemented to optimize training stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of the ratio between pneumatic and isoinertial resistance on the force-velocity relationship during ballistic movements. A total of 15 participants performed 2 concentric repetitions of ballistic bench-press movements with intention to throw the bar at 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90% of the maximal concentric repetition with 5 resistance ratios including 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, or 0% of pneumatic resistance, the additional load being isoinertial. Force-, velocity-, and power-time patterns were assessed and averaged over the concentric phase to determine the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships for each resistance ratio. Each 25% increase in the pneumatic part in the resistance ratio elicited higher movement velocity (+0.11 ± 0.03 m/s from 0% to 80% of the concentric phase) associated with lower force levels (-43.6 ± 15.2 N). Increased isoinertial part in the resistance ratio resulted in higher velocity toward the end of the movement (+0.23 ± 0.01 m/s from 90% to 100%). The findings show that the resistance ratio could be modulated to develop the acceleration phase and force toward the end of the concentric phase (pneumatic-oriented resistance). Inversely, isoinertial-oriented resistance should be used to develop maximal force and maximal power. Resistance modality could, therefore, be considered an innovative variable to modulate the training stimulus according to athletic purposes.

4. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

Science.gov (United States)

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

5. Statistical model estimating the occurrence of otitis media from temporal bone pneumatization

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Rasmussen, N

1994-01-01

In order to investigate the relationship between the pneumatization of temporal bones and the occurrence of otitis media in Greenlandic Inuit, 36 Greenlandic Inuit were examined by radiography of the temporal bones. The pneumatized cell area was measured planimetrically. All subjects answered...

6. 14 CFR 49.21 - Return of original conveyance.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Return of original conveyance. 49.21... RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.21 Return of original conveyance. If a person submitting a conveyance for recording wants the original returned to him, he must submit a true...

7. Evaluation of Models of Pneumatic Tourniquet in Simulated Out-of-Hospital Use.

Science.gov (United States)

Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A

2016-01-01

Pneumatic field tourniquets have been recommended for Military medics to stop bleeding from limb wounds, but no comparison of commercially available pneumatic models of tourniquet has been reported. The purpose of this study is to provide laboratory data on the differential performance of models of pneumatic tourniquets to inform decision-making of potential field assessment by military users. Models included the Emergency and Military Tourniquet (EMT), Tactical Pneumatic Tourniquet 2-inch (TPT2), and Tactical Pneumatic Tourniquet 3-inch (TPT3). One user tested the three tourniquet models 30 times each on a manikin to collect data on effectiveness (yes-no bleeding control), pulse cessation, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, after time (after bleeding was stopped), pressure applied, blood loss volume, composite outcome (whether all individual outcomes were good or not), and pump count of the bulb used to inflate the tourniquet. Neither tourniquet effectiveness nor pulse cessation (ρ = 1; likelihood ratio, 0 for both) differed among tourniquet models: all three models had 100% (30 of 30 tests) for both outcomes. The EMT had the best or tied for best performance in time to stop bleeding, total time, after time, pressure blood loss, composite outcome, and pump count. Each of the three models of pneumatic field tourniquet was 100% effective in stopping simulated bleeding. Among the three models, the EMT showed the best or tied for best performance in time to stop bleeding, blood loss, and composite outcomes. All models are suitable for future field assessment among military users. 2016.

8. Enhancing Mass Lesion of the Sphenoid: Atypical Presentation of Ongoing Pneumatization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Deepak Vallabhaneni

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Sinus pneumatization is a complex variable process that begins in early life and continues for many years. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with progressive headaches and neurologic symptoms suggestive of intracranial pathology. The presence of enhancing tissue within the sphenoid sinus created a diagnostic dilemma which leads to a transsphenoidal biopsy. Knowledge of imaging characteristics associated with incomplete pneumatization can help differentiate it from more ominous skull base pathology and prevent unnecessary testing. We describe four-year imaging follow-up in a patient with incomplete pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus presenting as an enhancing mass lesion with subsequent follow-up imaging demonstrating gradual regression and increased aeration of the sphenoid sinus.

9. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

2014-01-01

This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass

10. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

2014-07-01

This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

11. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

Science.gov (United States)

Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

2011-12-01

This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

12. THE METHOD OF PNEUMATIC IMITATION OF WEIGHT-BEARING IN CHILDREN WITH SHIN FRACTURES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. Yu. Serova

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The article contains a comparative analysis of shin fracture treatment in 102 children at the age of 4–18 years old. The main group consisted of 51 (50% children, who received postoperative treatment according to the method of pneumatic imitation of weightbearing both on health and injured limbs with «Korvit» apparatus. The control group consisted of 51 (50% patients who did not received the afore-mentioned method of postoperative treatment. The groups were comparable on age, trauma mechanism and localization, surgical operation and complex postoperative therapy. Children of the first group were found to have shorter period of time needed to achievement of pain relief, soft tissue swelling decrease, restoration of the movements in adjacent joints and somatometry values normalization, which allowed earlier verticalization and shorter period of hospitalization.

13. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

Science.gov (United States)

Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

2015-11-01

A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved.

14. Design and Experiment of 1LFQ-325 Pneumatic Reversible Plough

OpenAIRE

Zheng, Xuan; Chen, Xuefeng; Qin, Chaomin; Jia, Libo

2013-01-01

A pneumatic reversible plough is developed, which complements to the tractor of 25.7-36.8 kW. The plough adopts the cylinder as reversing mechanism between the right and left plough bodies, and the cylinder can substitute the mechanical reversing mechanism. The pneumatic turnover allows the plough to be operated easily and turned over flexibly. Field experiment results show that indicators of plough performance meet the requirements of the relevant national standards.

15. Electro-Pneumatic Control System with Hydraulically Positioning Actuator Motor

OpenAIRE

V. N. Pilgunov; K. D. Efremova

2016-01-01

A compressibility of the actuating fluid of a pneumatic drive (compressed air) leads to significant landing of the pneumatic cylinder piston at the time of stop and hold of the load, a constant component of which can fluctuate significantly for the holding period.There are a lot of factors, which have a significant impact on the landing value of piston. Those are: an initial position of the piston at its stop, which determines the volume of the an active area of the piston, a value of the con...

16. Powered Upper Limb Orthosis Actuation System Based on Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

Science.gov (United States)

Chakarov, Dimitar; Veneva, Ivanka; Tsveov, Mihail; Venev, Pavel

2018-03-01

The actuation system of a powered upper limb orthosis is studied in the work. To create natural safety in the mutual "man-robot" interaction, an actuation system based on pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) is selected. Experimentally obtained force/contraction diagrams for bundles, consisting of different number of muscles are shown in the paper. The pooling force and the stiffness of the pneumatic actuators is assessed as a function of the number of muscles in the bundle and the supply pressure. Joint motion and torque is achieved by antagonistic actions through pulleys, driven by bundles of pneumatic muscles. Joint stiffness and joint torques are determined on condition of a power balance, as a function of the joint position, pressure, number of muscles and muscles

17. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction.

Science.gov (United States)

Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

2015-01-01

Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03-2.13). Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction.

18. 40 CFR 63.1341 - Definitions.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... facility. Conveying systems include but are not limited to the following: feeders, belt conveyors, bucket elevators and pneumatic systems. Conveying system transfer point means a point where any material including but not limited to feed material, fuel, clinker or product, is transferred to or from a conveying...

19. The qualitative assessment of pneumatic actuators operation in terms of vibration criteria

Science.gov (United States)

Hetmanczyk, M. P.; Michalski, P.

2015-11-01

The work quality of pneumatic actuators can be assessed in terms of multiple criteria. In the case of complex systems with pneumatic actuators retained at end positions (with occurrence of piston impact in cylinder covers) the vibration criteria constitute the most reliable indicators. The paper presents an impact assessment on the operating condition of the rodless pneumatic cylinder regarding to selected vibrational symptoms. On the basis of performed analysis the authors had shown meaningful premises allowing an evaluation of the performance and tuning of end position damping piston movement with usage the most common diagnostic tools (portable vibration analyzers). The presented method is useful in tuning of parameters in industrial conditions.

20. Design and analysis of adaptive honeycomb structure with pneumatic muscle fibers

Science.gov (United States)

Yin, Weilong; Tian, Dongkui; Chen, Yijin

2012-04-01

The adaptive honeycomb structure actuated by pneumatic muscle fibers is proposed in this paper. The FE model of adaptive honeycomb structure is developed by use of ANSYS software. The elastics modulus of the developed pneumatic muscle fibers is experimentally determined and their output force is tested. The results show that the contraction ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers with inner diameter of 2mm could reach up to 26.8% and the force could reach to a value of 27N when the applied pressure is 0.4MPa and the contraction ratio is zero. When the adaptive honeycomb has a certain load and an effective output displacement, the applied force must be greater than a certain value. The adaptive honeycomb must be consumed extra energy when the output displacement and force are produced.

1. A randomized trial of pneumatic reduction versus hydrostatic reduction for intussusception in pediatric patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Xie, Xiaolong; Wu, Yang; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Yiyang; Chen, Guobin; Xiang, Bo

2017-08-08

Data of randomly controlled trials comparing the hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction for intussusception in pediatric patients as initial therapy are lacking. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomly controlled trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of the hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction techniques. All intussusception patients who visited West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2014 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study in which they underwent pneumatic reduction or hydrostatic reduction. Patients were randomized into ultrasound-guided hydrostatic or X-ray-guided pneumatic reduction group. The data collected includes demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The primary outcome of the study was the success rate of reduction. And the secondary outcomes of the study were the rates of intestinal perforations and recurrence. A total of 124 children with intussusception who had met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The overall success rate of this study was 90.32%. Univariable analysis showed that the success rate of hydrostatic reduction with normal saline (96.77%) was significantly higher than that of pneumatic reduction with air (83.87%) (p=0.015). Perforation after reduction was found in only one of the pneumatic reduction group. The recurrence rate of intussusception in the hydrostatic reduction group was 4.84% compared with 3.23% of pneumatic reduction group. Our study found that ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction is a simple, safe and effective nonoperative treatment for pediatric patients suffering from intussusceptions, and should be firstly adopted in the treatment of qualified patients. Therapeutic study TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2. Dielectric elastomer actuators used for pneumatic valve technology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giousouf, Metin; Kovacs, Gabor

2013-01-01

Dielectric elastomer actuators have been investigated for applications in the field of pneumatic automation technology. We have developed different valve designs with stacked dielectric elastomer actuators and with integrated high voltage converters. The actuators were made using VHB-4910 material and a stacker machine for automated fabrication of the cylindrical actuators. Typical characteristics of pneumatic valves such as flow rate, power consumption and dynamic behaviour are presented. For valve construction the force and stroke parameters of the dielectric elastomer actuator have been measured. Further, benefits for valve applications using dielectric elastomers are shown as well as their potential operational area. Finally, challenges are discussed that are relevant for the use of elastomer actuators in valves for industrial applications. (paper)

3. Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle

OpenAIRE

Ammar Al-Jodah; Laith Khames

2018-01-01

In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs). A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compar...

4. Flow Rate Analysis of 3/2 Directional Pneumatic Valve by Means Of Ansys Cfx Software

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Slawomir BLASIAK

2014-12-01

Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to develop a selection method of the pneumatic connectors for directional 3/2 valve. The method was established to minimize resistance and loss of pressure in the valve with mounted pneumatic connections for the selected pipe diameters. Directional valve was modeled in 3D CAD software SolidWorks while 3D models of the air connections have been downloaded from the website of one of the leading suppliers of pneumatic. Based on developed solid model the simulation of compressed air flow in the software for computational fluid dynamics Ansys CFX was conducted. The studies using CFD methods helped to determine which air connections best meet the assumptions. Performed numerical tests enable proper selection of items to the newly designed pneumatic systems for a particular group of valves. As a consequence, this translates into a reduction in energy consumption and improve the efficiency of the entire pneumatic complex system.

5. System Identification and Embedded Controller Design for Pneumatic Actuator with Stiffness Characteristic

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Khairuddin Osman

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents model and controller design applications to pneumatic actuator embedded system. Two model strategies of position and force are proposed to realize compliance control for stiffness characteristic. Model of the pneumatic actuator system (transfer function is obtained from system identification (SI method. Next, combination of predictive functional control with observer (PFC-O design is selected as a new control strategy for pneumatic system. Performance assessment of the controller is performed in MATLAB and validated through real-time experiments using national instrument (NI devices and programmable system on chip (PSoC microcontroller. Result shows that the new controller is adapted to the system and able to successfully control both simulation and real-time experiments.

6. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model, Phase I

Data.gov (United States)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings...

7. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y.

2000-06-01

Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

8. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

2000-06-01

Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

9. Adaptive robust trajectory tracking control of a parallel manipulator driven by pneumatic cylinders

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ce Shang

2016-04-01

Full Text Available Due to the compressibility of air, non-linear characteristics, and parameter uncertainties of pneumatic elements, the position control of a pneumatic cylinder or parallel platform is still very difficult while comparing with the systems driven by electric or hydraulic power. In this article, based on the basic dynamic model and descriptions of thermal processes, a controller integrated with online parameter estimation is proposed to improve the performance of a pneumatic cylinder controlled by a proportional valve. The trajectory tracking error is significantly decreased by applying this method. Moreover, the algorithm is expanded to the problem of posture trajectory tracking for the three-revolute prismatic spherical pneumatic parallel manipulator. Lyapunov’s method is used to give the proof of stability of the controller. Using NI-CompactRio, NI-PXI, and Veristand platform as the realistic controller hardware and data interactive environment, the adaptive robust control algorithm is applied to the physical system successfully. Experimental results and data analysis showed that the posture error of the platform could be about 0.5%–0.7% of the desired trajectory amplitude. By integrating this method to the mechatronic system, the pneumatic servo solutions can be much more competitive in the industrial market of position and posture control.

10. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

Science.gov (United States)

Burley, Richard K.

1990-01-01

Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

11. Design of a Soft Robot with Multiple Motion Patterns Using Soft Pneumatic Actuators

Science.gov (United States)

Miao, Yu; Dong, Wei; Du, Zhijiang

2017-11-01

Soft robots are made of soft materials and have good flexibility and infinite degrees of freedom in theory. These properties enable soft robots to work in narrow space and adapt to external environment. In this paper, a 2-DOF soft pneumatic actuator is introduced, with two chambers symmetrically distributed on both sides and a jamming cylinder along the axis. Fibers are used to constrain the expansion of the soft actuator. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the soft actuator, including bending and elongation characteristics. A soft robot is designed and fabricated by connecting four soft pneumatic actuators to a 3D-printed board. The soft robotic system is then established. The pneumatic circuit is built by pumps and solenoid valves. The control system is based on the control board Arduino Mega 2560. Relay modules are used to control valves and pressure sensors are used to measure pressure in the pneumatic circuit. Experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed soft robot.

12. Design of the Modular Pneumatic Valve Terminal

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jakub E. TAKOSOGLU

2015-11-01

Full Text Available The paper presents design of the modular pneumatic valve terminal, which was made on the basis of the patent application No A1 402905 „A valve for controlling fluid power drives, specially for pneumatic actuators, and the control system for fluid power drives valves”. The authors describe a method of operation of the system with double-acting valve and 5/2 (five ways and two position valve. Functions of the valve, and an example of application of the valve terminal in the production process were presented. 3D solid models of all the components of the valve were made. The paper presents a complete 3D model of the valve in various configurations. Using CAD-embedded SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation computational fluid dynamics CFD analysis was also carried out of compressed air flow in the ways of the valve elements

13. A pneumatic cylinder driving polyhedron mobile mechanism

Science.gov (United States)

Ding, Wan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Yao, Yan-An

2012-03-01

A novel pneumatic cylinder driving polyhedron mobile mechanism is proposed in this paper. The mechanism is comprised of 5 tetrahedrons which includes a pneumatic cylinder in each edge. It locomotes by rolling and the rolling principle refers to the center of mass (CM) of the mechanism moved out of the supporting area and let it tip over through the controlling of the motion sequence of these cylinders. Firstly, the mathematical model is built to analysis the relation between the configuration and the CM of the mechanism. Then, a binary control strategy is developed to simplify and improve the control of this mobile mechanism. After that, dynamic simulation is performed to testify the analytical validity and feasibility of the rolling gaits. At last, a prototype is fabricated to achieve the rolling successfully to demonstrate the proposed concept.

14. On the sample transport time of a pneumatic transfer system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kondo, Yoshihide

1983-01-01

The counts accumulated in measuring system are affected by the variations in transport time of the sample on cyclic activation experiments with a mechanical sample transfer system. In use of the pneumatic transfer system, which has been set up, the transport time is variable according to the differences as follows: The form, size and weight of samples, the pneumatic pressure and so on. Comprehending the relationships between the transpot time and these variable factors is essentially important to make experiments with this transfer system. (author)

15. Design and Characterization of a Quasi-Passive Pneumatic Foot-Ankle Prosthesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Jeffrey D; Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J

2017-07-01

The majority of commercially available passive prosthetic feet are not capable of providing joint mechanics that match that of the intact human ankle. Due to their cantilever design, their stiffness characteristics contrast with what has been observed in the biological ankle, namely, an increase in stiffness during the stance phase of walking. In this paper, we introduce the design and control of a pneumatic foot-ankle prosthesis that attempts to provide biomimetic mechanics. The prosthesis is comprised of a pneumatic cylinder in series with a fiberglass leaf spring, and a solenoid valve to control the flow of air between the two sides of the cylinder. The solenoid valve acts as a mechanical clutch, enabling resetting of the ankle's equilibrium position. By adjusting the pressure inside the cylinder, the prosthesis can be customized to provide a range of ankle mechanics. A mechanical testing machine is used to compare the torque-angle curve of the pneumatic prosthesis with a low-profile passive prosthetic foot. Finally, data are presented of one transtibial amputee walking with the prosthesis at 1.2 m/s. The testing shows that the pneumatic prosthesis is capable of providing an appropriate range of motion as well a maximum torque of 94 Nm, while returning approximately 11.5 J of energy.

16. Design Methodology of Camshaft Driven Charge Valves for Pneumatic Engine Starts

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Moser Michael M.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Idling losses constitute a significant amount of the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. Therefore, shutting down the engine during idling phases can improve its overall efficiency. For driver acceptance a fast restart of the engine must be guaranteed. A fast engine start can be performed using a powerful electric starter and an appropriate battery which are found in hybrid electric vehicles, for example. However, these devices involve additional cost and weight. An alternative method is to use a tank with pressurized air that can be injected directly into the cylinders to start the engine pneumatically. In this paper, pneumatic engine starts using camshaft driven charge valves are discussed. A general methodology for an air-optimal charge valve design is presented which can deal with various requirements. The proposed design methodology is based on a process model representing pneumatic engine operation. A design example for a two-cylinder engine is shown, and the resulting optimized pneumatic start is experimentally verified on a test bench engine. The engine’s idling speed of 1200 rpm can be reached within 350 ms for an initial pressure in the air tank of 10 bar. A detailed system analysis highlights the characteristics of the optimal design found.

17. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model, Phase II

Data.gov (United States)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model that accurately predicts the stability of hydrostatic bearings...

18. Rod-based Fabrication of Customizable Soft Robotic Pneumatic Gripper Devices for Delicate Tissue Manipulation.

Science.gov (United States)

Low, Jin-Huat; Yeow, Chen-Hua

2016-08-02

Soft compliant gripping is essential in delicate surgical manipulation for minimizing the risk of tissue grip damage caused by high stress concentrations at the point of contact. It can be achieved by complementing traditional rigid grippers with soft robotic pneumatic gripper devices. This manuscript describes a rod-based approach that combined both 3D-printing and a modified soft lithography technique to fabricate the soft pneumatic gripper. In brief, the pneumatic featureless mold with chamber component is 3D-printed and the rods were used to create the pneumatic channels that connect to the chamber. This protocol eliminates the risk of channels occluding during the sealing process and the need for external air source or related control circuit. The soft gripper consists of a chamber filled with air, and one or more gripper arms with a pneumatic channel in each arm connected to the chamber. The pneumatic channel is positioned close to the outer wall to create different stiffness in the gripper arm. Upon compression of the chamber which generates pressure on the pneumatic channel, the gripper arm will bend inward to form a close grip posture because the outer wall area is more compliant. The soft gripper can be inserted into a 3D-printed handling tool with two different control modes for chamber compression: manual gripper mode with a movable piston, and robotic gripper mode with a linear actuator. The double-arm gripper with two actuatable arms was able to pick up objects of sizes up to 2 mm and yet generate lower compressive forces as compared to elastomer-coated and non-coated rigid grippers. The feasibility of having other designs, such as single-arm or hook gripper, was also demonstrated, which further highlighted the customizability of the soft gripper device, and it's potential to be used in delicate surgical manipulation to reduce the risk of tissue grip damage.

19. Characterization of a piezoelectric valve for an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Wiszowaty, Rafał; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan

2013-01-01

This paper describes a pneumatic valve based on a multilayer piezoelectric actuator and Hörbiger plates. The device was designed to operate in an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. The adaptive pneumatic shock absorber was considered as a piston–cylinder device and the valve was intended to be installed inside the piston. The main objective for the valve application was regulating the gas flow between the cylinder’s chambers in order to maintain the desired value of the reaction force generated by the shock absorber. The paper describes the design constraints and requirements, together with results of analytical modelling of fluid flow verified versus experimentally obtained data. The presented results indicate that the desired performance characteristics of the valve were obtained. The geometrical constraints of the flow ducts were studied and the actuator’s functional features analysed. (paper)

20. Characterization of a piezoelectric valve for an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber

Science.gov (United States)

Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Wiszowaty, Rafał; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan

2013-12-01

This paper describes a pneumatic valve based on a multilayer piezoelectric actuator and Hörbiger plates. The device was designed to operate in an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. The adaptive pneumatic shock absorber was considered as a piston-cylinder device and the valve was intended to be installed inside the piston. The main objective for the valve application was regulating the gas flow between the cylinder’s chambers in order to maintain the desired value of the reaction force generated by the shock absorber. The paper describes the design constraints and requirements, together with results of analytical modelling of fluid flow verified versus experimentally obtained data. The presented results indicate that the desired performance characteristics of the valve were obtained. The geometrical constraints of the flow ducts were studied and the actuator’s functional features analysed.

1. Mine-shaft conveyance monitoring

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beus, M.J.; Ruff, T.M.; Iverson, S.; McCoy, W.G. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane, WA (USA). Spokane Research Laboratory

2000-10-01

Monitoring conveyance position and wire rope load directly from the skip or cage top offers several significant safety and production advantages. The Spokane Research Laboratory (SRL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a shaft conveyance monitoring system (SCMS). This system consists of position and guide-displacement sensors, a maintenance-free battery power supply and a new sensor, which is mounted on the wire rope with a Crosby Clip, to measure hoist-rope tension. A radio data link transmits sensor output to the hoist room. A state-of-the-art automated hoisting test facility was also constructed to test the concept in a controlled laboratory setting. Field tests are now underway at the SRL hoisting research facility and in deep mine shafts in northern Idaho. 4 refs., 5 figs.

2. Pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle for repairing simple rhegmatogenous retinal detachments.

Science.gov (United States)

Hatef, Elham; Sena, Dayse F; Fallano, Katherine A; Crews, Jonathan; Do, Diana V

2015-05-07

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a full-thickness break in the sensory retina, caused by vitreous traction on the retina. While pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckle, and vitrectomy are the accepted surgical interventions for eyes with RRD, their relative effectiveness has remained controversial.  The objectives of this review were to assess the effectiveness and safety of pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle or pneumatic retinopexy versus a combination treatment of scleral buckle and vitrectomy for people with RRD. The secondary objectives were to summarize any data on economic measures and quality of life. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 January 2015. We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle (with or without vitrectomy) for eyes with RRD. After screening for eligibility, two review authors independently extracted study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. We followed systematic review standards as set forth by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included two randomized controlled trials (218 eyes of 216 participants) comparing the effectiveness of pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle for eyes with RRD. We identified no studies

3. Pneumatic devices in isotope technology. Pt. 1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egri, B.; Csoeke, A.

1974-01-01

A detailed survey has been given about the following pneumatic devices used in the isotope technology: working cylinders, membrane motors, valves, detectors, hydropneumatic units. The characteristics of the units of various control systems have been described in tables. (K.A.)

4. The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer, Phase I

Data.gov (United States)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric...

5. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

Science.gov (United States)

Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

2015-01-01

The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

6. Experimental investigation of coarse particle conveying in pipes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vlasak Pavel

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The advanced knowledge of particle-water mixture flow behaviour is important for safe, reliable, and economical design and operation of the freight pipelines. The effect of the mixture velocity and concentration on the coarse particle – water mixtures flow behaviour was experimentally investigated on an experimental pipe loop of inner diameter D = 100 mm with horizontal, vertical, and inclined pipe sections. Narrow particle size distribution basalt pebbles were used as model of coarse-grained solid particles. The radiometric method was used to measure particle concentration distribution in pipe cross-section. Mixture flow behaviour and particles motion along the pipe invert were studied in a pipe viewing section. The study revealed that the coarse particlewater mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipe sections were significantly stratified. The particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert. However, for higher and moderate flow velocities the particles moved also in the central part of the pipe cross-section, and particle saltation was found to be dominant mode of particle conveying.

7. An investigation of the effects of pneumatic actuator design on slip control for heavy vehicles

Science.gov (United States)

Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

2013-01-01

Progress in reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, little has been published on slip controllers for air-braked heavy vehicles, or the effects of slow pneumatic actuation on their design and performance. This paper introduces a sliding mode slip controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The effects of pneumatic actuator delays and flow rates on stopping performance and air (energy) consumption are presented through vehicle simulations. Finally, the simulations are validated with experiments using a hardware-in-the-loop rig. It is shown that for each wheel, pneumatic valves with delays smaller than 3 ms and orifice diameters around 8 mm provide the best performance.

8. Position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle with hysteresis compensation based on modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model.

Science.gov (United States)

Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Heng, Shuai; Lin, Zhenkun; Zhao, Jie

2017-01-01

High-performance position control of pneumatic artificial muscles is limited by their inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis. This study aims to model the length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle and to realize its accurate position tracking control with forward hysteresis compensation. The classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is widely used in hysteresis modelling and compensation. But it is only effective for symmetric hysteresis. Therefore, a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is built to characterize the asymmetric length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle, by replacing the classical play operators with two more flexible elementary operators to independently describe the ascending branch and descending branch of hysteresis loops. On the basis, a position tracking controller, which is composed of cascade forward hysteresis compensation and simple proportional pressure controller, is designed for the pneumatic artificial muscle. Experiment results show that the MPI model can reproduce the length/pressure hysteresis of the pneumatic artificial muscle, and the proposed controller for the pneumatic artificial muscle can track the reference position signals with high accuracy. By modelling the length/pressure hysteresis with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model and using its inversion for compensation, precise position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle is achieved.

9. Design and control of a pneumatic musculoskeletal biped robot.

Science.gov (United States)

Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Jie

2016-04-29

Pneumatic artificial muscles are quite promising actuators for humanoid robots owing to their similar characteristics with human muscles. Moreover, biologically inspired musculoskeletal systems are particularly important for humanoid robots to perform versatile dynamic tasks. This study aims to develop a pneumatic musculoskeletal biped robot, and its controller, to realize human-like walking. According to the simplified musculoskeletal structure of human lower limbs, each leg of the biped robot is driven by nine muscles, including three pairs of monoarticular muscles which are arranged in the flexor-extensor form, as well as three biarticular muscles which span two joints. To lower cost, high-speed on/off solenoid valves rather than proportional valves are used to control the muscles. The joint trajectory tracking controller based on PID control method is designed to achieve the desired motion. Considering the complex characteristics of pneumatic artificial muscles, the control model is obtained through parameter identification experiments. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the biped robot is able to walk with this control strategy. The proposed musculoskeletal structure and control strategy are effective for the biped robot to achieve human-like walking.

10. Design and Control of a Pneumatically Actuated Transtibial Prosthesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Hao; Shen, Xiangrong

2015-04-01

This paper presents the design and control of a pneumatically actuated transtibial prosthesis, which utilizes a pneumatic cylinder-type actuator to power the prosthetic ankle joint to support the user's locomotion. The pneumatic actuator has multiple advantages over the traditional electric motor, such as light weight, low cost, and high power-to-weight ratio. The objective of this work is to develop a compact and lightweight transtibial prosthesis, leveraging the multiple advantages provided by this highly competitive actuator. In this paper, the design details of the prosthesis are described, including the determination of performance specifications, the layout of the actuation mechanism, and the calculation of the torque capacity. Through the authors' design calculation, the prosthesis is able to provide sufficient range of motion and torque capacity to support the locomotion of a 75 kg individual. The controller design is also described, including the underlying biomechanical analysis and the formulation of the finite-state impedance controller. Finally, the human subject testing results are presented, with the data indicating that the prosthesis is able to generate a natural walking gait and sufficient power output for its amputee user.

11. Levels of muscle enzymes in the serum after esophageal pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia.

Science.gov (United States)

Kimchi, N A; Ron, Y; Abramowich, D; Shirin, H; Scapa, E; Avni, Y

2005-01-01

The success rate of pneumatic dilation of the esophagus in patients with achalasia is variable. We aim to assess whether levels of muscle enzymes in the serum are useful for predicting the efficacy of this procedure. Consecutive adults with symptomatic achalasia treated with pneumatic dilation were included. Blood samples were taken immediately before the procedure and after 12, 24 and 32 h. Clinical efficacy of the pneumatic dilation was evaluated on the basis of a symptom score defined prior to, and 2 months after the procedure. Eleven patients underwent 13 pneumatic dilations. In nine patients this was the first dilation attempt. Ten dilations were clinically effective. The study was discontinued after enzyme levels did not show a trend of increase in any of our patients. Moreover, a statistically significant unexpected decrease in creatine phosphokinase values was found 12 h after the procedure, among the 10 successful dilations. We believe that levels of muscle enzymes in the serum cannot predict the efficacy of pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia.

12. Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Onozuka, Masanori; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo.

1990-01-01

The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author)

13. Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onozuka, Masanori (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawasaki, Kouzo

1990-11-01

The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author).

14. Model for pneumatic pellet injection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.

1983-07-01

A hydrodynamic code has been developed to model the performance of pneumatic pellet injection systems. The code describes one dimensional, unsteady compressible gas dynamics, including gas friction and heat transfer to the walls in a system with variable area. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved with an iterated Lax-Wendroff scheme with additional numerical viscosity. The code is described and comparisons with experimental data are presented

15. Sliding mode control of a "Soft" 2-DOF Planar Pneumatic Manipulator

Science.gov (United States)

Van Damme, M.; Vanderborght, B.; Beyl, P.; Versluys, R.; Vanderniepen, I.; Van Ham, R.; Cherelle, P.; Daerden, F.; Lefeber, D.

2008-10-01

This paper presents a sliding mode controller for a "Soft" 2-DOF Planar Pneumatic Manipulator actuated by pleated pneumatic artificial muscle actuators. Since actuator dynamics is not negligible, an approximate model for pressure dynamics was taken into account, which made it necessary to perform full input-output feedback linearization in order to design a sliding mode controller. The design of the controller is presented in detail, and experimental results obtained by implementing the controller are discussed

16. Pneumatic load compensating or controlling system

Science.gov (United States)

Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

1975-01-01

A pneumatic load compensating or controlling system for restraining a load with a predetermined force or applying a predetermined force to the load is described; it includes a source of pressurized air, a one-way pneumatic actuator operatively connected to a load, and a fluid conduit fluidically connecting the actuator with the source of pressurized air. The actuator is of the piston and cylinder type, and the end of the fluid conduit is connected to the upper or lower portion of the cylinder whereby the actuator alternatively and selectively restrains the load with a predetermined force or apply a predetermined force to the load. Pressure regulators are included within the system for variably selectively adjusting the pressurized fluid to predetermined values as desired or required; a pressure amplifier is included within the system for multiplying the pressurized values so as to achieve greater load forces. An accumulator is incorporated within the system as a failsafe operating mechanism, and visual and aural alarm devices, operatively associated with pressure detecting apparatus, readily indicate the proper or improper functioning of the system.

17. Pneumatic Rotary Actuator Position Servo System Based on ADE-PD Control

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yeming Zhang

2018-03-01

Full Text Available In order to accurately control the rotation position of a pneumatic rotary actuator, the flow state of the gas and the motion state of the pneumatic rotary actuator in the pneumatic rotary actuator position servo system are analyzed in this paper. The mathematical model of the system and the experiment platform are established after that. An Adaptive Differential Evolution (ADE algorithm which adaptively ameliorates the scaling factor and crossover probability in the process of individual evolution is proposed and applied to the parameter optimization of PD controller. The experimental platform is used to compare the controller with Differential Evolution (DE algorithm and NCD-PID controller. Finally, the characteristics of the system are tested by increasing the inertial load. The experimental results illustrate that system using ADE-PD control strategy has greater position precision and faster response than using DE-PD and NCD-PID strategies, and shows great robustness.

18. Electric-Pneumatic Actuator: A New Muscle for Locomotion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-10-01

Full Text Available A better understanding of how actuator design supports locomotor function may help develop novel and more functional powered assistive devices or robotic legged systems. Legged robots comprise passive parts (e.g., segments, joints and connections which are moved in a coordinated manner by actuators. In this study, we propose a novel concept of a hybrid electric-pneumatic actuator (EPA as an enhanced variable impedance actuator (VIA. EPA is consisted of a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM and an electric motor (EM. In contrast to other VIAs, the pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM within the EPA provides not only adaptable compliance, but also an additional powerful actuator with muscle-like properties, which can be arranged in different combinations (e.g., in series or parallel to the EM. The novel hybrid actuator shares the advantages of both integrated actuator types combining precise control of EM with compliant energy storage of PAM, which are required for efficient and adjustable locomotion. Experimental and simulation results based on the new dynamic model of PAM support the hypothesis that combination of the two actuators can improve efficiency (energy and peak power and performance, while does not increase control complexity and weight, considerably. Finally, the experiments on EPA adapted bipedal robot (knee joint of the BioBiped3 robot show improved efficiency of the actuator at different frequencies.

19. Pneumatic capsule with a measuring system for in-pile irradiation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oshima, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Yasaburo; Hirata, Mitsuho; Ishii, Toshio; Shimozawa, Ryohei.

1967-01-01

A prior-art in-pile irradiation apparatus wherein a rabbit containing an irradiation specimen therein is inserted into and removed from a pile by a pneumatic system does not include means for measuring the temperature and pressure of the specimen under irradiation. When the rabbit is deformed during irradiation, it cannot be reliably recovered. A pneumatic capsule assembly with a measuring system according to this invention has a double structure which consists of an inner capsule containing the specimen therein and an outer capsule evacuated or filled with a gas. A thermocouple lace wire and a strain gauge are welded on the outside surface of the inner capsule as detection terminals for measuring the temperature and pressure. A rupture plate which bursts when the pressure in the inner capsule reaches a predetermined value is provided at a part of the inner capsule, and a fin for heat transmission is provided between the inner and outer capsules to thus prevent the deformation of the pneumatic capsule assembly as a whole. (Takasuka, S.)

20. Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Esophageal Achalasia.

Science.gov (United States)

Markar, Sheraz; Zaninotto, Giovanni

2018-04-01

Pneumatic dilation is a well-established treatment modality that has withstood the test of time. Prospective and randomized trials have shown that in expert hands, it provides results similar to a laparoscopic Heller myotomy with fundoplication. In addition, it should be considered the primary form of treatment in patients who experience recurrence of symptoms after a surgical myotomy.

1. Synthesis of pneumatic controll systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

D. Nowak

2011-04-01

Full Text Available Currently, the basic tool for automating the production processes are the PLCs. However, in many areas application of the pneumaticcontrol systems may be more reasonable. The main factor determining choice of the control technology are costs. In the case of pneumaticsystems, the costs shall be determined by the number of elements used. Therefore, during the design works it is important to choose anappropriate method for the pneumatic control systems synthesis. The article presents the MTS method, which may be used for a discretetechnological processes modeling and PLC programming, as well as for a pneumatic control systems designing. An important element ofthe MTS method is the network of actions, which graphically presents an algorithm of the implemented process. Based on the actionnetwork and operating machine’s functional diagram, the diagram of different states is determinated, which graphically shows changes ofthe control system’s input and output signals. Analysis of the diagram of different states, makes it easy to determine a schematic equation, which shall be the basis for the control system implementation. Advantage of the MTS method is the lack of restrictions on the number of the control system’s input and output signals. The resulting solution is characterized by a minimum number of elements needed to implement the control system.

2. The influence of variable operating conditions on the design and exploitation of fly ash pneumatic transport systems in thermal power plants

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Stanojević

2008-12-01

Full Text Available The efficiency of an air-slide pneumatic conveying system depends, first of all, on several basic elements chosen or calculated during the design of a plant: air-slide design parameters, air mover characteristics, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the material to be transported. However, during the exploitation of this type of system which is used for handling ash in thermal-power plants, either gradual and/or sudden changes in the operating conditions can arise. This may be due to changes both in the proportion of ash content, and in the flow characteristics of the porous membrane. The consequences of changes in these conditions on the performance of the ash handling system are analyzed, based upon the results of the experimental work carried out on the test rig at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, and upon the on-site measurements at the thermal-power plant "Nikola Tesla B".

3. The influence of variable operating conditions on the design and exploitation of fly ash pneumatic transport systems in thermal power plants

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stanojevic, M.; Radic, D.; Jovovic, A. (and others) [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Processing Engineering

2008-10-15

The efficiency of an air-slide pneumatic conveying system depends, first of all, on several basic elements chosen or calculated during the design of a plant: air-slide design parameters, air mover characteristics, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the material to be transported. However, during the exploitation of this type of system which is used for handling ash in thermal-power plants, either gradual and/or sudden changes in the operating conditions can arise. This may be due to changes both in the proportion of ash content and in the flow characteristics of the porous membrane. The consequences of changes in these conditions on the performance of the ash handling system are analyzed, based upon the results of the experimental work carried out on the test rig at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, and upon the on-site measurements at the thermal-power plant 'Nikola Tesla B'. 5 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

4. Microcomputer-based pneumatic controller for neutron activation analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Byrd, J.S.; Sand, R.J.

1976-10-01

A microcomputer-based pneumatic controller for neutron activation analysis was designed and built at the Savannah River Laboratory for analysis of large numbers of geologic samples for locating potential supplies of uranium ore for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. In this system, commercially available microcomputer logic modules are used to transport sample capsules through a network of pressurized air lines. The logic modules are interfaced to pneumatic valves, solenoids, and photo-optical detectors. The system operates from programs stored in firmware (permanent software). It also commands a minicomputer and a hard-wired pulse height analyzer for data collection and bookkeeping tasks. The advantage of the system is that major system changes can be implemented in the firmware with no hardware changes. This report describes the hardware, firmware, and software for the electronics system

5. Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ammar Al-Jodah

2018-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs. A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compared to the first order one. The verification has been done by using MATLAB and Simulink software.

6. An artificial flexible robot arm based on pneumatic muscle actuators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Renn Jyh-Chyang

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel human-friendly artificial flexible robot arm using four parallel-connected pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs. The PMA is a flexible silicone rubber actuator which has some behaviors nearest to the real biological muscle including translational and rotational motions. An inverse kinematic model for the motion control is also developed. Finally, from experiment results, it is proved that not only the axial contraction control of a single PMA but also the attitude control of the whole pneumatic flexible robot arm using PID controller are satisfactory.

7. Operating a pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine for coal-slurry flotation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shmaenok, N M; Bedran, N G; Konstantinov, V K; Kochetkov, Yu I; Sysoev, V S

1976-01-01

The FPM-GMO-1.6 pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine is easy to operate and regulate and maintains a high throughput at a low energy consumption. The flotation process is stable, the quality of the concentrate and tailings satisfactory, and the selectivity of separation high. The machine cannot handle coal slurries at higher throughputs because the rate of froth removal is too low across the entire flotation front. Experience on the pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine at the ''Kolosnikovskaya'' Central Washery indicates that a similar machine should be developed for a throughput of 1000 m/sup 3//hr.

8. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

Science.gov (United States)

2018-01-01

Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

9. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1995-01-01

This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

10. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Aspart FlexPens After Transport Through the Pneumatic Tube System.

Science.gov (United States)

Ward, Leah G; Heckman, Michael G; Warren, Amy I; Tran, Kimberly

2013-01-01

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether transporting insulin aspart FlexPens via a pneumatic tube system affects the dosing accuracy of the pens. A total of 115 Novo Nordisk FlexPens containing insulin aspart were randomly assigned to be transported via a pneumatic tube system (n = 92) or to serve as the control (n = 23). Each pen was then randomized to 10 international unit (IU) doses (n = 25) or 30 IU doses (n = 67), providing 600 and 603 doses, respectively, for the pneumatic tube group. The control group also received random assignment to 10 IU doses (n = 6) or 30 IU doses (n = 17), providing 144 and 153 doses, respectively. Each dose was expelled using manufacturer instructions. Weights were recorded, corrected for specific gravity, and evaluated based on acceptable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dosing limits. In the group of pens transported through the pneumatic tube system, none of the 600 doses of 10 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.6) and none of the 603 doses of 30 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.6) fell outside of the range of acceptable weights. Correspondingly, in the control group, none of the 144 doses at 10 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.5) and none of the 153 doses at 30 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.4) were outside of acceptable ISO limits. Transportation via pneumatic tube system does not appear to compromise dosing accuracy. Hospital pharmacies may rely on the pneumatic tube system for timely and accurate transport of insulin aspart FlexPens.

11. Development of Hybrid Type Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder for Considering Less Air Consumption

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tamaki Hiroaki

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Inexpensive rehabilitation devices that can be used at home are required because of a lack of PT and welfare workers. In the previous study, the low-cost portable rehabilitation device using a flexible spherical actuator that consists of flexible pneumatic cylinder was proposed and tested. However, a compact and high power compressor that supplies air pressure to pneumatic actuator has not been developed yet. In particular, the heat generated by compressing air prevents to miniaturize it. To realize a home rehabilitation, the small-sized compressors or less air consuming flexible actuators are required. In this study, a hybrid type flexible pneumatic cylinder driven by electric motors and air pressure is proposed and tested. The concept, the construction and the operating principle of the proposed actuator were described. The position control using the tested actuator is also carried out.

12. DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF THROTTLING DEVICE FOR PNEUMATIC SPRING

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

O. H. Reidemeister

2018-02-01

Full Text Available Purpose. This paper focuses on determination of the dependence of the working medium flow on the capacity of the throttling device, its geometric features and the pressure difference in the pneumatic spring cylinder and in the auxiliary reservoir. Methodology. Calculation of the dependence of the working medium and pressure drop is performed in two ways: 1 by numerical simulation of a stationary gas flow through a throttling element; 2 its analytical calculation expression using empirical relationships (control calculation to evaluate the reliability of numerical simulation results. For the calculation, three models of throttling devices were chosen. Dependence of the flow rate of the working medium on the capacity of the throttling device and its geometric features was determined based on the approximation of the dependency graphs of the pressure drop against the mass flow rate of the working medium. Findings. We obtained graphical dependencies between the pressure drop and the mass flow rate of the working medium from the two calculation options. Based on the results of calculations performed with the help of a software package with visualization of the results, we calculated a proportionality coefficient that describes the dependence of the working medium flow on the throttling device capacity and its geometric features for each of the throttling elements considered, with three degrees of closure. The air flow values, obtained by numerical simulation, are greater than the flow rates obtained from semi-empirical formulas. At the same time, they are in good qualitative agreement, and the quantitative difference averages 25%, which can be regarded as confirmation of the reliability of the nu-merical model. Based on the calculation results, we plotted the proportionality coefficient graphs against the degree of closure of the throttling device. Originality. The work allows determining the degree of influence of the frictio-nal component on the

13. Recent Trends in Lower-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation Orthosis: Control Scheme and Strategy for Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gait Trainers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

2014-04-01

Full Text Available It is a general assumption that pneumatic muscle-type actuators will play an important role in the development of an assistive rehabilitation robotics system. In the last decade, the development of a pneumatic muscle actuated lower-limb leg orthosis has been rather slow compared to other types of actuated leg orthoses that use AC motors, DC motors, pneumatic cylinders, linear actuators, series elastic actuators (SEA and brushless servomotors. However, recent years have shown that the interest in this field has grown exponentially, mainly due to the demand for a more compliant and interactive human-robotics system. This paper presents a survey of existing lower-limb leg orthoses for rehabilitation, which implement pneumatic muscle-type actuators, such as McKibben artificial muscles, rubbertuators, air muscles, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA. It reviews all the currently existing lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis systems in terms of comparison and evaluation of the design, as well as the control scheme and strategy, with the aim of clarifying the current and on-going research in the lower-limb robotic rehabilitation field.

14. Test–Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of an fMRI-Compatible Pneumatic Vibrator to Stimulate Muscle Proprioceptors.

Science.gov (United States)

Goossens, Nina; Janssens, Lotte; Pijnenburg, Madelon; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Rompuy, Charlotte; Meugens, Paul; Sunaert, Stefan; Brumagne, Simon

Processing proprioceptive information in the brain is essential for optimal postural control and can be studied with proprioceptive stimulation, provided by muscle vibration, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Classic electromagnetic muscle vibrators, however, cannot be used in the high-strength magnetic field of the fMRI scanner. Pneumatic vibrators offer an fMRI-compatible alternative. However, whether these devices produce reliable and valid proprioceptive stimuli has not been investigated, although this is essential for these devices to be used in longitudinal research. Test–retest reliability and concurrent validity of the postural response to muscle vibration, provided by custom-made fMRI-compatible pneumatic vibrators, were assessed in a repeated-measures design. Mean center of pressure (CoP) displacements during, respectively, ankle muscle and back muscle vibration (45–60 Hz, 0.5 mm) provided by an electromagnetic and a pneumatic vibrator were measured in ten young healthy subjects. The test was repeated on the same day and again within one week. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess (a) intra- and interday reliability of the postural responses to, respectively, pneumatic and electromagnetic vibration, and (b) concurrent validity of the response to pneumatic compared to electromagnetic vibration. Test–retest reliability of mean CoP displacements during pneumatic vibration was good to excellent (ICCs = 0.64–0.90) and resembled that of responses to electromagnetic vibration (ICCs = 0.64–0.94). Concurrent validity of the postural effect of pneumatic vibration was good to excellent (ICCs = 0.63–0.95). In conclusion, the proposed fMRI-compatible pneumatic vibrator can be used with confidence to stimulate muscle spindles during fMRI to study central processing of proprioception.

15. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

16. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis—Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset

Science.gov (United States)

Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

2018-01-01

Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech. PMID:29466455

17. Methods of conveying fluids and methods of sublimating solid particles

Science.gov (United States)

Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

2013-10-01

A heat exchanger and associated methods for sublimating solid particles therein, for conveying fluids therethrough, or both. The heat exchanger includes a chamber and a porous member having a porous wall having pores in communication with the chamber and with an interior of the porous member. A first fluid is conveyed into the porous member while a second fluid is conveyed into the porous member through the porous wall. The second fluid may form a positive flow boundary layer along the porous wall to reduce or eliminate substantial contact between the first fluid and the interior of the porous wall. The combined first and second fluids are conveyed out of the porous member. Additionally, the first fluid and the second fluid may each be conveyed into the porous member at different temperatures and may exit the porous member at substantially the same temperature.

18. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tim Giffney

2016-02-01

Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

19. Position Control of Pneumatic Actuator Using Self-Regulation Nonlinear PID

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Syed Najib Syed Salim

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The enhancement of nonlinear PID (N-PID controller for a pneumatic positioning system is proposed to improve the performance of this controller. This is executed by utilizing the characteristic of rate variation of the nonlinear gain that is readily available in N-PID controller. The proposed equation, namely, self-regulation nonlinear function (SNF, is used to reprocess the error signal with the purpose of generating the value of the rate variation, continuously. With the addition of this function, a new self-regulation nonlinear PID (SN-PID controller is proposed. The proposed controller is then implemented to a variably loaded pneumatic actuator. Simulation and experimental tests are conducted with different inputs, namely, step, multistep, and random waveforms, to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The results obtained have been proven as a novel initiative at examining and identifying the characteristic based on a new proposal controller resulting from N-PID controller. The transient response is improved by a factor of 2.2 times greater than previous N-PID technique. Moreover, the performance of pneumatic positioning system is remarkably good under various loads.

20. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-12-15

This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

1. Pneumatic Actuation of a 2-Link Robotic System

African Journals Online (AJOL)

2012r

2014-10-16

Oct 16, 2014 ... are appropriate for “mixing, dumping, intermittent feeding, screw clamping ..... Let Aext be Area on which air is applied for extension. Let Aret ... Fext and Fret are the forces provided by the source of the pneumatic compressor.

2. Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Based Robust Tracking Control of Pneumatic Muscle

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Youssif Mohamed Toum Elobaid

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Presently pneumatic muscles (PMs are used in various applications due to their simple construction, lightweight, and high force-to-weight ratio. However, pneumatic muscles are facing various problems due to their nonlinear characteristics and various uncertainties in real applications. To cope with the uncertainties and strong nonlinearity of a PM model, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO is designed to estimate the lumped disturbance. Based on the disturbance observer, the tracking control of PM is studied. Stability analysis based on Lyapunov method with respect to our proposed control law is discussed. The simulation results show the validity, effectiveness, and enhancing robustness of the proposed methods.

3. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

2016-08-01

Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

4. Pneumatic transport system development: residuals and releases program at Westinghouse Cheswick site

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Larouere, P.J.; Shoulders, J.L.

1979-01-01

Plutonium oxide and uranium oxide powders are processed within glove boxes or within confinement systems during the fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) pellets for recycle fuel. The release of these powders to the glove box or to the confinement results in some airborne material that is deposited in the enclosure or is carried in the air streams to the effluent air filtration system. Release tests on simulated leaks in pneumatic transport equipment and release tests on simulated failures with powder blending equipment were conducted. A task to develop pneumatic transport for the movement of powders within an MOX fabrication plant has been underway at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories. While testing and evaluating selected pneumatic transport components on a full scale were in progress, it was deemed necessary that final verification of the technology would have to be performed with plutonium-bearing powders because of the marked differences in certain properties of plutonium from those of uranium oxides. A smaller was designed and constructed for the planned installation in glove boxes at the Westinghouse Plutonium Fuel Development Laboratory. However, prior to use with plutonium it was agreed that this system be set up and tested with uranium oxide powder. The test program conducted at the Westinghouse Cheswick site was divided into two major parts. The first of these examined the residuals left as a result of the pneumatic transport of nuclear fuel powders and verified the operability of this one-third scale system. The second part of the program studied the amount of powder released to the air when off-standard process procedures or maintenance operations were conducted on the pneumatic transport system. Air samplers located within the walk-in box housing the transport loop were used to measure the solids concentration in the air. From this information, the total amount of airborne powder was determined

5. Studies on positive conveying in helically channeled single screw extruders

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

L. Pan

2012-07-01

Full Text Available A solids conveying theory called double-flight driving theory was proposed for helically channeled single screw extruders. In the extruder, screw channel rotates against static barrel channel, which behaves as cooperative embedded twin-screws for the positive conveying. They turn as two parallel arc plates, between which an arc-plate solid-plug was assumed. By analyzing the forces on the solid-plug in the barrel channel and screw channel, the boundary conditions when the solid-plug is waived of being cut off on barrel wall, were found to have the capacity of the positive conveying. Experimental data were obtained using a specially designed extruder with a helically channeled barrel in the feeding zone and a pressure-adjustable die. The effects of the barrel channel geometry and friction coefficients on the conveying mechanism were presented and compared with the experimental results. The simulations showed that the positive conveying could be achieved after optimizing extruder designs. Compared with the traditional design with the friction-drag conveying, the throughput is higher while screw torque and energy consumption are decreased. Besides, the design criteria of the barrel channel were also discussed.

6. Analysis of vibroprotection characteristics of pneumatic relaxation seat suspension with capability of vibration energy recuperation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lyashenko Mikhail

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company. Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in Matlab/Simulink. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of transmission coefficient for standard and proposed suspensions were plotted for preliminary evaluation of vibration protection properties of seat suspension. Performed comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency characteristics shows that noticeable improvement of vibration protection properties of pneumatic relaxation suspension system with vibration energy recuperation in comparison with standard system both in region of resonance disturbances and in above-resonance region. Main ways for further improvement of vibration protection properties of proposed system were marked out.

7. Homogeneity of blended nuclear fuel powders after pneumatic transport

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smeltzer, E.E.; Skriba, M.C.; Lyon, W.L.

1982-01-01

A study of the pneumatic transport of fine (approx. 1μm) cohesive nuclear fuel powders was conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate the feasibility of this method of transport and to develop a design data base for use in a large scale nuclear fuel production facility. As part of this program, a considerable effort was directed at following the homogeneity of blended powders. Since different reactors require different enrichments, blending and subsequent transport are critical parts of the fabrication sequence. The various materials used represented analogs of a wide range of powders and blends that could be expected in a commercial mixed oxide fabrication facility. All UO 2 powders used were depleted and a co-precipitated master mix of (U, Th)O 2 was made specifically for this program, using thorium as an analog for plutonium. In order to determine the effect of pneumatic transport on a blended powder, samples were taken from a feeder vessel before each test, and from a receiver vessel and a few line sections after each transfer test. The average difference between the before and after degree of non-homogeneity was < 1%, for the 21 tests considered. This shows that overall, the pneumatic transport of blended, fine nuclear fuel powders is possible, with only minor unblending occurring

8. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

1982-01-01

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

9. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

1983-01-01

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dyamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities of up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

10. Elbow joint rehabilitation equipment actuated by pneumatic muscles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vetrice Georgiana

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The mobility of the limbs is an essential prerequisite for the individual’s physical autonomy. For persons suffering from post-traumatic affections of the elbow joint such limited mobility results in barriers in fulfilling personal or professional tasks. Passive motion has certain specific advantages and beneficial effects, thus being highly recommended for the recovery of injured joints. The paper presents a model of rehabilitation equipment that induces continuous passive motion of the elbow, as part of a recovery programme. The equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, using compressed air as the source of energy that generates force and motion. The main benefits of the pneumatic actuation system compared to other driving systems are its low cost, simple and robust construction and swift response to commands. Its constructive simplicity and reduced cost adds to the system’s eligibility for deployment in medical units.

11. Modelling of pneumatic muscle actuator using Hill's model with different approximations of static characteristics of artificial muscle

OpenAIRE

Piteľ Ján; Tóthová Mária

2016-01-01

For modelling and simulation of pneumatic muscle actuators the mathematical dependence of the muscle force on the muscle contraction at different pressures in the muscles is necessary to know. For this purpose the static characteristics of the pneumatic artificial muscle type FESTO MAS-20-250N used in the experiments were approximated. In the paper there are shown some simulation results of the pneumatic muscle actuator dynamics using modified Hill's muscle model, in which four different appr...

12. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Device Actuated with Pneumatic Muscles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ioana Petre

2014-07-01

Full Text Available Year after year recovery clinics worldwide report significant numbers of lower limb bearing joint disabilities. An effective method for the speedy rehabilitation of patients with such afflictions is Continuous Passive Motion (CPM, drawing upon a range of specific equipment. This paper presents an innovative constructive solution for such orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, designed to ensure a swift reintegration of patients at as low a cost as possible. The absolute novelty consists in the utilization of the linear pneumatic muscle as actuator of the orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, thus achieving a light and highly compliant construction that satisfies safety requirements related to man-machine interaction. Pneumatic muscles are bio-inspired actuation systems characterized by a passive variable compliant behaviour. This property, deployed in rehabilitation systems, enables the development of human friendly devices, which are comfortable for the patients, and capable of safe interaction. This paper presents the constructive schematic of the orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, the structure of the actuation and positioning system, and several of its functional characteristics.

13. Flowfield Analysis of a Pneumatic Solenoid Valve

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sheam-Chyun Lin

2018-07-01

Full Text Available Pneumatic solenoid valve has been widely used in the vehicle control systems for meeting the rapid-reaction demand triggered by the dynamic conditions encountered during the driving course of vehicle. For ensuring the safety of human being, the reliable and effective solenoid valve is in great demand to shorten the reaction time and thus becomes the topic of this research. This numerical study chooses a commercial 3/2-way solenoid valve as the reference valve for analysing its performance. At first, CFD software Fluent is adopted to simulate the flow field associated with the valve configuration. Then, the comprehensive flow visualization is implemented to identify the locations of adverse flow patterns. Accordingly, it is found that a high-pressure region exists in the zone between the nozzle exit and the top of iron core. Thereafter, the nozzle diameter and the distance between nozzle and spool are identified as the important design parameters for improving the pressure response characteristics of valve. In conclusion, this work establishes a rigorous and systematic CFD scheme to evaluate the performance of pneumatic solenoid valve.

14. GEODESIC MONITORING OF VERTICAL MOVEMENT OF JSC «GRODNO AZOT» BUILDINGS USING DIGITAL DNA 03 LEVEL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. I. Mikhailov

2010-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents peculiar features and methodology pertaining to application of digital DNA 03 level for monitoring vertical movement of load-carrying structures in the workshops and foundations of various capacities, exhaust pipes and granulation towers having height from 100 to150 meters. The proposed methods presuppose usage of the results of engineering and geological investigations and highly accurate geodesic measurements considered in the process of hydro- and pneumatic tests of an isothermic storage of liquid ammonia and a production “Ammonia” shop taken as an example.

15. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Compliant Gripper Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Deaconescu Andrea

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents the stages of developing new, light, eco-friendly and bionic gripper systems. Gripping is achieved by means of original, self adaptive, bio-inspired systems, with a pneumatic muscle as motion generator. The method underlying the development of these new gripping systems is based on the creation of concepts by analogy, an instrument aimed at widening the inspiration horizon in designing by using models from nature.

16. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Compliant Gripper Systems

OpenAIRE

Deaconescu Andrea

2016-01-01

The paper presents the stages of developing new, light, eco-friendly and bionic gripper systems. Gripping is achieved by means of original, self adaptive, bio-inspired systems, with a pneumatic muscle as motion generator. The method underlying the development of these new gripping systems is based on the creation of concepts by analogy, an instrument aimed at widening the inspiration horizon in designing by using models from nature.

17. [Study of the degree of pneumatization of the viscerocranium in man and pongidae].

Science.gov (United States)

Koppe, T; Schumacher, K U

1992-12-01

The volumes of the paranasal sinuses of 41 adult skulls of humans, gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans, were examined with use of a Computertomograph type SOMATOM DR. The percentage distribution of the volumes of the different paranasal sinuses showed that the maxillary sinus always had the greatest volume. The maxillary sinus of the humans showed the smallest volume percentage in comparison with the pongids. The typical differences between humans and pongids were observed in the ethmoidal cells and the sphenoidal sinus. The ethmoidal cells of the gorilla and the orangutan have to be defined as rudimentary. Those of the humans come to more than 20% of the total volume of the paranasal sinuses of all hominoids. Differing from the humans, the sphenoidal sinus of the pongids pneumatizes almost the whole sphenoid bone. This volume percentage of the pongids is twice as high as that of the humans. In addition, an index was calculated from the volume of the facial skeleton volume and the total volume of the paranasal sinuses and defined as the degree of pneumatization. We found that the gorilla has the highest degree of pneumatization followed by the chimpanzee, the orangutan, and the humans. The lowest degree of pneumatization of the humans may be related to the reduction of the jaws.

18. Pulse width modulation based pneumatic frequency tuner of the superconducting resonators at IUAC

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pandey, A.; Suman, S.K.; Mathuria, D.S.

2015-01-01

The existing phase locking scheme of the quarter wave resonators (QWR) used in superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) of IUAC consists of a fast time (electronic) and a slow time (pneumatic) control. Presently, piezo based mechanical tuners are being used to phase lock the resonators installed in the second and third accelerating modules of LINAC. However, due to space constraint, the piezo tuner can't be implemented on the resonators of the first accelerating module. Therefore, helium gas operated mechanical tuners are being used to phase lock the resonators against the master oscillator (MO) frequency. The present pneumatic frequency tuner has limitations of non-linearity, hysteresis and slow response time. To overcome these problems and to improve the dynamics of the existing tuner, a new pulse width modulation (PWM) based pneumatic frequency tuning system was adopted and successfully tested. After successful test, the PWM based pneumatic frequency tuner was installed in four QWR of the first accelerating module of LINAC. During beam run the PWM based frequency tuner performed well and the cavities could be phase locked at comparatively higher accelerating fields. A comparison of the existing tuning mechanism and the PWM based tuning system along with the test results will be presented in the paper. (author)

19. Simulation of biomass pneumatic drying with ascending swirling movement

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bombino Matos, Eugenio F.; Pineda Revilla, Edel

2017-01-01

Considering the layer form acquired by the particles during the studying process it was necessary to define the relation cheap between the heat and mass transfer area and particles flow to simulate with more precision this kind of drying. The simulations results were compared, by a statistical analysis based in Statgraphics-Centurion V15 program, with the results obtained in others pneumatic bagasse dryers studies and were similar and for that reason it was categorical that is correct the definition made about the relation cheap area/material flow defined in this work and it’s possible to reduce pneumatic dryer height by using this method. This reduction that can be seen by the Height Reduction Sing (HRS) of the drying column, defined in the work, will permit more compact dryers. (author)

20. Transient Torsional Analysis of a Belt Conveyor Drive with Pneumatic Flexible Shaft Coupling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kaššay Peter

2017-03-01

Full Text Available Development and application of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings have been in the center of our department research activities for a long time. These couplings are able to change torsional stiffness by changing pressure in their flexible elements – air bellows. Until now we have dealt with the use of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings for tuning mechanical systems working with periodically alternating load torque at steady state. Some mechanical systems, however, operate with a static load torque at constant speed (e.g. hoists, elevators, etc., where it is necessary to consider the suitability of shaft coupling in terms of load torque at transient conditions (run-up and braking. Therefore we decided to analyze the use of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings also in this type of mechanical systems on an example of conveyor belt drive.

1. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bai Zhongxiong; Zhang Haibing; Rong Ru; Zhang Tao

2008-01-01

In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

2. Feasibility Analysis of a Type of Soft Firing Technology with Pneumatic Transmission

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

YANG Jun-rong; MI Liang-chuan; ZHAO Hua

2006-01-01

Aimed at solving the conflict between the requirements of reducing gun recoil and increasing muzzle velocity, a new type of soft firing technology with pneumatic transmission is put forward. By mathematical model and instance simulation, the feasibility analysis of this technique is made. The result shows that the soft firing technology with pneumatic transmission can reduce the maximum pressure on the breechblock by 27 % and increase the muzzle velocity by 20 %. The proposed new approach has the significance to the compatibility of power and flexibility.

3. Innovation-Prototype. Making hydraulic and/or pneumatic plates using 3D printing technology

Science.gov (United States)

Alexa, V.; Rațiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Rackov, M.

2018-01-01

Start 3D printing allows hydraulic and/or pneumatic plates to be obtained from a single technological process without requiring further post-production operations. 3D printing with innovative materials in a rich colour range has several advantages such as: time-saving, cost is the same for any type of plate and its reported just to volume, fast and impossible realization of hydraulic and/or pneumatic links compared to traditional and high accuracy technologies.

4. Manually operatable on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures for microfluidic manipulations.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Arnold; Pan, Tingrui

2014-09-07

Bistable microvalves are of particular interest because of their distinct nature of requiring energy consumption only during the transition between the open and closed states. This characteristic can be highly advantageous in reducing the number of external inputs and the complexity of control circuitries since microfluidic devices as contemporary lab-on-a-chip platforms are transferring from research settings to low-resource environments with high integrability and a small form factor. In this paper, we first present manually operatable, on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures (BPMs) for microfluidic manipulation. The structural design and operation of the BPM devices can be readily integrated into any pneumatically powered microfluidic network consisting of pneumatic and fluidic channels. It is mainly composed of a vacuum activation chamber (VAC) and a pressure release chamber (PRC), of which users have direct control through finger pressing to switch either to the bistable vacuum state (VS) or the atmospheric state (AS). We have integrated multiple BPM devices into a 4-to-1 microfluidic multiplexor to demonstrate on-chip digital flow switching from different sources. Furthermore, we have shown its clinical relevance in a point-of-care diagnostic chip that processes blood samples to identify the distinct blood types (A/B/O) on-chip.

5. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

2000-03-15

Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

6. Intra-operative pneumatic tourniquet - perceptions of use and ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

applied pressure alone or excessive applied pressure caused by use of faulty equipment. It needs to be emphasised to these surgeons that regular checking of the pneumatic tourniquet apparatus is necessary in order. MRC/UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, Department of. Physiology. University of Cape Town.

7. Pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin: when and why?

Science.gov (United States)

Bozzi, Rosamaria; Di Martino, Vincenzo; Inzirillo, Antonio; D'Avenia, Eugenio; Inzirillo, Maurizio; Cattaneo, Fabio; Cattaneo, Domenico

2013-01-01

Pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin:when and why? The endoscopic treatment options of achalasia include botulinum toxin (BT) injection and pneumatic dilation (PD) of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). BT can reduce the LES pressure by blocking the release of acetylcoline from presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals in the myenteric plexus. Although the procedure is safe and good initial response is reported, there is a wide variability in the duration of the response and the effect tends to decrease over time. BT is usually recommended for elderly patients or patients with comorbid illnesses, who are poor candidates for more invasive procedures. PD aims at tearing the muscle fibers of the LES and is considered the most effective nonsurgical treatment for achalasia. Technical details of the procedure vary in different institutions and in many clinical settings the choice between PD or minimally invasive surgical myotomy depends upon local expertise in the procedures. Further endoscopic treatment options such as submucosal esophageal myotomy or self-expanding metallic stents are being studied.

8. Repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector for plasma fueling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Foster, C.A.; Schuresko, D.D.

1985-01-01

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed for plasma fueling applications. The repetitive device extends pneumatic injector operation to steady state. The active mechanism consists of an extruder and a gun assembly that are cooled by flowing liquid-helium refrigerant. The extruder provides a continuous supply of solid hydrogen to the gun assembly, where a reciprocating gun barrel forms and chambers cylindrical pellet from the extrusion; pellets are then accelerated with compressed hydrogen gas (pressures up to 125 bar) to velocities -1 have been obtained with 2.1- , 3.4- , and 4.0-mm-diameter pellets. The present apparatus operates at higher firing rates in short bursts; for example, a rate of 6 s -1 for 2 s with the larger pellets. These pellet parameters are in the range applicable for fueling large present-day fusion devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Experimental results are presented, including effects of propellant pressure and barrel length on gun performance

9. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

Science.gov (United States)

Phelan, Michael P; Reineks, Edmunds Z; Hustey, Fredric M; Berriochoa, Jacob P; Podolsky, Seth R; Meldon, Stephen; Schold, Jesse D; Chamberlin, Janelle; Procop, Gary W

2016-09-01

Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest(®)) for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]). Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99]) or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88]) hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%-14.6%). We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material). Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department.

10. Asymmetric Fuzzy Control of a Positive and Negative Pneumatic Pressure Servo System

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Gang; Du, Jing-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Bao-Ren

2017-11-01

The pneumatic pressure control systems have been used in some fields. However, the researches on pneumatic pressure control mainly focus on constant pressure regulation. Poor dynamic characteristics and strong nonlinearity of such systems limit its application in the field of pressure tracking control. In order to meet the demand of generating dynamic pressure signal in the application of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of aerospace engineering, a positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system is provided to implement dynamic adjustment of sealed chamber pressure. A mathematical model is established with simulation and experiment being implemented afterwards to discuss the characteristics of the system, which shows serious asymmetry in the process of charging and discharging. Based on the analysis of the system dynamics, a fuzzy proportional integral derivative (PID) controller with asymmetric fuzzy compensator is proposed. Different from conventional adjusting mechanisms employing the error and change in error of the controlled variable as input parameters, the current chamber pressure and charging or discharging state are chosen as inputs of the compensator, which improves adaptability. To verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller, the comparison experiments tracking sinusoidal and square wave commands are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can obtain better dynamic performance and relatively consistent control performance across the scope of work (2-140 kPa). The research proposes a fuzzy control method to overcome asymmetry and enhance adaptability for the positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system.

11. APPLICATIONS OF PNEUMATIC MUSCLES DEVELOPED AT THE FESTO REGIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTRE OF BRAŞOV

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tudor DEACONESCU

2013-05-01

Full Text Available Compressed air is one of the most important sources of energy in industry, pneumatic actuations tending to hold an increasing share in the conception of modern industrial systems. At present, due to the development of new pneumatic components and systems assemblies of high complexity can be achieved, many of them with applicability in robotics. Such a component is the pneumatic muscle, increasingly deployed in actuation systems, particularly in the field of industrial robots. The paper presents some of the results of research conducted at the Festo Regional Research and Training Centre (FRRTC at Transilvania University of Braşov.

12. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development... Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances made pursuant to... the date of the initial transfer of property shall be used to support economic redevelopment of, or...

13. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Jacobi, D.; Sandmann, W.; Schiedeck, J.; Schilling, H.B.; Weber, G.

1983-07-01

Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

14. Comparation of the impact of selected technical gases on properties of a pneumatic flexible coupling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Grega Robert

2018-01-01

Full Text Available An important part of the oscillating mechanical drives are flexible shaft couplings. The special use of the pneumatic flexible coupling is possibility to serve as mechanical drives tuners. Being examined in tuners mechanical drives there is also a research focus on the impact of industrial gases on the change of dynamic characteristics of pneumatic couplings. The paper investigates five different industrial gases, namely: air, helium (He-4.6, a mixture of propane and butane gas (C3H8+C4H10, argon (Ar and nitrogen (N2 to see how these gases affect the dynamic characteristics of pneumatic flexible shaft coupling with marking 4-2/70 T-C.

15. Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.

1981-01-01

Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

16. Ground reaction force comparison of bilateral symmetry with pneumatic resistance squat device and free weights - biomed 2009.

Science.gov (United States)

Paulus, David C; Schilling, Brian K

2009-01-01

The unloading of spaceflight leads to bone and muscle atrophy, and a pneumatic resistance squat exercise countermeasure has the potential to provide optimized controllable resistance in a lightweight and compact configuration. However each end of the barbell in the proposed device is connected to a separate resistance cylinder which could lead to bilaterally asymmetric loading. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to compare the unilateral ground reaction forces (GRF) of the new squat device compared to free weights. Four previously trained men (mean +/- SD; age = 20+/-2 years, body mass = 99+/-18 kg) performed three sets of three repetitions of maximal exertion squat exercises with pneumatically controlled constant resistance and free weights each with a resistance level set to half of the body weight of each subject. Unilateral GRF data for each lifting modality at the negative to positive transition of the squat exercise was measured with a force plate under each foot. The pneumatic resistance GRF (N; mean +/- SD) was 749+/-114 on the left leg and 786+/-123 on the right leg and the free weight GRF was 786+/-114 left and 861+/-111 right resulting in a 5% difference between left and right GRF with pneumatics and 9% difference with free weights. The correlation coefficient between left and right GRF was 0.92 with pneumatics and 0.80 with free weights. Because the pneumatic device elicited more bilaterally symmetric GRF than traditional free weights, the separate resistance cylinders are an acceptable design configuration.

17. Arrested Pneumatization of the Sphenoid Sinus on Large Field-of-View Cone Beam Computed Tomography Studies

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehrnaz Tahmasbi-Arashlow

2015-05-01

Full Text Available Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus is a normal anatomical variant. The aim of this report is to define cone beam computed tomography (CBCT characteristics of arrested pneumatization of sphenoid sinus in an effort to help differentiate it from invasive or lytic skull base lesions. Two cases are presented with incidental findings. Both studies, acquired for other diagnostic purposes, demonstrated unique osseous patterns that were eventually deemed to be anatomic variations in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms although the pattern of bone loss and remodeling was diagnosed as pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus by a panel of medical and maxillofacial radiologists following contrasted advanced imaging. It is important to differentiate arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus from lesions, such as arachnoid granulations, acoustic neuroma, glioma, metastatic lesions, meningioma, or chordoma, to prevent unnecessary biopsies or exploratory surgeries that would consequently reduce treatment costs and alleviate anxiety in patients.

18. Electric and pneumatic drives in an exact comparison; Elektrische und pneumatische Antriebe im exakten Vergleich

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volk, Roland [Festo AG und Co. KG, Esslingen (Germany)

2013-04-01

The question, whether a pneumatic drive is more energy efficient than an electric drive, is very difficult to answer straightaway. In the automation technology, the energy efficiency always depends on the respective industrial application. Only the direct comparison of an electric and pneumatic drive having the same dimension in different conceptual formulations clears up with prejudices.

19. Modelling of pneumatic muscle actuator using Hill's model with different approximations of static characteristics of artificial muscle

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Piteľ Ján

2016-01-01

Full Text Available For modelling and simulation of pneumatic muscle actuators the mathematical dependence of the muscle force on the muscle contraction at different pressures in the muscles is necessary to know. For this purpose the static characteristics of the pneumatic artificial muscle type FESTO MAS-20-250N used in the experiments were approximated. In the paper there are shown some simulation results of the pneumatic muscle actuator dynamics using modified Hill's muscle model, in which four different approximations of static characteristics of artificial muscle were used.

20. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guanghua Zong

2008-11-01

Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

1. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Houxiang Zhang

2006-06-01

Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

2. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hwang, I Cheol; Park, Cheol Jae

2009-01-01

This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

3. Intra-operative pneumatic tourniquet - perceptions of use and ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Fifty-four per cent of respondents personally checked the calibration of the pneumatic tourniquet, although 76% of respondents believe that the apparatus needs to be checked at least once per month. More respondents who did not check the tourniquet apparatus than respondents who did check it believe that applied ...

4. New intraocular pressure measurement method using reflected pneumatic pressure from cornea deformed by air puff of ring-type nozzle.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Hyung Jin; Seo, Yeong Ho; Kim, Byeong Hee

2017-01-01

In this study, a non-contact type intraocular pressure (IOP) measuring system using reflected pneumatic pressure is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of existing measurement systems. A ring-type nozzle, a key component in the proposed system, is designed via computational fluid analysis. It predicts the reflected pneumatic pressure based on the nozzle exit angle and inner and outer diameters of the nozzle, which are 30°, 7 mm, and 9 mm, respectively. Performance evaluation is conducted using artificial eyes fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane with the specifications of human eyes. The IOP of the fabricated artificial eyes is adjusted to 10, 30, and 50 mm Hg, and the reflected pneumatic pressure is measured as a function of the distance between the ring-type nozzle and artificial eye. The measured reflected pneumatic pressure is high when the measurement distance is short and eye pressure is low. The cornea of an artificial eye is significantly deformed at a low IOP, and the applied pneumatic pressure is more concentrated in front of the ring-type nozzle because of the deformed cornea. Thus, the reflected pneumatic pressure at a low IOP has more inflows into the pressure sensor inserted inside the nozzle. The sensitivity of the output based on the IOP at measurement distances between 3-5 mm is -0.0027, -0.0022, -0.0018, -0.0015, and -0.0012. Sensitivity decreases as the measurement distance increases. In addition, the reflected pneumatic pressure owing to the misalignment at the measurement distances of 3-5 mm is not affected within a range of 0.5 mm. Therefore, the measurement range is acceptable up to a 1 mm diameter from the center of an artificial eye. However, the accuracy gradually decreases as the reflected pneumatic pressure from a misalignment of 1 mm or more decreases by 26% or more.

5. Baking Powder Actuated Centrifugo-Pneumatic Valving for Automation of Multi-Step Bioassays

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

David J. Kinahan

2016-10-01

Full Text Available We report a new flow control method for centrifugal microfluidic systems; CO2 is released from on-board stored baking powder upon contact with an ancillary liquid. The elevated pressure generated drives the sample into a dead-end pneumatic chamber sealed by a dissolvable film (DF. This liquid incursion wets and dissolves the DF, thus opening the valve. The activation pressure of the DF valve can be tuned by the geometry of the channel upstream of the DF membrane. Through pneumatic coupling with properly dimensioned disc architecture, we established serial cascading of valves, even at a constant spin rate. Similarly, we demonstrate sequential actuation of valves by dividing the disc into a number of distinct pneumatic chambers (separated by DF membranes. Opening these DFs, typically through arrival of a liquid to that location on a disc, permits pressurization of these chambers. This barrier-based scheme provides robust and strictly ordered valve actuation, which is demonstrated by the automation of a multi-step/multi-reagent DNA-based hybridization assay.

6. Electro pneumatic trainer embedded with programmable integrated circuit (PIC) microcontroller and graphical user interface platform for aviation industries training purposes

Science.gov (United States)

Burhan, I.; Azman, A. A.; Othman, R.

2016-10-01

An electro pneumatic trainer embedded with programmable integrated circuit (PIC) microcontroller and Visual Basic (VB) platform is fabricated as a supporting tool to existing teaching and learning process, and to achieve the objectives and learning outcomes towards enhancing the student's knowledge and hands-on skill, especially in electro pneumatic devices. The existing learning process for electro pneumatic courses conducted in the classroom does not emphasize on simulation and complex practical aspects. VB is used as the platform for graphical user interface (GUI) while PIC as the interface circuit between the GUI and hardware of electro pneumatic apparatus. Fabrication of electro pneumatic trainer interfacing between PIC and VB has been designed and improved by involving multiple types of electro pneumatic apparatus such as linear drive, air motor, semi rotary motor, double acting cylinder and single acting cylinder. Newly fabricated electro pneumatic trainer microcontroller interface can be programmed and re-programmed for numerous combination of tasks. Based on the survey to 175 student participants, 97% of the respondents agreed that the newly fabricated trainer is user friendly, safe and attractive, and 96.8% of the respondents strongly agreed that there is improvement in knowledge development and also hands-on skill in their learning process. Furthermore, the Lab Practical Evaluation record has indicated that the respondents have improved their academic performance (hands-on skills) by an average of 23.5%.

7. Control of input delayed pneumatic vibration isolation table using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mostafa Khazaee

Full Text Available AbstractPneumatic isolators are promising candidates for increasing the quality of accurate instruments. For this purpose, higher performance of such isolators is a prerequisite. In particular, the time-delay due to the air transmission is an inherent issue with pneumatic systems, which needs to be overcome using modern control methods. In this paper an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to improve the performance of a pneumatic isolator in the low frequency range, i.e., where the passive techniques have obvious shortcomings. The main idea is to combine the adaptive fuzzy controller with adaptive predictor as a new time delay control technique. The adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control and the adaptive fuzzy predictor help to circumvent the input delay and nonlinearities in such isolators. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed under certain conditions. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method, compared with other existing time -delay control methods.

8. Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus mimicking intraosseous lesions of the skull base

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2015-03-15

Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus is a developmental variant that is not always well recognized and is often confused with other pathologies associated with the skull base. This report describes the case of a patient referred for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging for dental implant therapy. CBCT demonstrated a well-defined incidental lesion in the left sphenoid sinus with soft tissue-like density and sclerotic borders with internal curvilinear opacifications. The differential diagnoses included intraosseous lipoma, arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, chondrosarcoma, chondroid chordoma, and ossifying fibroma. The radiographic diagnosis of arrested pneumatization was based on the location of the lesion, its well-defined nature, the presence of internal opacifications, and lack of expansion. Gray-scale CBCT imaging of the area demonstrated values similar to fatty tissue. This case highlighted the fact that benign developmental variants associated with the skull base share similar radiographic features with more serious pathological entities.

9. Structural design and analysis of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Yijin; Yin, Weilong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2011-08-01

In this paper, a kind of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers is proposed from the bionics perspective. The elastic modulus of the designed pneumatic muscle fibers is experimentally determined and their output force is tested with internal air pressure varying from 0 to 0.4 MPa. The experimental results show that the contraction ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers using the given material could reach up to 26.8%. Isothermal tensile tests are conducted on the fabricated morphing skin, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions based on the rule of mixture. When the strain is lower than 3% and in its linear-elastic range, the rule of mixture is proved to possess satisfying accuracy in the prediction of the elastic modulus of the morphing skin. Subsequently, the output force of the morphing skin is tested. It is revealed that when the volume ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers is 0.228, the contraction ratio can reach up to 17.8%, which is satisfactory for meeting the camber requirement of morphing skin with maximum strain level below 2%. Finally, stress-bearing capability tests of the morphing skin on local uniformly distributed loads are conducted, and the test results show that the transverse stiffness of the morphing skin can be regulated by changing the internal air pressure. Under a uniformly distributed load of 540 Pa, the designed morphing skin is capable of varying by more than two orders of magnitude in the transverse stiffness by changing the internal air pressure.

10. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fredric M. Hustey

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. Methods: The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest® for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. Results: During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]. Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99] or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88] hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%–14.6%. Conclusion: We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material. Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department.

11. Structural design and analysis of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chen, Yijin; Yin, Weilong; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju

2011-01-01

In this paper, a kind of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers is proposed from the bionics perspective. The elastic modulus of the designed pneumatic muscle fibers is experimentally determined and their output force is tested with internal air pressure varying from 0 to 0.4 MPa. The experimental results show that the contraction ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers using the given material could reach up to 26.8%. Isothermal tensile tests are conducted on the fabricated morphing skin, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions based on the rule of mixture. When the strain is lower than 3% and in its linear-elastic range, the rule of mixture is proved to possess satisfying accuracy in the prediction of the elastic modulus of the morphing skin. Subsequently, the output force of the morphing skin is tested. It is revealed that when the volume ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers is 0.228, the contraction ratio can reach up to 17.8%, which is satisfactory for meeting the camber requirement of morphing skin with maximum strain level below 2%. Finally, stress-bearing capability tests of the morphing skin on local uniformly distributed loads are conducted, and the test results show that the transverse stiffness of the morphing skin can be regulated by changing the internal air pressure. Under a uniformly distributed load of 540 Pa, the designed morphing skin is capable of varying by more than two orders of magnitude in the transverse stiffness by changing the internal air pressure

12. Pneumatic Dilation versus Laparoscopic Heller's Myotomy for Idiopathic Achalasia

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Annese, Vito; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Chaussade, Stanislas; Costantini, Mario; Cuttitta, Antonello; Elizalde, J. Ignasi; Fumagalli, Uberto; Gaudric, Marianne; Rohof, Wout O.; Smout, André J.; Tack, Jan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Lei, A.; Bartelsman, J.; Hirsch, D.; Klinkenberg-Knol, E. C.; Cuesta, M. A.; Simmermacher, R. K. J.; Kuipers, E. J.; Bonjer, H. J.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Ringers, J.; Lerut, A.; Metman, E. H.; Huten, N.; Letessier, E.; Dousset, B.; Pera, M.; Perez de la Serna, J.; Malesci, Alberto; Andriulli, A.; Scaramuzzi, G.; de Santo, E.

2011-01-01

Background Many experts consider laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) to be superior to pneumatic dilation for the treatment of achalasia, and LHM is increasingly considered to be the treatment of choice for this disorder. Methods We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed achalasia to

13. Pneumatic dilatation in achalasia cardia results and follow-up.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Supe A

1990-10-01

Full Text Available Pneumatic dilatation is one of the more recent methods in the management of achalasia cardia. Fifty dilatations were done in 42 patients with achalasia cardia over 5 years. There was a significant decrease in the maximum diameter of the oesophagus and a significant increase in diameter in the narrowed lower oesophageal segment in all the patients. Of the patients studied, 95.23% were relieved of their symptoms after only one to two sessions. There were no immediate complications. Out of the 38 patients on long term follow up, 8 (21.05% had recurrence of symptoms. On repeat dilatations, 4 (50% of them had good response. Late complication like reflux oesophagitis was observed in only 1 patient over a median follow up period of 22 months. It was thus concluded that pneumatic dilatation is a safe, simple and effective procedure in managing patients with achalasia cardia.

14. Development of X-Y servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuators for position control with high response, large stroke and nanometer accuracy.

Science.gov (United States)

Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

2010-01-01

This study aims to develop a X-Y dual-axial intelligent servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator for position control with high response, large stroke (250 mm, 200 mm) and nanometer accuracy (20 nm). In each axis, the rodless pneumatic actuator serves to position in coarse stroke and the piezoelectric actuator compensates in fine stroke. Thus, the overall control systems of the single axis become a dual-input single-output (DISO) system. Although the rodless pneumatic actuator has relatively larger friction force, it has the advantage of mechanism for multi-axial development. Thus, the X-Y dual-axial positioning system is developed based on the servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator. In addition, the decoupling self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control is developed as the intelligent control strategies. Finally, the proposed novel intelligent X-Y dual-axial servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuators are implemented and verified experimentally.

15. Development of X-Y Servo Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Hybrid Actuators for Position Control with High Response, Large Stroke and Nanometer Accuracy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mao-Hsiung Chiang

2010-03-01

Full Text Available This study aims to develop a X-Y dual-axial intelligent servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator for position control with high response, large stroke (250 mm, 200 mm and nanometer accuracy (20 nm. In each axis, the rodless pneumatic actuator serves to position in coarse stroke and the piezoelectric actuator compensates in fine stroke. Thus, the overall control systems of the single axis become a dual-input single-output (DISO system. Although the rodless pneumatic actuator has relatively larger friction force, it has the advantage of mechanism for multi-axial development. Thus, the X-Y dual-axial positioning system is developed based on the servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator. In addition, the decoupling self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control is developed as the intelligent control strategies. Finally, the proposed novel intelligent X-Y dual-axial servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuators are implemented and verified experimentally.

16. Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals

Science.gov (United States)

Kan, Tetsuo; Isozaki, Akihiro; Kanda, Natsuki; Nemoto, Natsuki; Konishi, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

2015-10-01

Active modulation of the polarization states of terahertz light is indispensable for polarization-sensitive spectroscopy, having important applications such as non-contact Hall measurements, vibrational circular dichroism measurements and anisotropy imaging. In the terahertz region, the lack of a polarization modulator similar to a photoelastic modulator in the visible range hampers expansion of such spectroscopy. A terahertz chiral metamaterial has a huge optical activity unavailable in nature; nevertheless, its modulation is still challenging. Here we demonstrate a handedness-switchable chiral metamaterial for polarization modulation employing vertically deformable Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Vertical deformation of a planar spiral by a pneumatic force creates a three-dimensional spiral. Enantiomeric switching is realized by selecting the deformation direction, where the polarity of the optical activity is altered while maintaining the spectral shape. A polarization rotation as high as 28° is experimentally observed, thus providing a practical and compact polarization modulator for the terahertz range.

17. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chin Robin

2009-06-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

18. Development of Pipe Holding Mechanism for Pipe Inspection Robot Using Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Choi Kyujun

2016-01-01

Full Text Available A pipe inspection robot is useful to reduce the inspection cost. In the previous study, a novel pipe inspection robot using a flexible pneumatic cylinder that can move forward along to the pipe by changing the robot’s body naturally was proposed and tested. In this paper, to improve its mobility for a corner of a pipe, the thin pipe holding mechanism using pneumatic bellows was proposed and tested. As a result of its driving test, the holding performance of the mechanism was confirmed.

19. 9 CFR 3.15 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.15 Section 3.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

20. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

1. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live marine...

2. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

3. When sanctions convey moral norms

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mulder, Laetitia B.

2018-01-01

Sanctions not only have the instrumental function of deterring people from undesired behavior but they also have the ability to convey moral norms. As such, they may create a moral motivation not to engage in the sanctioned behavior. This is desirable as this makes the success of a sanctioning

4. Evaluation of Pneumatization in the Articular Eminence and Roof of the Glenoid Fossa with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehmet İlgüy

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Background: Detection of air cavities, so called pneumatizations, nearby to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ area is important, as they represent sites of minimal resistance and facilitate the spread of various pathologies into the joint as inflammation, tumor or fractures and serve as a possible complicating factor in TMJ surgery. Aims: To determine the prevalence of pneumatization of the articular eminence (PAT and roof of the glenoid fossa (PRGF using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Acquired images of 111 patients (222 TMJs were evaluated. The presence of pneumatization was recorded at the articular eminence and roof of the glenoid fossa. Age and gender were recorded for all patients and type (unilocular or multilocular and laterality were noted for the cases of pneumatization. Results: The mean age of the study group was 48.86±18.31 years. Among all the patients, 73 (65.8% had PAT, while 13 (11.7% had PRGF. Forty-two (37.8% of the patients had PAT bilaterally; whereas 3 of them (2.7% presented PRGF bilaterally. The percentage of PAT was higher for females (73.6% than males (51.3% (p<0.05. Conclusion: CBCT images are an accurate and reliable means of detection of the exact size and type of pneumatization and the relationship of pneumatization to the adjacent tissues. This is especially significant before a surgical intervention is planned in this region, in order to make a sound diagnosis.

5. Air Space Proportion in Pterosaur Limb Bones Using Computed Tomography and Its Implications for Previous Estimates of Pneumaticity

Science.gov (United States)

Martin, Elizabeth G.; Palmer, Colin

2014-01-01

Air Space Proportion (ASP) is a measure of how much air is present within a bone, which allows for a quantifiable comparison of pneumaticity between specimens and species. Measured from zero to one, higher ASP means more air and less bone. Conventionally, it is estimated from measurements of the internal and external bone diameter, or by analyzing cross-sections. To date, the only pterosaur ASP study has been carried out by visual inspection of sectioned bones within matrix. Here, computed tomography (CT) scans are used to calculate ASP in a small sample of pterosaur wing bones (mainly phalanges) and to assess how the values change throughout the bone. These results show higher ASPs than previous pterosaur pneumaticity studies, and more significantly, higher ASP values in the heads of wing bones than the shaft. This suggests that pneumaticity has been underestimated previously in pterosaurs, birds, and other archosaurs when shaft cross-sections are used to estimate ASP. Furthermore, ASP in pterosaurs is higher than those found in birds and most sauropod dinosaurs, giving them among the highest ASP values of animals studied so far, supporting the view that pterosaurs were some of the most pneumatized animals to have lived. The high degree of pneumaticity found in pterosaurs is proposed to be a response to the wing bone bending stiffness requirements of flight rather than a means to reduce mass, as is often suggested. Mass reduction may be a secondary result of pneumaticity that subsequently aids flight. PMID:24817312

6. Design evaluaion: pneumatic transport and classification

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

McNair, J.M.

1979-10-01

This report describes the evaluation of selected design features of the cold engineering scale pneumatic transport and classification subsystems used in the development of the head-end equipment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. The report identifies areas that require further design effort and evaluation of alternatives prior to the design of the HTGR reference recycle facility (HRRF). Seven areas in the transport subsystem and three in the classification subsystem were selected for evaluation. Seventeen specific recommendations are presented for further design effort

7. Rapid Prototyping High-Performance MR Safe Pneumatic Stepper Motors

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Groenhuis, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano

2018-01-01

In this paper we show that pneumatic stepper motors for MR safe robots can be constructed using rapid prototyping techniques such as 3-D printing and laser-cutting. The designs are lightweight, completely metal-free and fully customizable. Besides MR safe robotic systems, other potential

8. Control of a Heavy-Lift Robotic Manipulator with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ryan M. Robinson

2014-04-01

Full Text Available Lightweight, compliant actuators are particularly desirable in robotic systems intended for interaction with humans. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs exhibit these characteristics and are capable of higher specific work than comparably-sized hydraulic actuators and electric motors. The objective of this work is to develop a control algorithm that can smoothly and accurately track the desired motions of a manipulator actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles. The manipulator is intended for lifting humans in nursing assistance or casualty extraction scenarios; hence, the control strategy must be capable of responding to large variations in payload over a large range of motion. The present work first investigates the feasibility of two output feedback controllers (proportional-integral-derivative and fuzzy logic, but due to the limitations of pure output feedback control, a model-based feedforward controller is developed and combined with output feedback to achieve improved closed-loop performance. The model upon which the controller is based incorporates the internal airflow dynamics, the physical parameters of the pneumatic muscles and the manipulator dynamics. Simulations were performed in order to validate the control algorithms, guide controller design and predict optimal gains. Using real-time interface software and hardware, the controllers were implemented and experimentally tested on the manipulator, demonstrating the improved capability.

9. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

1991-03-01

Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

10. Study of a Pneumatic Hybrid aided by a FPGA Controlled Free Valve Technology System

OpenAIRE

Trajkovic, Sasa

2008-01-01

Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional IC engines could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. Today there are several solutions to meet the demand for better fuel economy and one of them is the pneumatic hybrids. The idea with pneumatic hybridization is to reduce the fuel con...

11. Development of a pneumatic transport system for bulk transfer of metal grade uranium oxide powder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manna, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

2010-01-01

Uranium oxide powder is a commonly handled ceramic powder in nuclear industries. Design of the powder transfer system is an important aspect because of some of its typical characteristics. Pneumatic transport system has been widely used in transferring powder from one place to another. A pneumatic transport system using vacuum has been presented in the paper. This is used for bulk transfer of UO 3 powder. The system consists of a cyclone separator and filter cloth at the top of the cyclone separator. The pneumatic transfer system provides high efficiency with sustainable performance and it is a compact, robust, handy and moveable unit. No degradation of the powder quality has been observed during transfer. The system provides highly efficient, easy and safe transfer of radioactive powder, better working environment for the operator. (author)

12. The use of automation with the new pneumatic irradiation facility of the ORNL HFIR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.; Emery, J.F.

1988-01-01

The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has two pneumatic irradiation systems: PT-1 installed in 1970 and PT-2 installed in 1987, which are used for neutron activation analysis. Both systems have been described in the literature. By means of a Gould programmable controller, considerable progress has been made in a cost-effective manner to operate and automate the features of the new facility. A neutron counter is an integral part of the new pneumatic tube, and all of the hardware is present to enable automated delayed neutron counting. Some automation of the old system has also been accomplished by the use of a Zymark general purpose programmable robot. This paper describes the automated features of both systems. The reactor has been shut down for safety evaluation since November 1986, so that no irradiations have been made in the new pneumatic tube

13. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter or... and disinfection, except for cleaning and disinfection of the conveyances used to transport the swine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances...

14. Controlling pneumatic artificial muscles in exoskeletons with surface electromyography

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Groenhuis, Vincent; Chandrapal, Mervin; Stramigioli, Stefano; Chen, XiaoQi

2014-01-01

Powered exoskeletons are gaining more interest in the last few years, as useful devices to provide assistance to elderly and disabled people. Many different types of powered exoskeletons have been studied in the past. In this research paper, a soft lower limb exoskeleton driven by pneumatic

15. Systems of pneumatic transportation of cement and other fine ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Therefore, the operational reliability of such equipment decreases and the process of cleaning of the exhaust air becomes complicated. The solution of the problem of ... of the air expense and pressure during the design of the systems. Keywords: pneumatic transportation, fine materials. dust removal equipment, pape line.

16. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... least 7 days following such cleaning and disinfection, unless the Administrator determines that a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.7 Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. All premises, including...

17. Soft, Rotating Pneumatic Actuator.

Science.gov (United States)

Ainla, Alar; Verma, Mohit S; Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M

2017-09-01

This article describes a soft pneumatic actuator that generates cyclical motion. The actuator consists of several (three, four, or five) chambers (arranged around the circumference of a circle surrounding a central rod) that can be actuated independently using negative pressure (or partial vacuum). Sequential actuation of the four-chamber device using reduced pressure moves the central rod cyclically in an approximately square path. We characterize the trajectory of the actuator and the force exerted by it, as we vary the material used for fabrication, the number of chambers, and the size of the actuator. We demonstrate two applications of this actuator: to deliver fluid while stirring (by replacing the central rod with a needle) and for locomotion that mimics a reptilian gait (by combining four actuators together).

18. 9 CFR 93.410 - Movement from conveyances to quarantine station.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement from conveyances to... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.410 Movement from... transportation of animals or their fresh products. When movement of the aforesaid ruminants upon or across a...

19. 9 CFR 93.509 - Movement from conveyances to quarantine station.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement from conveyances to... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.509 Movement from... fresh products. When movement of the aforesaid swine upon or across a public highway is unavoidable, it...

20. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... facilities, conveyances, or other materials on the premises that would require such cleaning and disinfection... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.8 Disinfection of...

1. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits. Untaxpaid...

2. Series Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (sPAMs) and Application to a Soft Continuum Robot.

Science.gov (United States)

Greer, Joseph D; Morimoto, Tania K; Okamura, Allison M; Hawkes, Elliot W

2017-01-01

We describe a new series pneumatic artificial muscle (sPAM) and its application as an actuator for a soft continuum robot. The robot consists of three sPAMs arranged radially round a tubular pneumatic backbone. Analogous to tendons, the sPAMs exert a tension force on the robot's pneumatic backbone, causing bending that is approximately constant curvature. Unlike a traditional tendon driven continuum robot, the robot is entirely soft and contains no hard components, making it safer for human interaction. Models of both the sPAM and soft continuum robot kinematics are presented and experimentally verified. We found a mean position accuracy of 5.5 cm for predicting the end-effector position of a 42 cm long robot with the kinematic model. Finally, closed-loop control is demonstrated using an eye-in-hand visual servo control law which provides a simple interface for operation by a human. The soft continuum robot with closed-loop control was found to have a step-response rise time and settling time of less than two seconds.

3. Analysis and control of a parallel lower limb based on pneumatic artificial muscles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Feilong Jiang

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Most robots that are actuated by antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscles are controlled by various control algorithms that cannot adequately imitate the actual muscle distribution of human limbs. Other robots in which the distribution of pneumatic artificial muscle is similar to that of human limbs can only analyze the position of the robot using perceptual data instead of rational knowledge. In order to better imitate the movement of a human limb, the article proposes a humanoid lower limb in the form of a parallel mechanism where muscle is unevenly distributed. Next, the kinematic and dynamic movements of bionic hip joint are analyzed, where the joint movement is controlled by an observer-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm as a whole rather than each individual pneumatic artificial muscle and parameters that are optimized by a neural network. Finally, experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. We also document the role of muscle in trajectory tracking for the piriformis and musculi obturator internus in isobaric processes.

4. Muscle- and pneumatic-powered counterpulsating LVADs: a pilot study.

Science.gov (United States)

Wilde, J C; van Loon, J; Bishop, N D; Shelton, A D; Marten, C; Kolff, W J; Stephenson, L; Baciewicz, F; Nakajima, H; Thomas, G

1994-03-01

There is a worldwide interest in supporting the failing heart with a skeletal muscle by either wrapping it around the natural heart (dynamic cardiomyoplasty) or by constructing a skeletal muscle ventricle (SMV) used for counterpulsation. Conventional cardiomyoplasty in many clinics carries an operative mortality rate of 15-20% partly because it requires 6 weeks to train the muscle to contract continually. A flexible, pear-shaped blood pump with an inflatable air chamber was designed and made around which a muscle can be wrapped. The advantage of our design is that it can also be driven by pneumatic power, immediately supporting the circulation of a seriously ill patient while that patient is still on the operating table. After a period of time to allow for revascularization and the subsequent training of the muscle, the external pneumatic power can be gradually discontinued. Then the assisted patient becomes tether-free. If, at any time, the muscle power fails, the pneumatic-powered mechanism can be reactivated. In the preferred approach, the blood pump is connected to the aorta for diastolic counterpulsation. A muscle can either be wrapped around the blood pump directly, or around one of two separate muscle pouches connected to the blood pump. To facilitate surgery, a large pouch is inserted under the musculus latissimus dorsi, which is connected to a blood pump. When stimulated, the muscle will contract over the pouch compressing it and providing power to the blood pump. If it is found that the pressure generated in the pouch cannot meet the aortic blood pressure, it can be augmented by using a pressure amplifier.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

5. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

6. Testing the plant pneumatic method to estimate xylem embolism resistance in stems of temperate trees

OpenAIRE

Zhang, Ya; Lamarque, Laurent J.; Torres-Ruiz, José Manuel; Schuldt, Bernhard; Karimi, Zohreh; Li, Shan; Qin, De-Wen; Bittencourt, Paulo; Burlett, Régis; Cao, Kun-Fang; Delzon, Sylvain; Oliveira, Rafael; Pereira, Luciano; Jansen, Steven

2018-01-01

Methods to estimate xylem embolism resistance generally rely on hydraulic measurements, which can be far from straightforward. Recently, a pneumatic method based on air flow measurements of terminal branch ends was proposed to construct vulnerability curves by linking the amount of air extracted from a branch with the degree of embolism. We applied this novel technique for 10 temperate tree species, including six diffuse, two ring-porous and two gymnosperm species, and compared the pneumatic ...

7. Considerations of several real effects in pneumatic pellet injection processes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ming-Lun Xue.

1987-10-01

Several real effects that take place in a pneumatic pellet injector are examined. These are the heat transfer between a high-temperature propellent gas and the metal wall of the injector, and the frictional loss between the propellent and wall. (author)

8. Present status and prospect of the pneumatics; Kukiatsu gijutsu no ayumi to kongono kenkyu no kadai

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kawai, S. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

2000-05-15

This paper describes course of pneumatic technologies and problems in future researches. Pneumatic systems are inferior to electric and hydraulic systems in terms of efficiency. It is because electric power is converted into fluidized energy by using a compressor, and then converted to mechanical energy by using an actuator. When theses published from 1990 through 1999 are put in order, the research objects are accounted for half by control related technologies, and researches related to elements account for only one third. This paper enumerates assignments to be tackled positively in the future by utilizing compressibility of air in pneumatic systems, and features of high speed drive utilizing the stored energy instantaneously. Application of air pressure to robotics from the demand of the aging society, and pneumatic tools having intelligent functions must be subjected to new contrivances. These will serve for work assistance systems to enable aged people to perform works, and for activating industries including organic agriculture. Tools in this sense may include impact wrench, and others. Furthermore, development of fundamental studies for 'why air pressure?' is demanded strongly, including the viewpoint of LCA in the recycling type society. (NEDO)

9. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xizhe Zang

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

10. A pneumatic muscle hand therapy device.

Science.gov (United States)

Koeneman, E J; Schultz, R S; Wolf, S L; Herring, D E; Koeneman, J B

2004-01-01

Intensive repetitive therapy improves function and quality of life for stroke patients. Intense therapies to overcome upper extremity impairment are beneficial, however, they are expensive because, in part, they rely on individualized interaction between the patient and rehabilitation specialist. The development of a pneumatic muscle driven hand therapy device, the Mentortrade mark, reinforces the need for volitional activation of joint movement while concurrently offering knowledge of results about range of motion, muscle activity or resistance to movement. The device is well tolerated and has received favorable comments from stroke survivors, their caregivers, and therapists.

11. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

1992-09-01

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

12. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

1992-09-01

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

13. Mathematical Modeling of Diaphragm Pneumatic Motors

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fojtášek Kamil

2014-03-01

Full Text Available Pneumatic diaphragm motors belong to the group of motors with elastic working parts. This part is usually made of rubber with a textile insert and it is deformed under the pressure of a compressed air or from the external mass load. This is resulting in a final working effect. In this type of motors are in contact two different elastic environments – the compressed air and the esaltic part. These motors are mainly the low-stroke and working with relatively large forces. This paper presents mathematical modeling static properties of diaphragm motors.

14. Estimation of Physical Human-Robot Interaction Using Cost-Effective Pneumatic Padding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

André Wilkening

2016-08-01

Full Text Available The idea to use a cost-effective pneumatic padding for sensing of physical interaction between a user and wearable rehabilitation robots is not new, but until now there has not been any practical relevant realization. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate physical human-robot interaction using a pneumatic padding based on artificial neural networks (ANNs. This estimation can serve as rough indicator of applied forces/torques by the user and can be applied for visual feedback about the user’s participation or as additional information for interaction controllers. Unlike common mostly very expensive 6-axis force/torque sensors (FTS, the proposed sensor system can be easily integrated in the design of physical human-robot interfaces of rehabilitation robots and adapts itself to the shape of the individual patient’s extremity by pressure changing in pneumatic chambers, in order to provide a safe physical interaction with high user’s comfort. This paper describes a concept of using ANNs for estimation of interaction forces/torques based on pressure variations of eight customized air-pad chambers. The ANNs were trained one-time offline using signals of a high precision FTS which is also used as reference sensor for experimental validation. Experiments with three different subjects confirm the functionality of the concept and the estimation algorithm.

15. Test plan for the remote conveyance and innovative end effector demonstration

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rice, P.; Smith, A.M. [EG& G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.; Peterson, R.

1994-08-01

This test plan describes the demonstration of innovative equipment and processes specifically designed to be superior to currently employed technology for buried waste retrieval. The dumping of dry soil into a funnel/dumpster arrangement has been found to be the primary mechanism for dust generation during the retrieval of buried transuranic waste. The primary goal of the innovative end effector is to reduce dust generation and the potential spread of airborne contaminants during the dumping operation. In addition, regardless of the excavation technique, exhumed waste will have to be conveyed away from the retrieval area to a packaging area or directly to a treatment facility. The remote conveyance system is aimed at developing a remotely controlled vehicle to convey retrieved waste that will operate on variable terrain and remove workers from the hazardous zone. To demonstrate the remote conveyance system and the innovative end effector, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program has subcontracted with RAHCO International to provide equipment and services to perform a demonstration of the technologies. The demonstration will be performed in two phases. In Phase I, the subcontractor will perform a full scale demonstration to assess the ability of the innovative end effector to control dust generation and the potential spread of contamination during dumping operations. Phase II includes performing a retrieval/conveyance demonstration. This demonstration will excavate, dump, and convey simulated waste to demonstrate the functionality of the system (e.g., maneuverability, retrieval rates, and system integration). Phase II of the demonstration will include all elements of the remote conveyance and end effector system. This test plan will describe the demonstration objectives, data quality objectives, equipment operation, and methods for collecting data during the demonstration.

16. Test plan for the remote conveyance and innovative end effector demonstration

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice, P.; Smith, A.M.; Peterson, R.

1994-08-01

This test plan describes the demonstration of innovative equipment and processes specifically designed to be superior to currently employed technology for buried waste retrieval. The dumping of dry soil into a funnel/dumpster arrangement has been found to be the primary mechanism for dust generation during the retrieval of buried transuranic waste. The primary goal of the innovative end effector is to reduce dust generation and the potential spread of airborne contaminants during the dumping operation. In addition, regardless of the excavation technique, exhumed waste will have to be conveyed away from the retrieval area to a packaging area or directly to a treatment facility. The remote conveyance system is aimed at developing a remotely controlled vehicle to convey retrieved waste that will operate on variable terrain and remove workers from the hazardous zone. To demonstrate the remote conveyance system and the innovative end effector, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program has subcontracted with RAHCO International to provide equipment and services to perform a demonstration of the technologies. The demonstration will be performed in two phases. In Phase I, the subcontractor will perform a full scale demonstration to assess the ability of the innovative end effector to control dust generation and the potential spread of contamination during dumping operations. Phase II includes performing a retrieval/conveyance demonstration. This demonstration will excavate, dump, and convey simulated waste to demonstrate the functionality of the system (e.g., maneuverability, retrieval rates, and system integration). Phase II of the demonstration will include all elements of the remote conveyance and end effector system. This test plan will describe the demonstration objectives, data quality objectives, equipment operation, and methods for collecting data during the demonstration

17. Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khosa, A.S.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, M.

2012-01-01

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

18. Treatment of achalasia: comparison of temporary stent insertion with pneumatic dilation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhu Yueqi; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua; Zhao Jungong; Li Feng

2011-01-01

Objective: To retrospectively analyze and compare the clinical efficacy of temporary stent insertion with pneumatic dilation at the same diameter for the treatment of achalasia based on a long-term follow-up observation. Methods: A total of 101 treated achalasia patients were divided into pneumatic dilation group (group A, n=38) and temporary stent insertion group (group B, n=63). The diameter of the balloon and stent used for the procedure was 30 mm. The total symptom scores (TSSs) and esophageal manometry was used to assess the symptoms and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure improvement. Barium-swallow-esophageal study was employed to objectively evaluate the esophageal emptying function. Barium-swallow-esophageal study was employed to objectively evaluate the esophageal emptying function. TSSs and LES pressure improvement were assessed, recorded and compared during the regular interval follow-up. Results: Forty-nine pneumatic dilations and 65 stent insertions were successfully performed in all patients under fluoroscopic guidance. Complications included pain, reflux and bleeding, which occurred in 9 (23.6%), 8 (21.1%) and 3(8.0%) patients in group A, respectively, while in 27 (42.9%), 8 (12.7%) and 10 (15.9%) patients in group B, respectively. The stent was retained approximately 4-7 days and all stents were retrieved via endoscope. TSSs, esophageal manometry and postoperative barium esophagram showed significant improvement compared to those obtained before treatment (P<0.0001). At the end of follow-up, TSSs and LES pressure in group B were 4.00±1.00 and (43.67±12.66) mmHg, respectively, which were 10.20±0.45 (P=0.0096) and (58.60±8.65) mmHg (P=0.1687), respectively, in group A. The Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that group B obtained a better symptom remission than group A did (Log-rank test; P=0.0212). Conclusion: Long-term follow-up results indicate that for the treatment of achalasia retrievable stent placement is more effective than same diameter

19. Management of retinal detachment in block related globe perforation with pneumatic retinopexy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Karandeep Rishi

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Retinal detachment after ocular perforation related to local anesthesia is a common complication, which is usually associated with a poor prognosis despite complex vitreoretinal surgical procedures. We report a case of 62-year-old male with cataract surgery done 4 weeks back with nasal retinal detachment with a posterior break. Pneumatic retinopexy was performed and laser barrage of the breaks was done the next day when the retina got attached. A vision of 20/30 was achieved at the end of 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first case report in literature where pneumatic retinopexy was used to manage a retinal detachment caused by block-related perforation.

20. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

2018-02-01

The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

1. Design of a pneumatic system for the development of skills among aeronautics maintenance technology students

OpenAIRE

Calderón Pérez, Jorge Luis; Cruz Rico, Oliver; Ospina Martínez, Darwin

2016-01-01

Introduction: This article is the result of the “Design and installation of a pneumatic system for Aeronautics Maintenance Technology students’ instruction (TMA)”. The research was conducted during 2014 and 2015 by the Police Aviation School research group (esavi), attached to the National Directorate of Schools (DINAE). Methodology: design and construction of a lab with a pneumatic system for handling aviation materials and structures by the Aeronautics Maintenance Technology students. The p...

2. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

Science.gov (United States)

Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

1999-01-01

In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

3. A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO with myoelectric activation and inhibition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ferris Daniel P

2009-06-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1 without wearing the orthosis, 2 wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3 wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4 wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04 and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04 joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17. Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current

4. A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with myoelectric activation and inhibition

Science.gov (United States)

Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

2009-01-01

Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1) without wearing the orthosis, 2) wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3) wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4) wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04) and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04) joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17). Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current orthosis design

5. Pneumatic pressure wave generator provides economical, simple testing of pressure transducers

Science.gov (United States)

Gaal, A. E.; Weldon, T. P.

1967-01-01

Testing device utilizes the change in pressure about a bias or reference pressure level produced by displacement of a center-driven piston in a closed cylinder. Closely controlled pneumatic pressure waves allow testing under dynamic conditions.

6. An instrumented object for hand exercise and assessment using a pneumatic pressure sensor

Science.gov (United States)

Mohan, A.; Tharion, G.; Kumar, R. K.; Devasahayam, S. R.

2018-05-01

Measurement of grip force is important for both exercise training and assessment of the hand during physical rehabilitation. The standard method uses a grip dynamometer which measures the force between the fingers and opposing thumb. The primary limitation of the grip dynamometer is the restriction of measurement to cylindrical grasps. Any deformation of the hand due to muscular or skeletal disease makes the grip dynamometer difficult or impossible to use. An alternative to the grip dynamometer is a sealed pneumatic object that can be gripped by the hand. Measurement of the internal pressure in the object can be related to the grip force. In this paper, we analyze such a pneumatic pressure sensing object for hand grip assessment and also describe an easy fabrication of the grip sensor. The instrumented object presented in this paper is designed to assess both the maximal voluntary grip forces and continuous grip force to monitor control of hand function during exercise under instruction from a therapist. Potential uses of such a pneumatic pressure sensing object for hand grip are in physical rehabilitation of patients following paralysing illnesses like stroke and spinal cord injury.

7. A durability study of a paracorporeal pulsatile electro-mechanical pneumatic biventricular assist device.

Science.gov (United States)

Choi, Hyuk; Lee, Heung-Man; Nam, Kyoung Won; Choi, Jaesoon; Lee, Jung-Joo; Kim, Ho Chul; Song, Seung Joon; Ahn, Chi Bum; Son, Ho Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Kuk Hui; Park, Yong Doo; Jeong, Gi Seok; Sun, Kyung

2011-06-01

In 2002, the paracorporeal pulsatile electro-mechanical pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) began to be developed by the Korea Artificial Organ Center at Korea University under a Health & Medical Technology Research and Development program which finished in 2008. In vitro durability testing was conducted on the paracorporeal pulsatile pneumatic VAD to determine device durability and to evaluate device failures. The 1- and 2-year reliability of the paracorporeal pulsatile pneumatic VAD was shown to be 91.2% and 54.9%, respectively, with an 80% confidence level. Failure modes were analyzed using fault tree analysis, with customized software continuously acquiring data during the test period. After this period, 21 in vivo animal tests were done, with 14 cases of left atrium to left ventricle (LV) inflow cannulation (36Fr)/outflow grafting to descending aorta, and seven cases of apex cannulation of LV to descending aorta (12 mm). The longest postoperative day (182 days) in Korea was recently recorded in in vivo animal testing (bovine, 90 kg, male, 3.5-4.0 L/min flow rate, and 55 bpm). © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

8. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hao-Ting Lin

2017-06-01

Full Text Available This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally.

9. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Hao-Ting

2017-06-04

This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC) is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally.

10. Clinical, manometric, and ultrasonographic results of pneumatic balloon dilatation vs. lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Renzi, Adolfo; Izzo, Domenico; Di Sarno, Giandomenico; Talento, Pasquale; Torelli, Francesco; Izzo, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Natale

2008-01-01

This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was designed to compare the clinical, functional, and morphologic results of pneumatic balloon dilatation with lateral internal sphincterotomy for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. All patients with symptomatic chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to pneumatic balloon dilatation or lateral internal sphincterotomy and invited to complete a standardized questionnaire inquiring about their symptoms. Anal ultrasonography and anal manometry were performed before and six months after surgery. A proctologic examination was performed between the fifth and sixth postoperative weeks. Anal continence, scored by using a validated continence grading scale, was evaluated preoperatively at 1 and 6 weeks and at 12 and 24 months. Fifty-three patients, who satisfied selection criteria, were enrolled in the trial. Four patients (7.5 percent) were lost to follow-up. Twenty-four patients (11 males; mean age, 42 +/- 8.2 years) underwent pneumatic balloon dilatation and 25 patients (10 males; mean age, 44 +/- 7.3 years) underwent lateral internal sphincterotomy. Fissure-healing rates were 83.3 percent in the pneumatic balloon dilatation and 92 percent in the lateral internal sphincterotomy group. Recurrent anal fissure was observed in one patient (4 percent) after lateral internal sphincterotomy. At anal manometry, mean resting pressure decrements obtained after pneumatic balloon dilatation and lateral internal sphincterotomy were 30.5 and 34.3 percent, respectively. After pneumatic balloon dilatation, anal ultrasonography did not show any significant sphincter damage. At 24-month follow-up, the incidence of incontinence, irrespective of severity, was 0 percent in the pneumatic balloon dilatation group and 16 percent in the lateral internal sphincterotomy group (P < 0.0001). As lateral internal sphincterotomy, pneumatic balloon dilatation grants a high anal fissure-healing rate but with a statistically significant reduction in

11. Design and use of the ORNL HFIR [High Flux Isotope Reactor] pneumatic tube irradiation systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Robinson, L.; Teasley, N.A.

1987-01-01

A second pneumatic tube that was recently installed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor for neutron activation analysis is described. Although not yet tested, the system is expected to have a thermal neutron flux of about 1.5 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . A delayed neutron counter is an integral part of the pneumatic tube, and all of the hardware is present to enable automated use of the counter. The system is operated with a Gould programmable controller that is programmed with an IBM personal computer. Automation of any mode of operation, including the delayed neutron counter, will only require a nominal amount of software development. Except for the lack of a hot cell, the irradiation facility has all of the advantageous features of an older pneumatic tube that has been in operation for 17 years. The design of the system and some applications and methods of operation are described

12. Expediency of using pneumatic balloons at the junction of a working face and gate roads

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kolokolov, O V; Litvinov, Yu G; Ozerova, A S

1983-02-01

The paper discusses strata control at longwall faces in thin coal seams. Use of pneumatic balloons instead of timber cribbing at the junction of the face and ventilation road is evaluated. The seam is 0.68 m thick at a depth of 980 m and has gradients from 60 to 63 degrees. The face mined by the Poisk coal cutter is 126 m long. The ventilation road is protected by strips of stowing. Use of pneumatic balloons with an initial pressure of 150 kN instead of timber cribbing with an initial pressure of 30 kN reduces convergence of the roof and the floor at the working face by 39%. Damage to hydraulic props at the working face caused by roof subsidence decreases by 10 to 15%. Convergence rate (measured in mm/d) decreases by 41%. Use of pneumatic balloons for strata control at working faces in thin coal seams is recommended.

13. Development and implementation of a dustfree and efficient pneumatic harvesting method; Poelyttoemaen ja tehokkaan imukokoamismenetelmaen kehittaeminen ja kaeyttoeoenotto

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nurminen, T; Ruokolainen, O; Rytkoenen, P.; Saastamoinen, V. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kallio, M.; Aalto, J.; Leinonen, A.; Mehto, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

The overall aim of the research work (1995 - 1998) is to develop dust separators of the pneumatic harvester, to eliminate dust emissions and to plan and implement a more efficient pneumatic harvesting method. New JIK-35/96 pneumatic harvesters equipped with four secondary separating cyclones (17 units) were taken into use in spring 1996. In addition, 15 JIK-35 pneumatic harvesters constructed earlier were modified dustfree. The mechanical strength of the harvesters was improved by after-installations and by changing the drive method during harvesting. JIK-35/96 pneumatic harvester (test unit) was developed further during summertime. The greatest modification was testing of three secondary cyclones with a larger diameter. Dust separation of the larger cyclones was poorer than that of cyclones with a smaller diameter. In test runs, the test unit collected peat about 10 % more than the other harvesters of JIK-35 type. The fuel consumption of the test unit was about a fifth higher than that of the conventional JIK-35 harvester (20 vs 25 l/h). The larger pneumatic harvester, a prototype of 45 m{sup 3}, operated as a whole as expected. Exhaust air from the settling chamber of the harvester, and dust distributed well to the four parallel cyclones. Problems were high power demand and low pressure in the harvesting bin compared to those of JIK-35/96. The peat harvesting efficiency of the prototype was less than 2 kg/s m(m = nozzle of 1 m width), while the corresponding value of JIK-35/96 ranged 2.5 - 4 kg/s m. In continuation, the aim is to eliminate problems of the prototype and to construct a more efficient version, i.e., by enlarging the width

14. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is deﬁned to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to ﬁnd the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

15. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

Science.gov (United States)

Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

2012-05-01

A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

16. Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation and Modeling

Science.gov (United States)

Leephakpreeda, Thananchai; Wickramatunge, Kanchana C.

2009-10-01

A Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) yields a natural muscle-like actuator with a high force to weight ratio, a soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for a humanoid robot, rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled, etc. To obtain optimum design and usage, the mechanical behavior of the PAM need to be understood. In this study, observations of experimental results reveal an empirical model for relations of physical variables, contraction and air pressure within the PAM, as compared to mechanical characteristics, such as stiffness or/and pulling forces of the PAM available now in market.

17. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T.

1990-01-01

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s -1 , chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s -1 , as planned. (author)

18. Apparatus, system, and method for providing fabric-elastomer composites as pneumatic actuators

Science.gov (United States)

Martinez, Ramses V.; Whitesides, George M.

2017-10-25

Soft pneumatic actuators based on composites consisting of elastomers with embedded sheet or fiber structures (e.g., paper or fabric) that are flexible but not extensible are described. On pneumatic inflation, these actuators move anisotropically, based on the motions accessible by their composite structures. They are inexpensive, simple to fabricate, light in weight, and easy to actuate. This class of structure is versatile: the same principles of design lead to actuators that respond to pressurization with a wide range of motions (bending, extension, contraction, twisting, and others). Paper, when used to introduce anisotropy into elastomers, can be readily folded into three-dimensional structures following the principles of origami; these folded structures increase the stiffness and anisotropy of the elastomeric actuators, while keeping them light in weight.

19. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

Science.gov (United States)

Armen, Jerald

2010-01-01

The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

20. Dynamic analysis and application of fuel elements pneumatic transportation in a pebble bed reactor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu, Hongbing; Du, Dong; Han, Zandong; Zou, Yirong; Pan, Jiluan

2015-01-01

Almost 10,000 spherical fuel elements are transported pneumatically one by one in the pipeline outside the core of a pebble bed reactor every day. Any failure in the transportation will lead to the shutdown of the reactor, even safety accidents. In order to ensure a stable and reliable transportation, it's of great importance to analyze the motion and force condition of the fuel element. In this paper, we focus on the dynamic analysis of the pneumatic transportation of the fuel element and derive kinetic equations. Then we introduce the design of the transportation pipeline. On this basis we calculate some important data such as the velocity of the fuel element, the force between the fuel element and the pipeline and the efficiency of the pneumatic transportation. Then we analyze these results and provide some suggestions for the design of the pipeline. The experiment was carried out on an experimental platform. The velocities of the fuel elements were measured. The experimental results were consistent with and validated the theoretical analysis. The research may offer the basis for the design of the transportation pipeline and the optimization of the fuel elements transportation in a pebble bed reactor. - Highlights: • The kinetic equations of the fuel element in pneumatic transportation are derived. • The dynamic characteristics of the fuel element are analyzed. • Some important parameters are calculated based on the kinetic equations. • The experimental results were consistent with the analysis and verified the analysis. • This paper may offer an important guide to the research of a pebble bed reactor

1. STUDY OF ELABORATION OF CONSTRUCTION CRANKSHAFT PISTON OF AUTOMOBILE PNEUMATIC ENGINE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Voronkov, А.

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Expound are the results of study of elaration of construction of crankshaft 4-cylinder V-evocative piston pneumatic engine, which is made by conversion of serial internal-combustion engine 4Ч 7,6x6,6.

2. Prediction of regular wave loads on a fixed offshore oscillating water column-wave energy converter using CFD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ahmed Elhanafi

2016-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper, hydrodynamic wave loads on an offshore stationary–floating oscillating water column (OWC are investigated via a 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling based on the RANS equations and the VOF surface capturing scheme. The CFD model is validated against previous experiments for nonlinear regular wave interactions with a surface-piercing stationary barge. Following the validation stage, the numerical model is modified to consider the pneumatic damping effect, and an extensive campaign of numerical tests is carried out to study the wave–OWC interactions for different wave periods, wave heights and pneumatic damping factors. It is found that the horizontal wave force is usually larger than the vertical one. Also, there a direct relationship between the pneumatic and hydrodynamic vertical forces with a maximum vertical force almost at the device natural frequency, whereas the pneumatic damping has a little effect on the horizontal force. Additionally, simulating the turbine damping with an orifice plate induces higher vertical loads than utilizing a slot opening. Furthermore, 3D modeling significantly escalates and declines the predicted hydrodynamic vertical and horizontal wave loads, respectively.

3. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

Science.gov (United States)

Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

2017-11-01

Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

4. 46 CFR 387.6 - Terms, reservations, restrictions, and conditions of conveyance.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-10-01

... by a quitclaim deed or deeds on an “as is, where is” basis without any warranty, expressed or implied... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms, reservations, restrictions, and conditions of... § 387.6 Terms, reservations, restrictions, and conditions of conveyance. (a) Conveyances of property...

5. MarsVac: Pneumatic Sampling System for Planetary Exploration

Science.gov (United States)

Zacny, K.; Mungas, G.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Davis, K.

2008-12-01

We are proposing a Mars Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. Unlike prior developments that used suction to collect fines, the proposed system uses positive pressure to move the regolith. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander. Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can be opened to acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The entire MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the most recent study related to lunar excavation and funded under the NASA SBIR program we have shown that it is possible lift over 3000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas at 1atm. Tests conducted under Mars atmospheric pressure conditions (5 torr). In September of 2008, we will be performing tests at 1/6thg (Moon) and 1/3g (Mars) to determine mass lifting efficiencies in reduced gravities.

6. Novel Use of a Pneumatic Compression Device for Haemostasis of Haemodialysis Fistula Access Catheterisation Sites

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

O’Reilly, Michael K., E-mail: moreilly1@mater.ie; Ryan, David; Sugrue, Gavin; Geoghegan, Tony; Lawler, Leo P.; Farrelly, Cormac T. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Ireland)

2016-12-15

PurposeTransradial pneumatic compression devices can be used to achieve haemostasis following radial artery puncture. This article describes a novel technique for acquiring haemostasis of arterio-venous haemodialysis fistula access sites without the need for suture placement using one such compression device.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of fistulograms with or without angioplasty/thrombectomy in a single institution was performed. 20 procedures performed on 12 patients who underwent percutaneous intervention of failing or thrombosed arterio-venous fistulas (AVF) had 27 puncture sites. Haemostasis was achieved using a pneumatic compression device at all access sites. Procedure details including size of access sheath, heparin administration and complications were recorded.ResultsTwo diagnostic fistulograms, 14 fistulograms and angioplasties and four thrombectomies were performed via access sheaths with an average size (±SD) of 6 Fr (±1.12). IV unfractionated heparin was administered in 11 of 20 procedures. Haemostasis was achieved in 26 of 27 access sites following 15–20 min of compression using the pneumatic compression device. One case experienced limited bleeding from an inflow access site that was successfully treated with reinflation of the device for a further 5 min. No other complication was recorded.ConclusionsHaemostasis of arterio-venous haemodialysis fistula access sites can be safely and effectively achieved using a pneumatic compression device. This is a technically simple, safe and sutureless technique for acquiring haemostasis after AVF intervention.

7. Classification of temporal bone pneumatization based on sigmoid sinus using computed tomography

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Han, S.-J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, M.H. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Kang-nam Gu, Do-gok Dong, 146-92, Seoul, Republic of Korea 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.-S. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Kang-nam Gu, Do-gok Dong, 146-92, Seoul, Republic of Korea 135-720 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.-K. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Kang-nam Gu, Do-gok Dong, 146-92, Seoul, Republic of Korea 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hoki@yuhs.ac

2007-11-15

Aim: To analyse several reference structures using axial computed tomography (CT) imaging of the temporal bone, which may reflect pneumatization of the entire temporal bone by statistical correlation to the actual volume of the temporal bone measured using three-dimensional reconstruction. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixteen temporal bones were studied, comprising 48 with normal findings and 68 sides showing chronic otitis media or temporal bone fracture. After measuring the volume of temporal bone air cells by the volume rendering technique using three-dimensional reconstruction images, classification of temporal bone pneumatization was performed using various reference structures on axial images to determine whether significant differences in the volume of temporal bone air cells could be found between the groups. Results: When the sigmoid sinus at the level of the malleoincudal complex was used in the classification, there were statistically significant differences between the groups that correlated with the entire volume of the temporal bone. Grouping based on the labyrinth and the ascending carotid artery showed insignificant differences in volume. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between the cross-sectional area of the antrum and the entire volume of the temporal bone. Conclusion: The degree of pneumatization of temporal bone can be estimated easily by the evaluation of the air cells around the sigmoid sinus on axial CT images.

8. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2018-01-01

BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

9. Research Article Special Issue

African Journals Online (AJOL)

pc

2017-11-24

Nov 24, 2017 ... SYSTEMS OF PNEUMATIC TRANSPORTATION OF CEMENT AND OTHER FINE ... by physical-mechanical properties of the fine material (fig. 2). Fig.2. ..... channels and pipes: Detailed analysis of conveying behavior.

10. Position control of an electro-pneumatic system based on PWM technique and FLC.

Science.gov (United States)

2014-03-01

In this paper, modeling and PWM based control of an electro-pneumatic system, including the four 2-2 valves and a double acting cylinder are studied. Dynamic nonlinear behavior of the system, containing fast switching solenoid valves and a pneumatic cylinder, as well as electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and fluid subsystems are modeled. A DC-DC power converter is employed to improve solenoid valve performance and suppress system delay. Among different position control methods, a proportional integrator derivative (PID) controller and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are evaluated. An experimental setup, using an AVR microcontroller is implemented. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

2000-03-15

In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

12. Universal machine ''Shtrek'' and the tractor-lifter with pneumatic-equipment control. [Auxiliary multipurpose materials handling equipment

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bal' bert, B M; Borumenskiy, V A; Lishenko, A P; Mitchenko, G A

1982-01-01

The machine ''Shtrek'' is described. It makes it possible to mechanize over 20 auxiliary operations: loading-unloading operations: extraction of old and deformed timbering; dissmantling of obstructions; erection of different types of timbering; making and restoring of drainage channels; laying and straightening of a drift and its leveling; assembly and disassembly of pipelines and mine equipment, etc. Depending on the type of operation, the machine has the corresponding suspended equipment. The elementary variant has a limited area of application at mines of the central region of the Dunbass. Currently a pneumatic variant of the machine ''Shtrek'' has been developed. The electric motor and the starter of the pumping equipment of the machine have been replaced by a pneumatic motor and pneumatically controlled valve KTM-50. In this case there was significant reduction in the weight of the pumping equipment and in its overall dimensions; the electric drive of the hydraulic distributors for controlling the mechanisms were replaced by simpler pneumatic ones; the logical circuit of the control system was constructed on the USEPPA elements. A specialized tractor-lifter designed for moving suspended loads is described for auxiliary operations in the near-face zone of the preparatory drifts. The machine also lifts and lowers the boom, rotates the boom by 270/sup 0/ and additionally lifts and lowers the weight-lifting hook.

13. An Application of a Pneumatic Muscles Actuator for a Delta Pneumatic Manipulator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-12-01

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to use pneumatic muscle actuators in the construction of the delta manipulator with a closed kinematic chain. The paper presents a solid models of the manipulator and the kinematic diagram. Based on the kinematic diagram and using DH notation (Denavit-Hartenberg manipulator kinematic models was determined. On the basis of developed solid model simulation studies were conducted and the shape and size of the workspace determined. On the basis of 3D models prototype of the manipulator was constructed. Experimental studies were performed to select the regulators settings P, PI, PID for one of the pair of BMDS (Bi-Muscular Driving System muscle-type drives. Based on integral quality indicators the used types of regulators were compared and proposed final controller. Performed experimental studies confirm the possibility of muscle control in the BMDS (Bi-Muscular Driving System type system drives and tuning controller settings using the Ziegler-Nichols method.

14. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

Science.gov (United States)

Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

2014-09-01

This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

15. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Woods, Benjamin K S; Kothera, Curt S; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M

2014-01-01

This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi. (paper)

16. Transforming insect electromyograms into pneumatic muscle control

Science.gov (United States)

Rutter, Brandon; Mu, Laiyong; Ritzmann, Roy; Quinn, Roger

2006-05-01

Robots can serve as hardware models for testing biological hypotheses. Both for this reason and to improve the state of the art of robotics, we strive to incorporate biological principles of insect locomotion into robotic designs. Previous research has resulted in a line of robots with leg designs based on walking and climbing movements of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. The current version, Robot V, uses muscle-like Braided Pneumatic Actuators (BPAs). In this paper, we use recorded electromyograms (EMGs) to drive robot joint motion. A muscle activation model was developed that transforms EMGs recorded from behaving cockroaches into appropriate commands for the robot. The transform is implemented by multiplying the EMG by an input gain thus generating an input pressure signal, which is used to drive a one-way closed loop pressure controller. The actuator then can be modeled as a capacitance with input rectification. The actuator exhaust valve is given a leak rate, making the transform a leaky integrator for air pressure, which drives the output force of the actuator. We find parameters of this transform by minimizing the difference between the robot motion produced and that observed in the cockroach. Although we have not reproduced full-amplitude cockroach motion using this robot, results from evaluation on reduced-amplitude cockroach angle data strongly suggest that braided pneumatic actuators can be used as part of a physical model of a biological system.

17. A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of wind–Diesel power system for non-interconnected areas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► We model thermodynamic ideal cycle of a new hybrid pneumaticcombustion engine. ► We optimize commands of all modes and calculate maps of fuel and air consumption. ► We evaluate fuel economy for Wind–Diesel system function of tank volume and wind penetration. ► We find up to 10% of fuel economy i.e. 80 t/year with 100% wind penetration. ► Fuel economy increases with wind penetration and with volume but has asymptotic value. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid Wind–Diesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this study’s strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

18. Characteristics of the muscle activities of the elderly for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator of lower limb orthosis

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Kyong; Yu, Chang-Ho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Hong, Chul-Un; Kim, Nam-Gyun

2005-12-01

There developed a lower limb orthosis with a pneumatic rubber actuator, which can assist and improve the muscular activities in the lower limb of the elderly. For this purpose, the characteristics of the lower limbs muscle activities for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator for the lower limb orthosis was investigated. To find out the characteristics of the muscle activities for various pneumatic pressures, it analyzed the flexing and extending movement of the knees, and measured the lower limbs muscular power. The subjects wearing the lower limbs orthosis were instructed to perform flexing and extending movement of the knees. The variation in the air pressure of the pneumatic actuator was varies from one kgf/cm2 to four kgf/cm2. The muscular power was measured by monitoring electromyogram using MP100 (BIOPAC Systems, Inc.) and detailed three-dimensional motions of the lower limbs were collected by APAS 3D Motion Analysis system. Through this study, it expected to find the most suitable air pressure for the improvement of the muscular power of the aged.

19. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

Science.gov (United States)

Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

1991-01-01

An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

20. Robust PID Controller for a Pneumatic Actuator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Skarpetis Michael G.

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper the position control pneumatic actuator using a robust PID controller is presented. The parameters of the PID controller are computed using a Hurwitz invariability technique enriched with a Simulated Annealing Algorithm. The nonlinear model involves uncertain parameters due to linearization of the servo valve, variations of the initial volume of the cylinder and variation of the external load. The problem is proven to be solvable and the controller parameters are chosen to provide a suboptimal solution for tracking error minimization. Simulation results are presented for the nonlinear model.

1. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

1990-01-01

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

2. Novel Design of a Soft Lightweight Pneumatic Continuum Robot Arm with Decoupled Variable Stiffness and Positioning.

Science.gov (United States)

Giannaccini, Maria Elena; Xiang, Chaoqun; Atyabi, Adham; Theodoridis, Theo; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Davis, Steve

2018-02-01

Soft robot arms possess unique capabilities when it comes to adaptability, flexibility, and dexterity. In addition, soft systems that are pneumatically actuated can claim high power-to-weight ratio. One of the main drawbacks of pneumatically actuated soft arms is that their stiffness cannot be varied independently from their end-effector position in space. The novel robot arm physical design presented in this article successfully decouples its end-effector positioning from its stiffness. An experimental characterization of this ability is coupled with a mathematical analysis. The arm combines the light weight, high payload to weight ratio and robustness of pneumatic actuation with the adaptability and versatility of variable stiffness. Light weight is a vital component of the inherent safety approach to physical human-robot interaction. To characterize the arm, a neural network analysis of the curvature of the arm for different input pressures is performed. The curvature-pressure relationship is also characterized experimentally.

3. Pneumatic tube-transported blood samples in lithium heparinate gel separator tubes may be more susceptible to haemolysis than blood samples in serum tubes.

Science.gov (United States)

Böckel-Frohnhöfer, Nicole; Hübner, Ulrich; Hummel, Björn; Geisel, Jürgen

2014-10-01

Pneumatic tube systems are widely used in hospitals. Advantages are high speed and rapid availability of the samples. However, the transportation by pneumatic tube promotes haemolysis. Haemolysis interferes with many spectrophotometric assays and is a common problem in clinical laboratories. The haemolysis index (HI) as a semi-quantitative representation of the level of haemolysis was compared in unpaired tube-transported and hand-delivered routine lithium heparinate plasma samples (n = 1368 and n = 837, respectively). Additionally, the HI distribution was measured in lithium heparinate plasma samples with a HI above the threshold value of 20 and in paired serum samples after transportation by pneumatic tube system. HI values above 20 can interfere with the selected assays: Creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. These parameters were determined to demonstrate how haemolysis affects the results. 17.5% of the tube-transported plasma samples and 2.6% of the hand-delivered plasma samples had a HI above 20. The median HI in pneumatic tube-transported lithium heparinate plasma was 85 and 33 in the paired serum samples. The median HI difference between paired plasma and serum was 46. Blood samples in lithium heparinate tubes may be substantially more susceptible to haemolysis by pneumatic tube transportation than serum tube samples. Although our results cannot be universally applied to laboratories with different pneumatic tube systems, it is recommended that each laboratory evaluate carefully the degree of haemolysis after the transportation by the own pneumatic tube system and in terms of the sample type.

4. Study of the effect of temperature on the positioning accuracy of the pneumatic muscles

Science.gov (United States)

Laski, Pawel Andrzej; Blasiak, Slawomir; Takosoglu, Jakub Emanuel; Pietrala, Dawid Sebastian; Bracha, Gabriel Filip; Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Nowakowski, Lukasz; Borkowski, Krzysztof; Blasiak, Malgorzata

The article concerns experimental studies of the effect of temperature on the positioning accuracy of pneumatic muscles. It presents results of experimental studies in the form of thermal images from thermal imaging camera. Pneumatic artificial muscles have unique operational characteristics and because of that they are used in industrial production processes, where classic drives do not work. During operation of muscles with large frequencies above 60 Hz, one can observe a significant increase in temperatures on the bladder surface. The article concerns a study aimed at the determination of the maximum temperature which can be achieved and whether it affects the accuracy of their positioning.

5. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and... health officials. Cleaning and disinfection must be completed before the premises, conveyances, or...

6. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Equipment for Continuous Passive Motion

Science.gov (United States)

Deaconescu, Tudor T.; Deaconescu, Andrea I.

2009-10-01

Applying continuous passive rehabilitation movements as part of the recovery programme of patients with post-traumatic disabilities of the bearing joints of the inferior limbs requires the development of new high performance equipment. This chapter discusses a study of the kinematics and performance of such a new, continuous passive motion based rehabilitation system actuated by pneumatic muscles. The utilized energy source is compressed air ensuring complete absorption of the end of stroke shocks, thus minimizing user discomfort.

7. Finite-element analysis of some pneumatically-actuated wrist-rehabilitation equipment

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Filip Ovidiu

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents some wrist-rehabilitation equipment, actuated by a pneumatic muscle. This one drives, through a rack-pinion mechanism, a Fin Ray-type mechanism, with a view to mobilizing the injured palm. Unlike other rehabilitation equipments, the one presented in this paper, ensures the movement of both palm and fingers.

8. Density-Gradient Mediated Band Extraction of Leukocytes from Whole Blood Using Centrifugo-Pneumatic Siphon Valving on Centrifugal Microfluidic Discs

Science.gov (United States)

Kearney, Sinéad M.; Kilcawley, Niamh A.; Early, Philip L.; Glynn, Macdara T.; Ducrée, Jens

2016-01-01

Here we present retrieval of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by density-gradient medium based centrifugation for subsequent analysis of the leukocytes on an integrated microfluidic “Lab-on-a-Disc” cartridge. Isolation of white blood cells constitutes a critical sample preparation step for many bioassays. Centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are particularly suited for blood processing as they function without need of surface treatment and are ‘low-pass’, i.e., holding at high centrifugation speeds and opening upon reduction of the spin rate. Both ‘hydrostatically’ and ‘hydrodynamically’ triggered centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valving schemes are presented. Firstly, the geometry of the pneumatic chamber of hydrostatically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves is optimised to enable smooth and uniform layering of blood on top of the density-gradient medium; this feature proves to be key for efficient Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. A theoretical analysis of hydrostatically primed valves is also presented which determines the optimum priming pressure for the individual valves. Next, ‘dual siphon’ configurations for both hydrostatically and hydrodynamically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are introduced; here plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells are extracted through a distinct siphon valve. This work represents a first step towards enabling on disc multi-parameter analysis. Finally, the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells extraction in these structures is characterised using a simplified design. A microfluidic mechanism, which we termed phase switching, is identified which affects the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. PMID:27167376

9. Multi Objective Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm of a Pneumatic Connector

Science.gov (United States)

Salaam, HA; Taha, Zahari; Ya, TMYS Tuan

2018-03-01

The concept of sustainability was first introduced by Dr Harlem Brutland in the 1980’s promoting the need to preserve today’s natural environment for the sake of future generations. Based on this concept, John Elkington proposed an approach to measure sustainability known as Triple Bottom Line (TBL). There are three evaluation criteria’s involved in the TBL approach; namely economics, environmental integrity and social equity. In manufacturing industry the manufacturing costs measure the economic sustainability of a company in a long term. Environmental integrity is a measure of the impact of manufacturing activities on the environment. Social equity is complicated to evaluate; but when the focus is at the production floor level, the production operator health can be considered. In this paper, the TBL approach is applied in the manufacturing of a pneumatic nipple hose. The evaluation criteria used are manufacturing costs, environmental impact, ergonomics impact and also energy used for manufacturing. This study involves multi objective optimization by using genetic algorithm of several possible alternatives for material used in the manufacturing of the pneumatic nipple.

10. Investigation and visualization of liquid–liquid flow in a vertically mounted Hele-Shaw cell: flow regimes, velocity and shape of droplets

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shad, S; Gates, I D; Maini, B B

2009-01-01

The motion and shape of a liquid drop flowing within a continuous, conveying liquid phase in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell were investigated experimentally. The continuous phase was more viscous and wetted the bounding walls of the Hele-Shaw cell. The gap between the Hele-Shaw plates was set equal to 0.0226 cm. Four different flow regimes were observed: (a) small-droplet flow, (b) elongated-droplet flow, (c) churn flow and (d) channel flow. At low capillary number, that is, when capillary forces are larger than viscous forces, the droplet shape was irregular and changed with time and distance, and it moved with lower velocity than that of the conveying phase. At higher capillary number, several different shapes of stabilized elongated and flattened drops were observed. In contrast to gas–liquid systems, the velocities of droplets are higher than that of conveying liquid. New correlations derived from dimensionless analysis and fitted to the experimental data were generated to predict the elongated-drop velocity and aspect ratio

11. Investigation and visualization of liquid-liquid flow in a vertically mounted Hele-Shaw cell: flow regimes, velocity and shape of droplets

Science.gov (United States)

Shad, S.; Gates, I. D.; Maini, B. B.

2009-11-01

The motion and shape of a liquid drop flowing within a continuous, conveying liquid phase in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell were investigated experimentally. The continuous phase was more viscous and wetted the bounding walls of the Hele-Shaw cell. The gap between the Hele-Shaw plates was set equal to 0.0226 cm. Four different flow regimes were observed: (a) small-droplet flow, (b) elongated-droplet flow, (c) churn flow and (d) channel flow. At low capillary number, that is, when capillary forces are larger than viscous forces, the droplet shape was irregular and changed with time and distance, and it moved with lower velocity than that of the conveying phase. At higher capillary number, several different shapes of stabilized elongated and flattened drops were observed. In contrast to gas-liquid systems, the velocities of droplets are higher than that of conveying liquid. New correlations derived from dimensionless analysis and fitted to the experimental data were generated to predict the elongated-drop velocity and aspect ratio.

12. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and... health officials. Cleaning and disinfection must be completed before the premises, conveyances, or...

13. Static and dynamic stability of pneumatic vibration isolators and systems of isolators

Science.gov (United States)

Ryaboy, Vyacheslav M.

2014-01-01

Pneumatic vibration isolation is the most widespread effective method for creating vibration-free environments that are vital for precise experiments and manufacturing operations in optoelectronics, life sciences, microelectronics, nanotechnology and other areas. The modeling and design principles of a dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator, basically established a few decades ago, continue to attract attention of researchers. On the other hand, behavior of systems of such isolators was never explained in the literature in sufficient detail. This paper covers a range of questions essential for understanding the mechanics of pneumatic isolation systems from both design and application perspectives. The theory and a model of a single standalone isolator are presented in concise form necessary for subsequent analysis. Then the dynamics of a system of isolators supporting a payload is considered with main attention directed to two aspects of their behavior: first, the static stability of payloads with high positions of the center of gravity; second, dynamic stability of the feedback system formed by mechanical leveling valves. The direct method of calculating the maximum stable position of the center of gravity is presented and illustrated by three-dimensional stability domains; analytic formulas are given that delineate these domains. A numerical method for feedback stability analysis of self-leveling valve systems is given, and the results are compared with the analytical estimates for a single isolator. The relation between the static and dynamic phenomena is discussed.

14. Extreme Mechanics in Soft Pneumatic Robots and Soft Microfluidic Electronics and Sensors

Science.gov (United States)

Majidi, Carmel

2012-02-01

In the near future, machines and robots will be completely soft, stretchable, impact resistance, and capable of adapting their shape and functionality to changes in mission and environment. Similar to biological tissue and soft-body organisms, these next-generation technologies will contain no rigid parts and instead be composed entirely of soft elastomers, gels, fluids, and other non-rigid matter. Using a combination of rapid prototyping tools, microfabrication methods, and emerging techniques in so-called ``soft lithography,'' scientists and engineers are currently introducing exciting new families of soft pneumatic robots, soft microfluidic sensors, and hyperelastic electronics that can be stretched to as much as 10x their natural length. Progress has been guided by an interdisciplinary collection of insights from chemistry, life sciences, robotics, microelectronics, and solid mechanics. In virtually every technology and application domain, mechanics and elasticity have a central role in governing functionality and design. Moreover, in contrast to conventional machines and electronics, soft pneumatic systems and microfluidics typically operate in the finite deformation regime, with materials stretching to several times their natural length. In this talk, I will review emerging paradigms in soft pneumatic robotics and soft microfluidic electronics and highlight modeling and design challenges that arise from the extreme mechanics of inflation, locomotion, sensor operation, and human interaction. I will also discuss perceived challenges and opportunities in a broad range of potential application, from medicine to wearable computing.

15. A rotary pneumatic actuator for the actuation of the exoskeleton knee joint

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jobin Varghese

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Rotary pneumatic actuators that are made out of linear one are always best suited for exoskeleton joint actuation due to its inherent power to weight ratio. This work is a modified version of knee actuation system that has already been developed and major modifications are made in order to make it more suitable for human wearing and also to reduce its bulkiness and complexity. The considered actuator system is a rotary actuator where a pulley converts the linear motion of the standard pneumatic piston into the rotary motion. To prove the capability of the actuator, its performance characteristics such as torque and power produced are compared to the required torque and power at the knee joint of the exoskeleton in swing phase and are found to be excellent. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA is performed to find the effect of the throat area valve on knee angle. The ANOVA shows the significant effect of the throat area variation on the knee angle flexion made by the proposed actuator. A relationship between the throat area of flow control valve, that is connected to the exit port of the direction control valve, and angular displacement of the knee joint has been formulated. This relationship can be used to design a control system to regulate the mass flow rate of air at the exit and hence the angular velocity of the knee joint can be controlled. Keywords: Driven pulley, Flow control valve, Rotary, Pneumatic cylinder

16. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

Science.gov (United States)

Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

1997-05-01

Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

17. The use of wavelet transform in oil conveying pipeline's leakage detection and location

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Han Jian; Wang Yongtao; Mu Haiwei

2006-01-01

This paper uses the negative press wave method basing on wavelet transform to detect the singularity point of the pressure signal of oil conveying pipeline and uses the detected singularity point to locate the leakage, this method has better effect in real applying. And this paper analyzes the merits and shortcomings of this method in detecting and locating the leakage of oil conveying pipeline, so it offers reference for studying weak leakage of oil conveying pipeline in the future. (authors)

18. Pneumatic artificial muscles for trailing edge flap actuation: a feasibility study

Science.gov (United States)

Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Sirohi, Jayant; Wereley, Norman M.

2011-10-01

In this study a novel aircraft trailing edge flap actuation system was developed and tested. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) were used as the driving elements of this system to demonstrate their feasibility and utility as an alternative aerospace actuation technology. A prototype flap/actuator system was integrated into a model wing section and tested on the bench-top under simulated airloads for flight at 100 m s-1 (M = 0.3) and in an open-jet wind tunnel at free stream velocities ranging up to 45 m s-1 (M = 0.13). Testing was performed for actuator pressures ranging from 0.069 to 0.62 MPa (10-90 psi) and actuation frequencies from 0.1 to 31 Hz. Results show that the PAM-driven trailing edge flap system can generate substantial and sustainable dynamic deflections, thereby proving the feasibility of using pneumatic artificial muscle actuators in a trailing edge flap system. Key issues limiting system performance are identified, that should be resolved in future research.

19. Characterization of a pneumatic balloon actuator for use in refreshable Braille displays.

Science.gov (United States)

Fan, Richard E; Feinman, Adam M; Wottawa, Christopher; King, Chih-Hung; Franco, Miguel L; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O

2009-01-01

Many existing refreshable Braille display technologies are costly or lack robust performance. A process has been developed to fabricate consistent and reliable pneumatic balloon actuators at low material cost, using a novel manufacturing process. This technique has been adapted for use in refreshable Braille displays that feature low power consumption, ease of manufacture and small form factor. A prototype refreshable cell, conforming to American Braille standards, was developed and tested. The cell was fabricated from molded PDMS to form balloon actuators with a spin-coated silicone film, and fast pneumatic driving elements and an electronic control system were developed to drive the Braille dots. Perceptual testing was performed to determine the feasibility of the approach using a single blind human subject. The subject was able to detect randomized Braille letters rapidly generated by the actuator with 100% character detection accuracy.

20. A fluidic/pneumatic interface amplifier

Science.gov (United States)

Limbert, D. E.; Kegel, T. M.

The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The pressure within the venturi throat region, which is the amplifier output, changes with the flowrate. Non-linear characteristics, due to supersonic flow within the venturi, are altered through the use of feedback to the LPA input. A computer based model, to aid in optimizing the amplifier design, is developed. This model incorporates the effects of shock waves and boundary layers within the venturi. Good correspondence between the model and an experimental prototype is shown.

1. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

2014-03-01

Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers.

2. Pneumatic Performance Study of a High Pressure Ejection Device Based on Real Specific Energy and Specific Enthalpy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jie Ren

2014-09-01

Full Text Available In high-pressure dynamic thermodynamic processes, the pressure is much higher than the air critical pressure, and the temperature can deviate significantly from the Boyle temperature. In such situations, the thermo-physical properties and pneumatic performance can’t be described accurately by the ideal gas law. This paper proposes an approach to evaluate the pneumatic performance of a high-pressure air catapult launch system, in which esidual functions are used to compensate the thermal physical property uncertainties of caused by real gas effects. Compared with the Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility charts, the precision of the improved virial equation of state is better than Soave-Redlich-Kwong (S-R-K and Peng-Robinson (P-R equations for high pressure air. In this paper, the improved virial equation of state is further used to establish a compressibility factor database which is applied to evaluate real gas effects. The specific residual thermodynamic energy and specific residual enthalpy of the high-pressure air are also derived using the modified corresponding state equation and improved virial equation of state which are truncated to the third virial coefficient. The pneumatic equations are established on the basis of the derived residual functions. The comparison of the numerical results shows that the real gas effects are strong, and the pneumatic performance analysis indicates that the real dynamic thermodynamic process is obviously different from the ideal one.

3. Application of Model Based Prognostics to Pneumatic Valves in a Cryogenic Propellant Loading Testbed

Data.gov (United States)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pneumatic-actuated valves are critical components in many applications, including cryogenic propellant loading for space operations. For these components, failures...

4. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

5. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

6. Experimental Investigation on The Electromagnetic Clutch Water pump and Pneumatic Compressor for Improving the Efficiency of an Engine

Science.gov (United States)

Kumarasubramanian, R.; Xavier, Goldwin; Nishanthi, W. Mary; Rajasekar, R.

2017-05-01

Considering the fuel crises today many work and research were conducted to reduce the fuel consumption of the internal combustion engine. The fuel consumption of an internal combustion engine can be relatively reduced by use of the electromagnetic clutch water pump and pneumatic compressor. Normally in an engine, the water pump is driven by the crankshaft, with an aid of belt, for the circulation of the water for the cooling process. The circulation of coolant is resisted by the thermostat valve, while the temperature inside the coolant jacket of the engine is below 375K the thermostat is closed only above 375K it tends to open. But water pump run continuously even when thermostat is closed. In pneumatic braking system, pneumatic or air compressor purpose is to compress the air and stored into the storage tank for the brake operation. When the air pressure of the storage tanks gets increases above its storage capacity pressure is regulated by governor, by passing them to atmosphere. Such unnecessary work of this water pump and air compressor can be minimized by use of the electromagnetic clutch water pump and air compressor. The European Driving Cycle is used to evaluate the performance of this water pump and air compressor when used in an engine. The result shows that the fuel economy of the engine while using electromagnetic water pump and pneumatic compressor were improved by 8.0% compared with conventional types which already exist. The application of these electromagnetic water pump and pneumatic compressor are expected to contribute for the improvement of engine performance because of their effect in reduction of the rate of fuel consumption.

7. Dynamic Stability of Pipe Conveying Fluid with Crack and Attached Masses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ahn, Tae Soo; Yoon, Han Ik; Son, In Soo; Ahn, Sung Jin

2007-01-01

In this paper, the dynamic stability of a cracked simply supported pipe conveying fluid with an attached mass is investigated. Also, the effect of attached masses on the dynamic stability of a simply supported pipe conveying fluid is presented for the different positions and depth of the crack. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the equation of motion can be constructed by the energy expressions using extended Hamilton's principle. The crack section is represented by a local flexibility matrix connecting two undamaged pipe segments. The crack is assumed to be in the first mode of a fracture and to be always opened during the vibrations. Finally, the critical flow velocities and stability maps of the pipe conveying fluid are obtained by changing the attached masses and crack severity

8. Determination dimension and technical specification of the cylindrical pneumatics for the tote movement on multipurpose the gamma irradiator BATAN

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2016-01-01

BATAN develops irradiator gamma category IV in cooperation with IZOTOP (Hungary). Transportation technology products that will be developed uses rail system to pool. Products that will be irradiated are put into tote then placed on the transportation rail, when tote has been in irradiated room tote enters into irradiated rack. The movement of the tote during on irradiated rack will be driven by the pneumatic system. Based on data from Isotop there are 14 cylindrical pneumatics that are in the irradiated room. Through the results analysis then used double acting cylinder type from the Festo pneumatics catalog. Through the results calculation that the force used on all types of cylinders for movement tote still much smaller than of force bent permitted. Beside that there are 4 group a pneumatic have common specifications they are group one cylindrical C1, C3, C12 and C14 they are group two cylindrical C2, C4, C11, and C13 they are group three cylindrical C7, C9, C15 and C17 they are group four cylindrical C10 and C17. (author)

9. Numerical Comparison of Various Methods of Transient Flow Calculation in Water Conveyance Systems with Pumping Station

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alireza Khoshfetrat

2018-05-01

Full Text Available Under transient flow condition, the behavior of water conveyance system varies according to their characteristics. In the present study, the pressure was measured using a fast and sensitive pressure gauge in Bukan and Piranshahr water conveyance system. The pressure simulation was conducted using Bentley Hammer software. The friction head loss was calculated by different methods. The results showed that Unsteady Vitkovsky method had minimum error comparing with other methods. Wave velocity increase had direct effect on maximum pressures while velocity decrease affected minimum pressures. In a shorter water conveyance system, the reduction of wave velocity had direct effect on maximum pressure. Destruction to the long conveyance system was more probable and maximum and minimum pressures occurred during the first period. Shorter conveyance system had more pressure fluctuations and the minimum pressure did not occur in the first period. Coincidence of periods happened at the beginning and continued untill the end of data recording in the longer conveyance system. However, as time passed by, such coincidence did not occure in shorter conveyance system.

10. 7 CFR 1436.16 - Foreclosure, liquidation, assumptions, sales or conveyance, or bankruptcy.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... used to foreclose on the property. (3) For loans with movable collateral and no real estate lien, CCC... convey the collateral or property securing the loan to another eligible borrower, or the borrower is dead... or conveyance, or bankruptcy. (a) The collateral or land securing a loan may be sold by CCC whenever...

11. Oxygen consumption of a pneumatically controlled ventilator in a field anesthesia machine.

Science.gov (United States)

Szpisjak, Dale F; Javernick, Elizabeth N; Kyle, Richard R; Austin, Paul N

2008-12-01

Field anesthesia machines (FAM) have been developed for remote locations where reliable supplies of compressed medical gases or electricity may be absent. In place of electricity, pneumatically controlled ventilators use compressed gas to power timing circuitry and actuate valves. We sought to determine the total O(2) consumption and ventilator gas consumption (drive gas [DG] plus pneumatic control [PC] gas) of a FAM's pneumatically controlled ventilator in mechanical models of high (HC) and low (LC) total thoracic compliance. The amount of total O(2) consumed by the Magellan-2200 (Oceanic Medical Products, Atchison, KS) FAM with pneumatically controlled ventilator was calculated using the ideal gas law and the measured mass of O(2) consumed from E cylinders. DG to the bellows canister assembly was measured with the Wright Respirometer Mk 8 (Ferraris Respiratory Europe, Hertford, UK). PC gas consumption was calculated by subtracting DG and fresh gas flow (FGF) from the total O(2) consumed from the E cylinder. The delivered tidal volume (V(T)) was measured with a pneumotach (Hans Rudolph, KS City, MO). Three different V(T) were tested (500, 750, and 1000 mL) with two lung models (HC and LC) using the Vent Aid Training Test Lung (MI Instruments, Grand Rapids, MI). Respiratory variables included an I:E of 1:2, FGF of 1 L/min, and respiratory rate of 10 breaths/min. Total O(2) consumption was directly proportional to V(T) and inversely proportional to compliance. The smallest total O(2) consumption rate (including FGF) was 9.3 +/- 0.4 L/min in the HC-500 model and the largest was 15.9 +/- 0.5 L/min in the LC-1000 model (P < 0.001). The mean PC circuitry consumption was 3.9 +/- 0.24 L/min or 390 mL +/- 24 mL/breath. To prepare for loss of central DG supply, patient safety will be improved by estimating cylinder duration for low total thoracic compliance. Using data from the smaller compliance and greatest V(T) model (LC-1000), a full O(2) E cylinder would be depleted in

12. Analysis of Poiseuille Flow Property in Two-Dimensional Mi-cro Channels of Microfluidic Pneumatic Micro-Valve

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Shaohua; Long, Wei; Chen, Yajun

2018-03-01

In this paper, the control mechanism and mathematical description of the microfluidic flow in the microfluidic process of the PDMS membrane type pneumatic micro-valve were studied. The velocity and pressure variation law of the velocity field inside micro valve was analyzed by numerical simulation method. The influence of the two kinds of inlet drive modes on the working effect and the pressure flow characteristics of the pneumatic micro-valve was studied. The structure of the elastic solid valve diaphragm under the dual action of the airway and the liquid channel was analyzed. Deformation and stress distribution. The results show that the gas flow in the gas flow channel under the diaphragm by the vacuum part of the role of the formation of a suction gas vortex, pressure-driven mode was easier under the diaphragm to produce a strong gas vortex, resulting in internal and external pressure to promote diaphragm cut-off liquid channel; In the pressure pneumatic mode, the stress at both ends of the diaphragm was smaller, the membrane was not easy to tear failure.

13. High Efficiency Pneumatic Systems Compressors Hydrodynamics and Termodynamics Process Research

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Paulius Bogdevičius

2016-12-01

Full Text Available The paper analyzes pneumatic system, which consists of three piston compressors, pipes and reciever. Designed two cylinder piston compressor with an asynchronous electric motor mathematical model. In the mathematical model has been estimated rod mechanism geometry and kinematic parameters also hudrodynamics and thermodynamic processes going in the cylinders. Also there were made mathematical experiment and presented the results of it.

14. Comparison of contractile and extensile pneumatic artificial muscles

Science.gov (United States)

Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Wereley, Norman M.; Guan, Qinghua

2017-09-01

Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are used in robotic and prosthetic applications due to their high power to weight ratio, controllable compliance, and simple design. Contractile PAMs are typically used in traditional hard robotics in place of heavy electric motors. As the field of soft robotics grows, extensile PAMs are beginning to have increased usage. This work experimentally tests, models, and compares contractile and extensile PAMs to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of PAM and applications for which they are best suited.

15. Micro Tools with Pneumatic Actuators for Desktop Factories

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Björn HOXHOLD

2009-10-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the design, the simulation and the fabrication process of two novel pneumatically driven auxiliary micro tools that can be used to improve and to speed up assembling processes in desktop factories. The described micro systems are designed to function as centrifugal feeders for small glass balls or active clamping devices with small external dimensions. They are able to deliver more than six balls per second on demand to a gripper and align and clamp single chips in a fixed position.

16. FLEXOWELL conveyor technology

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paelke, J.W.; Wilsher, M.

1987-04-01

The vertical conveying method based on the FLEXOWELL technology is introduced, which lends itself to vertical and steep inclined conveying in the mining industry. Applications for FLEXOLIFT systems are covered together with a feasibility study into vertical shaft conveying. 12 refs.

17. Empirical modeling of dynamic behaviors of pneumatic artificial muscle actuators.

Science.gov (United States)

Wickramatunge, Kanchana Crishan; Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

2013-11-01

Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuators yield muscle-like mechanical actuation with high force to weight ratio, soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled as well as humanoid robots or machines. The present study is to develop empirical models of the PAM actuators, that is, a PAM coupled with pneumatic control valves, in order to describe their dynamic behaviors for practical control design and usage. Empirical modeling is an efficient approach to computer-based modeling with observations of real behaviors. Different characteristics of dynamic behaviors of each PAM actuator are due not only to the structures of the PAM actuators themselves, but also to the variations of their material properties in manufacturing processes. To overcome the difficulties, the proposed empirical models are experimentally derived from real physical behaviors of the PAM actuators, which are being implemented. In case studies, the simulated results with good agreement to experimental results, show that the proposed methodology can be applied to describe the dynamic behaviors of the real PAM actuators. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Subsoil compaction of a Vertic Cambisol persists three decades after wheel traffic

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

Compaction of the subsoil can only be alleviated by natural processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of compaction on the pore system at 0.35 m depth of a heavy clay soil naturally subjected to drying and wetting, and to freezing and thawing, and biological...... activity in Finland. The compaction treatment was inflicted 29 years prior to investigation and included four passes with a tractor-trailer combination with wheel loads up to 4.8 Mg and inflation pressures of 700 kPa. Gas diffusion and air permeability measurements were combined with pycnometer...... characteristics was expected to enhance the ability to deduce how the soil pore system was affected. This included advective air flow measurements at a range of pneumatic pressure drops. Compaction at 0.35 m depth was persistent 29 years after the compaction event. Compaction diminished the diameter of vertical...

19. Energy-efficient automation in construction chemistry; Energieeffiziente Automatisierung in der Bauchemie

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sonntag, Walter [AZO GmbH und Co. KG, Osterburken (Germany). Dept. Marketing/Documentation

2010-07-01

At their development center ARDEX continuously research and work on new ideas and innovative product systems, within the framework of precisely controlled research processes. With a new plant from the AZO GmbH + Co. KG, the continuous improvement and optimization of the products as well as the manufacture of newly developed products should be made possible in Witten. A high degree of automation and metering of small quantities as accurately as possible were only a few of the requirements for plant technology to achieve the long-term goals of ARDEX. After a detailed project study, ARDEX decided in favour of a vertical tower concept according to which the raw materials are pneumatically conveyed to the top and then proportioned and weighed in free fall and fed to the mixing process and the following filling processes. (orig.)

20. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Niederer, P.; Brune, C.; Redmann, K.; Smerup, M.; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F.; Maintz, D.; Cologne Univ.; Anderson, R.H.

2016-01-01

There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

1. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Lunkenheimer, P. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Thoraco-vascular Surgery; Niederer, P. [ETH and University of Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; Brune, C. [Twente Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Redmann, K. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology; Smerup, M. [Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. Surgical Research; Maintz, D. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Anderson, R.H. [Newcastle Univ., London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Genetic Medicine

2016-11-15

There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

2. Comparison of pneumatic and laser lithotripsy in the treatment of pediatric ureteral stones.

Science.gov (United States)

Atar, Murat; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Penbegul, Necmettin; Soylemez, Haluk; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Namik Kemal; Cakmakci, Suleyman

2013-06-01

To compare the effectiveness and safety of pneumatic and holmium:YAG laser lithotripters in the treatment of pediatric ureterolithiasis. Medical records of patients treated using pneumatic (PL) (n = 29) or laser (LL) (n = 35) lithotripter between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were evaluated with respect to age, gender, stone size, complications, and stone-free rates 1 month after the operation. For the PL and LL groups, mean ages (8.8 ± 3.4 and 8.3 ± 3.5 years), male/female ratios (19:10 and 22:13) and stone locations were similar (p > 0.05). Mean stone sizes were 55.6 mm2 and 47.6 mm2 in the PL and LL group, respectively, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.850). Mean operative times were 20.5 min in the PL group and 25.2 min in the LL group, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.020). Stone-free rates 1 month after intervention were 79% in the PL group and 97% in the LL group (p = 0.022). Stone migration was detected in the PL group (n = 6) and in the LL group (n = 1). No major complication was found in either group. In the ureteroscopic treatment of pediatric ureterolithiasis, both pneumatic and laser lithotripters are effective and successful. However, laser lithotripsy has a higher stone-free rate and lower complication rate. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Rehabilitation Equipment of the Upper Limb Joints

Science.gov (United States)

Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.

2017-06-01

Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.

4. Measurement of Static Characteristics Pneumatic Motors with Elastic Working Elements

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kamil FOJTÁŠEK

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Into a category of pneumatic motors with elastic working parts belong air bellows, diaphragm motors and fluid muscles. All three types of these motors have some elastic part usually made of rubber. This part is deformed under the pressure of a compressed air or a mass load resulting in a final working effect. This paper deals with measuring of static characteristics of these motors.

5. Enhanced Dynamic Model of Pneumatic Muscle Actuator with Elman Neural Network

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alexander Hošovský

2015-01-01

Full Text Available To make effective use of model-based control system design techniques, one needs a good model which captures system’s dynamic properties in the range of interest. Here an analytical model of pneumatic muscle actuator with two pneumatic artificial muscles driving a rotational joint is developed. Use of analytical model makes it possible to retain the physical interpretation of the model and the model is validated using open-loop responses. Since it was considered important to design a robust controller based on this model, the effect of changed moment of inertia (as a representation of uncertain parameter was taken into account and compared with nominal case. To improve the accuracy of the model, these effects are treated as a disturbance modeled using the recurrent (Elman neural network. Recurrent neural network was preferred over feedforward type due to its better long-term prediction capabilities well suited for simulation use of the model. The results confirm that this method improves the model performance (tested for five of the measured variables: joint angle, muscle pressures, and muscle forces while retaining its physical interpretation.

6. Pneumatic artificial muscles for trailing edge flap actuation: a feasibility study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Woods, Benjamin K S; Wereley, Norman M; Kothera, Curt S; Sirohi, Jayant

2011-01-01

In this study a novel aircraft trailing edge flap actuation system was developed and tested. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) were used as the driving elements of this system to demonstrate their feasibility and utility as an alternative aerospace actuation technology. A prototype flap/actuator system was integrated into a model wing section and tested on the bench-top under simulated airloads for flight at 100 m s −1 (M = 0.3) and in an open-jet wind tunnel at free stream velocities ranging up to 45 m s −1 (M = 0.13). Testing was performed for actuator pressures ranging from 0.069 to 0.62 MPa (10–90 psi) and actuation frequencies from 0.1 to 31 Hz. Results show that the PAM-driven trailing edge flap system can generate substantial and sustainable dynamic deflections, thereby proving the feasibility of using pneumatic artificial muscle actuators in a trailing edge flap system. Key issues limiting system performance are identified, that should be resolved in future research

7. Static Modeling for Commercial Braided Pneumatic Muscle Actuators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jun Zhong

2014-05-01

Full Text Available An enhanced model is proposed to describe static property of commercial braided pneumatic muscle actuators by including several important influencing factors. Elasticity of elastomer tube is considered and Ogden strain energy function is employed to describe its strain energy density. During pressurized process, small deformation of fiber occurs and is calculated using force balancing principle. Frictional forces within muscles are studied, which consist of friction within braid and that between bladder and braid. Isobaric experiments are performed and results verify the validity of the model.

8. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Robert J. Englar

2000-01-01

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model

9. Centrifugo-pneumatic multi-liquid aliquoting - parallel aliquoting and combination of multiple liquids in centrifugal microfluidics.

Science.gov (United States)

Schwemmer, F; Hutzenlaub, T; Buselmeier, D; Paust, N; von Stetten, F; Mark, D; Zengerle, R; Kosse, D

2015-08-07

The generation of mixtures with precisely metered volumes is essential for reproducible automation of laboratory workflows. Splitting a given liquid into well-defined metered sub-volumes, the so-called aliquoting, has been frequently demonstrated on centrifugal microfluidics. However, so far no solution exists for assays that require simultaneous aliquoting of multiple, different liquids and the subsequent pairwise combination of aliquots with full fluidic separation before combination. Here, we introduce the centrifugo-pneumatic multi-liquid aliquoting designed for parallel aliquoting and pairwise combination of multiple liquids. All pumping and aliquoting steps are based on a combination of centrifugal forces and pneumatic forces. The pneumatic forces are thereby provided intrinsically by centrifugal transport of the assay liquids into dead end chambers to compress the enclosed air. As an example, we demonstrate simultaneous aliquoting of 1.) a common assay reagent into twenty 5 μl aliquots and 2.) five different sample liquids, each into four aliquots of 5 μl. Subsequently, the reagent and sample aliquots are simultaneously transported and combined into twenty collection chambers. All coefficients of variation for metered volumes were between 0.4%-1.0% for intra-run variations and 0.5%-1.2% for inter-run variations. The aliquoting structure is compatible to common assay reagents with a wide range of liquid and material properties, demonstrated here for contact angles between 20° and 60°, densities between 789 and 1855 kg m(-3) and viscosities between 0.89 and 4.1 mPa s. The centrifugo-pneumatic multi-liquid aliquoting is implemented as a passive fluidic structure into a single fluidic layer. Fabrication is compatible to scalable fabrication technologies such as injection molding or thermoforming and does not require any additional fabrication steps such as hydrophilic or hydrophobic coatings or integration of active valves.

10. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Robert J. Englar

2000-06-19

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

11. Design of a pneumatically powered wearable exoskeleton with biomimetic support and actuation

Science.gov (United States)

Sergeyev, A.; Alaraje, N.; Seidel, C.; Carlson, Z.; Breda, B.

Powered exoskeletons are designed to assist and protect the wearer. Depending on the situation they may be used to protect soldiers and construction workers, aid the survival of people in dangerous environments, or assist patients in rehabilitation. Regardless of the application there are strict requirements for designing and producing exoskeleton suites. They must be durable but light weight and flexible, have reliable power control and modulation, capable of detecting unsafe and invalid motions, and may require significant weight lifting capabilities. In this article we present an on-going research on robotic exoskeleton replicating of human muscle functions. A single wearable knee-joint prototype described in this article combines the use of soft pneumatic muscle-like actuators and a control system based off the users own natural muscle signals. The Pneumatic Exoskeleton uses bioelectrical signals to detect movement intention from the pilot. This paper details the technical design aspects of a lower-limb robotic exoskeleton with possibility of further expansion to fully functioning robotic exoskeleton suit.

12. The relation between mastoid pneumatization and sigmoid sinus position in chronic otomastoiditis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang, Kee Hyuk; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Joo, Kyung Bin

2001-01-01

If significantly influenced by chronic otomastoiditis(COM), mastoid pneumatization and the position of the sigmoid sinus affect the operative procedure and postoperative complications in middle ear surgery. We evaluated mastoid pneumatization and sigmoid sinus position, and their relationship in COM, especially its during onset. Using temporal bone CT and referring to any relevant medical records, we retrospectively analyzed 107 cases of COM and 49 cases of normal ear. The total case load comprised an adult group, aged above 16 years [100 cases of COM (M:F=46:54, mean age = 45 years), and 42 cases of normal ear, (M:F=20:22, mean age = 44 years)], and a childhood group, aged less than 16 years [7 cases of COM (M:F=4:3, mean age = 8.4 years), and 7 cases of normal ear (M:F=4:3, mean age = 7 years)]. We determined the thickness of the mastoid bone by measuring the shortest distance between the outer cortex of this bone and the deepest border of the sigmoid sinus; the depth of the sigmoid sinus; and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and sclerosis. Fifty-three patients whose medical history clearly included the onset of otomastoiditis were divided into a child-onset group and an adult-onset group, and the relationship between the onset of otomastoiditis and the thickness of the mastoid bone was compared between the two groups. The mean axial thickness of the mastoid bone was 9.672±2.745 mm in COM and 12.430±3.027 mm in normal ear. The difference was statisfically significant (ρ < 0.0001). The mean depth of the sigmoid sinus was 7.557±1.868 mm in COM and 7.591±2.315 mm in normal ear, with no statistically significant difference. In the childhood group, the mean axial thickness of the mastoid bone was 8.672±2.978 mm in COM and 11.778±3.087 mm in normal ear. This difference was statistically significant (ρ < 0.05). In the adult group, the corresponding figures were 9.742±2.731 mm in COM and 12.538±3.041 mm in normal ear, a difference which was also

13. Fueling of magnetically confined plasmas by single- and two-stage repeating pneumatic pellet injectors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

1990-01-01

Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic fusion confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogenic pellets to speeds in the kilometer-per-second range using single shot and repetitive pneumatic (light-gas gun) pellet injectors. The millimeter-to-centimeter size pellets enter the plasma and continuously ablate because of the plasma electron heat flux, depositing fuel atoms along the pellet trajectory. This fueling method allows direct fueling in the interior of the hot plasma and is more efficient than the alternative method of injecting room temperature fuel gas at the wall of the plasma vacuum chamber. Single-stage pneumatic injectors based on the light-gas gun concept have provided hydrogenic fuel pellets in the speed range of 1--2 km/s in single-shot injector designs. Repetition rates up to 5 Hz have been demonstrated in repetitive injector designs. Future fusion reactor-scale devices may need higher pellet velocities because of the larger plasma size and higher plasma temperatures. Repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are under development at ORNL to provide long-pulse plasma fueling in the 3--5 km/s speed range. Recently, a repeating, two-stage light-gas gun achieved repetitive operation at 1 Hz with speeds in the range of 2--3 km/s

14. Pneumatic Muscles Actuated Lower-Limb Orthosis Model Verification with Actual Human Muscle Activation Patterns

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dzahir M.A.M

2017-01-01

Full Text Available A review study was conducted on existing lower-limb orthosis systems for rehabilitation which implemented pneumatic muscle type of actuators with the aim to clarify the current and on-going research in this field. The implementation of pneumatic artificial muscle will play an important role for the development of the advanced robotic system. In this research a derivation model for the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles using pneumatic artificial muscles of a lower limb orthosis will be verified with actual human’s muscle activities models. A healthy and young male 29 years old subject with height 174cm and weight 68kg was used as a test subject. Two mono-articular muscles Vastus Medialis (VM and Vastus Lateralis (VL were selected to verify the mono-articular muscle models and muscle synergy between anterior muscles. Two biarticular muscles Rectus Femoris (RF and Bicep Femoris (BF were selected to verify the bi-articular muscle models and muscle co-contraction between anterior-posterior muscles. The test was carried out on a treadmill with a speed of 4.0 km/h, which approximately around 1.25 m/s for completing one cycle of walking motion. The data was collected for about one minute on a treadmill and 20 complete cycles of walking motion were successfully recorded. For the evaluations, the mathematical model obtained from the derivation and the actual human muscle activation patterns obtained using the surface electromyography (sEMG system were compared and analysed. The results shown that, high correlation values ranging from 0.83 up to 0.93 were obtained in between the derivation model and the actual human muscle’s model for both mono- and biarticular muscles. As a conclusion, based on the verification with the sEMG muscle activities data and its correlation values, the proposed derivation models of the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles were suitable to simulate and controls the pneumatic muscles actuated lower limb

15. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.3) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

2008-04-15

A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.3) involving a manual system and an semi-automatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor and NAA laboratory of RI building in 2006. In this technical report, the design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.3) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured from a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

16. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.1) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

2008-03-15

A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS no.1) involving a manual system and an semiautomatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.1) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

17. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

2012-11-01

The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

18. Vibration and stability behaviour of pipes conveying fluid

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Becker, O.

1980-01-01

Modelling, solution methods, and results related to the hydroelastic system 'pipe conveying fluid' are discussed. In particular, the vibration and stability conditions for a straightline and a curved pipe are reviewed considering constant and pulsating flow characteristics. Problems still unsolved are pointed out. (author)

19. Conveying technology to new heights

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

2010-07-15

In the quest for greater performance and efficiency, operators are increasingly looking for more sophisticated conveying solutions. ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) now manufactures pipe conveyors, joining the established firm Sicon. ContiTech is developing new rubber compositions to reduce rolling resistance in its conveyor systems. ContiClean A-H is a new anti-stick conveyor belt. Kinder & Co. investigated materials to replace the conventional rubber seal. Polyurethane was found to have the best coefficient of friction. A K-Kryptane polyethylene belt skinting has been fitted on a quay conveyor to a ship loader and has reduced wear considerably. 2 photos.

20. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung

2016-01-01

The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator

1. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung [SOOSAN INDUSTRIES, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2016-10-15

The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator.

2. Control performance of pneumatic artificial muscle

Science.gov (United States)

Saga, Norihiko; Chonan, Seiji

2007-01-01

The robot in the future will be lightened and, in addition, the complex tasks will be done by the consumption of less energy. To achieve this, the development of an artificial muscle actuator which is as soft as a human-being becomes indispensable. At present, the artificial muscle actuator used is the McKibben type, but the heat and mechanical loss of this actuator are large because of the friction caused by the expansion and contraction of the sleeve. Therefore, we developed the artificial muscle tube where the Carbon fiber of the high intensity had been built into the silicon tube. In this report, the results of the examined the mechanical property of silicone rubber is reported, and the shrinking characteristics, response characteristics, and control performance as a pneumatic actuator are reported.

3. Equipment for testing the indications accuracy of speedometers and altimeters existing on board aircraft and the tightness of the related pneumatic paths

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Constantin PETRE

2011-03-01

Full Text Available The equipment is intended to testing the tightness of the catchment pneumatic system (Pitot tube, the transmission (pneumatic paths and the total and static air pressures processing (aircrafttype instruments in order to establish the main flight parameters and checking the correctness of the operation of related aircraft instruments: the altimeter and the speedometer.

4. Model-Based Evolution of a Fast Hybrid Fuzzy Adaptive Controller for a Pneumatic Muscle Actuator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alexander Hošovský

2012-07-01

Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscle-based robotic systems usually necessitate the use of various nonlinear control techniques in order to improve their performance. Their robustness to parameter variation, which is generally difficult to predict, should also be tested. Here a fast hybrid adaptive control is proposed, where a conventional PD controller is placed into the feedforward branch and a fuzzy controller is placed into the adaptation branch. The fuzzy controller compensates for the actions of the PD controller under conditions of inertia moment variation. The fuzzy controller of Takagi-Sugeno type is evolved through a genetic algorithm using the dynamic model of a pneumatic muscle actuator. The results confirm the capability of the designed system to provide robust performance under the conditions of varying inertia.

5. Avaliação técnica de um transportador pneumático de grãos por aspiração Technical evaluation of a suction pneumatic grain conveyor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Luís Antônio Bortolaia

2008-04-01

Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da avaliação técnica do protótipo do transportador pneumático de grãos por aspiração ASP 200. O equipamento foi construído para uso em instalações armazenadoras agrícolas, na limpeza de pés de elevadores, moegas e renovação do ar em galerias de silos. Os testes avaliaram características mecânicas do equipamento, descargas de material e ar, perdas de carga, vedação do equipamento, eficiência dos captores e o diâmetro das mangueiras. Os resultados subsidiaram diversas recomendações para melhoria no projeto do equipamento, que aumentarão a sua eficiência operacional. Embora o transporte pneumático seja considerado uma ciência experimental, os autores notaram a falta de procedimentos, parâmetros e orientações para testes e comparações na literatura, que são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento do projeto desses transportadores.This research shows the results that were obtained from technical evaluation of ASP 200 prototype that is a suction pneumatic grain conveyor. This equipment was built to use in agricultural storage facilities to clean bucket elevator feet, loading hoppers and air renovation in silo galleries. The tests have evaluated mechanical characteristics of conveyor, air and material discharges, pressure losses, air infiltration, intake nozzle efficiency and piping diameters. The results have allowed several recommendations to improve equipment design that will increase its operational efficiency. Although pneumatic conveying is considered an experimental science, the authors have perceived the lack of procedures, parameters and orientations to conduct tests and comparisons in literature, that are fundamental to develop a design of this conveyor type.

6. Use of imagery and text that could convey reduced harm in American Spirit advertisements.

Science.gov (United States)

Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Pierce, John P; Weiger, Caitlin; Cunningham, Mary C; Sargent, James D

2017-03-01

In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued warning letters to three tobacco companies regarding use of the terms 'natural' and/or 'additive-free' to describe their products, as these terms inaccurately convey reduced harm. Yet, tobacco companies engage in a variety of alternate techniques to attempt to convey the same 'natural' (and thus reduced harm) message. It is critical to monitor these practices to inform regulatory action. To describe the marketing techniques used in Natural American Spirit (American Spirit) ads that could convey a natural and less harmful product image. Trained coders content analysed 142 American Spirit ads from 2012 to 2016. In addition to use of the terms 'natural' and 'additive-free', American Spirit ads engage in a variety of other linguistic and iconic techniques that could convey reduced harm, such as references to small, local or organic farming, eco-friendly practices, and plant, farming and other nature-related imagery. American Spirit ads use a wide range of marketing techniques to convey a natural product image, which could subsequently communicate reduced harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

7. Conveying Movement in Music and Prosody

Science.gov (United States)

Hedger, Stephen C.; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Hoeckner, Berthold

2013-01-01

We investigated whether acoustic variation of musical properties can analogically convey descriptive information about an object. Specifically, we tested whether information from the temporal structure in music interacts with perception of a visual image to form an analog perceptual representation as a natural part of music perception. In Experiment 1, listeners heard music with an accelerating or decelerating temporal pattern, and then saw a picture of a still or moving object and decided whether it was animate or inanimate – a task unrelated to the patterning of the music. Object classification was faster when musical motion matched visually depicted motion. In Experiment 2, participants heard spoken sentences that were accompanied by accelerating or decelerating music, and then were presented with a picture of a still or moving object. When motion information in the music matched motion information in the picture, participants were similarly faster to respond. Fast and slow temporal patterns without acceleration and deceleration, however, did not make participants faster when they saw a picture depicting congruent motion information (Experiment 3), suggesting that understanding temporal structure information in music may depend on specific metaphors about motion in music. Taken together, these results suggest that visuo-spatial referential information can be analogically conveyed and represented by music and can be integrated with speech or influence the understanding of speech. PMID:24146920

8. Conveying movement in music and prosody.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Stephen C Hedger

Full Text Available We investigated whether acoustic variation of musical properties can analogically convey descriptive information about an object. Specifically, we tested whether information from the temporal structure in music interacts with perception of a visual image to form an analog perceptual representation as a natural part of music perception. In Experiment 1, listeners heard music with an accelerating or decelerating temporal pattern, and then saw a picture of a still or moving object and decided whether it was animate or inanimate--a task unrelated to the patterning of the music. Object classification was faster when musical motion matched visually depicted motion. In Experiment 2, participants heard spoken sentences that were accompanied by accelerating or decelerating music, and then were presented with a picture of a still or moving object. When motion information in the music matched motion information in the picture, participants were similarly faster to respond. Fast and slow temporal patterns without acceleration and deceleration, however, did not make participants faster when they saw a picture depicting congruent motion information (Experiment 3, suggesting that understanding temporal structure information in music may depend on specific metaphors about motion in music. Taken together, these results suggest that visuo-spatial referential information can be analogically conveyed and represented by music and can be integrated with speech or influence the understanding of speech.

9. The classification of frontal sinus pneumatization patterns by CT-based volumetry.

Science.gov (United States)

Yüksel Aslier, Nesibe Gül; Karabay, Nuri; Zeybek, Gülşah; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Kiray, Amaç; Sütay, Semih; Ecevit, Mustafa Cenk

2016-10-01

We aimed to define the classification of frontal sinus pneumatization patterns according to three-dimensional volume measurements. Datasets of 148 sides of 74 dry skulls were generated by the computerized tomography-based volumetry to measure frontal sinus volumes. The cutoff points for frontal sinus hypoplasia and hyperplasia were tested by ROC curve analysis and the validity of the diagnostic points was measured. The overall frequencies were 4.1, 14.2, 37.2 and 44.5 % for frontal sinus aplasia, hypoplasia, medium size and hyperplasia, respectively. The aplasia was bilateral in all three skulls. Hypoplasia was seen 76 % at the right side and hyperplasia was seen 56 % at the left side. The cutoff points for diagnosing frontal sinus hypoplasia and hyperplasia were '1131.25 mm(3)' (95.2 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity) and '3328.50 mm(3)' (88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity), respectively. The findings provided in the present study, which define frontal sinus pneumatization patterns by CT-based volumetry, proved that two opposite sides of the frontal sinuses are asymmetric and three-dimensional classification should be developed by CT-based volumetry, because two-dimensional evaluations lack depth measurement.

10. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Renyuan Wu

Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

11. Conveyance estimation in channels with emergent bank vegetation ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Emergent vegetation along the banks of a river channel influences its conveyance considerably. The total channel discharge can be estimated as the sum of the discharges of the vegetated and clear channel zones calculated separately. The vegetated zone discharge is often negligible, but can be estimated using ...

12. The experimental development and performance test of the pneumatic control-rod drive for the THTR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lange, G.; Boehlo, D.; Heim, H.; Kleine-Tebbe, A.

1976-01-01

Reactor control and shutdown of the THTR is accomplished by two independent systems, the first consisting of 36 absorber rods penetrating the graphite reflector region surrounding the core, the second consisting of 42 absorber rods that insert directly into the pebble bed core. This paper describes the design development and testing of the pneumatic rod drives used for movement of the 42 core control rods. The core control rods have two functions: the first, for reactor safety purposes, provides for adequate safe shutdown of the reactor under cold conditions; the second, for operational purposes, provides for compensation of slow changes in reactivity. The safety and operational functions for each absorber rod are respectively carried out by a long-stroke-piston pneumatic drive and by a stepping-piston pneumatic drive, both of these independent, helium-driven drives being incorporated in the rod drive unit for each control rod. To study the performance of the rod drive, a complete prototype control rod and rod drive unit was built and tested under simulated reactor operational conditions. Operational experience under helium temperatures and pressures was gained and the drives were tested under stress and simulated accident conditions. The reliability of this system has been demonstrated to licensing authorities and to the customer. The programme will be completed with the commissioning tests of drives for the THTR-300 reactor. (author)

13. Influences of inflation rate and duration on vasodilatory effect by intermittent pneumatic compression in distant skeletal muscle.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, K; Chen, L E; Seaber, A V; Urbaniak, J R

1999-05-01

Previous study has demonstrated that application of intermittent pneumatic compression on legs can cause vasodilation in distant skeletal muscle at the microcirculation level. This study evaluated the influence of inflation rate and peak-pressure duration on the vasodilatory effects of intermittent pneumatic compression. The cremaster muscles of 50 male rats were exposed and divided into five groups of 10 each. A specially designed intermittent pneumatic-compression device was applied in a medial-lateral fashion to both legs of all rats for 60 minutes, with an inflation rate and peak-pressure duration of 0.5 and 5 seconds, respectively, in group A, 5 and 0 seconds in group B, 5 and 5 seconds in group C, 10 and 0 seconds in group D, and 10 and 5 seconds in group E. Diameters of arterial segments were measured in vessels of three size categories (10-20, 21-40, and 41-70 microm) for 120 minutes. The results showed that the greatest increase in diameter was produced by intermittent pneumatic compression with the shortest inflation rate (0.5 seconds). A moderate increase resulted from compression with an inflation rate of 5 seconds, and no effective vasodilation occurred during compression with the longest inflation rate (10 seconds). When the groups with different inflation rates but the same peak-pressure duration were compared, there was a significant difference between any two groups among groups A, C, and E and between groups B and D. When the groups with different peak-pressure durations but the same inflation rate were compared, compression with a peak-pressure duration of 5 seconds caused a generally similar degree of diameter change as did compression without inflation at peak pressure. The findings suggest that inflation rate plays an important role in the modulation of distant microcirculation induced by intermittent pneumatic compression whereas peak-pressure duration does not significantly influence the vasodilatory effects of the compression. This may be

14. A novel form of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in a sauropod dinosaur: Implications for the paleobiology of Rebbachisauridae

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lucio M. Ibiricu

2017-06-01

Full Text Available In dinosaurs and other archosaurs, the presence of foramina connected with internal chambers in axial and appendicular bones is regarded as a robust indicator of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. Here we analyze PSP and its paleobiological implications in rebbachisaurid diplodocoid sauropod dinosaurs based primarily on the dorsal vertebrae of Katepensaurus goicoecheai, a rebbachisaurid from the Cenomanian–Turonian (Upper Cretaceous Bajo Barreal Formation of Patagonia, Argentina. We document a complex of interconnected pneumatic foramina and internal chambers within the dorsal vertebral transverse processes of Katepensaurus. Collectively, these structures constitute a form of PSP that has not previously been observed in sauropods, though it is closely comparable to morphologies seen in selected birds and non-avian theropods. Parts of the skeletons of Katepensaurus and other rebbachisaurid taxa such as Amazonsaurus maranhensis and Tataouinea hannibalis exhibit an elevated degree of pneumaticity relative to the conditions in many other sauropods. We interpret this extensive PSP as an adaptation for lowering the density of the skeleton, and tentatively propose that this reduced skeletal density may also have decreased the muscle energy required to move the body and the heat generated in so doing. Given that several rebbachisaurids inhabited tropical to subtropical paleolatitudes during the extreme warmth of the mid-Cretaceous, increased PSP may have better enabled these sauropods to cope with extraordinarily high temperatures. Extensive skeletal pneumaticity may have been an important innovation in Rebbachisauridae, and perhaps also in saltasaurine titanosaurs, which evolved an even greater degree of PSP. This may in turn have contributed to the evolutionary success of rebbachisaurids, which were the only diplodocoids to survive into the Late Cretaceous.

15. Natural frequency analysis of fluid conveying pipeline with different boundary conditions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Huang Yimin; Liu Yongshou; Li Baohui; Li Yanjiang; Yue Zhufeng

2010-01-01

In this study, the natural frequency of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline conveying fluid is investigated by eliminated element-Galerkin method, and the natural frequency equations with different boundary conditions are obtained. Furthermore, the expressions of first natural frequency are simplified in the case of different boundary conditions. Taking into account the Coriolis force, as an example, the natural frequency of a straight pipe simply supported at both ends is studied. In a given boundary condition, the four components (mass, stiffness, length and flow velocity) which relate to the natural frequency of pipeline conveying fluid are studied in detail and the results indicate that the effect of Coriolis force on natural frequency is inappreciable. Then the relationship between natural frequency of the pipeline conveying fluid and that of Euler beam is analyzed. Finally, a dimensionless flow velocity and limit values are presented, and they can be used to estimate the effect of the flow velocity on natural frequency. All the conclusions are well suited to nuclear plant and other industry fields.

16. Speed tracking control of pneumatic motor servo systems using observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Syuan-Yi; Gong, Sheng-Sian

2017-09-01

This study aims to develop an adaptive high-precision control system for controlling the speed of a vane-type air motor (VAM) pneumatic servo system. In practice, the rotor speed of a VAM depends on the input mass air flow, which can be controlled by the effective orifice area (EOA) of an electronic throttle valve (ETV). As the control variable of a second-order pneumatic system is the integral of the EOA, an observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control (ADSMC) system is proposed to derive the differential of the control variable, namely, the EOA control signal. In the ADSMC system, a proportional-integral-derivative fuzzy neural network (PIDFNN) observer is used to achieve an ideal dynamic sliding-mode control (DSMC), and a supervisor compensator is designed to eliminate the approximation error. As a result, the ADSMC incorporates the robustness of a DSMC and the online learning ability of a PIDFNN. To ensure the convergence of the tracking error, a Lyapunov-based analytical method is employed to obtain the adaptive algorithms required to tune the control parameters of the online ADSMC system. Finally, our experimental results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the ADSMC system for highly nonlinear and time-varying VAM pneumatic servo systems.

17. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.2) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

2008-03-15

A pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.2) involving a manual system and an automatic system for delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of PTS no.2 was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, automatic operation control by personal computer, delayed neutron counting system, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

18. 7 CFR 766.354 - Voluntary conveyance of chattel.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... following: (1) An Agency application form; (2) A current financial statement. If the borrower is an entity, all entity members must provide current financial statements; (3) Information on present and future... subpart B of 7 CFR part 1956 before or in conjunction with the voluntary conveyance offer if the value of...

19. Design of a micro-robot with an electro-pneumatic servo-actuator for the intra-pipe inspection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthierens, C.

1999-12-01

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are integrated in many current products and are not only the concern of military defence or medicine. Nowadays micro actuators are diversified by using different kind of energy, and creating different motions. Several applications require small systems to inspect confined and hostile places. Vapour generators in nuclear plants are composed with 3000 to 5000 vertical pipes of 17 mm diameter. These pipes endure high mechanical constraints and have to be inspected to detect eventual cracks. Our study is based on the design, modelling and implementation of a micro-robot enable to move up and carry sensors in these pipes. It moves as an inchworm and then is composed by 2 blocking modules that brace the robot on the pipe sides, and one stretching module that creates a step. This actuator is pneumatic and composed by metal bellows. By this original design, the micro-robot have a good power to volume ratio and thus it can carry a load higher than 1 kg. Its good positioning accuracy is proved with a 90 mm course where the error of positioning is less than 60μm. A PID control law is used to control the robot but state feed back control law is planed. (author)

20. Transverse vibration of pipe conveying fluid made of functionally graded materials using a symplectic method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wang, Zhong-Min, E-mail: wangzhongm@xaut.edu.cn; Liu, Yan-Zhuang

2016-03-15

Highlights: • We investigate the transverse vibration of FGM pipe conveying fluid. • The FGM pipe conveying fluid can be classified into two cases. • The variations between the frequency and the power law exponent are obtained. • “Case 1” is relatively more reasonable than “case 2”. - Abstract: Problems related to the transverse vibration of pipe conveying fluid made of functionally graded material (FGM) are addressed. Based on inside and outside surface material compositions of the pipe, FGM pipe conveying fluid can be classified into two cases. It is hypothesized that the physical parameters of the material along the direction of the pipe wall thickness change in the simple power law. A differential equation of motion expressed in non-dimensional quantities is derived by using Hamilton's principle for systems of changing mass. Using the assuming modal method, the pipe deflection function is expanded into a series, in which each term is expressed to admissible function multiplied by generalized coordinate. Then, the differential equation of motion is discretized into the two order differential equations expressed in the generalized coordinates. Based on symplectic elastic theory and the introduction of dual system and dual variable, Hamilton's dual equations are derived, and the original problem is reduced to eigenvalue and eigenvector problem in the symplectic space. Finally, a symplectic method is employed to analyze the vibration and stability of FGM pipe conveying fluid. For a clamped–clamped FGM pipe conveying fluid in “case 1” and “case 2”, the dimensionless critical flow velocity for first-mode divergence and the critical coupled-mode flutter flow velocity are obtained, and the variations between the real part and imaginary part of dimensionless complex frequency and fluid velocity, mass ratio and the power law exponent (or graded index, volume fraction) for FGM pipe conveying fluid are analyzed.

1. Transverse vibration of pipe conveying fluid made of functionally graded materials using a symplectic method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang, Zhong-Min; Liu, Yan-Zhuang

2016-01-01

Highlights: • We investigate the transverse vibration of FGM pipe conveying fluid. • The FGM pipe conveying fluid can be classified into two cases. • The variations between the frequency and the power law exponent are obtained. • “Case 1” is relatively more reasonable than “case 2”. - Abstract: Problems related to the transverse vibration of pipe conveying fluid made of functionally graded material (FGM) are addressed. Based on inside and outside surface material compositions of the pipe, FGM pipe conveying fluid can be classified into two cases. It is hypothesized that the physical parameters of the material along the direction of the pipe wall thickness change in the simple power law. A differential equation of motion expressed in non-dimensional quantities is derived by using Hamilton's principle for systems of changing mass. Using the assuming modal method, the pipe deflection function is expanded into a series, in which each term is expressed to admissible function multiplied by generalized coordinate. Then, the differential equation of motion is discretized into the two order differential equations expressed in the generalized coordinates. Based on symplectic elastic theory and the introduction of dual system and dual variable, Hamilton's dual equations are derived, and the original problem is reduced to eigenvalue and eigenvector problem in the symplectic space. Finally, a symplectic method is employed to analyze the vibration and stability of FGM pipe conveying fluid. For a clamped–clamped FGM pipe conveying fluid in “case 1” and “case 2”, the dimensionless critical flow velocity for first-mode divergence and the critical coupled-mode flutter flow velocity are obtained, and the variations between the real part and imaginary part of dimensionless complex frequency and fluid velocity, mass ratio and the power law exponent (or graded index, volume fraction) for FGM pipe conveying fluid are analyzed.

2. On the estimation method of compressed air consumption during pneumatic caisson sinking

OpenAIRE

平川, 修治; ヒラカワ, シュウジ; Shuji, HIRAKAWA

1990-01-01

There are several methods in estimation of compressed air consumption during pneumatic caisson sinking. It is re uired in the estimation of compressed air consumption by the methods under the same conditions. In this paper, it is proposed the methods which is able to estimate accurately the compressed air consumption during pnbumatic caissons sinking at this moment.

3. Pneumatic rupture of the esophagus caused by carbonated drinks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meyerovitch, J.; Barzilay, Z.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Ben Ami, T.; Rozenman, J.; Tel Aviv Univ.

1988-01-01

Pneumatic rupture of the esophagus occurs when gas under pressure is accidentally delivered into the oral cavity. To the 4 cases previously described we add 2 pediatric patients and in both the source of the offending gas was a bottle of carbonated drink. The mild initial symptoms were followed in both by physical and radiographic findings suggesting pharyngoesophageal perforation. Early radiologic findings included free subcutaneous and mediastinal air, followed later by hydropneumothorax and mediastinal widening as well as leak of contrast material on gastrografin swallow. CT findings contributed to patient evaluation and management. (orig.)

4. Pneumatic strength assessment device: design and isometric measurement.

Science.gov (United States)

Paulus, David C; Reiser, Raoul F; Troxell, Wade O

2004-01-01

In order to load a muscle optimally during resistance exercise, it should be heavily taxed throughout the entire range of motion for that exercise. However, traditional constant resistance squats only tax the lower-extremity muscles to their limits at the "sticking region" or a critical joint configuration of the exercise cycle. Therefore, a linear motion (Smith) exercise machine was modified with pneumatics and appropriate computer control so that it could be capable of adjusting force to control velocity within a repetition of the squat exercise or other exercise performed with the device. Prior to application of this device in a dynamic squat setting, the maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF) produced over a spectrum of knee angles is needed. This would reveal the sticking region and overall variation in strength capacity. Five incremental knee angles (90, 110, 130, 150, and 170 degrees, where 180 degrees defined full extension) were examined. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 12 men and 12 women participated in the study. The knee angle was set, and the pneumatic cylinder was pressurized such that the subject could move the barbell slightly but no more than two-centimeters. The peak pressure exerted over a five-second maximum effort interval was recorded at each knee angle in random order and then repeated. The average of both efforts was then utilized for further analysis. The sticking region occurred consistently at a 90 degrees knee angle, however, the maximum force produced varied between 110 degrees and 170 degrees with the greatest frequency at 150 degrees for both men and women. The percent difference between the maximum and minimum MVIF was 46% for men and 57% for women.

5. NK-1 Removable Cryogenic Shroud (A Study of the Bimba Pneumatic Cylinder)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anderson, K.; Stefanescu, D.

2003-01-01

The Mark 1 Cryostat requires a cryogenic shroud that must be retracted immediately before firing the NIF laser. This paper evaluates a pneumatic cylinder that has been chosen to open and close the shroud. After a variety of motion control and vacuum compatibility experiments, we concluded that the Bimba feedback control cylinder may be used to retract the shroud with certain modifications to its control system and additional rod seals. The Mark I Cryostat is a system that allows fielding of a wide range of targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose is to have a system with the capability of controlling the target temperature between ∼10 and 300 K. While in the Target Chamber, a shroud must cover the cooled targets. This shroud allows the cold target to be shielded from condensable residual gasses in the target chamber. The removable shroud may be cooled to 80 K to provide a radiant shield for the target from the room temperature target chamber. The shroud must remain over the target until approximately one second before shot time, and then retract on command, without inducing vibration into the target. An actuation system design, which removes the shroud, is constrained by the size limitations of the MK-1, the need to build from low-activation materials, the need to operate in a vacuum, and the need for high reliability. The scheme for retracting the shroud that they investigated was a pressurized air cylinder. The pneumatic cylinder tested in our experiments was built by the Bimba Manufacturing Company. We thought it would be suitable for shroud retraction because its manufacturer claimed that its motion was smooth, highly accurate, controllable and the appropriate size for our needs. The pneumatic cylinder moves a piston by changing the gas pressure in the two sections of the cylinder on either side of the piston. The cylinder also uses the piston as a voltage potentiometer to determine the current position of the piston. This voltage is then

6. Active and Precise Control of Microdroplet Division Using Horizontal Pneumatic Valves in Bifurcating Microchannel

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shuichi Shoji

2013-05-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a microfluidic system for the active and precise control of microdroplet division in a micro device. Using two horizontal pneumatic valves formed at downstream of bifurcating microchannel, flow resistances of downstream channels were variably controlled. With the resistance control, volumetric ratio of downstream flows was changed and water-in-oil microdroplets were divided into two daughter droplets of different volume corresponding to the ratio. The microfluidic channels and pneumatic valves were fabricated by single-step soft lithography process of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane using SU-8 mold. A wide range control of the daughter droplets’ volume ratio was achieved by the simple channel structure. Volumetric ratio between large and small daughter droplets are ranged from 1 to 70, and the smallest droplet volume of 14 pL was obtained. The proposed microfluidic device is applicable for precise and high throughput droplet based digital synthesis.

7. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

Science.gov (United States)

In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

8. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

Science.gov (United States)

Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

2013-11-05

Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

9. Intramuscular pressures in antigravity muscles using gravity-independent, pneumatic hardware.

Science.gov (United States)

Macias, Brandon R; Minocha, Ranjeet; Cutuk, Adnan A; Hill, James; Shiau, Jonathon; Hargens, Alan R

2008-08-01

Resistive exercise helps prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity, but better exercise equipment is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if a pneumatic, gravity-independent leg-press device (LPD) provides sufficient force to leg musculature. We hypothesized that intramuscular pressure (IMP), a quantitative index of muscle force, is greater in the antigravity superficial posterior and deep posterior compartments than in the non-antigravity anterior compartment during bilateral leg-press exercise. Millar pressure transducers were inserted into the anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior muscle compartments of the left leg of eight healthy subjects (three women, five men). Subjects were supine on the Keiser SX-1, a pneumatic LPD. Then maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined; each subject performed three consecutive voluntary contractions at approximately 18%, 50%, and 100% MVC while continuously measuring IMP. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine differences of IMPs between compartments and loads. The magnitudes of IMP (mean +/- SEM) at 18 - 3% (abbreviated approximately 18%), 50%, and 100% MVC in the superficial and deep posterior compartments were significantly greater than that in the anterior compartment during exercise (P antigravity compartments as compared to the non-antigravity compartment. Since antigravity muscles of the leg are contained primarily in the superficial and deep posterior compartments, the LPD may help prevent muscle atrophy associated with microgravity.

10. Feasibility study of a biocompatible pneumatic dispensing system using mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblasts

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Joonwon

2017-12-01

This paper presents results for dispensing living cells using a pneumatic dispensing system to verify the feasibility of using this system to fabricate biomaterials. Living cells (i.e., mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblast) were dispensed with different dispensing pressures in order to evaluate the effect of dispensing process on cell viability and proliferation. Based on the results of a live-dead assay, more than 80% of cell viability has been confirmed which was reasonably similar to that in the control group. Furthermore, measurement of cell metabolic activity after dispensing confirmed that the dispensed cell proliferated at a rate comparable to that of the control group. These results demonstrate that the pneumatic dispensing system is a promising tool for fabrication of biomaterials.

11. Upstairs downstairs: vertical integration of a pediatric service.

Science.gov (United States)

Racine, A D; Stein, R E; Belamarich, P F; Levine, E; Okun, A; Porder, K; Rosenfeld, J L; Schechter, M

1998-07-01

and inpatient activities into four interdependent practice teams composed of attending pediatricians, allied health professionals, house officers, and social workers. The new vertically integrated service was designed to improve continuity of care for patients, provide a model of practice for professional trainees, conserve scarce resources, and create a clinical research infrastructure. The vertically integrated pediatric service augmented the role of attending pediatricians, extended the use of allied health professionals from the ambulatory to the inpatient sites, established interdisciplinary practice teams that unified the care of pediatric patients and their families, and used less inpatient resources. Controlling for trends within the study institution and trends in the practice of pediatrics across institutions throughout the time period, the vertical integration was associated with a decline in 0.6 days per case, the use of 0.62 fewer radiologic tests per case, 0.21 fewer ancillary tests per case, and 2.68 fewer laboratory tests per case. We conclude that vertical integration of a pediatric service at an inner-city municipal hospital is achievable; conveys advantages of improved continuity of care, enhanced opportunities for primary care training, and increased participation of senior clinicians; and has the potential to conserve significant amounts of inpatient resources.

12. Design and control of a novel gastroscope intervention mechanism with circumferentially pneumatic-driven clamping function.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yanmin; Liu, Hao; Hao, Siwen; Li, Hongyi; Han, Jianda; Yang, Yunsheng

2017-03-01

Robot-assisted manipulation is promising for solving problems such as understaffing and the risk of infection in gastro-intestinal endoscopy. However, the commonly used friction rollers in few existing systems have a potential risk of deforming flexible endoscopes for non-uniform clamping. This paper presents a robotic system for a standard flexible endoscope and focuses on a novel gastroscope intervention mechanism (GIM), which provides circumferentially uniform clamping with an airbag. The GIM works with a relay-on mechanism in a way similar to manual operation. The shear stiffness of airbag and the critical slipping force (CSF) were analysed to determine the parameters of the airbag. A fuzzy PID controller was employed to realize a fast response and high accuracy of pneumatic actuation. Experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy, stiffness and CSF. In vitro and in vivo animal experiments were also carried out. The GIM realized an accuracy of 0.025 ± 0.2 mm and -0.03 ± 0.25° for push-pull and rotation without delivery resistance. Under polynomial could be used to describe the relationship between the CSF and pneumatic pressure. The novel GIM could effectively deliver gastroscopes. The pneumatic-driven clamping method proposed could protect the gastroscope by circumferentially uniform clamping force and the CSF could be properly controlled to guarantee operating safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits or...

14. Inductance position sensor for pneumatic cylinder

Science.gov (United States)

Ripka, Pavel; Chirtsov, Andrey; Mirzaei, Mehran; Vyhnanek, Jan

2018-04-01

The position of the piston in pneumatic cylinder with aluminum wall can be measured by external inductance sensor without modifications of the aluminum piston and massive iron piston rod. For frequencies below 20 Hz the inductance is increasing with inserting rod due to the rod permeability. This mode has disadvantage of slow response to piston movement and also high temperature sensitivity. At the frequency of 45 Hz the inductance is position independent, as the permeability effect is compensated by the eddy current effect. At higher frequencies eddy current effects in the rod prevail, the inductance is decreasing with inserting rod. In this mode the sensitivity is smaller but the sensor response is fast and temperature stability is better. We show that FEM simulation of this sensor using measured material properties gives accurate results, which is important for the sensor optimization such as designing the winding geometry for the best linearity.

15. Direct adaptive fuzzy control of a translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a pneumatic rodless cylinder

Science.gov (United States)

Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

2013-04-01

This study presents a novel translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a rodless cylinder. Simultaneous positioning control and vibration suppression of the flexible manipulator is accomplished by using a hybrid driving scheme composed of the pneumatic cylinder and a piezoelectric actuator. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is utilized for the cylinder. First, the system dynamics model is derived, and its standard multiple input multiple output (MIMO) state-space representation is provided. Second, a composite proportional derivative (PD) control algorithms and a direct adaptive fuzzy control method are designed for the MIMO system. Also, a time delay compensation algorithm, bandstop and low-pass filters are utilized, under consideration of the control hysteresis and the caused high-frequency modal vibration due to the long stroke of the cylinder, gas compression and nonlinear factors of the pneumatic system. The convergence of the closed loop system is analyzed. Finally, experimental apparatus is constructed and experiments are conducted. The effectiveness of the designed controllers and the hybrid driving scheme is verified through simulation and experimental comparison studies. The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system scheme of employing the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator can suppress the vibration and achieve the desired positioning location simultaneously. Furthermore, the adopted adaptive fuzzy control algorithms can significantly enhance the control performance.

16. A pneumatic transfer system for special form 252Cf

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gehrke, R.J.; Berry, S.M.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Hoggan, J.M.

1996-09-01

A pneumatic transfer system has been developed for use with series 100 Special Form 252 Cf. It was developed to reduce the exposure to personnel handling sources of 252 Cf with masses up to 150 microg by permitting remotely activated two-way transfer between the storage container and the irradiation position. The pneumatic transfer system also permits transfers for reproducible repetitive irradiation periods. In addition to the storage container equipped with quick-release fittings, the transfer system consists of an irradiation station, a control box with momentary contact switches to activate the air-pressure control valves and indicators to identify the location of the source, and connecting air hose and electrical wire. A source of 20 psig air and 110 volt electrical power are required for operation of the transfer system which can be easily moved and set up by one individual in 5 to 10 minutes. Tests have shown that rarely does a source become lodged in the transfer tubing, but two methods have been developed to handle incomplete transfers of the 252 Cf source. The first method consists of closing one air vent to allow a pressure impulse to propel the source to the opposite side. The second method applies to those 252 Cf capsules with a threaded or tapped end to which a small ferromagnetic piece can be attached; an incompletely transferred source in the transfer tube can then be guided to a position of safety by surrounding the transfer tubing containing the capsule with a horseshoe magnet attached to the end of a long pole

17. A SECOND CASE OF BILATERAL RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENTS REPAIRED WITH SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL PNEUMATIC RETINOPEXY.

Science.gov (United States)

Rubin, Uriel; De Jager, Cornelis; Zakour, Moayed; Gonder, J Thomas

2017-01-01

To present a case of a patient with simultaneous bilateral retinal detachments treated successfully with bilateral pneumatic retinopexy. Case report. This is a case of an otherwise healthy 49-year-old woman with no remarkable ocular history that presented with simultaneous phakic superior bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Treatment on the day of presentation included laser retinopexy of the inferior lattice degeneration in the left eye and bilateral intravitreal injection of 0.4 cc of 100% C3F8 gas preceded by topical anesthesia. After 48 hours, both retinas were completely reattached, and bilateral laser retinopexy was performed to the superior tears. After a review of the literature, the authors could find only two reported cases of simultaneous bilateral retinal detachments treated successfully with pneumatic retinopexy. This is not only a cost-effective procedure but also allows treatment when there is no immediate operating room availability or a when a quick referral for surgery is not possible.

18. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

19. Driving Pressure Influence in Voltage Maps Measurement Process Using Advanced Pneumatic Mapping Probe

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marek Kukucka

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Our paper deals with the method of the voltage-impedance map measurement process as a method useful for the electric mapping of human skin. The area of research extends from the basic research to its practical application in acupuncture skin mapping and acupuncture point localization and visualization. The problem of sufficient skin coverage and electrical contact with measuring electrodes is solved by the conventional mechanical telescopic electrodes and by the pneumatic matrix electrode probe. A 2D or 3D voltage-impedance map of skin is an output of the measuring, interpretation and evaluation process. New pneumatic construction of measuring probe was implemented to achieve a better coverage of specified skin area and get a reduced force range of the touching electrodes allowing the steady contact of the skin-electrode. A skin contact is related to the driving pressure of touching electrodes. Our paper offers experimentally measured results, voltage maps of skin on specific areas, selected measured and described acupuncture points and their applications in electro-acupuncture.

20. Adaptive Tracking Control of an Electro-Pneumatic Clutch Actuator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Glenn-Ole Kaasa

2003-10-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a simple adaptive algorithm for robust tracking control of an electro-pneumatic clutch actuator with output feedback. We present a mathematical model of the strongly nonlinear system, and implement an adaptive algorithm, based on a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC to remove the relative-degree-1 restriction. We propose a practical method of constructing the PFC, and introduce a simple modification that removes an inherent restriction on bandwidth of the nonlinear system. We show that the adaptive algorithm deals well with nonlinearities, and we achieve tracking corresponding to a settling-time of 150 ms.

1. Effective dose at pneumatic reduction of paediatric intussusception

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heenan, S.D.; Kyriou, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Adam, E.J.

2000-01-01

AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess screening times and resulting dose implication at pneumatic reduction of intussusception in the paediatric age group and to examine the relationship with the outcome of the procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case notes and departmental records of 143 children who had undergone a total of 153 pneumatic reductions in our department over a 4-year period. Success rates, screening times and available dose-area products (DAP) were recorded. The DAPs were converted to effective dose (ED) for 77 procedures. RESULTS: A 76.5% (117/153) success rate was achieved with a recurrence rate of 6.5% and only one complication: a perforation. Screening times were recorded in 137 reductions and ranged from 15 s to 22.6 min. Although the longest screening time was associated with an unsuccessful outcome, the second longest time of 21 min was successful. This gave a DAP of 1278 cGy cm 2 and an ED of 12.73 mSv, which is equivalent to approximately 400 abdominal films for a 1-year-old. A lifetime risk of fatal cancer of one in 1000 was achieved, assuming the worst case, after a screening time of 30 min on our conventional fluoroscopy unit. CONCLUSION: Our success rate compares well with other centres. Our institution is a tertiary referral centre and the occasional long screening time may reflect the delay and complex nature of the patients referred. Persistence at air reduction may be successful and the success rate increases with delayed attempts but the risks of the increasing radiation burden must be weighed against the risks of emergency surgery and anaesthesia. Heenan, S.D. (2000)

2. Characterization of graphite dust produced by pneumatic lift

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shen, Ke [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Thermal Management Engineering and Materials, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Peng, Wei; Liu, Bing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Thermal Management Engineering and Materials, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Yang, Xiaoyong; Li, Weihua [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Suyuan, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Educations, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2016-08-15

Highlights: • Generation of graphite dust by pneumatic lift. • Determination of morphology and particle size distribution of graphite dust. • The size of graphite dust in this study is compared to AVR and THTR-300 results. • Graphite dust originates from both filler and binder of the matrix graphite. - Abstract: Graphite dust is an important safety concern of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR). The graphite dust could adsorb fission products, and the radioactive dust is transported by the coolant gas and deposited on the surface of the primary loop. The simulation of coagulation, aggregation, deposition, and resuspension behavior of graphite dust requires parameters such as particle size distribution and particle shape, but currently very limited data on graphite dust is available. The only data we have are from AVR and THTR-300, however, the AVR result is likely to be prejudiced by the oil ingress. In pebble-bed HTR, graphite dust is generally produced by mechanical abrasion, in particular, by the abrasion of graphite pebbles in the lifting pipe of the fuel handling system. Here we demonstrate the generation and characterization of graphite dust that were produced by pneumatic lift. This graphite dust could substitute the real dust in HTR for characterization. The dust, exhibiting a lamellar morphology, showed a number-weighted average particle size of 2.38 μm and a volume-weighted average size of 14.62 μm. These two sizes were larger than the AVR and THTR results. The discrepancy is possibly due to the irradiation effect and prejudice caused by the oil ingress accident. It is also confirmed by the Raman spectrum that both the filler particle and binder contribute to the dust generation.

3. Development and evaluation of temporary placement and conveyance operation simulation system using augmented reality

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yan, Weida; Aoyama, Shuhei; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sang, Tran T.; Inge, Solhang Lars [AR Lab, Halden (Norway); Lygren, Toppe Aleksander; Terje, Johnsen [Institute for Energy Technolog, Halden (Norway); Izumi, Masanori [Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fukui (Japan)

2012-06-15

When decommissioning a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to make an appropriate plan to ensure sufficient space for temporary placement and conveyance operations of dismantling targets. This paper describes a system to support temporary placement and conveyance operations using augmented reality (AR). The system employs a laser range scanner to measure the three-dimensional (3D) information of the environment and a dismantling target to produce 3D surface polygon models. Then, the operator simulates temporary placement and conveyance operations using the system by manipulating the obtained 3D model of the dismantling target in the work field. Referring to the obtained 3D model of the environment, a possible collision between the dismantling target and the environment is detectable. Using AR, the collision position is presented intuitively. After field workers evaluated this system, the authors concluded that the system is feasible and acceptable to verify whether spaces for passage and temporary storage are sufficient for temporary placement and conveyance operations. For practical use in the future, some new functions must be added to improve the system. For example, it must be possible for multiple workers to use the system simultaneously by sharing the view of dismantling work.

4. Development and evaluation of temporary placement and conveyance operation simulation system using augmented reality

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yan, Weida; Aoyama, Shuhei; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Sang, Tran T.; Inge, Solhang Lars; Lygren, Toppe Aleksander; Terje, Johnsen; Izumi, Masanori

2012-01-01

When decommissioning a nuclear power plant, it is difficult to make an appropriate plan to ensure sufficient space for temporary placement and conveyance operations of dismantling targets. This paper describes a system to support temporary placement and conveyance operations using augmented reality (AR). The system employs a laser range scanner to measure the three-dimensional (3D) information of the environment and a dismantling target to produce 3D surface polygon models. Then, the operator simulates temporary placement and conveyance operations using the system by manipulating the obtained 3D model of the dismantling target in the work field. Referring to the obtained 3D model of the environment, a possible collision between the dismantling target and the environment is detectable. Using AR, the collision position is presented intuitively. After field workers evaluated this system, the authors concluded that the system is feasible and acceptable to verify whether spaces for passage and temporary storage are sufficient for temporary placement and conveyance operations. For practical use in the future, some new functions must be added to improve the system. For example, it must be possible for multiple workers to use the system simultaneously by sharing the view of dismantling work.

5. Complex modeling of technological processes in pneumatic mixers for production of dry construction mixtures

Science.gov (United States)

Orekhova, T. N.; Nosov, O. A.; Prokopenko, V. S.; Kachaev, A. E.

2018-03-01

The improvement of the design of the pneumatic mixers aimed at the possibility of obtaining homogeneous disperse systems, while the resource and energy saving issues play an important role in the conditions of enterprises that use this type of equipment in their technological chain, is described in the article.

6. Pneumatically-powered hand tool used for cutting bolts during bone-fixing in surgery

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt, K.A.

1996-01-01

Abstract of NL 1000849 (C2) The tool has at least one pneumatic motor (1a, 1b), transmission (2) and regulator. The motor(s) can be of the piston and cylinder type producing reciprocating motion or of the rotary type. The tool is powered by a commercially-available gas cylinder containing 16g of CO2

7. Theory of unidirectional spin heat conveyer

Science.gov (United States)

2015-05-01

We theoretically investigate the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect recently reported in the literature that emerges from the Damon-Eshbach spin wave on the surface of a magnetic material. We develop a simple phenomenological theory for heat transfer dynamics in a coupled system of phonons and the Damon-Eshbach spin wave, and demonstrate that there arises a direction-selective heat flow as a result of the competition between an isotropic heat diffusion by phonons and a unidirectional heat drift by the spin wave. The phenomenological approach can account for the asymmetric local temperature distribution observed in the experiment.

8. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

Science.gov (United States)

Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

2010-01-01

This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

9. Development of a Pneumatic Robot for MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy and Brachytherapy: New Approaches

Science.gov (United States)

Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Fischer, Gregory; Hata, Nobuhito; Tempany, Clare; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

2011-01-01

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided prostate biopsy and brachytherapy has been introduced in order to enhance the cancer detection and treatment. For the accurate needle positioning, a number of robotic assistants have been developed. However, problems exist due to the strong magnetic field and limited workspace. Pneumatically actuated robots have shown the minimum distraction in the environment but the confined workspace limits optimal robot design and thus controllability is often poor. To overcome the problem, a simple external damping mechanism using timing belts was sought and a 1-DOF mechanism test result indicated sufficient positioning accuracy. Based on the damping mechanism and modular system design approach, a new workspace-optimized 4-DOF parallel robot was developed for the MRI-guided prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. A preliminary evaluation of the robot was conducted using previously developed pneumatic controller and satisfying results were obtained. PMID:21399734

10. Adaptive tracking for pneumatic muscle actuators in bicep and tricep configurations.

Science.gov (United States)

Lilly, John H

2003-09-01

Adaptive tracking techniques are applied to pneumatic muscle actuators arranged in bicep and tricep configurations. The control objective is to force the joint angle to track a specified reference path. Mathematical models are derived for the bicep and tricep configurations. The models are nonlinear and in general time-varying, making adaptive control desirable. Stability results are derived, and the results of simulation studies are presented, contrasting the nonlinear adaptive control to a nonadaptive PID control approach.

11. Inductance position sensor for pneumatic cylinder

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pavel Ripka

2018-04-01

Full Text Available The position of the piston in pneumatic cylinder with aluminum wall can be measured by external inductance sensor without modifications of the aluminum piston and massive iron piston rod. For frequencies below 20 Hz the inductance is increasing with inserting rod due to the rod permeability. This mode has disadvantage of slow response to piston movement and also high temperature sensitivity. At the frequency of 45 Hz the inductance is position independent, as the permeability effect is compensated by the eddy current effect. At higher frequencies eddy current effects in the rod prevail, the inductance is decreasing with inserting rod. In this mode the sensitivity is smaller but the sensor response is fast and temperature stability is better. We show that FEM simulation of this sensor using measured material properties gives accurate results, which is important for the sensor optimization such as designing the winding geometry for the best linearity.

12. Pneumatic transport systems for TRIGA reactors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bolton, John A.

1970-01-01

Main parameters and advantages of pneumatically operated systems, primarily those operated by gas pressure are discussed. The special irradiation ends for the TRIGA reactor are described. To give some idea of the complexity of some modern systems, the author presents the large system currently operating at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington. In this system, 13 stations are located throughout the radiochemistry laboratories and three irradiation ends are located in the reactor, which is a 14-megawatt unit. The system incorporates practically every fail-safe device possible, including ball valves located on all capsule lines entering the reactor area, designed to close automatically in the event of a reactor scram, and at that time capsules within the reactor would be diverted by means of switches located on the inside of the reactor wall. The whole system is under final control of a permission control panel located in the reactor control room. Many other safety accessories of the system are described

13. A comparison of the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity between pneumatic and free weight resistance.

Science.gov (United States)

Frost, David Michael; Cronin, John Barry; Newton, Robert Usher

2008-12-01

Pneumatic devices provide a resistance comprising minimal mass, possibly affording greater movement velocities, compared to free weight, while reducing the influence of momentum. Thirty men completed three testing sessions [free weight (FW), ballistic (BALL) and pneumatic (P)] each consisting of a one repetition maximum (1RM) and six sets (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90% 1RM) of four explosive repetitions of a bench press. Dependent variables were expressed as mean and as a percentage of the concentric displacement. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were evaluated using two way repeated measures ANOVAs with Holm-Sidak post hoc comparisons. On average, the mean and peak P velocity were 36.5 and 28.3% higher than FW, and 22.9 and 19.1% higher than the BALL movements. The FW and BALL peak force were both significantly higher than the P (26.3 and 22.7% for FW and BALL, respectively). BALL mean power output was significantly higher than the FW and P at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, between loads of 60-90% 1RM the highest mean power was produced with a P resistance. A 15% 1RM load maximized the peak power for each condition and no significant differences were found between the P and BALL. For loads of 45-90% 1RM the force, power and muscle activity were higher during the last 10-20% of the concentric displacement when subjects employed the P resistance. In summary, pneumatic resistance may offer specific advantages over loads comprising only mass (FW and BALL), although not without its own limitations.

14. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Manager, Interstate Travel Sanitation Sub-Program, HFF-312... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes. 1250.51 Section 1250.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

15. The Ecological effect of conveyance pipeline from Gurara reservoir ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The study focuses on the public awareness of the effect of conveyance pipeline from Gurara reservoir to lower Usman Dam on Ecological degradation in Abuja, using data from questionnaire survey of about 150 households as well as field observation. The data from the survey reveals that over 30% ecological degradations ...

16. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Brejaud P.

2009-09-01

Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two major pneumatic modes: pneumatic pump mode and pneumatic motor mode. For each of them, three valvetrain technologies are considered: 4-stroke mode, 4-stroke mode with one camshaft disengaged, and 2-stroke fully variable. The concept can be adapted to SI or CI engines. In any case the valvetrain technology is the key to best fuel economy. A kinematic model of the charging valve’s actuator is introduced, and implemented in a quasi dimensional model of the pneumatic-combustion hybrid engine. Simulation results are presented for each pneumatic mode, for each valvetrain technology, in order to determine the best valve train configuration, and to show the impact of the kinematic valve actuator on the performance of the engine The tradeoffs between valvetrain sophistication and fuel economy will be presented for each case. Bien que le rendement total d’un moteur à combustion interne soit élevé, ce potentiel ne peut être pleinement exploité sur une automobile : dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation, la charge moteur moyenne (et donc le rendement est souvent faible. De plus, l’énergie cinétique en phase de freinage est totalement dissipée sous forme de chaleur. Cet article présente un concept de moteur hybride pneumatique, et les cycles thermodynamiques associés, capable de stocker de l’énergie (et de la réutiliser sous forme d’air comprimé. Le concept est adaptable au moteur à allumage commandé aussi bien qu’au moteur à allumage par

17. The pneumatic carrier facility in Dhruva reactor: commissioning, characterization and utilization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reddy, A.V.R.; Newton Nathaniel, T.; Nair, A.G.C.; Acharya, R.; Lahiri, D.K.; Kulkarni, U.S.; Sengupta, C.; Duraisamy, S.; Shukla, D.K.; Chakrabarty, K.; Ghosh, R.; Mondal, S.K.; Gujar, H.G.

2007-11-01

The 100 MWt power Dhruva research reactor, BARC is provided with pneumatic carrier facility (PCF) to carry out R and D work using short-lived (seconds to minutes) radioisotopes in the fields like neutron activation analysis (NAA) and nuclear fission. The samples are kept inside a high density polypropylene capsule (rabbit), which is pneumatically sent to the irradiation position in the core and retrieved after a preset time of irradiation. After the irradiation, radioactivity assay is carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with HPGe detector coupled to PC based MCA. The availability of high neutron flux (∼ 5 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 at 50 MWt power) and shorter retrieval time (∼5 seconds) make it possible to measure short-lived isotopes with enhanced sensitivity. This report describes the salient features of this facility, characterization of the neutron spectrum at this irradiation position and its utilization. The PCF is being extensively utilized for analytical applications using NAA as well as nuclear fission studies. A brief description of analysis of some samples of geological, environmental and biological origin, nuclear materials as well as reference materials is included in this report. Protocol and check list for carrying out PCF irradiations and gamma spectrometric assay are also given at the end of the report. (author)

18. Development of an Upper Limb Power Assist System Using Pneumatic Actuators for Farming Lift-up Motion

Science.gov (United States)

Yagi, Eiichi; Harada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaaki

A power assist system has lately attracted considerable attention to lifting-up an object without low back pain. We have been developing power assist systems with pneumatic actuators for the elbow and shoulder to farming support of lifting-up a bag of rice weighing 30kg. This paper describes the mechanism and control method of this power assist system. The pneumatic rotary actuator supports shoulder motion, and the air cylinder supports elbow motion. In this control method, the surface electromyogram(EMG) signals are used as input information of the controller. The joint support torques of human are calculated based on the antigravity term of necessary joint torques, which are estimated on the dynamics of a human approximated link model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism and control method of the power assist system.

19. [Effect of pneumatic compression in connection with ergotherapeutic treatment of Colles' fracture. A clinical controlled trial].

Science.gov (United States)

Svensson, B H; Frellsen, M B; Basse, P N; Bliddal, H; Caspers, J; Parby, K

1993-02-15

We followed forty women with functional deficits in the wrist and hand after sustaining a Colles' fracture. The women participated in occupational therapy three times a week for three weeks. At the initial evaluation, after three weeks, and at a three month evaluation, we measured the following: range of joint movement, grip strength, hand volume (oedema), pain and ADL. There was significant improvement in most of the parameters measured after three weeks of occupational therapy, with a less significant improvement from three weeks to three months. Seventeen of the forty women received twenty minutes of intermittent pneumatic compression before occupational therapy. These patients showed significant improvement in wrist extension, compared with the control group of twenty-three patients. Occupational therapy is recommended for patients showing a functional deficit after Colles' fracture. Intermittent pneumatic compression is recommended as a supplement to occupational therapy.

20. The pneumatic syringe: a simple apparatus for self-administration of drugs by rats.

Science.gov (United States)

Weeks, J R

1977-12-01

Drug solution is delivered by a syringe operated by a pneumatic cylinder. Recommended delivery volumes are from 10 to 200 microliter. A solid-state control unit is described which can operate two syringes (drug injection and flush), has outputs for recording responses and injections, and can be programmed to provide several schedules of reinforcement. All components are readily commercially available.