Sample records for vertical phase separation

  1. Incorporating Electrode Modification Layer with Vertical Phase Separated Photoactive Layer for Efficient and Stable Inverted Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells. (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Li, Jinyan; Bai, Yiming; Wang, Fuzhi; Bian, Xingming; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao


    For bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs), the donors and acceptors featuring specific phase separation and concentration distribution within the electron donor:acceptor blends crucially affect the exciton dissociation and charge transportation. Herein, efficient and stable nonfullerene inverted PSCs incorporating phase separated photoactive layer and titanium chelate electrode modification layer are demonstrated. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are implemented to characterize the morphology of photoactive layers. Compared with the control conventional device, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) is enhanced from 14.74 to 17.45 mAcm-2. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the inverted PSCs with TIPD layer increases from 9.67% to 11.69% benifiting from the declined exciton recombination and fairly enhanced charge transportation. Furthermore, the non-encapsulated inverted device with TIPD layer demonstrates the best long-term stability, remaining 85% of initial PCE and almost undecayed open-circuit voltage (Voc ) after 1440 h. Our results reveal that the titanium chelate is an excellent electrode modification layer to incorporate with vertical phase separated photoactive layer for producing high-efficiency and high-stability inverted nonfullerene PSCs.

  2. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos


    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  3. Vertical Phase Separation in Small Molecule:Polymer Blend Organic Thin Film Transistors Can Be Dynamically Controlled

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui


    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Blending of small-molecule organic semiconductors (OSCs) with amorphous polymers is known to yield high performance organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Vertical stratification of the OSC and polymer binder into well-defined layers is crucial in such systems and their vertical order determines whether the coating is compatible with a top and/or a bottom gate OTFT configuration. Here, we investigate the formation of blends prepared via spin-coating in conditions which yield bilayer and trilayer stratifications. We use a combination of in situ experimental and computational tools to study the competing effects of formulation thermodynamics and process kinetics in mediating the final vertical stratification. It is shown that trilayer stratification (OSC/polymer/OSC) is the thermodynamically favored configuration and that formation of the buried OSC layer can be kinetically inhibited in certain conditions of spin-coating, resulting in a bilayer stack instead. The analysis reveals here that preferential loss of the OSC, combined with early aggregation of the polymer phase due to rapid drying, inhibit the formation of the buried OSC layer. The fluid dynamics and drying kinetics are then moderated during spin-coating to promote trilayer stratification with a high quality buried OSC layer which yields unusually high mobility >2 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the bottom-gate top-contact configuration.

  4. Vertical phase separation of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends prepared by electrostatic spray deposition for organic field-effect transistors (United States)

    Onojima, Norio; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Ayato


    Blend films composed of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). ESD is considered as an intermediate process between dry and wet processes since the solvent present in small droplets can almost be evaporated before arriving at the substrate. Post-drying treatments with the time-consuming evaporation of residual solvents can be omitted. However, it is still not clear that a vertically phase-separated structure can be formed in the ESD process since the vertical phase separation of the blend films is associated with the solvent evaporation. In this study, we fabricated bottom-gate, top-contact organic field-effect transistors based on the blend films prepared by ESD and the devices exhibited transistor behavior with small hysteresis. This result demonstrates that the vertical phase separation of a blend film (upper TIPS pentacene active layer/bottom PMMA gate insulator) can occur in the facile one-step ESD process.

  5. Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, and Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation of Polymer Solar Cells from Multiscale Molecular Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of bottom electrode material, when the BHJ layer is exposed to the free surface during thermal annealing. In addition, preferential segregation of P3HT chains and PCBM molecules toward PEDOT:PSS and Al electrodes, respectively, is observed. Detailed morphology analysis indicated that, surprisingly, vertical phase segregation does not affect the connectivity of donor/acceptor domains with respective electrodes. However, the formation of P3HT/PCBM depletion zones next to the P3HT/PCBM-rich zones can be a potential bottleneck for electron/hole transport due to increase in transport pathway length. Analysis in terms of fraction of intra- and interchain charge transports revealed that processing schedule affects the average vertical orientation of polymer chains, which may be crucial for enhanced charge transport, nongeminate recombination, and charge collection. The present study establishes a more detailed link between processing and morphology by combining multiscale molecular

  6. Evolution of vertical phase separation in P3HT:PCBM thin films induced by thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiannidis, P.G.; Georgiou, D.; Pitsalidis, C.; Laskarakis, A. [Lab for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology - LTFN Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Logothetidis, S., E-mail: [Lab for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology - LTFN Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    Highlights: {center_dot} Investigation of distribution of P3HT and PCBM in blend films. {center_dot} Thermal annealing of P3HT:PCBM blends leading to rapid polymer crystallization. {center_dot} A demixing process resulting to accumulation of P3HT at surface. {center_dot} PCBM segregation at the bottom layers of films. {center_dot} Inappropriate morphology for electron extraction at organic metal-cathode interface. - Abstract: The achievement of the desirable morphology at the nanometer scale of bulk heterojunctions consisting of a conjugated polymer with fullerene derivatives is a prerequisite in order to optimize the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. The various experimental conditions such as the choice of solvent, drying rates and annealing have been found to significantly affect the blend morphology and the final performance of the photovoltaic device. In this work, we focus on the effects of post deposition thermal annealing at 140 deg. C on the blend morphology, the optical and structural properties of bulk heterojunctions that consist of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a methanofullerene derivative (PCBM). The post thermal annealing modifies the distribution of the P3HT and the PCBM inside the blend films, as it has been found by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry studies in the visible to far-ultraviolet spectral range. Phase separation was identified by AFM and GIXRD as a result of a slow drying process which took place after the spin coating process. The increase of the annealing time resulted to a significant increase of the P3HT crystallinity at the top regions of the blend films.

  7. Vertical cross-spectral phases in atmospheric flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.


    . The phase angle of the cross-wind component is observed to be significantly greater than the phase for the along-wind component, which in turn is greater than the phase for the vertical component. The cross-wind and along-wind phases increase with stream-wise wavenumber and vertical separation distance...

  8. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi


    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  9. Low-voltage operating flexible ferroelectric organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a vertical phase separation P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)/PS dielectric (United States)

    Xu, Meili; Xiang, Lanyi; Xu, Ting; Wang, Wei; Xie, Wenfa; Zhou, Dayu


    Future flexible electronic systems require memory devices combining low-power operation and mechanical bendability. However, high programming/erasing voltages, which are universally needed to switch the storage states in previously reported ferroelectric organic field-effect transistor (Fe-OFET) nonvolatile memories (NVMs), severely prevent their practical applications. In this work, we develop a route to achieve a low-voltage operating flexible Fe-OFET NVM. Utilizing vertical phase separation, an ultrathin self-organized poly(styrene) (PS) buffering layer covers the surface of the ferroelectric polymer layer by one-step spin-coating from their blending solution. The ferroelectric polymer with a low coercive field contributes to low-voltage operation in the Fe-OFET NVM. The polymer PS contributes to the improvement of mobility, attributing to screening the charge scattering and decreasing the surface roughness. As a result, a high performance flexible Fe-OFET NVM is achieved at the low P/E voltages of ±10 V, with a mobility larger than 0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, a reliable P/E endurance over 150 cycles, stable data storage retention capability over 104 s, and excellent mechanical bending durability with a slight performance degradation after 1000 repetitive tensile bending cycles at a curvature radius of 5.5 mm.

  10. Vertical cross-spectral phases in neutral atmospheric flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.


    The cross-spectral phases between velocity components at two heights are analyzed from observations at the Hovsore test site and from the field experiments under the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study in 1999. These phases represent the degree to which turbulence sensed at one height...... leads (or lags) in time the turbulence sensed at the other height. The phase angle of the cross-wind component is observed to be significantly greater than the phase for the along-wind component, which in turn is greater than the phase for the vertical component. The cross-wind and along-wind phases...... increase with stream-wise wavenumber and vertical separation distance, but there is no significant change in the phase angle of vertical velocity, which remains close to zero. The phases are also calculated using a rapid distortion theory model and large-eddy simulation. The results from the models show...

  11. Impact of the reduced vertical separation minimum on the domestic United States (United States)


    Aviation regulatory bodies have enacted the reduced vertical separation minimum standard over most of the globe. The reduced vertical separation minimum is a technique that reduces the minimum vertical separation distance between aircraft from 2000 t...

  12. Significant vertical phase separation in solvent-vapor-annealed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) composite films leading to better conductivity and work function for high-performance indium tin oxide-free optoelectronics. (United States)

    Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yoon, Myung-Han; Kim, Tae-Wook; Na, Seok-In


    In the present study, a novel polar-solvent vapor annealing (PSVA) was used to induce a significant structural rearrangement in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films in order to improve their electrical conductivity and work function. The effects of polar-solvent vapor annealing on PEDOT:PSS were systematically compared with those of a conventional solvent additive method (SAM) and investigated in detail by analyzing the changes in conductivity, morphology, top and bottom surface composition, conformational PEDOT chains, and work function. The results confirmed that PSVA induces significant phase separation between excess PSS and PEDOT chains and a spontaneous formation of a highly enriched PSS layer on the top surface of the PEDOT:PSS polymer blend, which in turn leads to better 3-dimensional connections between the conducting PEDOT chains and higher work function. The resultant PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS anode films exhibited a significantly enhanced conductivity of up to 1057 S cm(-1) and a tunable high work function of up to 5.35 eV. The PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS films were employed as transparent anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs). The cell performances of organic optoelectronic devices with the PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS anodes were further improved due to the significant vertical phase separation and the self-organized PSS top surface in PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS films, which can increase the anode conductivity and work function and allow the direct formation of a functional buffer layer between the active layer and the polymeric electrode. The results of the present study will allow better use and understanding of polymeric-blend materials and will further advance the realization of high-performance indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic electronics.

  13. Building FAÇADE Separation in Vertical Aerial Images (United States)

    Meixner, P.; Wendel, A.; Bischof, H.; Leberl, F.


    Three-dimensional models of urban environments have great appeal and offer promises of interesting applications. While initially it was of interest to just have such 3D data, it increasingly becomes evident that one really would like to have interpreted urban objects. To be able to interpret buildings we have to split a visible whole building block into its different single buildings. Usually this is done using cadastral information to divide the single land parcels. The problem in this case is that sometimes the building boundaries derived from the cadastre are insufficiently accurate due to several reasons like old databases with lower accuracies or inaccuracies due to transformation between two coordinate systems. For this reason it can happen that a cadastral boundary coming from an old map is displaced by up to several meters and therefore divides two buildings incorrectly. To overcome such problems we incorporate the information from vertical aerial images. We introduce a façade separation method that is able to find individual building façades using multi view stereo. The purpose is to identify the individual façades and separate them from one another before on proceeds with the analysis of a façade's details. The source was a set of overlapping, thus "redundant" vertical aerial images taken by an UltraCam digital aerial camera. Therefore in a first step we determine the building block outlines using the building classification and use the height values from the Digital Surface Model (DSM) to determine approximate "façade quadrilaterals". We also incorporate height discontinuities using the height profiles along the building outlines to enhance our façade separation. In a next step we detect repeated pattern in these "façade images" and use them to separate the façades respectively building blocks from one another. We show that this method can be successfully used to separate building façades using vertical aerial images with a very high detection


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meixner


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional models of urban environments have great appeal and offer promises of interesting applications. While initially it was of interest to just have such 3D data, it increasingly becomes evident that one really would like to have interpreted urban objects. To be able to interpret buildings we have to split a visible whole building block into its different single buildings. Usually this is done using cadastral information to divide the single land parcels. The problem in this case is that sometimes the building boundaries derived from the cadastre are insufficiently accurate due to several reasons like old databases with lower accuracies or inaccuracies due to transformation between two coordinate systems. For this reason it can happen that a cadastral boundary coming from an old map is displaced by up to several meters and therefore divides two buildings incorrectly. To overcome such problems we incorporate the information from vertical aerial images. We introduce a façade separation method that is able to find individual building façades using multi view stereo. The purpose is to identify the individual façades and separate them from one another before on proceeds with the analysis of a façade's details. The source was a set of overlapping, thus "redundant" vertical aerial images taken by an UltraCam digital aerial camera. Therefore in a first step we determine the building block outlines using the building classification and use the height values from the Digital Surface Model (DSM to determine approximate "façade quadrilaterals". We also incorporate height discontinuities using the height profiles along the building outlines to enhance our façade separation. In a next step we detect repeated pattern in these "façade images" and use them to separate the façades respectively building blocks from one another. We show that this method can be successfully used to separate building façades using vertical aerial images with a

  15. Quenching Phase Separation by Vapor Deposition Polymerization (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell


    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solventless, free radical technique predominately used to deposit homogeneous films of linear and crosslinked polymers directly from gas phase feeds. We report a template-free method to fabricate continuous-phase porous polymer films by simultaneous phase separation during iCVD. Phase separation during film growth is achieved by condensing an inert porogen, along with initiator, monomer, and crosslinker. When the vapor mixture transports to the cooled substrate, phase separation occurs along with polymerization and crosslinking, which quench the state of phase separation. The kinetics of spontaneously phase separation can be qualitatively understood on the basis of Cahn-Hilliard theory. A series of films were grown by varying monomer and porogen's degree of saturation. Deposited films were studied by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Fundamental aspects of phase separation microfabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikel, M.


    In the research featured in this PhD thesis, the fundamental aspects of Phase Separation MicroFabrication (PSµF) were studied. PSµF is a technique through which polymeric porous films with defined structures on their surfaces can be created. This is achieved by phase separation of polymer solutions

  17. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass (United States)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.


    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  18. Phase separator safety valve blow-off.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic


    The fast discharge of the CMS solenoid leads to a pressure rise in the phase separator. On August 28th, a fast discharge was triggered at a current level of 19.1 kA. The pressure in the phase separator increased up to the set pressure of the safety valve and some helium was discharged. In consequence of this and prevoious similar observations the liquid helium level in the phase separator has been reduced from 60% to 50% and later to 45% in order to reduce the helium inventory in the magnet.

  19. Polymer solution phase separation: Microgravity simulation (United States)

    Cerny, Lawrence C.; Sutter, James K.


    In many multicomponent systems, a transition from a single phase of uniform composition to a multiphase state with separated regions of different composition can be induced by changes in temperature and shear. The density difference between the phase and thermal and/or shear gradients within the system results in buoyancy driven convection. These differences affect kinetics of the phase separation if the system has a sufficiently low viscosity. This investigation presents more preliminary developments of a theoretical model in order to describe effects of the buoyancy driven convection in phase separation kinetics. Polymer solutions were employed as model systems because of the ease with which density differences can be systematically varied and because of the importance of phase separation in the processing and properties of polymeric materials. The results indicate that the kinetics of the phase separation can be performed viscometrically using laser light scattering as a principle means of following the process quantitatively. Isopycnic polymer solutions were used to determine the viscosity and density difference limits for polymer phase separation.

  20. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies (United States)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil


    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  1. Phase separation in asymmetrical fermion superfluids. (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo F; Caldas, Heron; Rupak, Gautam


    Motivated by recent developments on cold atom traps and high density QCD we consider fermionic systems composed of two particle species with different densities. We argue that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state. We suggest how this phase separation can be used as a probe of fermion superfluidity in atomic traps.

  2. Phase separation in an ionomer glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Tian, K.V.; Dobó-Nagy, C.


    The G338 ionomer glass is a fluoro-alumino-silicate system, which is used as the powder component of glass ionomer cements (GICs) in dental applications. However, despite progress in understanding the nature of this glass, chemical identity of its separated amorphous phases has not yet been...... conclusively determined. In this work, we identify these phases by performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses on both the as-received glass and heat-treated samples. We detected three glass transitions in the as-received G338 glass during DSC upscaning, implying...... amorphous phases in G388 are Ca/Na-Al-Si-O, Ca-Al-F and Ca-P-O-F phases, respectively. However, the exact chemical compositions of the three phases still require further exploration. The results of this work are important for understanding the impact of phase separation within ionomer glasses on the setting...

  3. Phase diagram of vertically vibrated dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; van der Meer, Roger M.


    When a hole is created in a layer of a dense, vertically vibrated suspension, phenomena are known to occur that defy the natural tendency of gravity to close the hole. Here, an overview is presented of the different patterns that we observed in a variety of dense particulate suspensions.

  4. Kinetics of Phase Separation in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Puri, Sanjay

    We review analytical and numerical results for the kinetics of phase separation in confined geometries. It is often the case that a confining surface has a preferential attraction for one of the components of a segregating mixture. The equilibrium surface morphology is either partially wet or completely wet, depending on the strength of the surface potential. The dynamical interplay of wetting and phase separation is referred to as surface-directed spinodal decomposition (SDSD), and is of considerable technological importance. We discuss the modeling of SDSD at both the microscopic and coarse-grained levels. We also present results for SDSD in both semi-infinite and confined geometries.

  5. Electronic phase separation and high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelson, S.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The authors review the extensive evidence from model calculations that neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separate into hole-rich and hole-poor phases. All known solvable limits of models of holes in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet exhibit this behavior. The authors show that when the phase separation is frustrated by the introduction of long-range Coulomb interactions, the typical consequence is either a modulated (charge density wave) state or a superconducting phase. The authors then review some of the strong experimental evidence supporting an electronically-driven phase separation of the holes in the cuprate superconductors and the related Ni oxides. Finally, the authors argue that frustrated phase separation in these materials can account for many of the anomalous normal state properties of the high temperature superconductors and provide the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the T-linear resistivity of the normal state is a paraconductivity associated with a novel composite pairing, although the ordered superconducting state is more conventional.

  6. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)


    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  7. Wetting and phase separation at surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    comparable to the RHS of figure 1. The averaging yields ψav(z, t) ≃ ψ0 = 0 in the bulk, where the phase-separation profiles are randomly oriented. However, a systematic behavior is seen at the surface. The wetting profiles are characterized by the zero-crossings of ψav(z, t) − ψ0. We denote the first and second zeros as.

  8. The vertical separation of fish in the aft end of a demersal trawl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels


    Two multi-compartment separator frames were used to study the vertical separation of some commercially important fish species in the aft end of a trawl, with the aim of separating cod (Gadus morhua) from other species. A non-linear multinomial model with random effects was used to analyse the data....... The use of guiding bars in the separator frame significantly (p fish resulted in a more uniform distribution of cod. The species separations found...

  9. Significant structure theory applied to phase separation. (United States)

    Lee, S H; Jhon, M S; Eyring, H


    The significant structure theory of liquids has been applied to the partially miscible system of the O(3)-O(2) mixture, which exhibits partial miscibility in the temperature range from -195.5 degrees C to -179.9 degrees C. The thermodynamic condition for phase separation is given by the following inequality: [Formula: see text] A partition function for the binary liquid mixture is developed using significant liquid structure theory. Here X(i) is the mole fraction of either of the two components. We obtain the coexistence curve of the O(3)-O(2) system by varying the mole fractions of the components to find the temperature at which the two liquids separate. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Lebedev


    Full Text Available The vertical separation monitoring methods have been analyzed. A new method of the aircraft vertical separation monitoring base on ADS-B is considered. Mathematical model of the method and simulation plan are presented. Experimental data are results of the method simulation and evaluates the accuracy of the proposed method. Presented method may be used under conditions of sufficient number ADS-B equipped aircrafts. Future investigations are defined.

  11. Spinodal phase separation in complex fluids (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Blossey, R.


    We study the early stages of the phase separation of an amphiphilic system into two fluids, one structured and the other not, in the context of a one-component order-parameter model. A generalization of the Langer — Bar-on — Miller approximation permits the calculation of the time evolution of the structure function in the mixture. Near the structured-fluid side of the coexistence, we find that the spinodal is much more clearly observable and is closer to the binodal than on the unstructured side.

  12. Griffiths phase and temporal effects in phase separated manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchko, V.N., E-mail:; Marchenko, M.A.


    Phenomenological description of relaxation phenomena in magnetic and transport properties of perovskite manganites has been presented. The approach is based on generalization of some hypotheses appropriate to the Preisach picture of magnetization process for half-metallic ferromagnets and on an assumption that in doped manganites the phase separated state exists near the magnetic ordering temperature. For systems with the percolation type of a ferromagnet–paramagnet transition, distinctive features in relaxation of magnetization and resistivity have been found. The relaxation is shown to be most pronounced near the transition temperature, and to be an approximately logarithmic function of time. The theoretical results replicate a broad spectrum of behavior observed experimentally on time dependence of magnetization and resistivity of CMR systems and allow a direct comparison with available experimental data. We propose an additional experimental test to distinguish between the percolation scenario of magnetic and transport transitions in doped manganites, and the ferromagnetic polaron picture. In particular, an anomalously slow relaxation to zero of the order parameter can be considered as a key feature of the Griffiths-like phase transition in doped manganites. It is also shown that a system with the Griffiths-like state will exhibit nonequilibrium aging and rejuvenation phenomena, which in many aspects resemble that of a spin glass. We hope that experimental observation of a set of time decay properties will provide a settlement of apparently conflicting results obtained for different characteristics of phase-separated manganites. - Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of the FC and ZFC magnetization response upon warming in magnetic field at different sweeping rates: (a) a system with the conventional (second order) ferromagnet–paramagnet phase transition and (b) a system with the Griffiths-like phase above the magnetic ordering temperature

  13. Boosting Up Performance of Inverted Photovoltaic Cells from Bis(alkylthien-2-yl)dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[1,2-b:4',5'-b']di thiophene-Based Copolymers by Advantageous Vertical Phase Separation. (United States)

    Guo, Pengzhi; Luo, Guoping; Su, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Peng; Tong, Junfeng; Yang, Chunyan; Xia, Yangjun; Wu, Hongbin


    The photovoltaic cells (PVCs) from conjugated copolymers of PDTBDT-BT and PDTBDT-FBT with 5,10-bis(4,5-didecylthien-2-yl)dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as electron donor moieties and benzothiadiazole and/or 5,6-difluorobenzothiadiazole as electron acceptor moieties are optimized by employing alcohol-soluble PFN (poly(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)) as cathode modification interlayer. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of inverted PVCs (i-PVCs) from PDTBDT-BT and PDTBDT-FBT with devices configuration as ITO/PFN/active layer/MoO3/Ag are increased from 4.97% to 8.54% and 5.92% to 8.74%, in contrast to those for the regular PVCs (r-PVCs) with devices configuration as ITO/PEDOT:PSS/active layer/Ca/Al under 100 mW/cm(2) AM 1.5 illumination. The optical modeling calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations reveal that the r-PVCs and i-PVCs from the copolymers exhibit similar light harvesting characteristics, and the enhancements of the PCEs of the i-PVCs from the copolymers are mainly contributed to the favorable vertical phase separation as the strongly polymer-enriched top surface layers and slightly PC71BM (phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester)-enriched bottom surface layers are correspondingly connected to the anodes and cathodes of the i-PVCs, while they are opposite in the r-PVCs. As we known, it is the first time to experimentally verify that the i-PVCs with alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers cathode modification layers enjoy favorable vertical phase separation.

  14. Phase behaviour and phase separation kinetics measurement using acoustic arrays (United States)

    Khammar, M.; Shaw, J. M.


    Speed of sound and acoustic wave attenuation are sensitive to fluid phase composition and to the presence of liquid-liquid interfaces. In this work, the use of an acoustic array comprising 64 elements as a non-intrusive sensor for liquid-liquid interface, phase separation kinetics measurement in bulk fluids, and local composition measurement in porous media is illustrated. Three benchmark examples: the phase behaviour of methanol + mixed hexanes and methanol + heptane mixtures at 25.0 °C and 1 bar, and Athabasca bitumen + heptane in a synthetic silica porous medium at 22.5 °C and 1 bar, illustrate the accuracy of liquid-liquid interface and potential research and industrial applications of the technique. Liquid-liquid interfaces can be detected independently using both speed of sound and acoustic wave attenuation measurements. The precision of the interface location measurement is 300 μm. As complete scans can be performed at a rate of 1 Hz, phase separation kinetics and diffusion of liquids within porous media are readily tracked. The technique is expected to find application where the fluids or porous media are opaque to visible light and where other imaging techniques are not readily applied, or are too costly. A current limitation is that the acoustic probes must be cooled to less than 315 K in order for them to operate.

  15. Vertical vs Lateral Macrophase Separation in Thin Films of Block Copolymer Mixtures: Computer Simulations and GISAXS Experiments. (United States)

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Jung, Florian; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef M; Papadakis, Christine M


    Mixtures of two diblock copolymers of very different lengths may feature both macro- and microphase separation; however, not much is known about the mechanisms of separation in diblock copolymer thin films. In the present work, we study thin films of mixtures of two compositionally symmetric block copolymers, both in the one-phase and in the two-phase state, combining coarse-grained molecular simulations (dissipative particle dynamics, DPD) with scattering experiments (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, GISAXS). We reveal that the film thickness and selective adsorption of different blocks to the substrate control the distribution of macrophases within the film as well as the orientation of the lamellae therein. In thick films, the mixtures separate in the vertical direction into three layers: Two layers being rich in short copolymers are formed near the film interfaces, whereas a layer being rich in long copolymers is located in the film core. The lamellar orientation in the layers rich in short copolymers is dictated by the surface selectivity, and this orientation only weakly affects the vertical orientation of lamellae in the film core. This provides the opportunity to control the domain orientation in the copolymer films by mixing block copolymers with low-molecular additives instead of relying on a more complicated chemical modification of the substrate. In thinner films, a lateral phase separation appears.

  16. Shrinkage effects during polmer phase separation on microfabricated molds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikel, M.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias


    Phase separation microfabrication (PSμF) is a fabrication method that allows the preparation of membranes having micropattern surface topologies. PSμF entails the phase separation of a polymer solution cast onto structured supports. The polymer solution wets the features and upon phase separation

  17. Separation of aqueous two-phase polymer systems in microgravity (United States)

    Vanalstine, J. M.; Harris, J. M.; Synder, S.; Curreri, P. A.; Bamberger, S. B.; Brooks, D. E.


    Phase separation of polymer systems in microgravity is studied in aircraft flights to prepare shuttle experiments. Short duration (20 sec) experiments demonstrate that phase separation proceeds rapidly in low gravity despite appreciable phase viscosities and low liquid interfacial tensions (i.e., 50 cP, 10 micro N/m). Ostwald ripening does not appear to be a satisfactory model for the phase separation mechanism. Polymer coated surfaces are evaluated as a means to localize phases separated in low gravity. Contact angle measurements demonstrate that covalently coupling dextran or PEG to glass drastically alters the 1-g wall wetting behavior of the phases in dextran-PEG two phase systems.

  18. Controlled Topological Transitions in Thin-Film Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, Matthew G.


    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. In this paper the evolution of a binary mixture in a thin-film geometry with a wall at the top and bottom is considered. By bringing the mixture into its miscibility gap so that no spinodal decomposition occurs in the bulk, a slight energetic bias of the walls toward each one of the constituents ensures the nucleation of thin boundary layers that grow until the constituents have moved into one of the two layers. These layers are separated by an interfacial region where the composition changes rapidly. Conditions that ensure the separation into two layers with a thin interfacial region are investigated based on a phase-field model. Using matched asymptotic expansions a corresponding sharp-interface problem for the location of the interface is established. It is then argued that this newly created two-layer system is not at its energetic minimum but destabilizes into a controlled self-replicating pattern of trapezoidal vertical stripes by minimizing the interfacial energy between the phases while conserving their area. A quantitative analysis of this mechanism is carried out via a thin-film model for the free interfaces, which is derived asymptotically from the sharp-interface model.

  19. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław


    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  20. Separate vertical wiring for the fixation of comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoo, Je Hyun; Byun, Young Soo; Yang, Kyu Hyun


    Among patients over 50 years of age, separate vertical wiring alone may be insufficient for fixation of fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. Therefore, mechanical and clinical studies were performed in patients over the age of 50 to test the strength of augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire (i.e., combined technique). Multiple osteotomies were performed to create four-part fractures in the inferior poles of eight pairs of cadaveric patellae. One patella from each pair was fixed with the separate wiring technique, while the other patella was fixed with a combined technique. The ultimate load to failure and stiffness of the fixation were subsequently measured. In a clinical study of 21 patients (average age of 64 years), comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patellae were treated using the combined technique. Operative parameters were recorded from which post-operative outcomes were evaluated. For cadaveric patellae, whose mean age was 69 years, the mean ultimate loads to failure for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique were 216.4±72.4 N and 324.9±50.6 N, respectively (p=0.012). The mean stiffness for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique was 241.1±68.5 N/mm and 340.8±45.3 N/mm, respectively (p=0.012). In the clinical study, the mean clinical score at final follow-up was 28.1 points. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire provides enough strength for protected early exercise of the knee joint and uneventful healing.

  1. Concurrent and Separate Grade-Groups Linking Procedures for Vertical Scaling (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Sykes, Robert C.; Yao, Lihua


    Reading and Mathematics tests of multiple-choice items for grades Kindergarten through 9 were vertically scaled using the three-parameter logistic model and two different scaling procedures: concurrent and separate by grade groups. Item parameters were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology while fixing the grade 4 population…

  2. Vertical growth phase and positive sentinel node in thin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Filho R.S.


    Full Text Available Sentinel node (SN status is the most important prognostic factor for localized melanoma. Usually, patients with Breslow thickness of less than 1.0 mm are not included in SN protocols. However, the literature presents a rate ranging from 3 to 7% of nodal recurrence in thin melanoma. Ulceration, regression and high mitotic rate have been considered to be indications for an SN biopsy. The metastatic potential of the vertical growth phase is uncertain. To correlate pathological features in thin melanoma with SN metastasis, we reviewed 358 patients submitted to SN biopsy. Seventy-seven patients with lesions of 1 mm or smaller were included in the study group. Histological evaluation of the primary tumor included thickness, Clark level, mitotic rate, ulceration, regression, and growth phase. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed on all patients. Lymphatic mapping and gamma probe detection were both used for SN biopsy. Histological examination of SN consisted of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Median follow-up was 37 months. Six patients had micrometastases. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test showed that ulceration (P = 0.019, high mitotic rate (P = 0.008 and vertical growth phase (P = 0.002 were positively correlated with micrometastases. If other studies confirm these results, more melanoma patients must be submitted to SN biopsy.

  3. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure.

  4. Spin Filtering in Epitaxial Spinel Films with Nanoscale Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng


    The coexistence of ferromagnetic metallic phase and antiferromagnetic insulating phase in nanoscaled inhomogeneous perovskite oxides accounts for the colossal magnetoresistance. Although the model of spin-polarized electron transport across antiphase boundaries has been commonly employed to account for large magnetoresistance (MR) in ferrites, the magnetic anomalies, the two magnetic phases and enhanced molecular moment, are still unresolved. We observed a sizable MR in epitaxial spinel films (NiCo2O4-δ) that is much larger than that commonly observed in spinel ferrites. Detailed analysis reveals that this MR can be attributed to phase separation, in which the perfect ferrimagnetic metallic phase and ferrimagnetic insulating phase coexist. The magnetic insulating phase plays an important role in spin filtering in these phase separated spinel oxides, leading to a sizable MR effect. A spin filtering model based on Zeeman effect and direct tunneling is developed to account for MR of the phase separated films.

  5. Charge renormalization and phase separation in colloidal suspensions


    Diehl, Alexandre; BARBOSA, Marcia C.; Levin, Yan


    We explore the effects of counterion condensation on fluid-fluid phase separation in charged colloidal suspensions. It is found that formation of double layers around the colloidal particles stabilizes suspensions against phase separation. Addition of salt, however, produces an instability which, in principle, can lead to a fluid-fluid separation. The instability, however, is so weak that it should be impossible to observe a fully equilibrated coexistence experimentally.

  6. Membranes as separators of dispersed emulsion phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefferts, A.G.


    The reuse or discharge of industrial waste waters, containing small fractions of dispersed oil, requires a purification treatment for which membranes can be used. If only little oil is present, removal of the dispersed phase might be preferable to the more commonly applied removal of the

  7. Segregative phase separation in aqueous mixtures of polydisperse biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, M.W.


    Keywords: biopolymer, gelatine, dextran, PEO, phase separation, polydispersity, molar mass distribution, SEC-MALLS, CSLM The temperature-composition phase diagram of aqueous solutions of gelatine and dextran, which show liquid/liquid phase segregation, were explored at temperatures above the

  8. Continuum Theory of Phase Separation Kinetics for Active Brownian Particles (United States)

    Stenhammar, Joakim; Tiribocchi, Adriano; Allen, Rosalind J.; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E.


    Active Brownian particles (ABPs), when subject to purely repulsive interactions, are known to undergo activity-induced phase separation broadly resembling an equilibrium (attraction-induced) gas-liquid coexistence. Here we present an accurate continuum theory for the dynamics of phase-separating ABPs, derived by direct coarse graining, capturing leading-order density gradient terms alongside an effective bulk free energy. Such gradient terms do not obey detailed balance; yet we find coarsening dynamics closely resembling that of equilibrium phase separation. Our continuum theory is numerically compared to large-scale direct simulations of ABPs and accurately accounts for domain growth kinetics, domain topologies, and coexistence densities.

  9. Disturb-Free Three-Dimensional Vertical Floating Gate NAND with Separated-Sidewall Control Gate (United States)

    Seo, Moon-Sik; Endoh, Tetsuo


    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) vertical floating gate (FG) type NAND cell arrays with the sidewall control gate (SCG) structure are receiving attention to overcome the reliability issues of charge trap (CT) type 3D NAND. In order to achieve the multilevel cell (MLC) operation for lower bit cost in 3D NAND, it is important to eliminate reliability issues, such as the Vth distribution with interference and disturbance problems and Vth shift with retention issues. In this paper, we intensively investigated the disturbance problems of the 3D vertical FG type NAND cell with separated-sidewall control gate (S-SCG) structure for the reliable MLC operation. Above all, we successfully demonstrate the fully suppressed disturbance problems, such as indirect programming of the unselected cells, hot electron injection of the edge cells and direct influence to the neighboring passing cells, by using the S-SCG with 30 nm pillar size.

  10. Advanced Si solid phase crystallization for vertical channel in vertical NANDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsoo Lee


    Full Text Available The advanced solid phase crystallization (SPC method using the SiGe/Si bi-layer structure is proposed to obtain high-mobility poly-Si thin-film transistors in next generation vertical NAND (VNAND devices. During the SPC process, the top SiGe thin film acts as a selective nucleation layer to induce surface nucleation and equiaxial microstructure. Subsequently, this SiGe thin film microstructure is propagated to the underlying Si thin film by epitaxy-like growth. The initial nucleation at the SiGe surface was clearly observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM when heating up to 600 °C. The equiaxial microstructures of both SiGe nucleation and Si channel layers were shown in the crystallized bi-layer plan-view TEM measurements. Based on these experimental results, the large-grained and less-defective Si microstructure is expected to form near the channel region of each VNAND cell transistor, which may improve the electrical characteristics.

  11. Phase separation and the formation of cellular bodies (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Broedersz, Chase P.; Meir, Yigal; Wingreen, Ned S.

    Cellular bodies in eukaryotic cells spontaneously assemble to form cellular compartments. Among other functions, these bodies carry out essential biochemical reactions. Cellular bodies form micron-sized structures, which, unlike canonical cell organelles, are not surrounded by membranes. A recent in vitro experiment has shown that phase separation of polymers in solution can explain the formation of cellular bodies. We constructed a lattice-polymer model to capture the essential mechanism leading to this phase separation. We used both analytical and numerical tools to predict the phase diagram of a system of two interacting polymers, including the concentration of each polymer type in the condensed and dilute phase.

  12. Substrate chemistry regulates the surface phase separation of polyurethane films (United States)

    Xing, Juan; Pan, Xianchao; Wang, Jinfeng; Luo, Yanfeng

    The effect of substrate chemistry on surface phase separation of polyurethane films were investigated by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with chemically different modifications, i.e. hydroxy (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) end groups. Results showed that hydrophilic (-OH) and hydrophobic end groups (-CH3) could respectively promote the aggregation of hard and soft segments at polyurethane-substrate interface, which further regulates the phase separation of polyurethane surface that contacts the substrate. The aggregation of hard segments tended to enhance the surface smoothness of polyurethane films, especially on hydrophilic substrates with hydroxy modification. Further analysis of tensile testing revealed that the regulation of surface phase separation had no effect on the shape memory effect of polyurethane films. These findings suggest that the chemical properties of the substrates could regulate the phase separation and may provide some guidance on the design of specific polyurethane with desired morphology and properties.

  13. Rubisco separation using biocompatible aqueous two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Ruiz, C.A.; Berg, van den C.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.


    Mild and efficient separation processes have to be developed to convert microalgal biomass into high valuable products. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was adopted as a new approach in microalgae to separate hydrophilic from hydrophobic components. In this work, three biocompatible ATPSs

  14. 3D CFD simulation of Multi-phase flow separators (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiying


    During the exploitation of natural gas, some water and sands are contained. It will be better to separate water and sands from natural gas to insure favourable transportation and storage. In this study, we use CFD to analyse the effect of multi-phase flow separator, whose detailed geometrical parameters are designed in advanced. VOF model and DPM are used here. From the results of CFD, we can draw a conclusion that separated effect of multi-phase flow achieves better results. No solid and water is carried out from gas outlet. CFD simulation provides an economical and efficient approach to shed more light on details of the flow behaviour.

  15. "Dealloying" Phase Separation during Growth of Au on Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. Pleth; Besenbacher, Flemming; Stensgaard, I.


    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ion-scattering studies have revealed a new "dealloying" phase transition during the growth of Au on Ni(110). The Au atoms, which initially alloy into the Ni(110) surface, phase separate into a vacancy-stabilized Au dimer-trimer chain structure at Au...

  16. Fine mist versus large droplets in phase separated manganites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D; Khomskii, L


    The properties of phase-separated systems, e.g., manganites close to a first-order phase transition between charge-ordered insulator and ferromagnetic metal, are usually described by percolation picture. We argue that the correlated occupation of metallic sites leads to the preferential formation of

  17. Pancharatnam phase in non-separable states of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu; Lal, Nijil; A, Aadhi; Anwar, Ali; Singh, R P


    We generate the non-separable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) using a laser beam. The generated state undergoes a cyclic polarization evolution which introduces a Pancharatnam geometric phase to the polarization state and in turn a relative phase in the non-separable state. We experimentally study the violation of Bell - CHSH inequality for different Pancharatnam phases introduced by various cyclic polarization evolutions with linear and circular states as measurement bases. While measuring in linear bases, the Bell-CHSH parameter oscillates with Pancharatnam phase. One can overcome this dependence by introducing a relative phase in one of the projecting state. However for measurement in circular bases, the Pancharatnam phase does not affect the Bell-CHSH violation.

  18. Mesoporous Silica Thin Membranes with Large Vertical Mesochannels for Nanosize-Based Separation. (United States)

    Liu, Yupu; Shen, Dengke; Chen, Gang; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Pal, Manas; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Longlong; Lin, Jianjian; Al-Dahyan, Daifallah; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dongyuan


    Membrane separation technologies are of great interest in industrial processes such as water purification, gas separation, and materials synthesis. However, commercial filtration membranes have broad pore size distributions, leading to poor size cutoff properties. In this work, mesoporous silica thin membranes with uniform and large vertical mesochannels are synthesized via a simple biphase stratification growth method, which possess an intact structure over centimeter size, ultrathin thickness (≤50 nm), high surface areas (up to 1420 m2 g-1 ), and tunable pore sizes from ≈2.8 to 11.8 nm by adjusting the micelle parameters. The nanofilter devices based on the free-standing mesoporous silica thin membranes show excellent performances in separating differently sized gold nanoparticles (>91.8%) and proteins (>93.1%) due to the uniform pore channels. This work paves a promising way to develop new membranes with well-defined pore diameters for highly efficient nanosize-based separation at the macroscale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phase Separation Dynamics in Isotropic Ion-Intercalation Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi


    Lithium-ion batteries exhibit complex nonlinear dynamics, resulting from diffusion and phase transformations coupled to ion intercalation reactions. Using the recently developed Cahn-Hilliard reaction (CHR) theory, we investigate a simple mathematical model of ion intercalation in a spherical solid nanoparticle, which predicts transitions from solid-solution radial diffusion to two-phase shrinking-core dynamics. This general approach extends previous Li-ion battery models, which either neglect phase separation or postulate a spherical shrinking-core phase boundary, by predicting phase separation only under appropriate circumstances. The effect of the applied current is captured by generalized Butler-Volmer kinetics, formulated in terms of diffusional chemical potentials, and the model consistently links the evolving concentration profile to the battery voltage. We examine sources of charge/discharge asymmetry, such as asymmetric charge transfer and surface "wetting" by ions within the solid, which can lead to...

  20. Dynamic phase separation of fluid membranes with rigid inclusions. (United States)

    Weikl, Thomas R


    Membrane shape fluctuations induce attractive interactions between rigid inclusions. Previous analytical studies showed that the fluctuation-induced pair interactions are rather small compared to thermal energies, but also that multibody interactions cannot be neglected. In this paper, it is shown numerically that shape fluctuations indeed lead to the dynamic separation of the membrane into phases with different inclusion concentrations. The tendency of lateral phase separation strongly increases with the inclusion size. Large inclusions aggregate at very small inclusion concentrations and for relatively small values of the inclusions' elastic modulus.

  1. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes. (United States)

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M


    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de'Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120-140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30-40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70-80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes (United States)

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M.


    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de’Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120–140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30–40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70–80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. PMID:28049708

  3. Short communication Stability and phase separation behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of barium carbonate (BaCO3) suspensions in the presence of the dispersants, xanthan gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carrageenan, has been studied using a phase separation technique. These materials have been found to stabilise the BaCO3 suspensions by increasing the viscosity of the medium.

  4. Thermally Triggered Phase Separation of Organic Electrolyte-Cellulose Solutions. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Heitor F N; Clough, Matthew T; Rinaldi, Roberto


    Organic electrolyte solutions (OES)-binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL) with a neutral polar aprotic co-solvent-are being recognized as excellent candidate solvents for the dissolution, derivatization, and sustainable processing of cellulose. These solutions exhibit the beneficially combined properties of rapid-to-instantaneous cellulose dissolution, raised thermal stability, and reduced viscosity, compared to cellulose solutions in the parent ILs. Herein, we report the reversible, thermally triggered phase separation of cellulose solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone. In these solutions, cellulose drives the process of phase separation, resulting in a lower, IL-rich layer in which the biopolymer is segregated. In turn, the upper phase is enriched in the neutral co-solvent. We show that the temperature of phase separation can be fine-tuned by modification of mole fractions of IL, co-solvent, and cellulose. This finding holds promise for the design of strategies for separation and solvent recycling in cellulose chemistry. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Speciation and phase separation of water in quartz (A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation, supersaturation and phase separation of water in hydrothermal grown (synthetic) quartz cryst-als have been examined as fundamental issues determining clustering, nucleation and bubble formation, which have profound influence on hydrolytic weakening, dislocation-bubble interactions and high temperature ...

  6. Nonequilibrium patterns in phase-separating ternary membranes (United States)

    Gómez, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc; Reigada, Ramon


    We present a nonequilibrium approach for the study of a two-dimensional phase-separating ternary mixture. When the component that promotes phase separation is dynamically exchanged with the medium, the separation process is halted and actively maintained finite-size segregation domains appear in the system. In addition to this effect, already reported in our earlier work [J. Gómez, F. Sagués, and R. Reigada, Phys. Rev. E 77, 021907 (2008)], the use of a generic Ginzburg-Landau formalism and the inclusion of thermal fluctuations provide a more dynamic description of the resulting domain organization. Its size, shape, and stability properties are studied. Larger and more circular and stable domains are formed when decreasing the recycling rate, increasing the mobility of the exchanged component, and the mixture is quenched deeper. We expect this outcome to be of applicability in raft phenomenology in plasmatic cell membranes.

  7. Dynamical phase separation using a microfluidic device: experiments and modeling (United States)

    Aymard, Benjamin; Vaes, Urbain; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Pradas, Marc; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team


    We study the dynamical phase separation of a binary fluid by a microfluidic device both from the experimental and from the modeling points of view. The experimental device consists of a main channel (600 μm wide) leading into an array of 276 trapezoidal capillaries of 5 μm width arranged on both sides and separating the lateral channels from the main channel. Due to geometrical effects as well as wetting properties of the substrate, and under well chosen pressure boundary conditions, a multiphase flow introduced into the main channel gets separated at the capillaries. Understanding this dynamics via modeling and numerical simulation is a crucial step in designing future efficient micro-separators. We propose a diffuse-interface model, based on the classical Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes system, with a new nonlinear mobility and new wetting boundary conditions. We also propose a novel numerical method using a finite-element approach, together with an adaptive mesh refinement strategy. The complex geometry is captured using the same computer-aided design files as the ones adopted in the fabrication of the actual device. Numerical simulations reveal a very good qualitative agreement between model and experiments, demonstrating also a clear separation of phases.

  8. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James


    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  9. Phase separation of metallic hydrogen-helium alloys (United States)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.; Beck, H.


    Calculations are presented for the thermodynamic functions and phase-separation boundaries of solid metallic hydrogen-helium alloys at temperatures between zero and 19,000 K and at pressures between 15 and 90 Mbar. Expressions for the band-structure energy of a randomly disordered alloy (including third order in the electron-ion interaction) are derived and evaluated. Short- and long-range orders are included by the quasi-chemical method, and lattice dynamics in the virtual-crystal harmonic approximation. It is concluded that at temperatures below 4000 K, there is essentially complete phase separation of hydrogen-helium alloys and that a miscibility gap remains at the highest temperatures and pressures considered. The relevance of these results to models of the deep interior of Jupiter is briefly discussed.

  10. Tc anisotropy and phase separation in strained Vanadium Dioxide films (United States)

    Liu, Mengkun; Wagner, Martin; Abreu, Elsa; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; McLeod, Alexander; Goldflam, Michael; Fei, Zhe; Dai, Siyuan; Fogler, Michael; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart; Averitt, Richard; Basov, D. N.


    We report Infrared near field study on strain induced transition temperature (Tc) anisotropy in vanadium dioxide (VO2) films via direct visualization of a spontaneous structural and electronic phase separation. The films are epitaxially grown on [110]R or [100]R TiO2 substrates and exhibit large uniaxial strain. By mapping the film topography with AFM and electronic percolation with Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy, a temperature dependent electron-lattice correlation can be clearly observed. Our work sheds a new light onto the nature of the Tc anomaly in metal-insulator transition and leads to the possibility of controlling the material's properties through strain induced phase separation.

  11. Vertical resolved separation of aerosol types using CALIPSO level-2 product (United States)

    Giannakaki, Elina; Balis, Dimitris; Amiridis, Vassilis


    A lidar-based method was used to separate profiles of optical parameters due to different aerosol types over different European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET) stations. The method makes uses of particle backscatter profiles at 532 nm and vertically resolved linear particle depolarization ratio measurements at the same wavelength. Values of particle depolarization ratio of 'pure' aerosol types (Saharan dust, biomass burning aerosols, anthropogenic aerosols, Volcanic ash aerosols) were taken from literature. Cases of CALIPSO space-borne lidar system were selected on the basis of different mixing state of the atmosphere over EARLINET stations. To identify the origin of air-masses four-day air mass back trajectories were computed using HYbrid Single-Particle Langrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, for different arrival heights, for the location and time under study was used. Also, the Dust REgional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) model was used to identify cases where dust from Saharan region was affecting the place under study. For our analysis we have used Atmospheric Volume Description (AVD), Cloud-Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) and extinction Quality Control (QC) flags to screen out CALIOP data. The method was applied for different horizontal resolution of 5, 25, 45 and 105 km. The height-resolved lidar results were finally compared with column-integrated products obtained with Aerosol Robotic Network Sun photometer (AERONET) in order to see to what extent Sun photometer columnar data are representative when different aerosol layers are present in the atmosphere.

  12. Separation of granulocytes from whole blood by leukoadhesion, phase 1 (United States)


    Capillary glass tubes are investigated for the separation and retrieval of large quantities of viable granulocytes and monocytes from whole blood on a continuous basis from a single donor. This effort represented the feasibility demonstration of a three phase program for development of a capillary tube cell separation device. The activity included the analysis and parametric laboratory testing with subscale models required to design a prototype device. Capillary tubes 40 cm long with a nominal 0.030 cm internal diameter yielded the highest total process efficiency. Recovery efficiencies as high as 89% of the adhering cell population were obtained. Granulocyte phagocytosis of latex particles indicated approximately 90% viability. Monocytes recovered from the separation column retained their capability to stimulate human bone marrow colony growth, as demonstrated in an in vitro cell culture assay.

  13. Interplay of wetting and phase separation at surfaces (United States)

    Puri, Sanjay


    We review our understanding of surface-directed spinodal decomposition (SDSD), i.e., the interplay of wetting and phase separation in an unstable AB mixture placed in contact with a wetting surface. In this context, we present results for two problems, viz., SDSD in a semi-infinite geometry with a completely wet surface; and SDSD in a thin-film geometry with partially wet surfaces.

  14. Silk fibroin gelation via non-solvent induced phase separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasoju, Naresh; Hawkins, N.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Kubies, Dana; Vollrath, F.


    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2016), s. 460-473 ISSN 2047-4830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : silk fibroin * non-solvent induced phase separation * desolvation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.210, year: 2016

  15. Membrane lateral phase separations and chlortetracycline transport by Bacillus megaterium (United States)

    Dockter, Michael E.; Trumble, William R.; Magnuson, James A.


    Chlortetracycline, a fluorescent probe of its own active transport, has been used to study lateral phase separations of membrane lipid in Bacillus megaterium cells. Arrhenius plots of initial accumulation rates are triphasic, with transitions or characteristic temperatures of 20° and 9.5°. At the higher temperature, the mobility of the chloretracycline, as measured by fluorescence polarization, is markedly altered. Chlortetracycline transport exhibits saturation kinetics, and fluorescence energy transfer from protein to bound antibiotic can be observed. N-Phenyl-1-naphthylamine, a lipophilic fluorescent probe, responds to changes in the hydrophobic regions of the membrane that are distinct from membrane protein. The fluorescent properties of N-phenylnaphthylamine in partitioning and polarization experiments are altered most significantly at the lower characteristic temperature. No fluorescence energy transfer between N-phenylnaphthylamine and membrane protein or bound tetracycline can be detected. In correlative electron spin resonance experiments on the partitioning of a lipid-soluble spin label, the same characteristic temperatures detected in the fluorescence studies were measured. These data suggest that different probes may respond to either or both of the characteristic temperatures describing the lateral phase separation. Between these characteristic temperatures the chlortetracycline transport system is most intimately associated with relatively immobile lipids that are surrounded by a more mobile lipid phase. PMID:418409

  16. A theory of phase separation in asphaltene-micellar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Sanchez, Juan H. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    A theory of phase separation in micellar solutions of asphaltene in aromatic hydrocarbons was reported in this paper, based on both the approach of the phase behavior of amphiphile/water micelles, and the self-association of asphaltene in aromatic core. Several experimental techniques have been used by different investigators showing the existence of some kind of critical micellar concentration (CMC) on asphaltenes in aromatic solutions. So, at least asphaltene-monomer and asphaltene-micellar phases are experimentally demonstrated facts. These two phases are the main purpose in this report on a theoretical model. Some results show the temperature versus asphaltene concentration phase diagram. The phase diagram is examined against the limited critical micelle concentration data for asphaltenes-in-toluene systems. Such phase diagram is also qualitatively examined against an experimental demonstration of phase separation. The asphaltene-micelle growth depends on the parameter K responsible for the shape and size of it. At the same time, parameter K depends on both the number of asphaltene-monomer associated in the asphaltene-micelle, and the chemical potentials in the interior and in the periphery of the micelle. An expression for getting the number of asphaltene-monomers self-associated in the asphaltene-micelle was obtained. [Spanish] Se reporta una teoria de separacion de fases en soluciones micelares de asfalteno en hidrocarburos aromaticos, basada tanto en la conducta de fase de micelas formadas por anififilos en agua como en la autoasociacion de asfaltenos en nucleos aromaticos. Se han usado diversas tecnicas experimentales por diferentes investigadores que demuestran la existancia de algun tipo de concentracion micelar critica (CMC) de soluciones de asfaltenos en aromaticos. Entonces, al menos las fases de asfalteno-monomerico y de asfalteno-micelar son hechos experimentalmente demostrados. Esta dos fases son el principal proposito de este reporte en un modelo

  17. Correlated process of phase separation and microstructure evolution of ternary Co-Cu-Pb alloy (United States)

    Yan, N.; Wang, W. L.; Luo, S. B.; Hu, L.; Wei, B.


    The phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid ternary Co45Cu42Pb13 immiscible alloy have been investigated under both bulk undercooling and containerless processing conditions. The undercooled bulk alloy is solidified as a vertical two-layer structure, whereas the containerlessly solidified alloy droplet is characterized by core-shell structures. The dendritic growth velocity of primary α(Co) phase shows a power-law relation to undercooling and achieves a maximum of 1.52 m/s at the undercooling of 112 K. The Pb content is always enriched in Cu-rich zone and depleted in Co-rich zone. Numerical analyses indicate that the Stokes motion, solutal Marangoni convection, thermal Marangoni convection, and interfacial energy play the main roles in the correlated process of macrosegregation evolution and microstructure formation.

  18. Vapors-liquid phase separator. [infrared telescope heat sink (United States)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.


    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  19. Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers. (United States)

    Shelton, R K; Ma, L S; Kapteyn, H C; Murnane, M M; Hall, J L; Ye, J


    We generated a coherently synthesized optical pulse from two independent mode-locked femtosecond lasers, providing a route to extend the coherent bandwidth available for ultrafast science. The two separate lasers (one centered at 760 nanometers wavelength, the other at 810 nanometers) are tightly synchronized and phase-locked. Coherence between the two lasers is demonstrated via spectral interferometry and second-order field cross-correlation. Measurements reveal a coherently synthesized pulse that has a temporally narrower second-order autocorrelation width and that exhibits a larger amplitude than the individual laser outputs. This work represents a new and flexible approach to the synthesis of coherent light.

  20. Colossal magnetoresistance and phase separation in manganite thin films (United States)

    Srivastava, M. K.; Agarwal, V.; Kaur, A.; Singh, H. K.


    In the present work, polycrystalline Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 thin films were prepared on LSAT (001) single crystal substrates by ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction θ-2θ scan reveals that these films (i) have very good crystallinity, (ii) are oriented along out-of-plane c-direction, and (iii) are under small tensile strain. The impact of oxygen vacancy results into (i) higher value of paramagnetic insulator (PMI) to ferromagnetic metal (FMM) transition temperature, i.e., TC/TIM, (ii) sharper PMI-FMM transition, (iii) higher value of magnetization and magnetic saturation moment, and (iv) higher value of magnetoresistance (˜99%). We suggest here that oxygen vacancy favors FMM phase while oxygen vacancy annihilation leads to antiferromagnetic-charge ordered insulator (AFM-COI) phase. The observed results have been explained in context of phase separation (PS) caused by different fractions of the competing FMM and AFM-COI phases.

  1. A fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes: Phase field modeling and analytical results (United States)

    Haftbaradaran, H.; Maddahian, A.; Mossaiby, F.


    It is well known that phase separation could severely intensify mechanical degradation and expedite capacity fading in lithium-ion battery electrodes during electrochemical cycling. Experiments have frequently revealed that such degradation effects could be substantially mitigated via reducing the electrode feature size to the nanoscale. The purpose of this work is to present a fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes. To this end, a phase field model is utilized to predict how phase separation affects evolution of the solute distribution and stress profile in a planar electrode. Behavior of the preexisting flaws in the electrode in response to the diffusion induced stresses is then examined via computing the time dependent stress intensity factor arising at the tip of flaws during both the insertion and extraction half-cycles. Further, adopting a sharp-interphase approximation of the system, a critical electrode thickness is derived below which the phase separating electrode becomes flaw tolerant. Numerical results of the phase field model are also compared against analytical predictions of the sharp-interphase model. The results are further discussed with reference to the available experiments in the literature. Finally, some of the limitations of the model are cautioned.

  2. Phase changes induced by ketamine in the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in the rabbit. (United States)

    Favilla, M; Ghelarducci, B; La Noce, A; Starita, A


    The effect of ketamine has been tested on the phase of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex of rabbits sinusoidally oscillated at various frequencies. A significant phase lag, predominantly affecting the macular component of the reflex, was observed. This action resembles that induced by Nembutal in the same preparation. A specific action of ketamine on synaptic transmission is suggested. Erroneous phase relationship between natural stimuli responses can be obtained in experiments employing ketamine.

  3. Bioinspired phase-separated disordered nanostructures for thin photovoltaic absorbers. (United States)

    Siddique, Radwanul H; Donie, Yidenekachew J; Gomard, Guillaume; Yalamanchili, Sisir; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Lemmer, Uli; Hölscher, Hendrik


    The wings of the black butterfly, Pachliopta aristolochiae, are covered by micro- and nanostructured scales that harvest sunlight over a wide spectral and angular range. Considering that these properties are particularly attractive for photovoltaic applications, we analyze the contribution of these micro- and nanostructures, focusing on the structural disorder observed in the wing scales. In addition to microspectroscopy experiments, we conduct three-dimensional optical simulations of the exact scale structure. On the basis of these results, we design nanostructured thin photovoltaic absorbers of disordered nanoholes, which combine efficient light in-coupling and light-trapping properties together with a high angular robustness. Finally, inspired by the phase separation mechanism of self-assembled biophotonic nanostructures, we fabricate these bioinspired absorbers using a scalable, self-assembly patterning technique based on the phase separation of binary polymer mixture. The nanopatterned absorbers achieve a relative integrated absorption increase of 90% at a normal incident angle of light to as high as 200% at large incident angles, demonstrating the potential of black butterfly structures for light-harvesting purposes in thin-film solar cells.

  4. Recent advances in liquid-phase separations for clinical metabolomics. (United States)

    Kohler, Isabelle; Giera, Martin


    Over the last decades, several technological improvements have been achieved in liquid-based separation techniques, notably, with the advent of fully porous sub-2 μm particles and superficially porous sub-3 μm particles, the comeback of supercritical fluid chromatography, and the development of alternative chromatographic modes such as hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Combined with mass spectrometry, these techniques have demonstrated their added value, substantially increasing separation efficiency, selectivity, and speed of analysis. These benefits are essential in modern clinical metabolomics typically involving the study of large-scale sample cohorts and the analysis of thousands of metabolites showing extensive differences in physicochemical properties. This review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in liquid-phase separation sciences in the context of clinical metabolomics, focusing on increased throughput as well as metabolite coverage. Relevant metabolomics applications highlighting the benefits of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, core-shell technology, high-temperature liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and hydrophilic interaction chromatography are discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effects of surfactin on membrane models displaying lipid phase separation. (United States)

    Deleu, Magali; Lorent, Joseph; Lins, Laurence; Brasseur, Robert; Braun, Nathalie; El Kirat, Karim; Nylander, Tommy; Dufrêne, Yves F; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule


    Surfactin, a bacterial amphiphilic lipopeptide is attracting more and more attention in view of its bioactive properties which are in relation with its ability to interact with lipids of biological membranes. In this work, we investigated the effect of surfactin on membrane structure using model of membranes, vesicles as well as supported bilayers, presenting coexistence of fluid-disordered (DOPC) and gel (DPPC) phases. A range of complementary methods was used including AFM, ellipsometry, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence measurements of Laurdan, DPH, calcein release, and octadecylrhodamine B dequenching. Our findings demonstrated that surfactin concentration is critical for its effect on the membrane. The results suggest that the presence of rigid domains can play an essential role in the first step of surfactin insertion and that surfactin interacts both with the membrane polar heads and the acyl chain region. A mechanism for the surfactin lipid membrane interaction, consisting of three sequential structural and morphological changes, is proposed. At concentrations below the CMC, surfactin inserted at the boundary between gel and fluid lipid domains, inhibited phase separation and stiffened the bilayer without global morphological change of liposomes. At concentrations close to CMC, surfactin solubilized the fluid phospholipid phase and increased order in the remainder of the lipid bilayer. At higher surfactin concentrations, both the fluid and the rigid bilayer structures were dissolved into mixed micelles and other structures presenting a wide size distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Lin


    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support

  7. Intelligent System for Diagnosis of a Three-Phase Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ioniţă


    Full Text Available Intelligent systems for diagnosis have been used in a variety of domains: financial evaluation, credit scoring problem, identification of software and hardware problems of mechanical and electronic equipment, medical diagnosis, fault detection in gas-oil production plants etc. The goal of diagnosis systems is to classify the observed symptoms as being caused by some diagnosis class while advising systems perform such a classification and offer corrective remedies (recommendations. The current paper discuss the opportunity to combine more intelligent techniques and methodologies (intelligent agents, data mining and expert systems to increase the accuracy of results obtained from the diagnosis of a three-phase separator. The results indicate that the diagnosis hybrid system benefits from the advantages of each module component: intelligent agent module, data mining module and expert system module.

  8. Role of lipid phase separations and membrane hydration in phospholipid vesicle fusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D.


    The relationship between lipid phase separation and fusion of small unilamellar phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles was investigated. The kinetics of phase separation were monitored by following the increase of self-quenching of the fluorescent phospholipid analogue

  9. Amphiphilic and phase-separable ionic liquids for biomass processing. (United States)

    Holding, Ashley J; Heikkilä, Mikko; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; King, Alistair W T


    One main limiting factor for the technoeconomics of future bioprocesses that use ionic liquids (ILs) is the recovery of the expensive and potentially toxic IL. We have demonstrated a new series of phase-separable ionic liquids, based on the hydrophobic tetraalkylphosphonium cation ([PRRRR](+)), that can dissolve lignin in the neat state but also hemicellulose and high-purity cellulose in the form of their electrolyte solutions with dipolar aprotic solvents. For example, the IL trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P8881][OAc]) was demonstrated to dissolve up to 19 wt % of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at 60 °C with the addition of 40 wt % of DMSO. It was found that the MCC saturation point is dependent on the molar ratio of DMSO and IL in solution. At the optimum saturation, a ∼1:1 molar ratio of [P8881][OAc] to anhydroglucose units is observed, which demonstrates highly efficient solvation. This is attributed to the positive contribution that these more amphiphilic cation-anion pairs provide, in the context of the Lindman hypothesis. This effective dissolution is further illustrated by solution-state HSQC NMR spectroscopy on MCC. Finally, it is also demonstrated that these electrolytes are phase separable by the addition of aqueous solutions. The addition of 10 % NaOAc solution allows a near quantitative recovery of high-purity [P8881][OAc]. However, increased volumes of aqueous solution reduced the recovery. The regenerated material was found to partially convert into the cellulose II crystalline polymorph. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The State of GPS Vertical Positioning Precision : Separation of Earth Processes by Space Geodesy

    CERN Document Server


    Observed signals in GPS data are the sum of noise and real crustal motions. Interpretation of the data depends on our ability to extract a signal of interest from the total signal. This workshop will highlight the difficulties associated with extracting a signal such as post-glacial rebound, plate tectonics or loading, from vertical geodetic data.

  11. Diffusion-limited phase separation in eukaryotic chemotaxis (United States)

    Gamba, Andrea; de Candia, Antonio; Di Talia, Stefano; Coniglio, Antonio; Bussolino, Federico; Serini, Guido


    The ability of cells to sense spatial gradients of chemoattractant factors governs the development of complex eukaryotic organisms. Cells exposed to shallow chemoattractant gradients respond with strong accumulation of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its D3-phosphoinositide product (PIP3) on the plasma membrane side exposed to the highest chemoattractant concentration, whereas PIP3-degrading enzyme PTEN and its product PIP2 localize in a complementary pattern. Such an early symmetry-breaking event is a mandatory step for directed cell movement elicited by chemoattractants, but its physical origin is still mysterious. Here, we propose that directional sensing is the consequence of a phase-ordering process mediated by phosphoinositide diffusion and driven by the distribution of chemotactic signal. By studying a realistic reaction–diffusion lattice model that describes PI3K and PTEN enzymatic activity, recruitment to the plasma membrane, and diffusion of their phosphoinositide products, we show that the effective enzyme–enzyme interaction induced by catalysis and diffusion introduces an instability of the system toward phase separation for realistic values of physical parameters. In this framework, large reversible amplification of shallow chemotactic gradients, selective localization of chemical factors, macroscopic response timescales, and spontaneous polarization arise naturally. The model is robust with respect to order-of-magnitude variations of the parameters. PMID:16291809


    A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

  13. Phase tuning in two-dimensional coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array. (United States)

    Xun, Meng; Xu, Chen; Xie, Yiyang; Deng, Jun; Jiang, Guoqing; Pan, Guanzhong; Dong, Yibo; Chen, Hongda


    Implant-defined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays can be designed to operate in in-phase mode. However, the nonuniformities in fabrication process impact the resonance selection and the devices do not follow expected trends. Coherent coupling was demonstrated in three-element VCSEL arrays via phase tuning of elements. In-phase mode and out-of-phase mode were both achieved in most of the arrays. Moreover, coherent coupling can decrease the threshold current of elements in the array. Improved output power was also clearly observed when the array operated in the in-phase mode. Arbitrary phase combination of the array elements can be obtained via the phase tuning. This technology is able to improve the reproducibility and practicability of the implant-defined coherently coupled VCSEL array.

  14. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob


    , obtained in continuous mode by a Grignard reaction in THF, reacted with acidic water to produce partially miscible organic and aqueous phases containing Mg salts. Despite the partial THF–water miscibility, the two phases could be separated at total flow rates up to 40 mL/min at different flow ratios, using......Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product...

  15. Influence of phase separator design on the performance of UASB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2016 ... effluent virtually free from settleable solids can be discharged. .... in the gas chamber. Additional solid-liquid separation occurs in the settling zone above the separator elements: particles with sufficiently high settling rates will overcome the ... ventional separator and effects the separation of the biogas and.

  16. Flexible Bistable Smectic-A Liquid Crystal Device Using Photolithography and Photoinduced Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu


    Full Text Available A flexible bistable smectic-A liquid crystal (SmA LC device using pixel-isolated mode was demonstrated, in which SmA LC molecules were isolated in pixels by vertical polymer wall and horizontal polymer layer. The above microstructure was achieved by using ultraviolet (UV photolithography and photoinduced phase separation. The polymer wall was fabricated by photolithography, and then the SmA LC was encapsulated in pixels between polymer wall through UV-induced phase separation, in which the polymer wall acts as supporting structure from mechanical pressure and maintains the cell gap from bending, and the polymer layer acts as adhesive for tight attachment of two substrates. The results demonstrated that all the intrinsic bistable properties of the SmA LC are preserved, and good electrooptical characteristics such as high contrast ratio and excellent stability of the bistable states were characterized. This kind of SmA bistable flexible display has high potential to be used as electronic paper, smart switchable reflective windows, and so forth.

  17. Two-phase flow modelling for oxygen renewal estimation in vertical flow filter: luxury or necessity? (United States)

    Forquet, N; Wanko, A; Molle, P; Mosé, R; Sadowski, A-G


    Scientists and practitioners exhibit an increasing interest on effluent transfer and degradation modelling in Vertical Flow Sand Filters (VFSF) and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW). Modelling software used to this purpose is mainly monophasic: in the unsaturated zone, only water flow is taken into account and air phase influence is assumed to be negligible. In hydrology, many studies have point out the limitations of this assumption in order to quantify air phase movement but little has been done in the modelling of vertical flow filter. Despite its complexity, two-phase flow modelling allows to overcome these difficulties. In this work, we describe the complex air and water flows in the particular case of vertical flow filter fed intermittently using both numerical and experimental results. Complete different behaviour is observed depending on ponding occurs or not. If it does, flow is clearly influenced by air entrapment which is responsible of a reduction of the infiltration speed and of the drainage of a part of the water kept at the interface between the sand and the drainage layer. Finally, we study the dependency of oxygen income by convection on hydraulic load and compare numerical results with experimental results obtained on oxygen consumption.

  18. Theory of Phase Separation in a Polydisperse Polymerizing Mixture (United States)

    Taylor, Philip; Kraig, Robert


    Theoretical studies of the process of phase separation in a polymerizing mixture frequently start by combining some established formalisms. The Flory-Huggins theory gives an expression for the free energy of a polymer in solution, while the Cahn-Hilliard theory gives a means with which to follow the time development of the system and to predict the length scale characterizing the resulting heterogeneous structure. A weakness of this approach is that Flory-Huggins theory describes an essentially monodisperse system, in which all polymer molecules are assumed to have the same molecular weight. We have developed a more powerful formalism, in which the polydispersity is taken into account. The basic ingredients of this theory are the partial differential equations that describe the local concentrations of the solvent and of the various monomers and oligomers that constitute the polymerizing system. Of these, the simplest is the continuity equation that describes the diffusion of solvent within a polymerizing matrix. This requires a description of the rate of movement of solvent and of each type of oligomer in a concentration gradient of each constituent. The more difficult task is the formulation and solution of the set of equations (in principle an infinite set) that describe the polymerization process, and hence the time rate of variation of the concentration of each constituent.

  19. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases. (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline


    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Theory of multiple phase separations in binary mixtures: Phase diagrams, thermodynamic properties, and comparisons with experiments (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Walker, James S.


    The lattice-gas models of phase separating binary liquid mixtures, introduced by Walker and Vause, are studied in detail and generalized within a high-temperature series expansion. This approximation allows for a straightforward study of rather complex, orientationally specific pair interactions, like those found in real systems. These theories can predict much of the complex miscibility phenomena often found in these mixtures, which are characterized by hydrogen-bonding interactions. Such phenomena include up to five critical solution points as a function of temperature. By comparisons with experiments, we determine the model parameters, thus mapping these experiments onto the global phase diagrams. These experiments include studies of the dependence of liquid/liquid miscibility on temperature, pressure, concentration of electrolytes, and addition of a dilute third component. Specifically, we make direct comparison with various experiments on the binary systems 2-butanol+H2O, 3-methyl pyridine+H2O(D2O), gylcerol +o- methoxy phenol and ethanol+H2O+electrolytes. Very simple and often easily interpreted trends in the parameters are found and quantitative agreement with experiments is possible with minimum parametric freedom. Explicit predictions of critical exponent renormalization in several systems are made. In addition, suggestions are made for a number of light scattering and specific heat experiments, some of which may demonstrate incipient critical behavior, such as the onset of long range correlations, in systems not undergoing phase separation.

  1. A novel mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flows (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a two-phase mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, I propose a fundamentally new mechanism, called 'separation-flux', that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows. This new model extends the general two-phase debris flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) to include a separation-flux mechanism. The new flux separation mechanism is capable of describing and controlling the dynamically evolving phase-separation, segregation, and/or levee formation in a real two-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow motion and deposition. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects that result in strong phase-separation (segregation). These include pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, boundary structures, gravity and topographic constraints, grain shape, size, etc. Due to the inherent separation mechanism, as the mass moves down slope, more and more solid particles are brought to the front, resulting in a solid-rich and mechanically strong frontal surge head followed by a weak tail largely consisting of the viscous fluid. The primary frontal surge head followed by secondary surge is the consequence of the phase-separation. Such typical and dominant phase-separation phenomena are revealed here for the first time in real two-phase debris flow modeling and simulations. However, these phenomena may depend on the bulk material composition and the applied forces. Reference: Pudasaini, Shiva P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186.

  2. Phase Separation Behavior and System Properties of Aqueous Two-Phase Systems with Polyethylene Glycol and Different Salts: Experiment and Correlation


    Haihua Yuan; Yang Liu; Wanqian Wei; Yongjie Zhao


    The phase separation behaviors of PEG1000/sodium citrate, PEG4000/sodium citrate, PEG1000/ammonium sulfate, and PEG4000/ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were investigated, respectively. There are two distinct situations for the phase separation rate in the investigated aqueous two-phase systems: one state is top-continuous phase with slow phase separation rate and strong bottom-continuous phase with fast phase separation rate and weak volume ratio dependence. The system properties s...

  3. Enhancing size based size separation through vertical focus microfluidics using secondary flow in a ridged microchannel. (United States)

    Tasadduq, Bushra; Lam, Wilbur; Alexeev, Alexander; Sarioglu, A Fatih; Sulchek, Todd


    High throughput size based separation and sorting of bioparticles and cells is critical to a variety of biomedical processing steps for medical diagnostics and pharmaceutical purification. Improving microfluidic size-based particle/cell sorting is a challenge to better address the need for generating more homogeneous subpopulations for study and use. We propose a novel advance to microfluidic sorting devices that uses three-dimensional focusing of the sample to optimally position particles to amplify the size-dependent differences in trajectories caused by differential secondary flows. The result is an increase in the purity of small particles by 35- fold and large particles by 8-fold in comparison to unfocused flow. Our simulated and experimental data reveal for the first time that positioning particles in three-dimensional space can be used to better leverage the differential lateral movement of particles with different sizes as they flow in microchannel with transverse secondary flows. The focusing approach may also be useful to improve positioning of particles with inertial channels with multiple equilibrium positions. This technique performs continuous-flow, high throughput size based sorting of millions of particles and cells in a minute without any pre and post-processing. We have also demonstrated improved enrichment and recovery of white blood cells from human blood.

  4. Axi-symmetric simulation of a two phase vertical thermosyphon using Eulerian two-fluid methodology (United States)

    Kafeel, Khurram; Turan, Ali


    Numerical simulation of steady state operation of a vertical two phase closed thermosyphon is performed using the two-fluid methodology within Eulerian multiphase domain. A full scale axi-symmetric model is developed for computational fluid dynamics simulation of thermosyphon using ANSYS/FLUENT 13.0. The effects of evaporation, condensation and interfacial heat and mass transfer are taken into account within the whole domain. Cooling water jacket is also modelled along with the wall of thermosyphon to simulate the effect of conjugate heat transfer between the wall and fluid phase. The results obtained are presented and compared with available experimental investigations for a similar thermosyphon. It is established that two-fluid methodology can be used effectively for the purpose of simulation of two phase system like a typical thermosyphon.

  5. Study of nitrogen two-phase flow pressure drop in horizontal and vertical orientation (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Kirsch, H.; Santandrea, D.; Bremer, J.


    The large-scale liquid argon Short Baseline Neutrino Far-detector located at Fermilab is designed to detect neutrinos allowing research in the field of neutrino oscillations. It will be filled with liquid argon and operate at almost ambient pressure. Consequently, its operation temperature is determined at about 87 K. The detector will be surrounded by a thermal shield, which is actively cooled with boiling nitrogen at a pressure of about 2.8 bar absolute, the respective saturation pressure of nitrogen. Due to strict temperature gradient constraints, it is important to study the two-phase flow pressure drop of nitrogen along the cooling circuit of the thermal shield in different orientations of the flow with respect to gravity. An experimental setup has been built in order to determine the two-phase flow pressure drop in nitrogen in horizontal, vertical upward and vertical downward direction. The measurements have been conducted under quasi-adiabatic conditions and at a saturation pressure of 2.8 bar absolute. The mass velocity has been varied in the range of 20 kg·m‑2·s‑1 to 70 kg·m‑2·s‑1 and the pressure drop data has been recorded scanning the two-phase region from vapor qualities close to zero up to 0.7. The experimental data will be compared with several established predictions of pressure drop e.g. Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck by using the void fraction correlation of Rouhani.

  6. Two-phase distribution in the vertical flow line of a domestic wet central heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Y.T.


    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of bubble distribution in bubbly two-phase flow are reviewed in the context of the micro bubbles present in a domestic gas fired wet central heating system. The latter systems are mostly operated through the circulation of heated standard tap water through a closed loop circuit which often results in water supersaturated with dissolved air. This leads to micro bubble nucleation at the primary heat exchanger wall, followed by detachment along the flow. Consequently, a bubbly two-phase flow characterises the flow line of such systems. The two-phase distribution across the vertical and horizontal pipes was measured through a consideration of the volumetric void fraction, quantified through photographic techniques. The bubble distribution in the vertical pipe in down flow conditions was measured to be quasi homogenous across the pipe section with a negligible reduction in the void fraction at close proximity to the pipe wall. Such a reduction was more evident at lower bulk fluid velocities.

  7. Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.


    The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

  8. Two-phase (bio)catalytic reactions in a table-top centrifugal contact separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Gerard N.; Zwol, Floris van; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero J.; Vries, Johannes G. de


    A new spin on catalysis: A table-top centrifugal contact separator allows for fast continuous two-phase reactions to be performed by intimately mixing two immiscible phases and then separating them. Such a device has been used to produce biodiesel from sunflower oil and MeOH/NaOMe. A

  9. Regularity and separation from potential barriers for a non-local phase-field system


    Londen, Stig-Olof; Petzeltová, Hana


    We show that solutions of a two-phase model involving a non-local interactive term become more regular immediately after the moment they separate from the pure phases. This result allows us to prove stronger convergence to equilibria. A new proof of the separation property is also given.

  10. Investigation of swirling diphasic flow in centrifugal phase separator (United States)

    Kishkin, A. A.; Melkozerov, M. G.; Delkov, A. V.


    Separation of disphasic mediums form the basis of many technological processes. However calculation methods for diphasic mediums used in industry found on empirical studies and cannot lay a claim to universality. In the offered model of swirling diphasic flow the flow is divided into the viscous interface and the diphasic core. To research the flow of liquid in the area of the viscous interface with big gradients of velocity Navier-Stokes equations are used.

  11. Intrinsically disordered linkers determine the interplay between phase separation and gelation in multivalent proteins. (United States)

    Harmon, Tyler S; Holehouse, Alex S; Rosen, Michael K; Pappu, Rohit V


    Phase transitions of linear multivalent proteins control the reversible formation of many intracellular membraneless bodies. Specific non-covalent crosslinks involving domains/motifs lead to system-spanning networks referred to as gels. Gelation transitions can occur with or without phase separation. In gelation driven by phase separation multivalent proteins and their ligands condense into dense droplets, and gels form within droplets. System spanning networks can also form without a condensation or demixing of proteins into droplets. Gelation driven by phase separation requires lower protein concentrations, and seems to be the biologically preferred mechanism for forming membraneless bodies. Here, we use coarse-grained computer simulations and the theory of associative polymers to uncover the physical properties of intrinsically disordered linkers that determine the extent to which gelation of linear multivalent proteins is driven by phase separation. Our findings are relevant for understanding how sequence-encoded information in disordered linkers influences phase transitions of multivalent proteins.

  12. Lead-free piezoelectric KNN-BZ-BNT films with a vertical morphotropic phase boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen


    Full Text Available The lead-free piezoelectric 0.915K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.075BaZrO3-0.01Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (0.915KNN-0.075BZ-0.01BNT films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The films possess a pure rhomobohedral perovskite phase and a dense surface without crack. The temperature-dependent dielectric properties of the specimens manifest that only phase transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase occurred and the Curie temperature is 217 oC. The temperature stability of ferroelectric phase was also supported by the stable piezoelectric properties of the films. These results suggest that the slope of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB for the solid solution formed with the KNN and BZ in the films should be vertical. The voltage-induced polarization switching, and a distinct piezo-response suggested that the 0.915 KNN-0.075BZ-0.01BNT films show good piezoelectric properties.

  13. Direct NMR Monitoring of Phase Separation Behavior of Highly Supersaturated Nifedipine Solution Stabilized with Hypromellose Derivatives. (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Moribe, Kunikazu


    We investigated the phase separation behavior and maintenance mechanism of the supersaturated state of poorly water-soluble nifedipine (NIF) in hypromellose (HPMC) derivative solutions. Highly supersaturated NIF formed NIF-rich nanodroplets through phase separation from aqueous solution containing HPMC derivative. Dissolvable NIF concentration in the bulk water phase was limited by the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. HPMC derivatives stabilized the NIF-rich nanodroplets and maintained the NIF supersaturation with phase-separated NIF for several hours. The size of the NIF-rich phase was different depending on the HPMC derivatives dissolved in aqueous solution, although the droplet size had no correlation with the time for which NIF supersaturation was maintained without NIF crystallization. HPMC acetate and HPMC acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) effectively maintained the NIF supersaturation containing phase-separated NIF compared with HPMC. Furthermore, HPMC-AS stabilized NIF supersaturation more effectively in acidic conditions. Solution 1 H NMR measurements of NIF-supersaturated solution revealed that HPMC derivatives distributed into the NIF-rich phase during the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. The hydrophobicity of HPMC derivative strongly affected its distribution into the NIF-rich phase. Moreover, the distribution of HPMC-AS into the NIF-rich phase was promoted at lower pH due to the lower aqueous solubility of HPMC-AS. The distribution of a large amount of HPMC derivatives into NIF-rich phase induced the strong inhibition of NIF crystallization from the NIF-rich phase. Polymer distribution into the drug-rich phase directly monitored by solution NMR technique can be a useful index for the stabilization efficiency of drug-supersaturated solution containing a drug-rich phase.

  14. Influence of Component Ratio on Adsorption of Polymer Mixtures under Phase Separation of Solutions. (United States)

    Lipatov; Todosijchuk; Chornaya


    The influence of the component ratio on polymer mixture adsorption in the two-phase condition is estimated. Transition toward the two-phase condition was attained by increasing the solution concentration up to phase separation. For solutions that have separated into two phases with increasing component concentration, the adsorption from each phase has been studied separately and the total adsorption from two phases has been calculated. The polystyrene-poly(butyl methacrylate)-CCl(4) system was investigated using fumed silica as adsorbent. Simultaneously, the fraction of segments of each type that were immobilized by the surface was determined from NMR spectra. In all cases, poly(butyl methacrylate) is characterized by preferential adsorption. The main features of adsorption are similar in both one-phase and two-phase states; however, the values for adsorption and fraction of immobilized segments are different in the case of adsorption from two separated phases because of the difference between the phases in the ratio of components and their concentration in each phase. The distinctions between adsorption from one-phase solutions before phase separation and from solutions modeling separated phases are connected with the redistribution of components between upper and lower phases. As a result, their ratio does not correspond to the initial ratio, and therefore the thermodynamic conditions of solutions, responsible for adsorption, are changed. Because of this, the shape of isotherms of adsorption and the adsorption values are determined by the different levels of aggregation in solutions with various ratios of components. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Effects of attractive colloids on the phase separation behaviors of binary polymer blends (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Chen, Yunlin; Qu, Lijian; Yan, Dadong


    The attractive colloids are added as fillers to control the phase behaviors of binary polymer blends. Because the colloids attract both components in the blends, aggregates are formed by the colloids coated with both kinds of polymer brushes. The aggregation results in two contradictory effects on the phase separation. First, the formation of aggregate decreases the translational entropy, which promotes the phase separation. On the other hand, the phase separation causes the extra free energy penalty due to the stretch of the chains attaching on the colloids, which prevents the phase separation. Furthermore, as the concentration or adsorbability of the colloids increases the local fluctuations within the aggregates become important. This results in a transition from the macro-phase separation to the micro-phase separation and the existence of the Lifshitz point. All of these effects lead to diverse phase behaviors in the polymer nanocomposites system. In present work, these behaviors are studied theoretically by the random phase approximation in a model system.

  16. Phase-linking and the perceived motion during off-vertical axis rotation. (United States)

    Holly, Jan E; Wood, Scott J; McCollum, Gin


    Human off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) in the dark typically produces perceived motion about a cone, the amplitude of which changes as a function of frequency. This perception is commonly attributed to the fact that both the OVAR and the conical motion have a gravity vector that rotates about the subject. Little-known, however, is that this rotating-gravity explanation for perceived conical motion is inconsistent with basic observations about self-motion perception: (a) that the perceived vertical moves toward alignment with the gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) and (b) that perceived translation arises from perceived linear acceleration, as derived from the portion of the GIA not associated with gravity. Mathematically proved in this article is the fact that during OVAR these properties imply mismatched phase of perceived tilt and translation, in contrast to the common perception of matched phases which correspond to conical motion with pivot at the bottom. This result demonstrates that an additional perceptual rule is required to explain perception in OVAR. This study investigates, both analytically and computationally, the phase relationship between tilt and translation at different stimulus rates-slow (45 degrees /s) and fast (180 degrees /s), and the three-dimensional shape of predicted perceived motion, under different sets of hypotheses about self-motion perception. We propose that for human motion perception, there is a phase-linking of tilt and translation movements to construct a perception of one's overall motion path. Alternative hypotheses to achieve the phase match were tested with three-dimensional computational models, comparing the output with published experimental reports. The best fit with experimental data was the hypothesis that the phase of perceived translation was linked to perceived tilt, while the perceived tilt was determined by the GIA. This hypothesis successfully predicted the bottom-pivot cone commonly reported and a reduced sense

  17. Effects of mobile vacancies on the dynamics of ordering and phase separation in nonconserved multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    the condition of conserved vacancy density and nonconserved Potts order. The dynamics of ordering and phase separation is found to follow algebraic growth laws with exponent values that depend on the phase to which the quench is performed. Strong transient effects are observed in the dilute Potts-ordered phase...

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of the phase separation of a copolymer blend in a thin film

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhexiao


    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study the phase separation of a copolymer blend comprising an alternating copolymer and/or block copolymer in a thin film, and a phase diagram was constructed with a series of composed recipes. The effects of composition and segregation strength on phase separation were discussed in detail. The chain conformation of the block copolymer and alternating copolymer were investigated with changes of the segregation strength. Our simulations revealed that the segment distribution along the copolymer chain and the segregation strength between coarse-grained beads are two important parameters controlling phase separation and chain conformation in thin films of a copolymer blend. A well-controlled phase separation in the copolymer blend can be used to fabricate novel nanostructures.

  19. Formation of ion clusters in the phase separated structures of neutral-charged polymer blends (United States)

    Kwon, Ha-Kyung; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica


    Polyelectrolyte blends, consisting of at least one charged species, are promising candidate materials for fuel cell membranes, for their mechanical stability and high selectivity for proton conduction. The phase behavior of the blends is important to understand, as this can significantly affect the performance of the device. The phase behavior is controlled by χN, the Flory-Huggins parameter multiplied by the number of mers, as well as the electrostatic interactions between the charged backbone and the counterions. It has recently been shown that local ionic correlations, incorporated via liquid state (LS) theory, enhance phase separation of the blend, even in the absence of polymer interactions. In this study, we show phase diagrams of neutral-charged polymer blends including ionic correlations via LS theory. In addition to enhanced phase separation at low χN, the blends show liquid-liquid phase separation at high electrostatic interaction strengths. Above the critical strength, the charged polymer phase separates into ion-rich and ion-poor regions, resulting in the formation of ion clusters within the charged polymer phase. This can be shown by the appearance of multiple spinodal and critical points, indicating the coexistence of several charge separated phases. This work was performed under the following financial assistance award 70NANB14H012 from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD).

  20. Solute redistribution during phase separation of ternary Fe-Cu-Si alloy (United States)

    Luo, S. B.; Wang, W. L.; Xia, Z. C.; Wu, Y. H.; Wei, B.


    Ternary Fe48Cu48Si4 immiscible alloy was rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside a drop tube. Liquid phase separation took place in the alloy melt and led to the formation of various segregated structures. The core-shell structure consisting of Fe-rich and Cu-rich zones and the homogenously dispersed structure were the major structural morphologies. Phase field simulation results revealed that the two-layer core-shell was the final structure of liquid phase separation. The solute redistribution of liquid Fe48Cu48Si4 alloy experienced the macroscopic solute distribution induced by liquid phase separation, the secondary phase separation within the separated liquid phases and the solute trapping during rapid solidification. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the solute Si was enriched in the Fe-rich zone whereas depleted in the Cu-rich zone. In addition, both αFe and (Cu) phases in the Fe-rich zone exhibited a conspicuous solute trapping effect. As compared with (Cu) phase, αFe phase had a stronger affinity with solute Si.

  1. Cell separations and the demixing of aqueous two phase polymer solutions in microgravity (United States)

    Brooks, Donald E.; Bamberger, Stephan; Harris, J. M.; Van Alstine, James M.


    Partition in phase separated aqueous polymer solutions is a cell separation procedure thought to be adversely influenced by gravity. In preparation for performing cell partitioning experiments in space, and to provide general information concerning the demixing of immiscible liquids in low gravity, a series of phase separated aqueous polymer solutions have been flown on two shuttle flights. Fluorocarbon oil and water emulsions were also flown on the second flight. The aqueous polymer emulsions, which in one g demix largely by sedimentation and convection due to the density differences between the phases, demixed more slowly than on the ground and the final disposition of the phases was determined by the wetting of the container wall by the phases. The demixing behavior and kinetics were influenced by the phase volume ratio, physical properties of the systems and chamber wall interaction. The average domain size increased linearly with time as the systems demixed.

  2. Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoroisopropanol-water mixtures depending on the hydrophobicity of amides. (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawatoko, Chiemi; Shimomura, Takuya; Kanzaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Munetaka


    Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)-water mixtures has been investigated to elucidate solvation properties of the mixtures by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), (1)H and (13)C NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The amides included N-methylformamide (NMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N-methylpropionamide (NMP). The phase diagrams of amide-HFIP-water ternary systems at 298 K showed that phase separation occurs in a closed-loop area of compositions as well as an N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system previously reported. The phase separation area becomes wider as the hydrophobicity of amides increases in the order of NMF amides due to the hydrophobic interaction gives rise to phase separation of the mixtures. In contrast, the disruption of HFIP clusters causes the recovery of the homogeneity of the ternary systems. The present results showed that HFIP clusters are evolved with increasing amide content to the lower phase separation concentration in the same mechanism among the four amide systems. However, the disruption of HFIP clusters in the NMP and DMF systems with further increasing amide content to the upper phase separation concentration occurs in a different way from those in the NMF and NMA systems.

  3. Preparation of pyrenebutyric acid bonded silica stationary phases for the application to the separation of fullerenes. (United States)

    Yu, Qiong-Wei; Lin, Bo; He, Hai-Bo; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi


    A novel immobilization method was proposed for the preparation of pyrenebutyric acid-bonded silica (PYB-silica) stationary phases. The pyrene moiety was grafted to silica gel through spacers of aminoalkyl silanes. The HPLC separation of C60, C70 and higher fullerenes on the new pyrenebutyric acid-bonded silica stationary phases was also studied. Based on the temperature effect, the intermolecular interaction between stationary phases and solutes and the retention mechanism were discussed. The results of column loading capacity test demonstrated the potential for the separation of fullerenes in large amounts on the PYB-silica stationary phases.

  4. Electrical Capacitance Probe Characterization in Vertical Annular Two-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Monni


    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental analysis and the characterization of an electrical capacitance probe (ECP that has been developed at the SIET Italian Company, for the measurement of two-phase flow parameters during the experimental simulation of nuclear accidents, as LOCA. The ECP is used to investigate a vertical air/water flow, characterized by void fraction higher than 95%, with mass flow rates ranging from 0.094 to 0.15 kg/s for air and from 0.002 to 0.021 kg/s for water, corresponding to an annular flow pattern. From the ECP signals, the electrode shape functions (i.e., the signals as a function of electrode distances in single- and two-phase flows are obtained. The dependence of the signal on the void fraction is derived and the liquid film thickness and the phase’s velocity are evaluated by means of rather simple models. The experimental analysis allows one to characterize the ECP, showing the advantages and the drawbacks of this technique for the two-phase flow characterization at high void fraction.

  5. Numerical Investigation of Deviation of Phase Change Characteristics of Horizontal and Vertical Flat Heat Pipe Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Hari


    Full Text Available The flow characteristics in the porous wick of a flat heat pipe subjected to boiling and condensation are analysed here using two-phase mixture model. Steady laminar boundary layer flow in the capillary wick structure is considered for both vertical and horizontal orientations. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are simplified using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are then solved numerically by using shooting iterative technique. Investigation was carried out for the effects of the involved parameters such as saturation and temperature across the boundary layer. The behaviour of non-dimensional numbers due to the orientation of the heat pipe is also discussed. The study confirms that orientation plays a significant role in flow and temperature field.

  6. Amplitude/phase modulation and spectrum of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser output (United States)

    Vas'kovskaya, M. I.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Zibrov, S. A.; Velichansky, V. L.; Akimova, I. V.; Bogatov, A. P.; Drakin, A. E.


    A new approach has been proposed for analysing the dynamics of the laser field amplitude on the basis of Maxwell's equations. This approach has been used to develop a theory for calculating modulation characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the small modulation limit. The present analysis allows one to sequentially examine the dynamics of the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic field of light in the framework of a single physical model, proceeding from fundamental principles. The proposed approach offers a natural and unique procedure for finding all laser cavity parameters necessary for calculation. An analytical calculation in the 'small'-signal approximation has ensured good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Thermodynamic Theory with Mixing Entropy Coupled to Mixing Energy for Phase Separation and Solubility Transition (United States)

    Sasaki, Shigeo


    Thermodynamic theory is developed by introducing the concept of intermolecular interaction surface areas in the evaluation of the mixing free energy, which can quantitatively explain the phase separation with the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and the solubility transition.


    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was obtained on polysaccharide enantioselective HPLC columns using alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, fonofos, fenamiph...


    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

  10. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  11. Chirality Separation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes using Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey


    Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) was recently demonstrated to enable the separation of individual species of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) across the separated phases. In this presentation I will describe the use of a dextran - polyethylene glycol aqueous two-phase system along with a separation scheme of varying surfactant concentrations to enable isolation at high purity of specific small diameter SWCNT species. Separation by ATPE is rapid and robust, with a remarkable tunability that allows isolation of most single nanotube chiralities at high purity. Choice of surfactant(s), temperature, polymer concentrations, and the addition of small molecule salts can all be used to tune the exact partitioning of single SWCNT species between the two phases.

  12. Phase Separation of Binary Charged Particle Systems with Small Size Disparities using a Dusty Plasma. (United States)

    Killer, Carsten; Bockwoldt, Tim; Schütt, Stefan; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André; Piel, Alexander


    The phase separation in binary mixtures of charged particles has been investigated in a dusty plasma under microgravity on parabolic flights. A method based on the use of fluorescent dust particles was developed that allows us to distinguish between particles of slightly different size. A clear trend towards phase separation even for smallest size (charge) disparities is observed. The diffusion flux is directly measured from the experiment and uphill diffusion coefficients have been determined.

  13. Specular and Diffuse Reflectance of Phase-Separated Polymer Blend Films. (United States)

    Nallapaneni, Asritha; Shawkey, Matthew D; Karim, Alamgir


    Diffuse reflectors have various applications in devices ranging from liquid crystal displays to light emitting diodes, to coatings. Herein, specular and diffuse reflectance from controlled phase separation of polymer blend films, a well-known self-organization process, are studied. Temperature-induced spinodal phase separation of polymer blend films in which one of the components is selectively extracted is shown to exhibit enhanced surface roughness as compared to unextracted films, leading to a notable increase of diffuse reflectance. Diffuse reflectance of UV-visible light from such selectively leached phase-separated blend films is determined by a synergy of varying lateral scale of phase separation (≈200 nm to 1 μm) and blend film surface roughness (0-40 nm). These critical parameters are controlled by tuning annealing time (0.5-3 h) and temperature (140, 150, 160 °C) of phase separation. Angle-resolved diffuse reflection studies show that the surface-roughened polymer films exhibit diffuse reflectance up to 40° from normal incident light in contrast to optically uniform as-cast films that exhibit largely specular reflectance. Furthermore, the intensity of the diffusively reflected light can be enhanced (300-700 nm) or reduced (220-300 nm) significantly by coating the leached phase-separated films with a thin silver over layer. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simulation of phase separation with temperature-dependent viscosity using lattice Boltzmann method. (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Zang, Duyang; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo


    This paper presents an exploration of the phase separation behavior and pattern formation in a binary fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity via a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). By introducing a viscosity-temperature relation into the LBM, the coupling effects of the viscosity-temperature coefficient [Formula: see text] , initial viscosity [Formula: see text] and thermal diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] , on the phase separation were successfully described. The calculated results indicated that an increase in initial viscosity and viscosity-temperature coefficient, or a decrease in the thermal diffusion coefficient, can lead to the orientation of isotropic growth fronts over a wide range of viscosity. The results showed that droplet-type phase structures and lamellar phase structures with domain orientation parallel or perpendicular to the walls can be obtained in equilibrium by controlling the initial viscosity, thermal diffusivity, and the viscosity-temperature coefficient. Furthermore, the dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of domain growth and thermal diffusion fronts in a plot by the spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated and continuous phases. The analysis revealed two different temporal regimes: spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages, which further quantified the coupled effects of temperature and viscosity on the evolution of temperature-dependent phase separation. These numerical results provide guidance for setting optimum temperature ranges to obtain expected phase separation structures for systems with temperature-dependent viscosity.

  15. Solvent-mediated pathways to gelation and phase separation in suspensions of grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anyfantakis, Manos


    We explore the role of the solvent medium on the interplay between gelation and phase separation in suspensions of organosilicate planar hybrids grafted with hydrocarbon chains. We establish their phase diagram by means of dynamic light scattering, rheology and visual observations, and different routes to gelation, depending on the solvent used. In agreement with earlier works, the solvent quality for the grafted chains at a given temperature controls the balance between attractions and repulsions, and hence the phase diagram of the nanoparticles and their tendency to gel. Here we show how to tune the suspension state and hence its rheology. For decane, a good solvent for the hydrocarbon chains, gelation occurs at rather low volume fractions in the presence of phase separation. This is due to the interdigitation of solvent molecules with the grafted chains, resulting in their crystalline packing that promotes the attraction between particles. For toluene, a solvent of reduced quality for the hydrocarbon chains, no interdigitation takes place, and hence gelation is triggered by clustering at higher volume fractions before phase separation. Our results support the generic picture of complex kinetic arrest/phase separation interplay in soft matter, where phase separation can proceed, be interrupted or be completely inhibited. A number of interesting possibilities for tailoring the rheology of grafted colloidal systems emerge. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.


    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  17. Phase separation of bio-oil produced by co-pyrolysis of corn cobs and polypropylene (United States)

    Supramono, D.; Julianto; Haqqyana; Setiadi, H.; Nasikin, M.


    In co-pyrolysis of biomass-plastics, bio-oil produced contains both oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds. High oxygen composition is responsible for instability and low heating value of bio-oil and high acid content for corrosiveness. Aims of the present work are to evaluate possibilities of achieving phase separation between oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds in bio-oil using a proposed stirred tank reactor and to achieve synergistic effects on bio-oil yield and non-oxygenated compound layer yield. Separation of bio-oil into two layers, i.e. that containing oxygenated compounds (polar phase) and non-oxygenated compounds (non-polar phase) is important to obtain pure non-polar phase ready for the next processing of hydrogenation and used directly as bio-fuel. There has been no research work on co-pyrolysis of biomass-plastic considering possibility of phase separation of bio-oil. The present work is proposing a stirred tank reactor for co-pyrolysis with nitrogen injection, which is capable of tailoring co-pyrolysis conditions leading to low viscosity and viscosity asymmetry, which induce phase separation between polar phase and non-polar phase. The proposed reactor is capable of generating synergistic effect on bio-oil and non-polar yields as the composition of PP in feed is more than 25% weight in which non-polar layers contain only alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes.

  18. Phase separation, brine formation, and salinity variation at Black Smoker hydrothermal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, D.; Driesner, T.; Weis, P.; Heinrich, C. A.


    We present the first fully transient 2-D numerical simulations of black smoker hydrothermal systems using realistic fluid properties and allowing for all phase transitions possible in the system H2O-NaCl, including phase separation of convecting seawater into a low-salinity vapor and high-salinity

  19. Liquid-liquid phase-separation in polydisperse polymer-solutions : The Distribution Coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, G.; Szleifer, I.


    Phase separation in polymer solutions is highly asymmetric: an inhomogeneous dilute phase of isolated coils is in equilibrium with a homogeneous concentrated solution. Many deviations from the simple Flory-Huggins predictions, found experimentally, can be traced back to this fact. Here, a previously

  20. Phase separation induced fractionation in molar mass in aqueous mixtures of gelatin and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, M.W.; Tromp, R.H.; Weenen, H.


    An overview of the effects of phase separation of aqueous mixtures of gelatin and dextran on the fractionation in molar mass of these two components is given. Molar mass distributions in coexisting phases were investigated using size exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering.

  1. Two-Phase Pressure Drop of a Refrigerant Flowing Vertically Downward in a Mini-channel (United States)

    Miyata, Kazushi; Enoki, Koji; Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Experiments were performed on two-phase pressure drop of a refrigerant R-410A flowing vertically downward in small copper circular tubes with 0.5-2.0 mm I.D., and small copper rectangular and triangular tubes with 1.04 and 0.88 mm inner hydraulic equivalent diameter, respectively, for the development of a high-performance heat exchanger using small tubes or multi-port extruded tubes for air conditioning systems.Pressure drops were measured and flow patterns were observed in the range of mass flux from 30 to 400 kg/(m2s)and quality from 0.1 to 0.9 at the saturation temperature of 10 °C. Characteristics of measured pressure drops were examined for different flow channel geometries. In high quality region or relatively high mass flux condition, the frictional pressure drop was reproduced well by the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation used together with a new correlation for Chisholm's parameter C as a function of hydraulic equivalent diameter. In low mass flux and low quality region, the frictional pressure drop was also reproduced well by multiplying the Chisholm two-phase multiplier factor by modified coefficient. In addition, flow pattern was observed with 0.5 and 2.0 mm I.D circular glass tubes. Slug flow and annular flow patterns were observed at lower and higher quality, respectively.

  2. Vertically stratified two-phase flow in a curved channel: Insights from a domain perturbation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)


    In this work, we investigate the fully developed flow field of two vertically stratified fluids (one phase flowing above the other) in a curved channel of rectangular cross section. The domain perturbation technique is applied to obtain an analytical solution in the asymptotic limit of low Reynolds numbers and small curvature ratios (the ratio of the width of the channel to its radius of curvature). The accuracy of this solution is verified by comparison with numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations. The flow is characterized by helical vortices within each fluid, which are driven by centrifugal forces. The number of vortices and their direction of circulation varies with the parameters of the system (the volume fraction, viscosity ratio, and Reynolds numbers). We identify nine distinct flow patterns and organize the parameter space into corresponding flow regimes. We show that the fully developed interface between the fluids is not horizontal, in general, but is deformed by normal stresses associated with the circulatory flow. The results are especially significant for flows in microchannels, where the Reynolds numbers are small. The mathematical results in this paper include an analytical solution to two coupled biharmonic partial differential equations; these equations arise in two-phase, two-dimensional Stokes flows.

  3. Phase-coexisting patterns, horizontal segregation, and controlled convection in vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures (United States)

    Ansari, Istafaul Haque; Rivas, Nicolas; Alam, Meheboob


    We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F ) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ ,F ) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system. The segregation of heavier and lighter particles along the horizontal direction is shown to be the progenitor of such phase-coexisting patterns as confirmed in both experiment and simulation. At strong shaking we uncover a partial convection state in which a pair of convection rolls is found to coexist with a Leidenfrost-like state. The crucial role of the relative number density of two species on controlling the buoyancy-driven granular convection is demonstrated. The onset of horizontal segregation can be explained in terms of an anisotropic diffusion tensor.

  4. Performance of a two-phase gas/liquid flow model in vertical wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, C.S.; Hasan, A.R. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (USA))


    Application of a recently developed method for predicting two-phase gas/oil pressure-drop in vertical oil wells is presented. The new method, which is flow-pattern based, is capable of handling flow in both circular and annular channels. Five principal flow regimes, bubbly, dispersed bubbly, slug, churn and annular, are recognized while developing appropriate correlations for predicting void fraction and pressure-drop in each flow regime. Standard oilfield correlations are used for estimating PVT properties of oil and gas: Standing's correlation for solution gas-oil ratio; Katz's correlation for oil formation volume factor; Standing's, and Chew and Connally's correlations for dead and live oil viscosities, respectively; and Lee et al.'s correlation for gas viscosity. A finite-difference algorithm is developed to compute pressure gradient in a wellbore. Computations performed on 115 field tests, involving all the two-phase flow regimes, suggest that the new method performs better than the Aziz et al. correlation. Further comparison of the new method's performance with other standard methods, such as, Orkiszewski, Duns and Ros, Beggs and Brill, Hagedorn and Brown, and Chierci et al., reveals its consistency and improved performance. The test data bank used in this study is that previously used by other authors; thus, validation of the new method is demonstrated with an independent data set. 4 figs., 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. Remote sensing the vertical profile of cloud droplet effective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Martins


    Full Text Available Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei.

    Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

    The CLAIM-3D (3-Dimensional Cloud Aerosol Interaction Mission satellite concept proposed here combines several techniques to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of cloud

  6. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.


    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate.

  7. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy (United States)

    Wang, W .L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.


    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  8. Separation of electrostatic and magnetic phase shifts using a modified transport-of-intensity equation. (United States)

    Humphrey, E; Phatak, C; Petford-Long, A K; De Graef, M


    We introduce a new approach for the separation of the electrostatic and magnetic components of the electron wave phase shift, based on the transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) formalism. We derive two separate TIE-like equations, one for each of the phase shift components. We use experimental results on FeCoB and Permalloy patterned islands to illustrate how the magnetic and electrostatic longitudinal derivatives can be computed. The main advantage of this new approach is the fact that the differences in the power spectra of the two phase components (electrostatic phase shifts often have significant power in the higher frequencies) can be accommodated by the selection of two different Tikhonov regularization parameters for the two phase reconstructions. The extra computational demands of the method are more than compensated by the improved phase reconstruction results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial Organization of the Cell Cytoplasm by Position-Dependent Phase Separation (United States)

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Gharakhani, Jöbin; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank


    During asymmetric cell division, cytoplasmic components are segregated to opposite sides of the cell. We discuss how the observed segregation can be achieved by a position-dependent phase separation mechanism controlled by a protein concentration gradient. We show that effects of even a weak gradient can be amplified by the phase transition to achieve strong segregation. We compare our theory to the segregation of germ granules observed during the divisions in the C. elegans embryo. Our study demonstrates how liquid-liquid phase separation can play a key role in the organization of the cytoplasm.

  10. Predictions of Phase Separation in Three-Component Lipid Membranes by the MARTINI Force Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Ryan S.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena


    The phase behavior of the coarse-grained MARTINI model for three-component lipid bilayers composed of dipalmytoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (Chol), and an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) was systematically investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The aim of this study...... does not induce such phase separation in mixtures of DPPC, Chol, and unsaturated PCs with a low unsaturation level, such as palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) or dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). Also, we found that phase separation does occur in mixtures of DPPC, Chol, and polyunsaturated...... PCs, such as dilinoleyl-phosphatidylcholine (DUPC) and diarachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DAPC). Through systematic tweaking of the interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the PC molecules, we show that the appearance of phase separation in three-component lipid bilayers, as modeled through...

  11. Development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis wind turbine, phase 3 (United States)

    Dekitsch, A.; Etzler, C. C.; Fritzsche, A.; Lorch, G.; Mueller, W.; Rogalla, K.; Schmelzle, J.; Schuhwerk, W.; Vollan, A.; Welte, D.


    In continuation of development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis windmill that consists in conception, building, and wind tunnel testing, a Darrieus rotor windpowered generator feeding an isolated network under different wind velocity conditions and with optimal energy conversion efficiency was designed built, and field tested. The three-bladed Darrieus rotor tested in the wind tunnel was equiped with two variable pitch Savonius rotors 2 m in diameter. By means of separate measures of the aerodynamic factors and the energy consumption, effect of revisions and optimizations on different elements was assessed. Pitch adjustement of the Savonius blades, lubrication of speed reducer, rotor speed at cut-in of generator field excitation, time constant of field excitation, stability conditions, switch points of ohmic resistors which combined with a small electric battery simulated a larger isolated network connected with a large storage battery, were investigated. Fundamentals for the economic series production of windpowered generators with Darrieus rotors for the control and the electric conversion system are presented.

  12. Neutron diffraction study of unusual phase separation in the antiperovskite nitride Mn3ZnN. (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Cong; Huang, Qingzhen; Guo, Yanfeng; Chu, Lihua; Arai, Masao; Yamaura, Kazunari


    The antiperovskite Mn(3)ZnN is studied by neutron diffraction at temperatures between 50 and 295 K. Mn(3)ZnN crystallizes to form a cubic structure at room temperature (C1 phase). Upon cooling, another cubic structure (C2 phase) appears at around 177 K. Interestingly, the C2 phase disappears below 140 K. The maximum mass concentration of the C2 phase is approximately 85% (at 160 K). The coexistence of C1 and C2 phase in the temperature interval of 140-177 K implies that phase separation occurs. Although the C1 and C2 phases share their composition and lattice symmetry, the C2 phase has a slightly larger lattice parameter (Δa ≈ 0.53%) and a different magnetic structure. The C2 phase is further investigated by neutron diffraction under high-pressure conditions (up to 270 MPa). The results show that the unusual appearance and disappearance of the C2 phase is accompanied by magnetic ordering. Mn(3)ZnN is thus a valuable subject for study of the magneto-lattice effect and phase separation behavior because this is rarely observed in nonoxide materials.

  13. Tube Radial Distribution Flow Separation in a Microchannel Using an Ionic Liquid Aqueous Two-Phase System Based on Phase Separation Multi-Phase Flow. (United States)

    Nagatani, Kosuke; Shihata, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko


    Ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems were delivered into a capillary tube to achieve tube radial distribution flow (TRDF) or annular flow in a microspace. The phase diagram, viscosity of the phases, and TRDF image of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and NaOH system were examined. The TRDF was formed with inner ionic liquid-rich and outer ionic liquid-poor phases in the capillary tube. The phase configuration was explained using the viscous dissipation principle. We also examined the distribution of rhodamine B in a three-branched microchannel on a microchip with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the first time.

  14. Flow regime transition criteria for two-phase flow in a vertical annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J. Enrique, E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I., Campus de Riu Sec, 12071 Castellon (Spain); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)


    Highlights: > Flow regime transition model is presented for two-phase flows in a vertical annulus. > The transition criteria is easy to be implemented in computational codes. > Final equations do not need experimental input. > New developed model shows better predicting capabilities than existing correlations. > New developed model shows good predicting capabilities in boiling flow. - Abstract: In this work, a new flow regime transition model is proposed for two-phase flows in a vertical annulus. Following previous works, the flow regimes considered are bubbly (B), slug (S) or cap-slug (CS), churn (C) and annular (A). The B to CS transition is modeled using the maximum bubble package criteria of small bubbles. The S to C transition takes place for small annulus perimeter flow channels and it is assumed to occur when the mean void fraction over the entire region exceeds that over the slug-bubble section. If the annulus perimeter is larger that the distorted bubble limit the cap-slug flow regime will be considered since in these conditions it is not possible to distinguish between cap and partial-slug bubbles. The CS to C transition is modeled using the maximum bubble package criteria. However, this transition considers the coalescence of cap and spherical bubbles in order to take into account the flow channel geometry. Finally, the C to A transition is modeled assuming two different mechanisms, (a) flow reversal in the liquid film section along large bubbles; (b) destruction on liquid slugs or large waves by entrainment or deformation. In the S to C and C to A flow regime transitions the annulus flow channel is considered as a rectangular flow channel with no side walls. In all the modeled transitions the drift-flux model is used to obtain the final correlations. The final equations for every flow regime transition are easy to be implemented in computational codes and not experimental input is needed. The prediction accuracy of the newly developed model has been

  15. Measuring the Transition Rates of Coalescence Events during Double Phase Separation in Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oprisan


    Full Text Available Phase transition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, science and technology. In general, the phase separation from a homogeneous phase depends on the depth of the temperature quench into the two-phase region. Earth’s gravity masks the details of phase separation phenomena, which is why experiments were performed under weightlessness. Under such conditions, the pure fluid sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 near its critical point also benefits from the universality of phase separation behavior and critical slowing down of dynamics. Initially, the fluid was slightly below its critical temperature with the liquid matrix separated from the vapor phase. A 0.2 mK temperature quench further cooled down the fluid and produced a double phase separation with liquid droplets inside the vapor phase and vapor bubbles inside the liquid matrix, respectively. The liquid droplets and the vapor bubbles respective distributions were well fitted by a lognormal function. The evolution of discrete bins of different radii allowed the derivation of the transition rates for coalescence processes. Based on the largest transition rates, two main coalescence mechanisms were identified: (1 asymmetric coalescences between one small droplet of about 20 μ m and a wide range of larger droplets; and (2 symmetric coalescences between droplets of large and similar radii. Both mechanisms lead to a continuous decline of the fraction of small radii droplets and an increase in the fraction of the large radii droplets. Similar coalescence mechanisms were observed for vapor bubbles. However, the mean radii of liquid droplets exhibits a t 1 / 3 evolution, whereas the mean radii of the vapor bubbles exhibit a t 1 / 2 evolution.

  16. Measuring the Transition Rates of Coalescence Events during Double Phase Separation in Microgravity. (United States)

    Oprisan, Ana; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Beysens, Daniel


    Phase transition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, science and technology. In general, the phase separation from a homogeneous phase depends on the depth of the temperature quench into the two-phase region. Earth's gravity masks the details of phase separation phenomena, which is why experiments were performed under weightlessness. Under such conditions, the pure fluid sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) near its critical point also benefits from the universality of phase separation behavior and critical slowing down of dynamics. Initially, the fluid was slightly below its critical temperature with the liquid matrix separated from the vapor phase. A 0.2 mK temperature quench further cooled down the fluid and produced a double phase separation with liquid droplets inside the vapor phase and vapor bubbles inside the liquid matrix, respectively. The liquid droplets and the vapor bubbles respective distributions were well fitted by a lognormal function. The evolution of discrete bins of different radii allowed the derivation of the transition rates for coalescence processes. Based on the largest transition rates, two main coalescence mechanisms were identified: (1) asymmetric coalescences between one small droplet of about 20 μ m and a wide range of larger droplets; and (2) symmetric coalescences between droplets of large and similar radii. Both mechanisms lead to a continuous decline of the fraction of small radii droplets and an increase in the fraction of the large radii droplets. Similar coalescence mechanisms were observed for vapor bubbles. However, the mean radii of liquid droplets exhibits a t 1 / 3 evolution, whereas the mean radii of the vapor bubbles exhibit a t 1 / 2 evolution.

  17. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40 (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.


    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification.

  18. Stress-Triggered Phase Separation Is an Adaptive, Evolutionarily Tuned Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riback, Joshua A.; Katanski, Christopher D.; Kear-Scott, Jamie L.; Pilipenko, Evgeny V.; Rojek, Alexandra E.; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Drummond, D. Allan


    In eukaryotic cells, diverse stresses trigger coalescence of RNA-binding proteins into stress granules. In vitro, stress-granule-associated proteins can demix to form liquids, hydrogels, and other assemblies lacking fixed stoichiometry. Observing these phenomena has generally required conditions far removed from physiological stresses. We show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1 in yeast), a defining marker of stress granules, phase separates and forms hydrogels in vitro upon exposure to physiological stress conditions. Other RNA-binding proteins depend upon low-complexity regions (LCRs) or RNA for phase separation, whereas Pab1’s LCR is not required for demixing, and RNA inhibits it. Based on unique evolutionary patterns, we create LCR mutations, which systematically tune its biophysical properties and Pab1 phase separation in vitro and in vivo. Mutations that impede phase separation reduce organism fitness during prolonged stress. Poly(A)-binding protein thus acts as a physiological stress sensor, exploiting phase separation to precisely mark stress onset, a broadly generalizable mechanism.

  19. Demonstration of a rotary separator for two-phase brine and steam flows. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.J.


    The application of a two-phase rotary separator for geothermal energy conversion was demonstrated. Laboratory tests were conducted with clean water and steam at Biphase Energy Systems, Inc., Santa Monica, California. Field tests were conducted at the Union Oil Co., Tow No. 1 wellsite near Brawley, California. The system tested consisted of the major components of a total flow rotary separator/turbine conversion system. A nozzle converted the brine wellhead enthalpy to two-phase flow kinetic by impinging the nozzle flow tangentially on the inside of the separator. The flow was therefore subjected to the high centrifugal force field in the separator. This caused the liquid phase to collect as a film on the separator drum with very little energy loss. The steam was allowed to flow radially inward to the central steam discharge. Potable water was obtained by condensing the steam exhaust. The brine collection system converted the liquid film kinetic energy to static pressure head. The system was operated for 116 hours in a high salinity environment (115,000 ppM TDS). The system operated properly with no adverse effects from solids precipitation or scale buildup. The rotary separator produced separate flows of pure liquid and steam of greater than 99.5% quality.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Silicone Liquid Core/Polymer Shell Microcapsules via Internal Phase Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata; Ma, Baoguang


    Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent(methylhydrosiloxane dimethylsil......Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent......(methylhydrosiloxane dimethylsiloxane) for thePMMA. The morphology of the PMMA micro-capsules was investigated by ATR-FTIR and byoptical microscopy. Microcapsules were preparedwith different emulsifiers and different concen-trations of acetone and PMMA in the oil phase.The thermal stability of the PMMA microcapsuleand the content...... of the silicone oil core wereassessed by TGA.1H-NMR spectroscopy and anextraction method were also used to determine the content of the silicone liquid core in the microcapsules....

  1. Simulations of irradiated-enhanced segregation and phase separation in Fe–Cu–Mn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Boyan; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Chengliang; Li, Qiulin; Chen, Jun; Shu, Guogang; Henager, Chuck; Weng, Yuqing; Xu, Ben; Liu, Wei


    For reactor pressure vessel steels, the addition of Cu, Mn, and Ni has a positive effect on mechanical, corrosion and radiation resistance properties. However, experiments show that radiation-enhanced segregation and/or phase separation is one of important material property degradation processes. In this work, we developed a model integrating rate theory and phase-field approaches to investigate the effect of irradiation on solute segregation and phase separation. The rate theory is used to describe the accumulation and clustering of radiation defects while the phase-field approach describes the effect of radiation defects on phase stability and microstructure evolution. The Fe-Cu-Mn ternary alloy is taken as a model system. The free energies used in the phase-field model are from CALPHAD. Spatial dependent radiation damage from atomistic simulations is introduced into the simulation cell for a given radiation dose rate. The radiation effect on segregation and phase separation is taken into account through the defect concentration dependence of solute mobility. With the model the effect of temperatures and radiation rates on Cu and Mn segregation and Cu-rich phase nucleation are systematically investigated. The segregation and nucleation mechanisms are analyzed. The simulations demonstrated that the nucleus of Cu precipitates has a core-shell composition profile, i.e., Cu rich at center and Mn rich at the interface, in good agreement with the theoretical calculation as well as experimental observations.

  2. Simulations of irradiated-enhanced segregation and phase separation in Fe-Cu-Mn alloys (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Chengliang; Li, Qiulin; Chen, Jun; Shu, Guogang; Henager, Chuck, Jr.; Weng, Yuqing; Xu, Ben; Liu, Wei


    For reactor pressure vessel steels, the addition of Cu, Mn, and Ni has a positive effect on their mechanical, corrosion and radiation resistance properties. However, experiments show that radiation-enhanced segregation and/or phase separation is one of the important material property degradation processes. In this work, we develop a model integrating rate theory and phase-field approaches to investigate the effect of irradiation on solute segregation and phase separation. The rate theory is used to describe the accumulation and clustering of radiation defects, while the phase-field approach describes the effect of radiation defects on phase stability and microstructure evolution. The Fe-Cu-Mn ternary alloy is taken as a model system. The free energies used in the phase-field model are from CALPHAD. Spatial dependent radiation damage from atomistic simulations is introduced into the simulation cell for a given radiation dose rate. The radiation effect on segregation and phase separation is taken into account through the defect concentration dependence of solute mobility. Using the model, the effect of temperature and radiation rates on Cu and Mn segregation and Cu-rich phase nucleation were systematically investigated. The segregation and nucleation mechanisms were analyzed. The simulations demonstrate that the nucleus of Cu precipitates has a core-shell composition profile, i.e. Cu-rich at the center and Mn-rich at the interface, in good agreement with theoretical calculations as well as experimental observations.

  3. Phase Separation Behavior and System Properties of Aqueous Two-Phase Systems with Polyethylene Glycol and Different Salts: Experiment and Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Yuan


    Full Text Available The phase separation behaviors of PEG1000/sodium citrate, PEG4000/sodium citrate, PEG1000/ammonium sulfate, and PEG4000/ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were investigated, respectively. There are two distinct situations for the phase separation rate in the investigated aqueous two-phase systems: one state is top-continuous phase with slow phase separation rate and strong bottom-continuous phase with fast phase separation rate and weak volume ratio dependence. The system properties such as density, viscosity, and interfacial tension between top and bottom phases which have effects on the phase separation rate of aqueous two-phase systems were measured. The property parameter differences between the two phases increased with increasing tie line length and then improved the phase separation rate. Moreover, a modified correlation equation including the phase separation rate, tie line length, and physical properties of the four aqueous two-phase systems has been proposed and successfully tested in the bottom-continuous phase, whose coefficients were estimated through regression analysis. The predicted results of PEG1000/sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems were verified through the stationary phase retention in the cross-axis countercurrent chromatography.

  4. Remote Sensing the Vertical Profile of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius, Thermodynamic Phase, and Temperature (United States)

    Martins, J. V.; Marshak, A.; Remer, L. A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Koren, I.; Correia, A. L.; Zubko, V.; Artaxo, P.


    Cloud-aerosol interaction is a key issue in the climate system, affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and their consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument) that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil.

  5. Vertical and radial motions of the body during the take-off phase of high jumping. (United States)

    Dapena, J; Chung, C S


    By placing the muscles of the take-off leg in faster eccentric or slower concentric conditions, a high jumper can increase the ground reaction force and the height of the jump. Film analysis of seven high jumpers showed that the radial velocity of the center of mass with respect to the supporting foot was more negative or less positive than the vertical velocity throughout the take-off phase. This favored faster eccentric or slower concentric conditions of the leg muscles. The radial distance from the hip of the take-off leg to the center of mass (RG/H) first decreased by 0.030 m, due to negative radial motions of the arms and swinging leg. This contributed to a smaller negative radial velocity of the hip (VRH), and thus to slower eccentric conditions of the muscles of the take-off leg. Therefore, it may have helped to cushion the initial impact with the ground. Subsequently, RG/H increased by 0.120 m, due to positive radial velocities of the arms, the swinging leg, and the head and trunk. This contributed first to larger negative (and later to smaller positive) VRH values, and thus to faster eccentric and slower concentric conditions of the muscles of the take-off leg.

  6. Phase separation in two-dimensional colloidal suspension using rotating magnetic fields (United States)

    Pham, An; Zhuang, Yuan; Detwiler, Paige; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Charbonneau, Patrick; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    We study phase separation in a quasi two-dimensional system of magnetically susceptible colloids in a high-frequency rotating magnetic field. By tuning the interparticle interactions and particle area fractions in-situ, we construct an experimental phase diagram that matches with simulatios. Our theoretical model is based on the pairwise interaction energy between magnetic point dipoles, which are simulated with advanced Monte Carlo simulation methods. The best fit between experiments and simulations allows us to calibrate the magnetic susceptibility of the beads. We also show that the simulations match the experimental dynamics of the domain coarsening process. Based on the calibrated experimental apparatus, we change the cone angle of the rotating field and study the change in the kinetic pathways of phase separation. For low tilt angles (in plane fields), the system separates into a bicontinuous morphology, whereas at tilt angles near the magic angle, the system aggregate by Ostwald ripening.

  7. In-line and selective phase separation of medium-chain carboxylic acids using membrane electrolysis. (United States)

    Xu, Jiajie; Guzman, Juan J L; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Angenent, Largus T


    We had extracted n-caproate from bioreactor broth. Here, we introduced in-line membrane electrolysis that utilized a pH gradient between two chambers to transfer the product into undissociated n-caproic acid without chemical addition. Due to the low maximum solubility of this acid, selective phase separation occurred, allowing simple product separation into an oily liquid containing ∼90% n-caproic and n-caprylic acid.

  8. The influence of membrane stress on phase separation and domain shape in phospholipid vesicles (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Santore, Maria


    Phase separation of mixed phospholipid bilayers is of interest due to the potential role of phospholipid rafts in cell adhesion and signaling. Studies of membrane dynamics and the phase diagram itself typically neglect the role of tension, though it is expected that imposition of moderate membrane tensions might mildly shift the phase separation temperature, as anticipated by Clausius Clapeyron. We show here, using a simple binary system (DOPC/DPPC), a more dramatic effect: The tension imposed on giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles can alter the phase and the domain shape, completely changing the composition of the liquid and solid phases, their proportions, and the transition temperature. The example in this talk demonstrates how striped or patchy hexagonal phases can develop, depending on thermal history and tension. Different incorporation of tracers into the ordered phases suggests fundamental differences in their structure at the molecular level. Rapid quenching and low tensions favor hexagonal patches while increased tension and slower quenching favors a striped phase. For this reason it is believed that the patches contain corrugations such that the structure of the ordered phase is metastable.

  9. Quantum Criticality Due to Incipient Phase Separation in the Two-dimentional Hubbard Model (United States)

    Khatami, Ehsan; Mikelsons, Karlis; Macridin, Alexandru; Scalettar, Richard; Galanakis, Dimitrios; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark


    We investigate the two-dimensional Hubbard model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, t^', using the dynamical cluster approximation. We confirm the existence of a first order phase separation transition terminating at a second order critical point at filling nc(t^') and temperature Tps(t^'). We find that as t' approaches zero, Tps(t^') vanishes and nc(t^') approaches the filling associated with the quantum critical point separating the Fermi liquid from the pseudogap phase. We propose that the quantum critical point under the superconducting dome is the zero temperature limit of the line of second order critical points.

  10. Quantum criticality due to incipient phase separation in the two-dimensional Hubbard model (United States)

    Khatami, E.; Mikelsons, K.; Galanakis, D.; Macridin, A.; Moreno, J.; Scalettar, R. T.; Jarrell, M.


    We investigate the two-dimensional Hubbard model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, t' , using the dynamical cluster approximation. We confirm the existence of a first-order phase-separation transition terminating at a second-order critical point at filling nc(t') and temperature Tps(t') . We find that as t' approaches zero, Tps(t') vanishes and nc(t') approaches the filling associated with the quantum critical point separating the Fermi liquid from the pseudogap phase. We propose that the quantum critical point under the superconducting dome is the zero-temperature limit of the line of second-order critical points.

  11. Thermal vacancies and phase separation in bcc mixtures of helium-3 and helium-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraass, Benedick Andrew [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Thermal vacancy concentrations in crystals of 3He-4He mixtures have been determined. A new x-ray diffractometer-position sensitive detector system is used to make measurements of the absolute lattice parameter of the helium crystals with an accuracy of 300 ppM, and measurements of changes in lattice parameters to better than 60 ppM. The phase separation of the concentrated3He-4He mixtures has been studied in detail with the x-ray measurements. Vacancy concentrations in crystals with 99%, 51%, 28%, 12%, and 0% 3He have been determined. Phase separation has been studied in mixed crystals with concentrations of 51%, 28%, and 12% 3He and melting pressures between 3.0 and 6.1 MPa. The phase separation temperatures determined in this work are in general agreement with previous work. The pressure dependence of Tc, the phase separation temperature for a 50% mixture, is found to be linear: dTc/dP = -34 mdeg/MPa. The x-ray measurements are used to make several comments on the low temperature phase diagram of the helium mixtures.

  12. Characterisation of heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation in phase separating mixtures using Moran's I. (United States)

    Thompson, Emma S; Saveyn, Pieter; Declercq, Marc; Meert, Joris; Guida, Vincenzo; Eads, Charles D; Robles, Eric S J; Britton, Melanie M


    In complex colloidal systems, particle-poor regions can develop within particle-rich phases during sedimentation or creaming. These particle-poor regions are overlooked by 1D profiles, which are typically used to assess particle distributions in a sample. Alternative methods to visualise and quantify these regions are required to better understand phase separation, which is the focus of this paper. Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to monitor the development of compositional heterogeneity in a vesicle-polymer mixture undergoing creaming. T2 relaxation time maps were used to identify the distribution of vesicles, with vesicle-poor regions exhibiting higher T2 relaxation times than regions richer in vesicles. Phase separated structures displayed a range of different morphologies and a variety of image analysis methods, including first-order statistics, Fourier transformation, grey level co-occurrence matrices and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation, were used to characterise these structures, and quantify their heterogeneity. Of the image analysis techniques used, Moran's I was found to be the most effective at quantifying the degree and morphology of phase separation, providing a robust, quantitative measure by which comparisons can be made between a diverse range of systems undergoing phase separation. The sensitivity of Moran's I can be enhanced by the choice of weight matrices used. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interlamellar Organization of Phase Separated Domains in Multi-Component Lipid Multilayers: Energetic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoosh Vashaee


    Full Text Available A recent experimental study [1] has demonstrated the alignment of phase separated domains across hundreds of bilayer units in multicomponent stacked lipid bilayers. The origin of this alignment is the interlamellar coupling of laterally phase separated domains. Here, we develop a theoretical model that presents the energetics description of this phenomenon based on the minimization of the free energy of the system. Specifically, we use solution theory to estimate the competition between energy and entropy in different stacking configurations. The model furnishes an elemental phase diagram, which maps the domain distributions in terms of the strength of the intra- and inter-layer interactions and estimates the value of inter-layer coupling for complete alignment of domains in the stacks of five and ten bilayers. The area fraction occupied by co-existing phases was calculated for the system of the minimum free energy, which showed a good agreement with experimental observations.

  14. Electrostatic interactions and aqueous two-phase separation modes of aqueous mixed oppositely charged surfactants system. (United States)

    Hao, Li-Sheng; Gui, Yuan-Xiang; Chen, Yan-Mei; He, Shao-Qing; Nan, Yan-Qing; You, Yi-Lan


    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in setting the aqueous two-phase separation behaviors of mixtures of oppositely charged surfactants. The aqueous mixture of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (AS) is actually a five-component system, comprised of CTAB, AS, complex salt (cetyltrimethylammonium dodecylsulfonate, abbreviated as CTA(+)AS(-)), NaBr, and water. In the three-dimensional pyramid phase diagram, the aqueous two-phase region with excess AS or with excess CTAB extends successively from the region very near to the NaBr-H2O line through the CTAB-AS-H2O conventional mixing plane to the CTA(+)AS(-)-AS-H2O side plane or to the CTA(+)AS(-)-CTAB-H2O side plane, respectively. Large or small molar ratios between the counterions and their corresponding surfactant ions for oppositely charged surfactants located in the NaBr side or the CTA(+)AS(-) side of the pyramid imply strong or weak electrostatic screening. Electrostatic screening of counterions alters the electrostatic attractions between the oppositely charged head groups or the electrostatic repulsions between the like-charged head groups in excess, and the electrostatic free energy of aggregation thus affects the aqueous two-phase separation modes. Composition analysis, rheological property investigation, and TEM images suggest that there are two kinds of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs). On the basis of these experimental results and Kaler's cell model, two kinds of phase separation modes were proposed. Experimental results also indicate that all of the top phases are surfactant-rich, and all of the bottom phases are surfactant-poor; the density difference between the top phase and the bottom phase in one ATPS is very small; the interfacial tension (σ) of the ATPS is ultralow.

  15. Morphology and Performance of PLLA Based Porous Membranes by Phase Separation Control (United States)

    Xing, Qian; Dong, Xia; Li, Rongbo; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin


    Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) porous membranes with different morphologies and properties were prepared through immersion precipitation method. It has been proved that the rate and level of phase separation between PLLA/dioxane solution and coagulation baths were the original drive force for the ultimate structure and corresponding performance of PLLA membranes. The equilibrium thermodynamic phase diagram of PLLA/solvent/nonsolvent and the kinetic diffusion rate between solvent and nonsolvent were systematically investigated. NSFC 50925313 and 51173195

  16. Analysis of Phase Separation in High Performance PbTe–PbS Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Steven N. [Northwestern University; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus [Ames Laboratory; Chasapis, Thomas C. [Northwestern University; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; Njegic, B. [Ames Laboratory; Levin, E. M. [Ames Laboratory; Rawal, A. [Ames Laboratory; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantios M. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern University


    Phase immiscibility in PbTe–based thermoelectric materials is an effective means of top-down synthesis of nanostructured composites exhibiting low lattice thermal conductivities. PbTe1-x Sx thermoelectric materials can be synthesized as metastable solid solution alloys through rapid quenching. Subsequent post-annealing induces phase separation at the nanometer scale, producing nanostructures that increase phonon scattering and reduce lattice thermal conductivity. However, there has yet to be any study investigating in detail the local chemical structure of both the solid solution and nanostructured variants of this material system. Herein, quenched and annealed (i.e., solid solution and phase-separated) samples of PbTe–PbS are analyzed by in situ high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy analysis. For high concentrations of PbS in PbTe, e.g., x >16%, NMR and IR analyses reveal that rapidly quenched samples exhibit incipient phase separation that is not detected by state-of-the-art synchrotron X-ray diffraction, providing an example of a PbTe thermoelectric “alloy” that is in fact phase inhomogeneous. Thermally-induced PbS phase separation in PbTe–PbS occurs close to 200 °C for all compositions studied, and the solubility of the PbS phase in PbTe at elevated temperatures >500 °C is reported. The findings of this study suggest that there may be a large number of thermoelectric alloy systems that are phase inhomogeneous or nanostructured despite adherence to Vegard's Law of alloys, highlighting the importance of careful chemical characterization to differentiate between thermoelectric alloys and composites.

  17. Cell separation in immunoaffinity partition in aqueous polymer two-phase systems (United States)

    Karr, Laurel J.; Van Alstine, James M.; Snyder, Robert S.; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton


    Two methods for immunoaffinity partitioning are described. One technique involves the covalent coupling of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) to immunoglobulin G antibody preparations. In the second method PEG-modified Protein A is used to complex with cells and unmodified antibody. The effects of PEG molecular weight, the degree of modification, and varying phase system composition on antibody activity and its affinity for the upper phase are studied. It is observed that both methods resulted in effective cell separation.

  18. Stress reduction in phase-separated, cross-linked networks: influence of phase structure and kinetics of reaction. (United States)

    Szczepanski, Caroline R; Stansbury, Jeffrey W


    A mechanism for polymerization shrinkage and stress reduction was developed for heterogeneous networks formed via ambient, photo-initiated polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS). The material system used consists of a bulk homopolymer matrix of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) modified with one of three non-reactive, linear prepolymers (poly-methyl, ethyl and butyl methacrylate). At higher prepolymer loading levels (10-20 wt%) an enhanced reduction in both shrinkage and polymerization stress is observed. The onset of gelation in these materials is delayed to a higher degree of methacrylate conversion (~15-25%), providing more time for phase structure evolution by thermodynamically driven monomer diffusion between immiscible phases prior to network macro-gelation. The resulting phase structure was probed by introducing a fluorescently tagged prepolymer into the matrix. The phase structure evolves from a dispersion of prepolymer at low loading levels to a fully co-continuous heterogeneous network at higher loadings. The bulk modulus in phase separated networks is equivalent or greater than that of poly(TEGDMA), despite a reduced polymerization rate and cross-link density in the prepolymer-rich domains.

  19. Liquid-based stationary phase for deterministic lateral displacement separation in microfluidics. (United States)

    Du, Siqi; Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab; Drazer, German


    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a promising separation scheme in microfluidic systems. In traditional DLD, a periodic array of solid posts induces the separative migration of suspended particles moving through the system. Here, we present a radical departure from traditional DLD systems and use an array of anchored liquid-bridges as the stationary phase in the DLD device. The liquid-bridges are created between two parallel plates and anchored to the bottom one by cylindrical wells. We show that the non-linear particle dynamics observed in traditional DLD systems is also present in the anchored-liquid case, enabling analogous size-based separation of suspended particles. The use of liquid-bridges as the stationary phase presents additional possibilities in separation technologies, potentially eliminating or significantly reducing clogging, enabling renewable and/or reconfigurable systems, allowing a different set of fabrication methods and providing alternative ways to separate particles based on their interaction with liquid-liquid interfaces. Some of these advantages could also extend to filtration methods based on similar liquid-based stationary phases.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a phase-separating Mg-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Qiu, K.Q., E-mail:; Ren, Y.L.; Li, R.D.


    Highlights: • A phase-separated (Mg{sub 0.585}Cu{sub 0.305}Y{sub 0.11}){sub 97}(Zr{sub 0.35}Ti{sub 0.3}Be{sub 0.275}Cu{sub 0.075}){sub 3} was found in this paper. • A fully amorphous structure containing two different glassy phases caused by phase separation was observed. • The improvement of the mechanical properties of the BMG is attributed to the shear-band multiplication and interaction caused by the harder Zr-rich amorphous spherical particle. - Abstract: Samples of the (Mg{sub 0.585}Cu{sub 0.305}Y{sub 0.11}){sub 97}(Zr{sub 0.35}Ti{sub 0.3}Be{sub 0.275}Cu{sub 0.075}){sub 3} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with 3 mm in diameter were successfully fabricated by copper mould casting method. The amorphous nature, thermal stability, microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electronic testing machine. The results show that the alloy presents a fully amorphous structure containing two glassy phases caused by phase separation. The Zr-rich amorphous spherical phase is distributed in the Mg-rich glassy matrix of the as-cast sample. Under uniaxial compressive loading, the compressive fracture strength, elastic strain and plastic strain of the BMG with a diameter of 3 mm are 1026 MPa, 2.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The ridge form vein-like patterns and multiple shear bands are observed in the fracture surface, indicating the improvement of the mechanical properties of the alloy. The formation of phase separation and the corresponding fracture mechanism were discussed.

  1. Development of optimized mobile phases for protein separation by high performance thin layer chromatography. (United States)

    Biller, Julia; Morschheuser, Lena; Riedner, Maria; Rohn, Sascha


    In recent years, protein chemistry tends inexorably toward the analysis of more complex proteins, proteoforms, and posttranslational protein modifications. Although mass spectrometry developed quite fast correspondingly, sample preparation and separation of these analytes is still a major issue and quite challenging. For many years, electrophoresis seemed to be the method of choice; nonetheless its variance is limited to parameters such as size and charge. When taking a look at traditional (thin-layer) chromatography, further parameters such as polarity and different mobile and stationary phases can be utilized. Further, possibilities of detection are manifold compared to electrophoresis. Similarly, two-dimensional separation can be also performed with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). As the revival of TLC developed enormously in the last decade, it seems to be also an alternative to use high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) for the separation of proteins. The aim of this study was to establish an HPTLC separation system that allows a separation of protein mixtures over a broad polarity range, or if necessary allowing to modify the separation with only few steps to improve the separation for a specific scope. Several layers and solvent systems have been evaluated to reach a fully utilized and optimized separation system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for Vertical Coherent Deformation in Eastern Tibet from Splitting of Crustal S Phases (United States)

    Karalliyadda, S. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Silver, P. G.


    Regional shear wave phases recorded by stations in Yunnan Province and Eastern Tibet surrounding the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis are used to constrain seismic anisotropy at crustal depths which range from 45 km to 65 km, respectively. Shear wave splitting measurements were obtained using regional direct S phases recorded at stations operated by Carnegie Institution of Washington, Lehigh University, and MIT, with source depths that originate from 20 km to 55 km. S to P converted energy is avoided considering events with free surface incidence angles less than 37{°} and using records with low P energy. We apply a low pass filter with a corner frequency at 2.5 Hz to all records and correct for surface reflections using a free surface transform from previous methods. Anisotropy is small but well resolved for 14 records at 8 stations and indicate that delay times obtained for all stations are less than 0.4 {±} 0.05s. In Yunnan province the average delay time is 0.16 s but is twice this value in eastern Tibet at 0.31 s. The fast directions for all stations in Yunnan Province including KMI and CHTO (GSN) are consistent with fast directions for previous SKS studies, but with smaller delay times of 0.4s or less (where SKS are 1.0 - 1.5s). Stations in eastern Tibet display a {~}N-S azimuth roughly orthogonal to SKS studies in this area and may indicate sensitivity to cracks which form roughly parallel to the compressive stress direction. A N-S azimuth of anisotropy is also consistent with surface waves results for periods below 40s. By comparison with SKS splitting studies, we find that anisotropy in the crust is very small and contributes only about 15% to the total SKS splitting measurements, requiring about 1.0 - 1.2s of splitting to come from subcrustal depths. Such strong anisotropic fabric possibly present in the lithospheric mantle is inconsistent with a lower crustal flow model which predicts decoupling above the Moho. Consistently low splitting times for events

  3. Simplified thermodynamic functions for vapor-liquid phase separation and fountain effect pumps (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.


    He-4 fluid handling devices near 2 K require novel components for non-Newtonian fluid transport in He II. Related sizing of devices has to be based on appropriate thermophysical property functions. The present paper presents simplified equilibrium state functions for porous media components which serve as vapor-liquid phase separators and fountain effect pumps.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of phase separation in the presence of surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laradji, Mohamed; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Toxvaerd, Søren


    not fully phase separate, we observe a dynamical scaling which is independent of the surfactant concentration. The results of these simulations are in general in agreement with previous Langevin simulations [Laradji, Guo, Grant, and Zuckermann, J. Phys. A 44, L629 (1991)] and a theory of Ostwald ripening...

  5. Correlating structure with fluorescence emission in phase-separated conjugated-polymer blends. (United States)

    Chappell, John; Lidzey, David G; Jukes, Paul C; Higgins, Anthony M; Thompson, Richard L; O'Connor, Stephen; Grizzi, Ilaria; Fletcher, Robert; O'Brien, Jim; Geoghegan, Mark; Jones, Richard A L


    Blends of conjugated polymers are frequently used as the active semiconducting layer in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. Here we report the use of scanning near-field optical microscopy, scanning force microscopy and nuclear-reaction analysis to study the structure of a thin film of a phase-separated blend of two conjugated polymers prepared by spin-casting. We show that in addition to the well-known micrometre-scale phase-separated morphology of the blend, one of the polymers preferentially wets the surface and forms a 10-nm-thick, partially crystallized wetting layer. Using near-field microscopy we identify unexpected changes in the fluorescence emission from the blend that occurs in a 300-nm-wide band located at the interface between the different phase-separated domains. Our measurements provide an insight into the complex structure of phase-separated conjugated-polymer thin films. Characterizing and controlling the properties of the interfaces in such films will be critical in the further development of efficient optoelectronic devices.

  6. Stability and phase separation behaviour of systems of particles in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2006 ... The stability of barium carbonate (BaCO3) suspensions in the presence of the dispersants, xanthan gum, sodium carboxymeth- ylcellulose and carrageenan, has been studied using a phase separation technique. These materials have been found to stabi- lise the BaCO3 suspensions by increasing the ...

  7. Anisotropic imprint of amorphization and phase separation in manganite thin films via laser interference irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Junfeng


    Materials with mesoscopic structural and electronic phase separation, either inherent from synthesis or created via external means, are known to exhibit functionalities absent in the homogeneous counterparts. One of the most notable examples is the colossal magnetoresistance discovered in mixed-valence manganites, where the coexistence of nano-to micrometer-sized phase-separated domains dictates the magnetotransport. However, it remains challenging to pattern and process such materials into predesigned structures and devices. In this work, a direct laser interference irradiation (LII) method is employed to produce periodic stripes in thin films of a prototypical phase-separated manganite Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 (PCSMO). LII induces selective structural amorphization within the crystalline PCSMO matrix, forming arrays with dimensions commensurate with the laser wavelength. Furthermore, because the length scale of LII modification is compatible to that of phase separation in PCSMO, three orders of magnitude of increase in magnetoresistance and significant in-plane transport anisotropy are observed in treated PCSMO thin films. Our results show that LII is a rapid, cost-effective and contamination-free technique to tailor and improve the physical properties of manganite thin films, and it is promising to be generalized to other functional materials.

  8. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. II. Diffusion in a binary mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P

    A previously formulated smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for a phase separating mixture is tested for the case when viscous processes are negligible and only mass and energy diffusive processes take place. We restrict ourselves to the case of a binary mixture that can exhibit liquid-liquid

  9. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Espanol and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by

  10. Separating the strengthening phase in nickel-cobalt alloys doped with tantalum (United States)

    Shaipov, R. Kh.; Kerimov, E. Yu.; Slyusarenko, E. M.


    The hardness values of monophasic (fcc solid solution) and biphasic (fcc solid solution and separated phase) nickel-cobalt alloys doped with tantalum are determined using the Vickers method. Based on the resulting data, a composition-structure-hardness diagram is devised for the Co-Ni-Ta system.

  11. All-in-one self-etch model adhesives: HEMA-free and without phase separation. (United States)

    Furukawa, Masae; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Finger, Werner J; Hoffmann, Marcus; Kanehira, Masafumi; Endo, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Masashi


    Aim of this study was to design HEMA-free all-in-one self-etch model adhesives without phase separation, and to investigate their efficiency on extracted human teeth. Compositions of adhesives in mass% (1): UDMA (25), 4-META (20), H(2)O (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 35, and 45), balance of acetone or ethanol. (2): UDMA (35), 4-META or 4-MET (28), H(2)O (0, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8), balance of acetone. Phase separation was evaluated on samples exposed to ambient atmosphere. Conventional shear bond strengths (SBS, n=8) were determined on human enamel and dentin. Marginal adaptation (MGW, n=8) was assessed in cylindrical butt-joint dentin cavities. Solutions (1) and (2) with 5 and 8% or less water content, respectively, showed no phase separation. SBSs on enamel were not different within the acetone- or ethanol-group and between the adhesive groups (1). Water content of adhesives (2) was a significant determinant of enamel SBSs, groups with 4-META or 4-MET were not different (p>0.05). Dentin SBSs with adhesives (1) were not different (p>0.05) within solvent groups, yet higher for acetone-dissolved adhesives (padhesives (2) were different by water content and functional monomer (padhesives (padhesives (2) was almost perfect at 5 through 8% water content. Simplified HEMA-free self-etch adhesives without phase separation were prepared without compromises on bonding efficiency to enamel and dentin.

  12. Process Intensification. Continuous Two-Phase Catalytic Reactions in a Table-Top Centrifugal Contact Separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Gerard N.; Schuur, Boelo; van Zwol, Floris; Haak, Robert M.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Prunier, ML


    Production of fine chemicals is mostly performed in batch reactors. Use of continuous processes has many advantages which may reduce the cost of production. We have developed the use of centrifugal contact separators (CCSs) for continuous two-phase catalytic reactions. This equipment has previously

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of phase separating binary liquids in cylindrical Couette flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakre, A.K.; Padding, J.T.; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Willem J.


    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study phase separation of a 50:50 (by volume) fluid mixture in a confined and curved (Taylor–Couette) geometry, consisting of two concentric cylinders. The inner cylinder may be rotated to achieve a shear flow. In nonsheared systems we observe that, for all

  14. The microstructure and rheology of homogeneous and phase separated gelatine gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, Carsten; Linden, van der Erik; Venema, Paul; Martin, Anneke


    The gelation of gelatine in mixtures of gelatine (type A or type B) and globular proteins (Whey Protein Isolate (WPI), Whey Protein Aggregates (WPA) and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)) was studied with a focus on their phase separation during gelation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, visual

  15. The microstructure and rheology of homogeneous and phase separated gelatine gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Linden, E. van der; Venema, P.; Martin, A.


    The gelation of gelatine in mixtures of gelatine (type A or type B) and globular proteins (Whey Protein Isolate (WPI), Whey Protein Aggregates (WPA) and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)) was studied with a focus on their phase separation during gelation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, visual

  16. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.


    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  17. Evolving neural network optimization of cholesteryl ester separation by reversed-phase HPLC. (United States)

    Jansen, Michael A; Kiwata, Jacqueline; Arceo, Jennifer; Faull, Kym F; Hanrahan, Grady; Porter, Edith


    Cholesteryl esters have antimicrobial activity and likely contribute to the innate immunity system. Improved separation techniques are needed to characterize these compounds. In this study, optimization of the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation of six analyte standards (four cholesteryl esters plus cholesterol and tri-palmitin) was accomplished by modeling with an artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) approach. A fractional factorial design was employed to examine the significance of four experimental factors: organic component in the mobile phase (ethanol and methanol), column temperature, and flow rate. Three separation parameters were then merged into geometric means using Derringer's desirability function and used as input sources for model training and testing. The use of genetic operators proved valuable for the determination of an effective neural network structure. Implementation of the optimized method resulted in complete separation of all six analytes, including the resolution of two previously co-eluting peaks. Model validation was performed with experimental responses in good agreement with model-predicted responses. Improved separation was also realized in a complex biological fluid, human milk. Thus, the first known use of ANN-GA modeling for improving the chromatographic separation of cholesteryl esters in biological fluids is presented and will likely prove valuable for future investigators involved in studying complex biological samples.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Membranes Formed by Nonsolvent Induced Phase Separation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Guillen, Gregory R.


    The methods and mechanisms of nonsolvent induced phase separation have been studied for more than fifty years. Today, phase inversion membranes are widely used in numerous chemical industries, biotechnology, and environmental separation processes. The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many commonly used membrane polymers. The key factors in membrane preparation discussed include the solvent type, polymer type and concentration, nonsolvent system type and composition, additives to the polymer solution, and film casting conditions. A brief introduction to membrane characterization is also given, which includes membrane porosity and pore size distribution characterization, membrane physical and chemical properties characterization, and thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of the phase inversion process. One aim of this review is to lay out the basics for selecting polymer solvent nonsolvent systems with appropriate film casting conditions to produce membranes with the desired performance, morphology, and stability, and to choose the proper way to characterize these properties of nonsolvent induced phase inversion membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Influence on Chromatographic Separation Using Polymeric High Internal Phase Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidratul Choudhury


    Full Text Available This work presents the first instance of reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of small molecules using graphene oxide nanoparticle-modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymeric high internal phase emulsion (GONP PS-co-DVB polyHIPE materials housed within a 200-µm internal diameter (i.d. fused silica capillary. The graphene oxide nanoparticle (GONP-modified materials were produced as a potential strategy to increase both the surface area limitations and the reproducibility issues observed in monolithic stationary phase materials. GONP PS-co-DVB polyHIPEs were found to have a surface area up to 40% lower than unmodified polymeric high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE stationary phases. However, despite having a surface area significantly lower than that of the unmodified material, the GONP-modified polyHIPEs demonstrated superior analyte adsorption properties. Reducing the GONP material did not have any significant impact on elution order or retention factor of the analytes, which was most likely due to low GONP loading attributed to the 250-nm GONPs utilised. The lower surface area of GONP-modified polyHIPEs provided similar separation efficiency and increased repeatability from injection to injection resulting in % relative standard deviations (%RSDs of less than 0.6%, indicating the potential offered by graphene oxide (GO-modified polyHIPES in flow through applications such as adsorption or separation processes.

  20. Unconventional magnetic phase separation in γ -CoV2O6 (United States)

    Shen, L.; Jellyman, E.; Forgan, E. M.; Blackburn, E.; Laver, M.; Canévet, E.; Schefer, J.; He, Z.; Itoh, M.


    We have explored the magnetism in the nongeometrically frustrated spin-chain system γ -CoV2O6 which possesses a complex magnetic exchange network. Our neutron diffraction patterns at low temperatures (T ≤TN=6.6 K) are best described by a model in which two magnetic phases coexist in a volume ratio 65(1) : 35(1), with each phase consisting of a single spin modulation. This model fits previous studies and our observations better than the model proposed by Lenertz et al. [J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 13981 (2014), 10.1021/jp503389c], which consisted of one phase with two spin modulations. By decreasing the temperature from TN, the minority phase of our model undergoes an incommensurate-commensurate lock-in transition at T*=5.6 K. Based on these results, we propose that phase separation is an alternative approach for degeneracy-lifting in frustrated magnets.

  1. Patterning phase separation in polymer films with dip-pen nanolithography. (United States)

    Coffey, David C; Ginger, David S


    We report a rapid-prototyping method for controlling nanoscale phase separation and pattern formation in conjugated polymer blend films using Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN). We use DPN to generate patterned alkylthiol monolayers with feature sizes down to 50 nm on gold surfaces and show how such patterns can nucleate the formation of lateral domains in blends of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and polystyrene (PS) cast from solution. We show that this process can be used to probe phase nucleation at heterogeneous surface sites ranging in size from 50 to 750 nm, and that polymer features smaller than 150 nm in diameter can be achieved. We anticipate this method will be useful for studying polymer film responses to nanoscale surface fluctuations as well as for correlating nanoscale phase separation with optoelectronic processes in organic films used in light-emitting diode and photovoltaic devices.

  2. [Separation of enantiomeric labetalol by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Zhao, H; Li, H; Qui, Z


    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the separation of labetalol enantiomers was developed. In the method, 2, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate (GITC) was chosen as the reagent for pre-column chiral derivatization of labetalol to give four diastereomeric thiourea derivatives. These derivatives were efficiently separated on a Nova-Pak C18 column using V(MeOH):V(0.01 mol.L-1(pH 7.00) H2PO4(-)-HPO(4)2- buffer) = 51:49 as the mobile phase and detected by UV detector at a wavelength of 250 nm or fluorescence detector at lambda ex = 340 nm and lambda em = 440 nm. The effects of the pH of mobile phase on the retention and fluorescence absorbance are also discussed.

  3. Application of the phase method in radioisotope measurements of the liquid - solid particles flow in the vertical pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanus Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents idea and an application of the gamma-absorption method to a two-phase flow investigation in a vertical pipeline, where the flow of solid particles transported by water was examined by a set of two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl scintillation crystals. In the described experiments as solid phase the ceramic models representing natural polymetallic ocean nodules were used. For advanced analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the phase of cross-spectral density function has been applied. Results of the average solid-phase velocity measurements were compared with one obtained by application of the classical cross-correlation. It was found that the combined uncertainties of the velocity of solid particles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 0.6% in phase method and 3.2% in cross-correlation method.

  4. Three-phase flow (water, oil and gas in a vertical circular cylindrical duct with leaks: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Santos


    Full Text Available This article describes the fluid dynamic behavior of a three-phase flow (water-oil-natural gas in a vertical pipe with or without leakage. The studied pipe has 8 meters in length, circular cross-section with 25 cm in diameter and a leak, which hole has a circular shape with 10mm diameter located in the center of pipe. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for each phase (continuous phase - oil, dispersed phases - gas and water were numerically solved using ANSYS CFX software, in which the Eulerian-Eulerian model and the RNG - turbulence model were applied. Results of the pressure, velocity, temperature and volume fraction distributions of the involved phases are present and analyzed.

  5. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qingxue [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Rong [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Jinan 250063 (China); Xiao, Hongdi, E-mail: [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)


    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  6. TEM observation on phase separation and interfaces of laser surface alloyed high-entropy alloy coating. (United States)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Jin, Guo; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yang; Dong, Meiling


    Phase separation is a common phenomenon in traditional alloys. Under the condition of appropriate undercooling, the segregation phenomenon can be also found in blue-chip high-entropy alloys (HEAs). In this work, the phase separation behavior and interfacial investigation of laser surface alloyed HEA coating with high content Ti were studied principally by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that crystal structure and elementary composition on both sides of the interface of coating/substrate are quite different, and the interfaces between different phases are incoherent or semi-coherent boundarys, resolved by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the interface of (Co, Ni)Ti 2 phase/β-Ti phase, there is angle of 80° between BCC〈100〉 and FCC〈201〉. An interesting 'island' structure, that β-Ti phases are embraced by (Co, Ni)Ti 2 compounds in the BCC matrix, was observed definitely, which is attributed to the combined action of Ti segregation and inter-attraction of Ti and other elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flow regime development analysis in adiabatic upward two-phase flow in a vertical annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J. Enrique [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I, Campus de Riu Sec, Castellon 12071 (Spain); Ozar, Basar [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Jeong, Jae-Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.ed [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)


    In this work radial and axial flow regime development in adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated. Local flow regimes have been identified using conductivity probes and neural networks techniques. The inner and outer diameters of the annulus are 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of the flow channel, D{sub H}, is 19.0 mm and the total length is 4.37 m. The flow regime map includes 1080 local flow regimes identifications in 72 flow conditions within a range of 0.01 m/s < < 30 m/s and 0.2 m/s < < 3.5 m/s where and are, respectively, superficial gas and liquid velocities. The local flow regime has been classified into four categories: bubbly, cap-slug, churn-turbulent and annular flows. In order to study the radial and axial development of flow regime the measurements have been performed at five radial locations. The three axial positions correspond to z/D{sub H} = 52, 149 and 230, where z represents the axial position. The flow regime indicator has been chosen as some statistical parameters of local bubble chord length distributions and self-organized neural networks have been used as mapping system. This information has been also used to compare the results given by the existing flow regime transition models. The local flow regime is characterized basically by the void fraction and bubble chord length. The radial development of flow regime shows partial and complete local flow regime combinations. The radial development is controlled by axial location and superficial liquid velocity. The radial flow regime transition is always initiated in the center of the flow channel and it is propagated towards the channel boundaries. The axial development of flow regime is observed in all the flow maps and it is governed by superficial liquid velocity and radial location. The prediction results of the models are compared for each flow regime transition.

  8. Reversed-Phase UHPLC Enantiomeric Separation of Rasagiline Salts Using a Chiralpak® AGP Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Balaji


    Full Text Available We report the first rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC enantiomeric reversed-phase separation of rasagiline mesylate and its tartrate salts using a Chiralpak® AGP column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm as a stationary phase. This method was developed as an alternative to the usage of previously reported normal-phase chiral LC columns for isomer separation. Our method is based on an isocratic approach using a mixture of ammonium acetate and isopropyl alcohol (90:10, v/v as the mobile phase (0.6 mL/min flow rate. The detection limit (at a detection wavelength of 210 nm and quantification limit for the rasagiline enantiomers were 0.06 and 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. This method is compatible with the UHPLC-MS technique. The successful separation of rasagiline and its enantiomer was confirmed by determining the corresponding specific optical rotation values. Our method will be applicable for detecting rasagiline enantiomers during the control of manufacturing processes, and for use in rapid analysis for quality control in pharmaceutical industry to obtain optically pure pharmaceutical substances. This method was validated in terms of its precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, robustness, ruggedness, specificity, forced degradation, and solution stability, according to International Council on Harmonization Validation Guidelines Q2 (R1.

  9. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.


    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  10. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases. (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W


    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Separation of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton: a new HPLC method using a reversed phase C8 column and pyridine-containing mobile phases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel Zapata; Francisco Rodríguez; José L. Garrido


    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method based on a reversed-phase C8 column and pyridine-containing mobile phases was developed for the simultaneous separation of chlorophylls and carotenoids...

  12. Rapid variations in fluid chemistry constrain hydrothermal phase separation at the Main Endeavour Field (United States)

    Love, Brooke; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Olson, Eric; Larson, Benjamin


    Previous work at the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) has shown that chloride concentration in high-temperature vent fluids has not exceeded 510 mmol/kg (94% of seawater), which is consistent with brine condensation and loss at depth, followed by upward flow of a vapor phase toward the seafloor. Magmatic and seismic events have been shown to affect fluid temperature and composition and these effects help narrow the possibilities for sub-surface processes. However, chloride-temperature data alone are insufficient to determine details of phase separation in the upflow zone. Here we use variation in chloride and gas content in a set of fluid samples collected over several days from one sulfide chimney structure in the MEF to constrain processes of mixing and phase separation. The combination of gas (primarily magmatic CO2 and seawater-derived Ar) and chloride data, indicate that neither variation in the amount of brine lost, nor mixing of the vapor phase produced at depth with variable quantities of (i) brine or (ii) altered gas rich seawater that has not undergone phase separation, can explain the co-variation of gas and chloride content. The gas-chloride data require additional phase separation of the ascending vapor-like fluid. Mixing and gas partitioning calculations show that near-critical temperature and pressure conditions can produce the fluid compositions observed at Sully vent as a vapor-liquid conjugate pair or as vapor-liquid pair with some remixing, and that the gas partition coefficients implied agree with theoretically predicted values.Plain Language SummaryWhen the chemistry of fluids from deep sea hot springs changes over a short time span, it allows us to narrow down the conditions and processes that created those fluids. This gives us a better idea what is happening under the seafloor where the water is interacting with hot rocks and minerals, boiling, and taking on the character it will have when it emerges at the seafloor. Gasses like argon can be

  13. Phase separation induced by ladder-like polymer-polymer complexation. (United States)

    Nakamura, Issei; Shi, An-Chang


    Polymer-polymer complexation in solvent is studied using an extension of the self-consistent field theory. The model polymers are capable of forming ladder-like duplex structures. The duplex formation occurs with an abrupt change of entropy, resulting in a first-order transition. Moreover, the complexation can be stabilized by solvent-polymer interactions, instead of the usual specific binding interactions. Various types of unconventional phase diagrams are predicted. For example, phase separation with decreasing χ-parameter between duplex polymer and solvent can be induced, leading to a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior. Multiphase coexistence points at which two, three, or four phases coexist are also obtained. Under certain conditions a homogeneous phase becomes unstable when the polymer chain length is decreased, in contrast to the standard Flory-Huggins theory.

  14. [Separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella]. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, X Y; Huang, X W


    To investigate the clinical efficacy and outcomes of two separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella. From January 2013 to January 2015, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella were retrospectively included in this study. All the patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire through longitudinal incision, 4.5 d (range: 3.1-5.9 d) after initial injury. A safety check for early knee range of motion was performed before wound closure. The complications including infection, nonunion, loss of fixation and any wire breakage or irritation from implant were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral views of the knee joint obtained during the follow-up were used to assess bony union based on the time when the fracture line disappeared. At the time of the final outpatient follow up, functional evaluation of the knee joint was conducted by Bostman system. The follow-up time was 13.1 months (range: 12-19 months) after surgery on average, immediate motion without immobilization in all the cases was allowed and there was no case of reduction loss of the fracture and wire breakage. There was no case of irritation from the implant. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) arc was 126.7° (range: 115°-140°), the average ROM lag versus contralateral healthy leg was 10.3° (range: 0°-35°). The mean Bostman score at the last follow-up was 28.9 (range: 27-30), and graded excellent in most cases. Two separate vertical wiring is an easy and effective method to reduce the displaced inferior pole fracture of patella. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in these patients provides enough strength to protected the early exercise of the knee joint and

  15. Dehydration induced phase transitions in a microfluidic droplet array for the separation of biomolecules (United States)

    Nelson, Chris; Anna, Shelley


    Droplet-based strategies for fluid manipulation have seen significant application in microfluidics due to their ability to compartmentalize solutions and facilitate highly parallelized reactions. Functioning as micro-scale reaction vessels, droplets have been used to study protein crystallization, enzyme kinetics, and to encapsulate whole cells. Recently, the mass transport out of droplets has been used to concentrate solutions and induce phase transitions. Here, we show that droplets trapped in a microfluidic array will spontaneously dehydrate over the course of several hours. By loading these devices with an initially dilute aqueous polymer solution, we use this slow dehydration to observe phase transitions and the evolution of droplet morphology in hundreds of droplets simultaneously. As an example, we trap and dehydrate droplets of a model aqueous two-phase system consisting of polyethylene glycol and dextran. Initially the drops are homogenous, then after some time the polymer concentration reaches a critical point and two phases form. As water continues to leave the system, the drops transition from a microemulsion of DEX in PEG to a core-shell configuration. Eventually, changes in interfacial tension, driven by dehydration, cause the DEX core to completely de-wet from the PEG shell. Since aqueous two phase systems are able to selectively separate a variety of biomolecules, this core shedding behavior has the potential to provide selective, on-chip separation and concentration.

  16. Coarsening and pattern formation during true morphological phase separation in unstable thin films under gravity (United States)

    Kumar, Avanish; Narayanam, Chaitanya; Khanna, Rajesh; Puri, Sanjay


    We address in detail the problem of true morphological phase separation (MPS) in three-dimensional or (2 +1 )-dimensional unstable thin liquid films (>100 nm) under the influence of gravity. The free-energy functionals of these films are asymmetric and show two points of common tangency, which facilitates the formation of two equilibrium phases. Three distinct patterns formed by relative preponderance of these phases are clearly identified in "true MPS". Asymmetricity induces two different pathways of pattern formation, viz., defect and direct pathway for true MPS. The pattern formation and phase-ordering dynamics have been studied using statistical measures such as structure factor, correlation function, and growth laws. In the late stage of coarsening, the system reaches into a scaling regime for both pathways, and the characteristic domain size follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law [L (t ) ˜t1 /3] . However, for the defect pathway, there is a crossover of domain growth behavior from L (t ) ˜t1 /4→t1 /3 in the dynamical scaling regime. We also underline the analogies and differences behind the mechanisms of MPS and true MPS in thin liquid films and generic spinodal phase separation in binary mixtures.

  17. Dynamical clustering and phase separation in suspensions of self-propelled colloidal particles. (United States)

    Buttinoni, Ivo; Bialké, Julian; Kümmel, Felix; Löwen, Hartmut; Bechinger, Clemens; Speck, Thomas


    We study experimentally and numerically a (quasi-)two-dimensional colloidal suspension of self-propelled spherical particles. The particles are carbon-coated Janus particles, which are propelled due to diffusiophoresis in a near-critical water-lutidine mixture. At low densities, we find that the driving stabilizes small clusters. At higher densities, the suspension undergoes a phase separation into large clusters and a dilute gas phase. The same qualitative behavior is observed in simulations of a minimal model for repulsive self-propelled particles lacking any alignment interactions. The observed behavior is rationalized in terms of a dynamical instability due to the self-trapping of self-propelled particles.

  18. Magnetically induced pattern formation in phase separating polymer-solvent-nanoparticle mixtures. (United States)

    Rungsawang, Rakchanok; da Silva, Joakim; Wu, Cheng-Pei; Sivaniah, Easan; Ionescu, Adrian; Barnes, Crispin H W; Darton, Nicholas J


    Permanent magnetic structures with controlled dimension and architecture (labyrinthine, hexagonal, or dispersed columnar) are formed in a partially miscible ferrofluid-nonferrofluid mixture under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field. The origin of the permanent structures, which have characteristic lateral dimensions ranging from 1 to 10  μm, is the repartitioning of the ferrofluid carrier solvent into the nonferrofluid polymeric phase. This polymer-solvent phase separation under a magnetic field leads to departures from the expected final dimension of the magnetically stabilized ferrofluid droplet sizes.

  19. The rheology and phase separation kinetics of mixed-matrix membrane dopes (United States)

    Olanrewaju, Kayode Olaseni

    Mixed-matrix hollow fiber membranes are being developed to offer more efficient gas separations applications than what the current technologies allow. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) are membranes in which molecular sieves incorporated in a polymer matrix enhance separation of gas mixtures based on the molecular size difference and/or adsorption properties of the component gases in the molecular sieve. The major challenges encountered in the efficient development of MMMs are associated with some of the paradigm shifts involved in their processing, as compared to pure polymer membranes. For instance, mixed-matrix hollow fiber membranes are prepared by a dry-wet jet spinning method. Efficient large scale processing of hollow fibers by this method requires knowledge of two key process variables: the rheology and kinetics of phase separation of the MMM dopes. Predicting the rheological properties of MMM dopes is not trivial; the presence of particles significantly affects neat polymer membrane dopes. Therefore, the need exists to characterize and develop predictive capabilities for the rheology of MMM dopes. Furthermore, the kinetics of phase separation of polymer solutions is not well understood. In the case of MMM dopes, the kinetics of phase separation are further complicated by the presence of porous particles in a polymer solution. Thus, studies on the phase separation kinetics of polymer solutions and suspensions of zeolite particles in polymer solutions are essential. Therefore, this research thesis aims to study the rheology and phase separation kinetics of mixed-matrix membrane dopes. In our research efforts to develop predictive models for the shear rheology of suspensions of zeolite particles in polymer solutions, it was found that MFI zeolite suspensions have relative viscosities that dramatically exceed the Krieger-Dougherty predictions for hard sphere suspensions. Our investigations showed that the major origin of this discrepancy is the selective

  20. Phase separation suppression in InGaN epitaxial layers due to biaxial strain (United States)

    Tabata, A.; Teles, L. K.; Scolfaro, L. M. R.; Leite, J. R.; Kharchenko, A.; Frey, T.; As, D. J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.; Furthmüller, J.; Bechstedt, F.


    Phase separation suppression due to external biaxial strain is observed in InxGa1-xN alloy layers by Raman scattering spectroscopy. The effect is taking place in thin epitaxial layers pseudomorphically grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on unstrained GaN(001) buffers. Ab initio calculations carried out for the alloy free energy predict and Raman measurements confirm that biaxial strain suppress the formation of phase-separated In-rich quantum dots in the InxGa1-xN layers. Since quantum dots are effective radiative recombination centers in InGaN, we conclude that strain quenches an important channel of light emission in optoelectronic devices based on pseudobinary group-III nitride semiconductors.

  1. Phase Separation in Bulk Heterojunctions of Semiconducting Polymers and Fullerenes for Photovoltaics (United States)

    Treat, Neil D.; Chabinyc, Michael L.


    Thin-film solar cells are an important source of renewable energy. The most efficient thin-film solar cells made with organic materials are blends of semiconducting polymers and fullerenes called the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). Efficient BHJs have a nanoscale phase-separated morphology that is formed during solution casting. This article reviews recent work to understand the nature of the phase-separation process resulting in the formation of the domains in polymer-fullerene BHJs. The BHJ is now viewed as a mixture of polymer-rich, fullerene-rich, and mixed polymer-fullerene domains. The formation of this structure can be understood through fundamental knowledge of polymer physics. The implications of this structure for charge transport and charge generation are given.

  2. Computer simulation of phase separation and ordering processes in low-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O.G.; Shah, P.J.; Vitting Andersen, J.


    An account is given of recent activity in the field of dynamics of phase separation and ordering processes in two-dimensional statistical mechanical models. The fundamental questions of the dynamics involve the form of the growth law, the value of the growth exponent, the dynamical scaling...... on the nature of the conservation laws in effect. Atomic and molecular overlayers on solid surfaces and weakly-coupled atomic layers of certain three-dimensional crystals constitute a particularly suitable class of systems for studying fundamental aspects of ordering dynamics and phase separation in two...... dimensions since these systems provide a richness of ordering symmetries and degeneracies as well as they obey different conservation laws. Specific systems dealt with include the chemisorption systems O/W(110) and O/W(112), and oxygen layers in the basal CuO-planes of high-T(c) superconductors of the YBa2Cu...

  3. Magnetically induced nonvolatile magnetoresistance and resistance memory effect in phase-separated manganite thin films (United States)

    Li, Qian; Cao, Qingqi; Wang, Dunhui; Du, Youwei


    We report the observation of magnetically induced resistance memory effect in a typical electronic phase-separated manganite La5/8-x Pr x Ca3/8MnO3 (x  =  0.3) thin film. In the hysteresis region of metal-to-insulator transition, the resistance exhibits a sharp drop with the application of magnetic field and maintains the low resistance state after the removal of field, showing a nonvolatile magnetoresistance effect. The high resistance state can be recovered until the temperature is warmed. More explicit measurements at the hysteresis region exhibit the non-volatility and irreversibility of magnetoresistance, which can be ascribed to the percolative feature in the electronic phase-separated manganite. The origin and potential applications of these interesting effects are discussed.

  4. Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation of bulk As2S3 glass (United States)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Boolchand, P.; Jackson, K. A.


    Raman scattering on bulk AsxS1-x glasses shows that vibrational modes of As4S4 monomer first appear near x = 0.38, and their concentration increases precipitously with increasing x, suggesting that the stoichiometric glass (x = 0.40) is intrinsically phase separated into small As-rich (As4S4) and large S-rich clusters. Support for the Raman-active vibrational modes of the orpiment-like and realgar-like nanophases is provided by ab-initio density functional theory calculations on appropriate clusters. Nanoscale phase separation provides a basis for understanding the global maximum in the glass transition temperature Tg near x = 0.40, and the departure from Arrhenius temperature activation of As2S3 melt viscosities.

  5. Gas-phase simulated moving bed: Propane/propylene separation on 13X zeolite. (United States)

    Martins, Vanessa F D; Ribeiro, Ana M; Plaza, Marta G; Santos, João C; Loureiro, José M; Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Rodrigues, Alírio E


    In the last years several studies were carried out in order to separate gas mixtures by SMB technology; however, this technology has never been implemented on an industrial scale. In the present work, a gas phase SMB bench unit was built and tested for the separation of propane and propylene mixtures, using 13X zeolite extrudates as adsorbent and isobutane as desorbent. Three experiments were performed to separate propane/propylene by gas phase SMB in the bench scale unit with a 4-2-2 configuration, i.e., open loop circuit by suppressing section IV (desorbent regeneration followed by a recycle). Consequently, all the experiments were conducted using an external supply of pure isobutane as desorbent. Parameters such as switching time, extract and raffinate stream flow rates were changed to improve the efficiency of the process. Experimental results have shown that it is feasible to separate propylene from propane by gas phase SMB at a bench scale and that this process is a potential candidate to replace the conventional technologies for the propane/propylene separation. The performance parameters obtained are very promising for future development of this technology, since propylene was obtained in the extract stream with a purity of 99.93%, a recovery of 99.51%, and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . Propane was obtained in the raffinate stream with a purity of 98.10%, a recovery of 99.73% and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . The success of the above mentioned bench scale tests is a big step for the future implementation of this technology in a larger scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analogy between the quantum phase transition and the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (United States)

    Yen, Tsu-Chiang; Wu, Yu-Heng; Li, Yueh-Chen; Kuo, Wang-Chuang


    The phase transition in the polarization switching (PS) of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was recently reported to be a second-order phase transition (SOPT). However, some features of this phase transition indicate that the VCSEL's PS (VPS) is different from the traditional SOPTs. Most of the phase transition investigations of the laser employ the laser's intensity as the order parameter. In Landau's paradigm, that parameter evolutes from zero to non-zero values, or vice versa, during SOPTs, corresponding to a transition between a disordered phase and an ordered phase. Nevertheless, in the VPS, the laser's intensity remains constant before and after the PS, revealing an order-to-order transition. Furthermore, the laser's transverse modes cannot transfer to each other through continuous deformations in geometry. That feature attributes a topological characteristic to the laser's transverse modes. The spatial coherence of the laser also implements a globally geometric characteristic to the laser's output. Accordingly, there are two similarities between the VPS and quantum phase transitions (QPTs) with topological order. First, both of them belong to the orderto- order phase transitions. Second, in both transitions, two ground states are orthogonal, and are degenerate at the critical point. This paper investigated the analogy between the QPT with topological order and the VPS, exploring that the VPS has a potential to simulate the QPTs of other physical systems.

  7. Silica aerogel coated on metallic wire by phase separation of polystyrene for in-tube solid phase microextraction. (United States)

    Baktash, Mohammad Yahya; Bagheri, Habib


    In this research, an attempt was made toward synthesizing a sol-gel-based silica aerogel and its subsequent coating on a copper wire by phase separation of polystyrene. Adaption of this new approach enabled us to coat the metallic wire with powder materials. The use of this method for coating, led to the formation of a porous and thick structure of silica aerogel. The coated wire was placed in a needle and used as the sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction of chlorobenzenes (CBs). The superhydrophobicity of sorbent on extraction efficiency was investigated by using different ratios of tetraethylorthosilicate/methyltrimethoxysilane. The surface coated with the prepared silica aerogel by the phase separation of polystyrene showed high contact angle, approving the desired superhydrophobic properties. Effects of major parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including the extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, desorption time were investigated and optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of the method under the optimized condition were 0.1-1.2 and 0.4-4.1ngL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) at a concentration level of 10ngL(-1) were between 4 and 10% (n=3). The calibration curves of CBs showed linearity from 1 to100ngL(-1). Eventually, the method was successfully applied to the extraction of model compounds from real water samples and relative recoveries varied from 88 to 115%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence for confinement induced phase separation in ethanol–water mixture: a positron annihilation study (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, T.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, Priya; Pujari, P. K.


    We report an experimental evidence for the phase separation of ethanol–water mixture confined in mesoporous silica with different pore size using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). A bulk-like liquid in the core of the pore and a distinct interfacial region near the pore surface have been identified based on ortho-positronium lifetime components. The lifetime corresponding to the core liquid shows similar behavior to the bulk liquid mixture while the interfacial lifetime shows an abrupt rise within a particular range of ethanol concentration depending on the pore size. This abrupt increase is attributed to the appearance of excess free-volume near the interfacial region. The excess free-volume is originated due to microphase separation of confined ethanol–water primarily at the vicinity of the pore wall. We envisage that probing free-volume changes at the interface using PALS is a sensitive way to investigate microphase separation under nanoconfinement.

  9. Ductile Glass of Polyrotaxane Toughened by Stretch-Induced Intramolecular Phase Separation. (United States)

    Kato, Kazuaki; Nemoto, Kaito; Mayumi, Koichi; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Ito, Kohzo


    A new class of ductile glasses is created from a thermoplastic polyrotaxane. The hard glass, which has a Young's modulus of 1 GPa, shows crazing, necking, and strain hardening with a total elongation of 330%. Stress concentration is prevented through a unique stretch-induced intramolecular phase separation of the cyclic components and the exposed backbone. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering studies indicate that the backbone polymer chains slip through the cyclic components in the regions where the stress is concentrated.

  10. Phase separation in nH2- nD2 alloys (United States)

    Strzhemechny, M. A.; Prokhvatilov, A. I.; Shcherbakov, G. N.; Galtsov, N. N.


    Using powder x-ray technique we have studied the structure of solid mixtures of normal hydrogen and deuterium nH2- nD2, the samples being prepared by deposition from the gas onto a substrate at a temperature near 5 K. The content of nD2 in the alloys was varied from 0 to 100%. Over the range 20 to 85%, the diffraction patterns contain two sets of hep reflections, which correspond to phases rich in hydrogen and deuterium. As the temperature was raised to 12 14 K (depending on the composition), the separated alloys with comparatively fine crystallites started to show indications of growth and, simultaneously, homogenization, sometimes to completion. These states remained stable upon subsequent decreases in temperature. Analysis of the data supports the claim that phase separation occurs in nH2- nD2 alloys during sample preparation. This result confirms the finding by Kogan, Lazarev, and Bulatova. The characteristic points (kinks on the molar volume vs. composition, the position of the boundary of the homogenization area, etc.) are treated as belonging to lability rather than equilibrium lines. Proceeding from these arguments we reconstruct a hypothetical phase diagram which has the maximum separation temperature T c within the range 8 11 K. As shown using a model, which accounts for the electrical quadrupole (EQQ) interaction between J=1 species, the T c is substantially higher than predicted by Mullin and Sarin. We suggest some explanation for the striking difference between the results of different studies carried out to search for phase separation in solid mixtures of deuterium and hydrogen on samples prepared by different methods.

  11. Coarsening through directed droplet coalescence in fluid-fluid phase separation. (United States)

    Thakur, Snigdha; Pullarkat, Pramod A; Kumar, P B Sunil


    Phase-separation dynamics of an asymmetric mixture of an isotropic dopant in a nematogenic fluid is presented. We show that, on steady cooling, the nucleating nematic drops move down the dopant concentration gradient, with a velocity that is dependent on the cooling rate and concentration gradient. This propulsion of the drops leads to a mechanism of droplet coarsening, where radius of a drop scales with time as R(t) approximately t. Various mechanisms for droplet propulsion are discussed.

  12. A mathematical model for phase separation: A generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation (United States)

    Berti, A.; Bochicchio, I.


    In this paper we present a mathematical model to describe the phenomenon of phase separation, which is modelled as space regions where an order parameter changes smoothly. The model proposed, including thermal and mixing effects, is deduced for an incompressible fluid, so the resulting differential system couples a generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation with the Navier-Stokes equation. Its consistency with the second law of thermodynamics in the classical Clausius-Duhem form is finally proved.

  13. Phase separation of weakly incompatible polymer blends confined in isolated droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Buschbaum, P; Cubitt, R


    Phase separation of the weakly incompatible blend system polystyrene and polyparamethylstyrene confined in isolated droplets is investigated. The droplet geometry imposes a two-dimensional spatial restriction. With specular, diffuse and grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering the surface topography as well as the chemical morphology inside the droplets is determined. Due to the differences in surface tension, a core-shell-like structure characterized by one most prominent length scale inside the droplets is installed. (orig.)

  14. A coupled geochemical and geophysical investigation of phase separation in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Carr, B.; Sims, K. W. W.; Scott, S. R.; Holbrook, W. S.; Heasler, H.; Jaworwski, C.


    Geochemical and hydrological evidence has been used for decades to imagine the subsurface plumbing of the Yellowstone (YS) hydrothermal system. An accepted paradigm of the YS hydrothermal system is phase separation, or boiling, of the hydrothermal fluid as it rises through the flow-paths of the subsurface. Neutral-chloride fluids are thought to represent the liquid portion of the two-phase fluid, and acid-sulfate fluids are thought to represent a condensed version of the steam portion. While this first-order hypothesis explains much of the chemical variation in YS hydrothermal fluids it is only a theoretical construct; this phase separation has never been actually imaged nor has it ever been definitively established that the phase separated waters come from the same source. Here, we use isotopic and geophysical methods to examine phase separation in two adjacent neutral chloride-acid sulfate pools in Norris Geyser Basin that are 14 meters apart: Perpetual Spouter (pH of 7.5, Cl 790 mg/L; SO4 37mg/L) and "Acid Bubbler" (pH of 3, Cl 340 mg/L, SO4 207 mg/L). Using: 1) Sr, Nd, and Pb radiogenic isotopic measurements we examine whether these waters come from the same source in terms of their water-rock interaction signatures; and, 2) geophysical methods to see if we can image the phase separation in the subsurface. These adjacent pools have different isotopic compositions suggesting they have come from different sources or that their waters have interacted with different rock types. Perpetual Spouter has a 208Pb/206Pb ratio of 2.10, similar to the underlying Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks indicating these waters came from a deep source; whereas Acid Bubbler has a 208b/206Pb of 2.22 suggesting its water has interacted with surficial Lava Creek rhyolite. Numerous 1D, 2D, and 3D geophysical methods were acquired and integrated over an area 30 m x 30 m to image subsurface geophysical properties, groundwater flow pathways, and structural constraints. These data

  15. Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Sihao, L. V.


    A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent flows. In this model, the anisotropy of gas and solid phase two-phase Reynolds stresses and their correlation of velocity fluctuation are fully considered using a presented Reynolds stress model and the transport equation of two-phase stress correlation. Experimental measurements (Xu and Zhou in ASME-FED Summer Meeting, San Francisco, Paper FEDSM99-7909, 1999) are used to validate this model, source codes and prediction results. It showed that the particles collision leads to decrease in the intensity of gas and particle vortices and takes a larger effect on particle turbulent fluctuations. The time-averaged velocity, the fluctuation velocity of gas and particle phase considering particles colli-sion are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Particle kinetic energy is always smaller than gas phase due to energy dissipation from particle collision. Moreover, axial– axial and radial–radial fluctuation velocity correlations have stronger anisotropic behaviors. © King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2013

  16. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants (United States)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.


    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  17. Symmetry-protected topological phases of one-dimensional interacting fermions with spin-charge separation (United States)

    Montorsi, Arianna; Dolcini, Fabrizio; Iotti, Rita C.; Rossi, Fausto


    The low energy behavior of a huge variety of one-dimensional interacting spinful fermionic systems exhibits spin-charge separation, described in the continuum limit by two sine-Gordon models decoupled in the charge and spin channels. Interaction is known to induce, besides the gapless Luttinger liquid phase, eight possible gapped phases, among which are the Mott, Haldane, charge-/spin-density, and bond-ordered wave insulators, and the Luther Emery liquid. Here we prove that some of these physically distinct phases have nontrivial topological properties, notably the presence of degenerate protected edge modes with fractionalized charge/spin. Moreover, we show that the eight gapped phases are in one-to-one correspondence with the symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases classified by group cohomology theory in the presence of particle-hole symmetry P. The latter result is also exploited to characterize SPT phases by measurable nonlocal order parameters which follow the system evolution to the quantum phase transition. The implications on the appearance of exotic orders in the class of microscopic Hubbard Hamiltonians, possibly without P symmetry at higher energies, are discussed.

  18. Dynamics of phase separation in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)-modified epoxy/DDS system: kinetics and viscoelastic effects. (United States)

    Jyotishkumar, P; Özdilek, Ceren; Moldenaers, Paula; Sinturel, Christophe; Janke, Andreas; Pionteck, Jürgen; Thomas, Sabu


    The dynamics of phase separation and final morphologies of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS)-modified epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) cured with 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) have been monitored in situ throughout the entire curing process by using optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometry, and small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). The evolution of phase separation and final morphologies with substructures were explored by OM. The final morphologies of the blend cured at 150 and 165 °C are of phase-inverted type and are quite different from the final morphologies of the same blend cured at 180 °C, in which the final morphologies are cocontinuous. AFM observations of the fully cured sample confirmed the existence of three different phases, the epoxy continuous phase, SAN (styrene/acrylonitrile) continuous phase, and PB droplets at the interface, with a strong tendency to stay at SAN continuous phase. Furthermore, the continuous epoxy phase contains SAN particles and the continuous SAN phase contains epoxy particles. Cure kinetics and rheological results correspond well with the viscoelastic phase separation revealed by OM. The SALLS results display clearly that the phase separation takes place according to nucleation and growth mechanism followed by spinodal decomposition. The development of light scattering patterns during the second stage phase separation follows the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal demixing. Furthermore, the evolution of the scattering vector follows a Maxwell-type relaxation equation establishing the viscoelastic behavior of phase separation. The relaxation time of phase separation can be described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation for viscoelasticity. As a whole, the dependence of phase separation on cure temperature and the development of final morphologies and the associated mechanisms were explored in detail for the complex epoxy/ABS system.

  19. Coherent beam combination using non-separable phase-controlled Dammann grating (United States)

    Li, Shubin; Lu, Yancong


    We present an improved scheme for coherent beam combination using a type of non-separable phase-controlled Dammann grating (NPDG), which is capable of generating multiple equal-intensity diffraction orders with good uniformity and high efficiency in the far field. Compared with conventional separable two-dimensional (2D) Dammann gratings, the efficiency of such gratings is significantly improved around 10% due to the non-separable structure. Such improvement in the diffraction efficiency is of high significance for coherent laser combination. Furthermore, the phases of those diffraction orders for this type of gratings are only two-valued in the far field, which leads to a great simplification of phase matching during the procedure of coherent beam combination. As an example, a 5 × 5 NPDG with efficiency of 73.6% is theoretically designed and a NPDG sample with efficiency as high as 66.8% is experimentally fabricated by lithography and wet-etching techniques. Also, we implemented further a proof-of-principle experiment for coherent beam combination based on the 5 × 5 NPDG sample, and the results show that the combining efficiency is as high as 65.7%.

  20. Can visco-elastic phase separation, macromolecular crowding and colloidal physics explain nuclear organisation? (United States)

    Iborra, Francisco J


    The cell nucleus is highly compartmentalized with well-defined domains, it is not well understood how this nuclear order is maintained. Many scientists are fascinated by the different set of structures observed in the nucleus to attribute functions to them. In order to distinguish functional compartments from non-functional aggregates, I believe is important to investigate the biophysical nature of nuclear organisation. The various nuclear compartments can be divided broadly as chromatin or protein and/or RNA based, and they have very different dynamic properties. The chromatin compartment displays a slow, constrained diffusional motion. On the other hand, the protein/RNA compartment is very dynamic. Physical systems with dynamical asymmetry go to viscoelastic phase separation. This phase separation phenomenon leads to the formation of a long-lived interaction network of slow components (chromatin) scattered within domains rich in fast components (protein/RNA). Moreover, the nucleus is packed with macromolecules in the order of 300 mg/ml. This high concentration of macromolecules produces volume exclusion effects that enhance attractive interactions between macromolecules, known as macromolecular crowding, which favours the formation of compartments. In this paper I hypothesise that nuclear compartmentalization can be explained by viscoelastic phase separation of the dynamically different nuclear components, in combination with macromolecular crowding and the properties of colloidal particles. I demonstrate that nuclear structure can satisfy the predictions of this hypothesis. I discuss the functional implications of this phenomenon.

  1. Combinatorial Phase Separation of Polymer Blends: Surface Energy, Temperature and Film Confinement Effects (United States)

    Karim, Alamgir


    Control of pattern scale of ultrathin film polymeric surfaces has many potential applications such as anti-reflection coatings, optical sieves, controlled tissue growth or adhesion control. We combinatorially investigate the influence of surface energy E, film thickness H, and temperature T, on the late stage surface morphology of phase separating polymer blend films of polystyrene-polyvinylmethylether. A simple gradient UV approach was used to create stable substrates with a range of surface energies. Confinement between air and substrate interfaces and preferential wetting of components at the walls determines the aspect ratio of the phase separated structures. A non-monotonic change in the lateral scale of phase separation, L and surface roughness with surface energy is observed along with the systematic increase with thickness. We describe the L dependence on E by the empirical relationship, L ˜ A exp[-(E-E*)/S^2] for fixed H, where the pre-factor A is film thickness dependent and S characterizes the peak width about an inversion surface energy E*. Application to studies of a biocompatible blend of poly(e-caprolactone) and poly(D-L Lactic Acid) to assay cellular response to topographical scales as well as millifluidic approaches to the problem will be discussed.

  2. Cooling induces phase separation in membranes derived from isolated CNS myelin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio M Pusterla

    Full Text Available Purified myelin membranes (PMMs are the starting material for biochemical analyses such as the isolation of detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-rich domains (DIGs, which are believed to be representatives of functional lipid rafts. The normal DIGs isolation protocol involves the extraction of lipids under moderate cooling. Here, we thus address the influence of cooling on the structure of PMMs and its sub-fractions. Thermodynamic and structural aspects of periodic, multilamellar PMMs are examined between 4°C and 45°C and in various biologically relevant aqueous solutions. The phase behavior is investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Complementary neutron diffraction (ND experiments with solid-supported myelin multilayers confirm that the phase behavior is unaffected by planar confinement. SAXS and ND consistently show that multilamellar PMMs in pure water become heterogeneous when cooled by more than 10-15°C below physiological temperature, as during the DIGs isolation procedure. The heterogeneous state of PMMs is stabilized in physiological solution, where phase coexistence persists up to near the physiological temperature. This result supports the general view that membranes under physiological conditions are close to critical points for phase separation. In presence of elevated Ca2+ concentrations (> 10 mM, phase coexistence is found even far above physiological temperatures. The relative fractions of the two phases, and thus presumably also their compositions, are found to vary with temperature. Depending on the conditions, an "expanded" phase with larger lamellar period or a "compacted" phase with smaller lamellar period coexists with the native phase. Both expanded and compacted periods are also observed in DIGs under the respective conditions. The observed subtle temperature-dependence of the phase behavior of PMMs suggests that the composition of DIGs is sensitive to the details

  3. Characteristics of phase transition and separation in a In-Ge-Sb-Te system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Jin [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Moon Hyung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Park, Seung-Jong [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mann-Ho, E-mail: [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InGeSbTe films were fabricated via co-deposition stoichiometric GST and IST targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As the amount of IST was increased in InGeSbTe, the value for V{sub th} and the phase transition temperature were increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase separation in InGeSbTe is caused by differences in the enthalpy change for formation and different atomic concentrations. - Abstract: In-doped GeSbTe films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) using Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) and In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} (IST) as targets. The phase change characteristics of the resulting films were then investigated by electrical measurements, including static testing, in situ 4-point R{sub s} measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The threshold voltage of the films increased, with increasing levels of IST. This phenomenon is consistent with the increased crystallization temperature in X-ray data and in situ 4-point R{sub s} data. In addition, in In{sub 28}Ge{sub 12}Sb{sub 26}Te{sub 34}, multiple V{sub th} values with a stepwise change are observed. The minimum time for the crystallization of InGeSbTe films was shorter than that for GST. X-ray data and Raman data for the crystalline structure show that phase separation to In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} occurred in all of the InGeSbTe samples after annealing at 350 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in the case of InGeSbTe films with high concentrations of In (28 at.%), Sb phase separation was also observed. The observed phases indicate that the origin of the phase separation of InGeSbTe films is from the enthalpy change of formation and differences in Ge-Te, In-Te, Sb-Te, In-Sb and In-In bond energies.

  4. Microstructure and dynamics of Janus particles in a phase separating medium. (United States)

    Semeraro, Enrico F; Dattani, Rajeev; Narayanan, Theyencheri


    The evolution of interactions and dynamics of Janus colloidal particles suspended in quasi-binary liquid mixtures undergoing phase separation is presented. The experimental system consisted of silica-nickel Janus particles dispersed in mixtures of 3-methylpyridine, water, and heavy water. Colloidal microstructure and dynamics were probed by ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering and ultra-small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. The observed static and dynamic behaviors are significantly different from those found for Stöber silica colloids in this mixture. The Janus particles manifest a slow aggregation below the coexistence temperature and become strongly attractive upon phase separation of the solvent mixture. In the two-phase region, particles tend to display surfactant-like behavior with silica and nickel surfaces likely preferring water and 3-methylpyridine rich phases, respectively. While the onset of diffusiophoretic motion is evident in the dynamics, it is gradually suppressed by particle clustering at the investigated colloid volume fractions.

  5. Carrier-separating demodulation of phase shifting self-mixing interferometry (United States)

    Tao, Yufeng; Wang, Ming; Xia, Wei


    A carrier separating method associated with noise-elimination had been introduced into a sinusoidal phase-shifting self-mixing interferometer. The conventional sinusoidal phase shifting self-mixing interferometry was developed into a more competitive instrument with high computing efficiency and nanometer accuracy of λ / 100 in dynamical vibration measurement. The high slew rate electro-optic modulator induced a sinusoidal phase carrier with ultralow insertion loss in this paper. In order to extract phase-shift quickly and precisely, this paper employed the carrier-separating to directly generate quadrature signals without complicated frequency domain transforms. Moreover, most noises were evaluated and suppressed by a noise-elimination technology synthesizing empirical mode decomposition with wavelet transform. The overall laser system was described and inherent advantages such as high computational efficiency and decreased nonlinear errors of the established system were demonstrated. The experiment implemented on a high precision PZT (positioning accuracy was better than 1 nm) and compared with laser Doppler velocity meter. The good agreement of two instruments shown that the short-term resolution had improved from 10 nm to 1.5 nm in dynamic vibration measurement with reduced time expense. This was useful in precision measurement to improve the SMI with same sampling rate. The proposed signal processing was performed in pure time-domain requiring no preprocessing electronic circuits.

  6. Buckling, driven by constrained phase separation, of toroid-shaped hydrogels (United States)

    Dimitriyev, Michael S.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Souslov, Anton; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Goldbart, Paul M.

    We investigate the buckling process observed in connection with the temperature-induced shrinking of an elastic toroid composed of hydrogel. Hydrogels are polymeric network media that become swollen when mixed with water, provided the temperature is low enough. As the temperature is increased beyond a certain point, such gels undergo a first-order de-swelling transition to a de-mixed state, in which the network segregates from the water, resulting in a shrunken phase. It is known that the rapid heating of swollen hydrogels beyond the de-swelling transition results in the formation of a shrunken-phase boundary region, or shell. This shell hinders the expulsion of fluid associated with the equilibration of the sample interior, and gives rise to a prolonged period of coexistence between shrunken and swollen domains in the interior of the sample. In contrast with the spherical case, toroidal samples have been observed to undergo a constrained phase separation that is accompanied by a global buckling (or ``Pringling'') deformation of the sample shape. We present a model of hydrogel toroid Pringling in which such deformations are driven by this phase separation process.

  7. The relationship between oxygen permeability and phase separation morphology of the multicomponent silicone hydrogels. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengbai; Xie, Haijiao; An, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Yong


    In this article, the multicomponent copolymers were prepared by the copolymerization of two hydrophobic silicon-containing monomers bis(trimethylsilyloxy) methylsilylpropyl glycerol methacrylate (SiMA) and tris(trimethylsiloxy)-3-methacryloxypropylsilane (TRIS) with three hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, N-vinylpyrrolidone, and N,N-dimethyl acrylamide. The copolymers were hydrated to form transparent silicone hydrogels. The oxygen permeability coefficients (Dk) of hydrogels were measured, and their relationships with the equilibrium water contents (EWC) and the types and contents of silicon containing monomers as well as the phase separation structures of silicone hydrogels were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the EWC decreased as the increase of SiMA content. The relationship between Dk and SiMA content, as well as that between Dk and EWC, showed inverted bell curve distributions, which meant two main factors, i.e., silicon-oxygen bond in silicone and water in hydrogel, contributed to oxygen permeation and followed a mutual inhibition competition mechanism. The internal morphologies of the hydrogels were observed by transmission electron microscope, and the results showed that the hydrogels presented two different phase separation structures depending on the types of the silicon-containing monomers. The silicone phase in SiMA containing hydrogel presented to be a granular texture, while the silicone phase in TRIS containing hydrogel formed a fibrous texture which resulted in a higher Dk value. These results could help to design a silicone hydrogel with better properties and wider application.

  8. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs. (United States)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio


    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  9. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid (United States)

    Hopkins, P.; Archer, A. J.; Evans, R.


    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length λ. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+δ). For any δ >0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r =∞. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  10. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid. (United States)

    Hopkins, P; Archer, A J; Evans, R


    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length lambda. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+delta). For any delta>0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r=infinity. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  11. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase I (United States)


    Vertical Impact Device (VID). The VID is a Monterey Research Laboratory IMPAC3636 high-G impact test machine with seismic suspension , and is currently...nitrogen and oil suspension system. Programmers are used to control the shape, peak acceleration, and duration of the shock pulse. The...cable, pulley, and lifting tube driven by one hydraulic cylinder, for each of the two side supports. Pneumatic friction brakes in the carriage assembly

  12. Activity mediated phase separation: Can we understand phase behavior of the nonequilibrium problem from an equilibrium approach? (United States)

    Trefz, Benjamin; Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt


    We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations. Depending upon the composition of active and passive particles, the diffusive motion of the active species can only be realized at large time scales. Despite this, we have been able to construct an equilibrium approach to obtain the structural properties of such inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. In this method, effective inter-particle potentials were constructed via IET by taking structural inputs from the MD simulations of the active system. These potentials in turn were used in passive MD simulations, results from which are observed to be in fair agreement with the original ones.

  13. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of vegetable market waste fraction of municipal solid waste and development of improved technology for phase separation in two-phase reactor. (United States)

    Majhi, Bijoy Kumar; Jash, Tushar


    Biogas production from vegetable market waste (VMW) fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) by two-phase anaerobic digestion system should be preferred over the single-stage reactors. This is because VMW undergoes rapid acidification leading to accumulation of volatile fatty acids and consequent low pH resulting in frequent failure of digesters. The weakest part in the two-phase anaerobic reactors was the techniques applied for solid-liquid phase separation of digestate in the first reactor where solubilization, hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic waste occur. In this study, a two-phase reactor which consisted of a solid-phase reactor and a methane reactor was designed, built and operated with VMW fraction of Indian MSW. A robust type filter, which is unique in its implementation method, was developed and incorporated in the solid-phase reactor to separate the process liquid produced in the first reactor. Experiments were carried out to assess the long term performance of the two-phase reactor with respect to biogas production, volatile solids reduction, pH and number of occurrence of clogging in the filtering system or choking in the process liquid transfer line. The system performed well and was operated successfully without the occurrence of clogging or any other disruptions throughout. Biogas production of 0.86-0.889m(3)kg(-1)VS, at OLR of 1.11-1.585kgm(-3)d(-1), were obtained from vegetable market waste, which were higher than the results reported for similar substrates digested in two-phase reactors. The VS reduction was 82-86%. The two-phase anaerobic digestion system was demonstrated to be stable and suitable for the treatment of VMW fraction of MSW for energy generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase separation in polymer solutions. I. Liquid-liquid phase separation of PPO poly (2, 6-dimethyl 1, 4-phenylene oxide) in binary mixtures with toluene and ternary mixtures with toluene and ethyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, P.T.; Smolders, C.A.


    In the system poly(2, 6-dimethy1-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-toluene three phase separation lines can be detected: the melting point curve, the cloud point curve, and the spinodial. Because crystallization of PPO occurs very slowly, a phase transition will always be initiated by liquid-liquid phase

  15. Managing Zirconium Chemistry and Phase Compatibility in Combined Process Separations for Minor Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Nathalie [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)


    In response to the NEUP Program Supporting Fuel Cycle R&D Separations and Waste Forms call DEFOA- 0000799, this report describes the results of an R&D project focusing on streamlining separation processes for advanced fuel cycles. An example of such a process relevant to the U.S. DOE FCR&D program would be one combining the functions of the TRUEX process for partitioning of lanthanides and minor actinides from PUREX(UREX) raffinates with that of the TALSPEAK process for separating transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. A fully-developed PUREX(UREX)/TRUEX/TALSPEAK suite would generate actinides as product(s) for reuse (or transmutation) and fission products as waste. As standalone, consecutive unit-operations, TRUEX and TALSPEAK employ different extractant solutions (solvating (CMPO, octyl(phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) vs. cation exchanging (HDEHP, di-2(ethyl)hexylphosphoric acid) extractants), and distinct aqueous phases (2-4 M HNO3 vs. concentrated pH 3.5 carboxylic acid buffers containing actinide selective chelating agents). The separate processes may also operate with different phase transfer kinetic constraints. Experience teaches (and it has been demonstrated at the lab scale) that, with proper control, multiple process separation systems can operate successfully. However, it is also recognized that considerable economies of scale could be achieved if multiple operations could be merged into a single process based on a combined extractant solvent. The task of accountability of nuclear materials through the process(es) also becomes more robust with fewer steps, providing that the processes can be accurately modeled. Work is underway in the U.S. and Europe on developing several new options for combined processes (TRUSPEAK, ALSEP, SANEX, GANEX, ExAm are examples). There are unique challenges associated with the operation of such processes, some relating to organic phase chemistry, others arising from the

  16. Fabrication of poly(γ-glutamic acid) monolith by thermally induced phase separation and its application. (United States)

    Park, Sung-Bin; Fujimoto, Takashi; Mizohata, Eiichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sung, Moon-Hee; Uyama, Hiroshi


    Monoliths are functional porous materials with a three-dimensional continuous interconnected pore structure in a single piece. A monolith with uniform shape based on poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) has been prepared via a thermally induced phase separation technique using a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide, water, and ethanol as solvent. The morphology of the obtained monolith was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the surface area of the monolith was evaluated by the Brunauer Emmett Teller method. The effects of fabrication parameters such as the concentration and molecular mass of PGA and the solvent composition have been systematically investigated. The PGA monolith was cross-linked with hexamethylene diisocyanate to produce the water-insoluble monolith. The addition of sodium chloride to the phase separation solvent affected the properties of the cross-linked monolith. The swelling ratio of the cross-linked monolith toward aqueous solutions depended on the buffer pH as well as the monolith fabrication condition. Copper(II) ion was efficiently adsorbed on the cross-linked PGA monolith, and the obtained copper-immobilized monolith showed strong antibacterial activity for Escherichia coli. By combination of the characteristic properties of PGA (e.g., high biocompatibility and biodegradability) and the unique features of monoliths (e.g., through-pore structure, large surface area, and high porosity with small pore size), the PGA monolith possesses large potentials for various industrial applications in the biomedical, environmental, analytical, and separation fields.

  17. Superconductivity, charge-density waves, antiferromagnetism, and phase separation in the Hubbard-Holstein model (United States)

    Karakuzu, Seher; Tocchio, Luca F.; Sorella, Sandro; Becca, Federico


    By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we investigate the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model. Here, the ground-state phase diagram is triggered by several energy scales, i.e., the electron hopping t , the on-site electron-electron interaction U , the phonon energy ω0, and the electron-phonon coupling g . At half filling, the ground state is an antiferromagnetic insulator for U ≳2 g2/ω0 , while it is a charge-density-wave (or bipolaronic) insulator for U ≲2 g2/ω0 . In addition to these phases, we find a superconducting phase that intrudes between them. For ω0/t =1 , superconductivity emerges when both U /t and 2 g2/t ω0 are small; then, by increasing the value of the phonon energy ω0, it extends along the transition line between antiferromagnetic and charge-density-wave insulators. Away from half filling, phase separation occurs when doping the charge-density-wave insulator, while a uniform (superconducting) ground state is found when doping the superconducting phase. In the analysis of finite-size effects, it is extremely important to average over twisted boundary conditions, especially in the weak-coupling limit and in the doped case.

  18. Direct single-shot phase retrieval for separated objects (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Leshem, Ben; Xu, Rui; Miao, Jianwei; Nadler, Boaz; Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit; Raz, Oren


    The phase retrieval problem arises in various fields ranging from physics and astronomy to biology and microscopy. Computational reconstruction of the Fourier phase from a single diffraction pattern is typically achieved using iterative alternating projections algorithms imposing a non-convex computational challenge. A different approach is holography, relying on a known reference field. Here we present a conceptually new approach for the reconstruction of two (or more) sufficiently separated objects. In our approach we combine the constraint the objects are finite as well as the information in the interference between them to construct an overdetermined set of linear equations. We show that this set of equations is guaranteed to yield the correct solution almost always and that it can be solved efficiently by standard numerical algebra tools. Essentially, our method combine commonly used constraint (that the object is finite) with a holographic approach (interference information). It differs from holographic methods in the fact that a known reference field is not required, instead the unknown objects serve as reference to one another (hence blind holography). Our method can be applied in a single-shot for two (or more) separated objects or with several measurements with a single object. It can benefit phase imaging techniques such as Fourier phytography microscopy, as well as coherent diffractive X-ray imaging in which the generation of a well-characterized, high resolution reference beam imposes a major challenge. We demonstrate our method experimentally both in the optical domain and in the X-ray domain using XFEL pulses.

  19. Nano-chessboard superlattices formed by spontaneous phase separation in oxides. (United States)

    Guiton, Beth S; Davies, Peter K


    The use of bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures for nanotechnology inherently requires two-dimensional control of the nanostructures at a particular surface. This could in theory be achieved crystallographically with a structure whose three-dimensional unit cell has two or more--tuneable--dimensions on the nanometre scale. Here, we present what is to our knowledge the first example of a truly periodic two-dimensional nanometre-scale phase separation in any inorganic material, and demonstrate our ability to tune the unit-cell dimensions. As such, it represents great potential for the use of standard ceramic processing methods for nanotechnology. The phase separation occurs spontaneously in the homologous series of the perovskite-based Li-ion conductor, (Nd(2/3-x)Li(3x))TiO3, to give two phases whose dimensions both extend into the nanometre scale. This unique feature could lead to its application as a template for the assembly of nanostructures or molecular monolayers.

  20. Density functional theory of gas-liquid phase separation in dilute binary mixtures. (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira


    We examine statics and dynamics of phase-separated states of dilute binary mixtures using density functional theory. In our systems, the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas [Formula: see text] (the Gibbs energy of transfer) is considerably larger than the thermal energy [Formula: see text] for each solute particle and the attractive interaction among the solute particles is weaker than that among the solvent particles. In these conditions, the saturated vapor pressure increases by [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the solute density added in liquid. For [Formula: see text], phase separation is induced at low solute densities in liquid and the new phase remains in gaseous states, even when the liquid pressure is outside the coexistence curve of the solvent. This explains the widely observed formation of stable nanobubbles in ambient water with a dissolved gas. We calculate the density and stress profiles across planar and spherical interfaces, where the surface tension decreases with increasing interfacial solute adsorption. We realize stable solute-rich bubbles with radius about 30 nm, which minimize the free energy functional. We then study dynamics around such a bubble after a decompression of the surrounding liquid, where the bubble undergoes a damped oscillation. In addition, we present some exact and approximate expressions for the surface tension and the interfacial stress tensor.

  1. Kinetics of phase separation in thin films: Simulations for the diffusive case (United States)

    Das, Subir K.; Puri, Sanjay; Horbach, Jürgen; Binder, K.


    We study the diffusion-driven kinetics of phase separation of a symmetric binary mixture (AB) , confined in a thin-film geometry between two parallel walls. We consider cases where (i) both walls preferentially attract the same component (A) , and (ii) one wall attracts A and the other wall attracts B (with the same strength). We focus on the interplay of phase separation and wetting at the walls, which is referred to as surface-directed spinodal decomposition (SDSD). The formation of SDSD waves at the two surfaces, with wave vectors oriented perpendicular to them, often results in a metastable layered state (also referred to as “stratified morphology”). This state is reminiscent of the situation where the thin film is still in the one-phase region but the surfaces are completely wet, and hence coated with thick wetting layers. This metastable state decays by spinodal fluctuations and crosses over to an asymptotic growth regime characterized by the lateral coarsening of pancakelike domains. These pancakes may or may not be coated by precursors of wetting layers. We use Langevin simulations to study this crossover and the growth kinetics in the asymptotic coarsening regime.

  2. Structure of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Solonin


    Full Text Available The article presents a research of two-phase adiabatic flow in air sparging regime in vertical cylindrical channel filled with water. A purpose of the work is to obtain experimental data for further analysis of a character of the moving phases. Research activities used the optic methods PIV (Particle Image Visualization because of their noninvasiveness to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow. A laser sheet illuminated the fluorescence particles, which were admixed in water along the channel length. A digital camera recorded their motion for a certain time interval that allowed building the velocity vector fields. As a result, gas phase velocity components typical for a steady area of the channel and their relations for various intensity of volume air rate were obtained. A character of motion both for an air bubble and for its surrounding liquid has been conducted. The most probable direction of phases moving in the channel under sparging regime is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The use of image processing enabled an analysis of the initial area of the air inlet into liquid. A characteristic curve of the bubbles offset from the axis for various intensity of volume gas rate and channel diameter is defined. A character of moving phases is obtained by building the statistic scalar fields. The values of vertical components of liquid velocity in the inlet part of channel are calculated. Using the obtained data of the gas phase velocities a true void fraction was calculated. It was compared with the values of void fraction, calculated according to the liquid level change in the channel. Obtained velocities were compared with those of the other researchers, and a small difference in their values was explained by experimental conditions. The article is one of the works to research the two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data allow us to understand a character of moving the two-phase flows in

  3. Thermal conductivity and phase separation of the crust of accreting neutron stars. (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Caballero, O L; Berry, D K


    Recently, crust cooling times have been measured for neutron stars after extended outbursts. These observations are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity kappa of the crust and strongly suggest that kappa is large. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the crust of an accreting neutron star using a complex composition that includes many impurities. The composition comes from simulations of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis followed by electron captures. We find that the thermal conductivity is reduced by impurity scattering. In addition, we find phase separation. Some impurities with low atomic number Z are concentrated in a subregion of the simulation volume. For our composition, the solid crust must separate into regions of different compositions. This could lead to an asymmetric star with a quadrupole deformation. Observations of crust cooling can constrain impurity concentrations.

  4. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy


    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  5. Novel Vertical Interconnects With 180 Degree Phase Shift for Amplifiers, Filters, and Integrated Antennas (United States)

    Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)


    In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for RF/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semiconductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  6. Macrocyclic olefin metathesis at high concentrations by using a phase-separation strategy. (United States)

    Raymond, Michaël; Holtz-Mulholland, Michael; Collins, Shawn K


    Macrocyclic olefin metathesis has seen advances in the areas of stereochemistry, chemoselectivity, and catalyst stability, but strategies aimed at controlling dilution effects in macrocyclizations are rare. Herein, a protocol to promote macrocyclic olefin metathesis, one of the most common synthetic tools used to prepare macrocycles, at relatively high concentrations (up to 60 mM) is described by exploitation of a phase-separation strategy. A variety of macrocyclic skeletons could be prepared having either different alkyl, aryl, or amino acids spacers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dimensionality dependence of aging in kinetics of diffusive phase separation: Behavior of order-parameter autocorrelation. (United States)

    Midya, Jiarul; Majumder, Suman; Das, Subir K


    Behavior of two-time autocorrelation during the phase separation in solid binary mixtures is studied via numerical solutions of the Cahn-Hilliard equation as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model. Results are analyzed via state-of-the-art methods, including the finite-size scaling technique. Full forms of the autocorrelation in space dimensions 2 and 3 are obtained empirically. The long-time behavior is found to be power law, with exponents unexpectedly higher than the ones for the ferromagnetic ordering. Both Cahn-Hilliard and Ising models provide consistent results.

  8. Preparing poly (caprolactone) micro-particles through solvent-induced phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Stephansen, Karen


    Poly (caprolactone) (PCL) particles with the size distribution from 1 to 100 μm were prepared through solvent-induced phase separation, in which polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) was used as the matrix-forming polymer to stabilize PCL particles. The cloud point data of PCL-acetone-water was determined...... by the titration method. PCL-acetone and PVA-water solutions, PCL-PVA gel, and PCL particles suspension were recorded by a digital camera. The morphology of PCL-PVA suspension and PCL particles were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The size distribution of PCL...

  9. Early stage of phase-separation processes in FeCr and AlZn alloys (United States)

    Furusaka, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Mera, M.


    Phase-separation processes in FeCr and AlZn alloys were studied by a small-angle scattering instrument installed at the KENS pulsed neutron source. Two stages were found in the decomposition process. In the late stage after annealing time t, dynamical scaling holds for the scattering function S(q,t) which exhibits q-4 dependence for high-q values. At the earlier stage S(q,t) cannot be described by the same scaling law, and q-2 dependence appears at high q. This relation can be well described by the nonlinear theory of Langer, Bar-on, and Miller.

  10. Energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the line of phase separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, G M; Ziauddin-Ahmed, A Z


    We have investigated the energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the solid-liquid phase separation line. A microscopic theory based on the first order perturbation has been applied. The interionic interaction and a reference liquid are the fundamental components of the theory. These are described by a local pseudopotential and the hard sphere liquids, respectively. The results of calculations reveal a characteristic feature that the energy of formation becomes minimum at the equiatomic composition, and thus indicates maximal mix-ability at this concentration. The energy of formation at a particular thermodynamic state that is at T 1173 K predicts the experimental trends fairly well.

  11. Three-phase material distribution measurements in a vertical flow using gamma-densitometry tomography and electrical-impedance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Experiments are presented in which electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) and gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) measurements were combined to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions in a vertical three-phase flow. The experimental testbed was a 19.05-cm diameter bubble column in which gas is injected at the bottom and exits out the top while the liquid and solid phases recirculate. The gas phase was air and the liquid phase was deionized water with added electrolytes. Four different particle classes were investigated for the solid phase: 40--100 {micro}m and 120--200 {micro}m glass beads (2.41 g/cm{sup 3}), and 170--260 {micro}m and 200--700 {micro}m polystyrene beads (1.04 g/cm{sup 3}). Superficial gas velocities of 3 to 30 cm/s and solid volume fractions up to 0.30 were examined. For all experimental conditions investigated, the gas distribution showed only a weak dependence on both particle size and density. Average gas volume fraction as a function of superficial gas velocity can be described to within {+-} 0.04 by curve passing through the center of the data. For most cases the solid particle appeared to be radically uniformly dispersed in the liquid.

  12. Wide operation range in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser array based on proton implantation. (United States)

    Xun, Meng; Xu, Chen; Deng, Jun; Xie, Yiyang; Jiang, Guoqing; Wang, Jun; Xu, Kun; Chen, Hongda


    In-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) hexagonal arrays were fabricated using proton implantation. The near-field profiles, far-field profiles, and emission spectra under different injection currents were tested and analyzed. The arrays can maintain in-phase single mode in a considerably wide current range from 10 mA (I(th)) to 35 mA (3.5×I(th)), exhibiting excellent beam quality. The far-field divergence angle of the in-phase coupled array is 2.5 degrees. Approximately 29% of total power is localized in the central lobe. Compared with square structure arrays, hexagonal arrays can maintain a more stable in-phase mode because of stronger coupling among the elements. The maximum output power of 4.9 mW was obtained under pulse wave condition. The simulation of far-field was carried out to match the in-phase operation test results. The performance enhancement of the array is attainable if the condition of heat dissipation is better. The process procedure of proton implantation is relatively simple and of low cost. It can be used as an alternative to coherently coupled array implementations.

  13. High-performance ferroelectric memory based on phase-separated films of polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser


    High-performance polymer memory is fabricated using blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene-fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and highly insulating poly(p-phenylene oxide) (PPO). The blend films spontaneously phase separate into amorphous PPO nanospheres embedded in a semicrystalline P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Using low molecular weight PPO with high miscibility in a common solvent, i.e., methyl ethyl ketone, blend films are spin cast with extremely low roughness (Rrms ≈ 4.92 nm) and achieve nanoscale phase seperation (PPO domain size < 200 nm). These blend devices display highly improved ferroelectric and dielectric performance with low dielectric losses (<0.2 up to 1 MHz), enhanced thermal stability (up to ≈353 K), excellent fatigue endurance (80% retention after 106 cycles at 1 KHz) and high dielectric breakdown fields (≈360 MV/m). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Controlling phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films via substrate engineering (United States)

    Gilbert Corder, Stephanie N.; Jiang, Jianjuan; Chen, Xinzhong; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Tung, I.-Cheng; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Jiawei; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.; Wen, Haidan; Tao, Tiger H.; Liu, Mengkun


    The strong electron-lattice interactions in correlated electron systems provide unique opportunities for altering the material properties with relative ease and flexibility. In this Rapid Communication, we use localized strain control via a focused-ion-beam patterning of Ti O2 substrates to demonstrate that one can selectively engineer the insulator-to-metal transition temperature, the fractional component of the insulating and metallic phases, and the degree of optical anisotropy down to the length scales of the intrinsic phase separation in V O2 thin films without altering the quality of the films. The effects of localized strain control on the strongly correlated electron system are directly visualized by state-of-the-art IR near-field imaging and spectroscopy techniques and x-ray microdiffraction measurements.

  15. Preparation of n-tetradecane-containing microcapsules with different shell materials by phase separation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qingwu [Department of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)


    Microcapsules for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer enhancement have attracted great attention. Microencapsulation of n-tetradecane with different shell materials was carried out by phase separation method in this paper. Acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (AS), acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as the shell materials. The structures, morphologies and the thermal capacities of the microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ternary phase diagrams showed the potential encapsulation capabilities of the three shell materials. The effects of the shell/core ratio and the molecular weight of the shell material on the encapsulation efficiency and the thermal capacity of the microcapsules were also discussed. Microcapsules with melting enthalpy > 100 J/g, encapsulation efficiency 66-75%, particle size<1 {mu}m were obtained for all three shell materials. (author)

  16. Two phase flow and heat transfer characteristics of a separate-type heat pipe (United States)

    Tang, Zhiwei; Liu, Aijie; Jiang, Zhangyan


    Two phase flow and heat transfer characteristics of a separate-type heat pipe have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental apparatus have the same geometry for the evaporator and the condenser which consist of 5-tube-banks, with working temperature ranges of 80-125°C. The experimental working fluid is dual-distilled water with corrosion-resistant agents. Heat transfer coefficients for boiling and condensation along with heat flux and working temperature are measured at different filling ratio. According to the results of the experiments, the optimized filling ratio ranges from 16 to 36%. Fitted correlations of average heat transfer coefficients of the evaporator and Nusselt numbers of the condenser at the proposed filling ratio are obtained. Two phase flow characteristics of the evaporator and the condenser as well as their influence on heat transfer are described on the basis of simplified analysis. Reasons for the pulse-boiling process remain to be studied.

  17. Single-Crystal Growth of the Ternary BaFe2As2 Phase Using the Vertical Bridgman Technique (United States)

    Morinaga, Rei; Matan, Kittiwit; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Sato, Taku J.


    Ternary Ba-Fe-As system has been studied to determine a primary solidification field of the BaFe2As2 phase. We found that the BaFe2As2 phase most likely melts congruently and primarily solidifies either in the FeAs excess or BaxAs100-x excess liquid. Knowing the primary solidification field, we have performed the vertical Bridgman growth using the starting liquid composition of Ba15Fe42.5As42.5. Large single crystals of the typical size 10×4×2 mm3 were obtained and their quality was confirmed by X-ray Laue and neutron diffraction.

  18. Broadband tunable bandpass filters using phase shifted vertical side wall grating in a submicrometer silicon-on-insulator waveguide. (United States)

    Prabhathan, P; Murukeshan, V M; Jing, Zhang; Ramana, Pamidighantam V


    We propose the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based, phase shifted vertical side wall grating as a resonant transmission filter suitable for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) communication channels with 100 GHz channel spacing. The gratings are designed and numerically simulated to obtain a minimum loss in the resonant cavity by adjusting the grating parameters so that a high transmittivity can be achieved for the resonant transmission. The resonant grating, which is designed to operate in the DWDM International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid C band of optical communication, has a high free spectral range of 51.7 nm and a narrow band resonant transmission. The wavelength selectivity of the filter is improved through a coupled cavity configuration by applying two phase shifts to the gratings. The observed channel band width and channel isolation of the resonant transmission filter are good and in agreement with the ITU specifications.

  19. Accelerated search for BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics with vertical morphotropic phase boundary using Bayesian learning. (United States)

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V; Yuan, Ruihao; Hu, Tao; Qian, Xiaoning; Dougherty, Edward R; Lookman, Turab


    An outstanding challenge in the nascent field of materials informatics is to incorporate materials knowledge in a robust Bayesian approach to guide the discovery of new materials. Utilizing inputs from known phase diagrams, features or material descriptors that are known to affect the ferroelectric response, and Landau-Devonshire theory, we demonstrate our approach for BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics with the desired target of a vertical morphotropic phase boundary. We predict, synthesize, and characterize a solid solution, (Ba0.5Ca0.5)TiO3-Ba(Ti0.7Zr0.3)O3, with piezoelectric properties that show better temperature reliability than other BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics in our initial training data.

  20. Moisture-induced amorphous phase separation of amorphous solid dispersions: molecular mechanism, microstructure, and its impact on dissolution performance. (United States)

    Chen, Huijun; Pui, Yipshu; Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Zhen; Su, Ching-Chiang; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Foster, Kimberly; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Qian, Feng


    Amorphous phase separation (APS) is commonly observed in amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) when exposed to moisture. The objective of this study was to investigate: 1) the phase behavior of amorphous solid dispersions composed of a poorly water-soluble drug with extremely low crystallization propensity, BMS-817399, and PVP, following exposure to different relative humidity (RH), and 2) the impact of phase separation on the intrinsic dissolution rate of amorphous solid dispersion. Drug-polymer interaction was confirmed in ASDs at different drug loading using Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and water vapor sorption analysis. It was found that the drug-polymer interaction could persist at low RH (≤ 75% RH) but was disrupted after exposure to high RH, with the advent of phase separation. Surface morphology and composition of 40/60 ASD at micro-/nano- scale before and after exposure to 95% RH were also compared. It was found that hydrophobic drug enriched on the surface of ASD after phase separation. However, for the 40/60 ASD system, the intrinsic dissolution rate of amorphous drug was hardly affected by the phase behavior of ASD, which may be partially attributed to the low crystallization tendency of amorphous BMS-817399 and high hydrophobicity of ASD. Intrinsic dissolution rate of PVP was decreased resulting from phase separation, leading to a lower concentration in the dissolution medium, but supersaturation maintenance was not anticipated to be altered after phase separation due to the limited ability of PVP to inhibit drug precipitation and prolong the supersaturation of drug in solution. This study indicated that for compounds with low crystallization propensity and high hydrophobicity, the risk of moisture-induced phase separation is high but such phase separation may not have profound impact on the drug dissolution performance of ASDs. Therefore, application of ASD technology on slow crystallizers could incur low risks not only in physical stability, but also in

  1. Separation studies of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) by reversed-phase paper chromatographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, B.; Shinde, V.M.


    Reversed-phase paper chromatographic separations of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) have been carried out on Whatman No 1 filter paper impregnated with triphenylphosphine oxide as stationary phase and using organic complexing agents such as sodium acetate, sodium succinate and sodium malonate solutions as active mobile phases. Results for the separation of binary and ternary mixtures are reported and the method has been successfully applied to the separation and detection of these elements present in real samples and at ppm level concentration.

  2. Haloing in bimodal magnetic colloids: the role of field-induced phase separation. (United States)

    Magnet, C; Kuzhir, P; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Suloeva, L; Zubarev, A


    If a suspension of magnetic micrometer-sized and nanosized particles is subjected to a homogeneous magnetic field, the nanoparticles are attracted to the microparticles and form thick anisotropic halos (clouds) around them. Such clouds can hinder the approach of microparticles and result in effective repulsion between them [M. T. López-López, A. Yu. Zubarev, and G. Bossis, Soft Matter 6, 4346 (2010)]. In this paper, we present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticle concentration profiles and of the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds around a single magnetized microsphere, taking into account interactions between nanoparticles. We show that at a strong enough magnetic field, the ensemble of nanoparticles experiences a gas-liquid phase transition such that a dense liquid phase is condensed around the magnetic poles of a microsphere while a dilute gas phase occupies the rest of the suspension volume. Nanoparticle accumulation around a microsphere is governed by two dimensionless parameters--the initial nanoparticle concentration (φ(0)) and the magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio (α)--and the three accumulation regimes are mapped onto a α-φ(0) phase diagram. Our local thermodynamic equilibrium approach gives a semiquantitative agreement with the experiments on the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds. The results of this work could be useful for the development of the bimodal magnetorheological fluids and of the magnetic separation technologies used in bioanalysis and water purification systems.

  3. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment: evaluation of a new three-phase separation system in a UASB reactor. (United States)

    Caixeta, Cláudia E T; Cammarota, Magali C; Xavier, Alcina M F


    The anaerobic treatment of the wastewater from the meat processing industry was studied using a 7.2 1 UASB reactor. The reactor was equipped with an unconventional configuration of the three-phase separation system. The effluent was characterized in terms of pH (6.3-6.6), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2,000-6,000 mg l(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand BOD5 (1,300-2,300 mg 1(-1)), fats (40-600 mg l(-1)) and total suspended solids (TSS) (850-6,300 mg l(-1)) The reactor operated continuously throughout 80 days with hydraulic retention time of 14, 18 and 22 h. The wastewater from Rezende Industrial was collected after it had gone through pretreatment (screening, flotation and equalization). COD, BOD and TSS reductions and the biogas production rate were the parameters considered in analyzing the efficiency of the process. The average production of biogas was 111 day(-1) (STP) for the three experimental runs. COD removal varied from 77% to 91% while BOD removal was 95%. The removal of total suspended solids varied from 81% to 86%. This fact supports optimal efficiency of the proposed three-phase separation system as well as the possibility of applying it to the treatment of industrial effluents.

  4. Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns. (United States)

    Biba, Mirlinda; Jiang, Eileen; Mao, Bing; Zewge, Daniel; Foley, Joe P; Welch, Christopher J


    New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (∼20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrete phase model representation of particulate matter (PM) for simulating PM separation by hydrodynamic unit operations. (United States)

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J


    Modeling the separation of dilute particulate matter (PM) has been a topic of interest since the introduction of unit operations for clarification of rainfall-runoff. One consistent yet controversial issue is the representation of PM and PM separation mechanisms for treatment. While Newton's Law and surface overflow rate were utilized, many historical models represented PM as a lumped gravimetric index largely out of economy and lack of particle analysis methods. As a result such models did not provide information about particle fate in or through a unit operation. In this study, PM discrete phase modeling (DPM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are applied to model PM fate as a function of particle size and flow rate in two common types of hydrodynamic separator (HS) units. The study examines the discretization requirements (as a discretization number, DN) and errors for particle size distributions (PSDs) that range from the common heterodisperse to a monodisperse PSD. PSDs are categorized based on granulometric indices. Results focus on ensuring modeling accuracy while examining the role of size dispersivity and overall PM fineness on DN requirements. The fate of common heterodisperse PSDs is accurately predicted for a DN of 16, whereas a single particle size index, commonly the d(50m), is limited to monodisperse PSDs in order to achieve similar accuracy.

  6. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groger, H. [American Research Corp. of Virginia, Radford, VA (United States)


    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis.

  7. Highly-efficient fully resonant vertical couplers for InP active-passive monolithic integration using vertically phase matched waveguides. (United States)

    López, Oscar García; Lasaosa, Daniel; López-Amo, Manuel; Galarza, Marko


    A new active-passive monolithic integration approach for photonic components based on vertical evanescent coupling is presented. Two vertically stacked waveguides are used in order to provide full resonant power transfer between them and avoiding the need of tapered structures. Light confinement in each waveguide is achieved combining strong lateral asymmetric structures and bent waveguides, both defined during lithography. Low propagation losses for the active waveguide and coupling efficiencies to the passive section as high as 97% have been obtained.

  8. Probing interactions and phase separations of proteins, colloids, and polymers with light scattering (United States)

    Parmar, Avanish Singh

    The broad objective of my research is to investigate the physical characteristics and interactions of macromolecules and nanoparticles, and the corresponding effects on their phase separation behavior using static and dynamic light scattering (SLS & DLS). Light scattering provides a non-invasive technique for monitoring the in-situ behavior of solutes in solution, including solute interactions, sizes, shapes, aggregation kinetics and even rheological properties of condensed phases. Initially, we investigated lysozyme solutions for the presence of preformed aggregates and clusters that can distort the kinetics of protein crystal nucleation studies in this important model system for protein crystallization. We found that both undersaturated and supersaturated lysozyme solutions contained population of large, pre-existing protein aggregate. Separating these clusters and analyzing their composition with gel chromatography indicated that these clusters represented pre-formed lysozyme aggregates, and not extrinsic protein contamination. We investigated the effect of chaotropic versus kosmotropic ions (water structure breakers vs. structure makers) on the hydration layer and hydrodynamic interactions of hen egg white lysozyme. Surprisingly, neither chaotropic nor kosmotropic ions affected the protein hydration layer. Salt-effects on direct and hydrodynamic protein interactions were determined as function of the solutions ionic strength and temperature. Using both static and dynamic light scattering, we investigated the nucleation of gold nanoparticles forming from supersaturated gold sols. We observed that two well separated populations of nuclei formed essentially simultaneously, with sizes of 3nm vs. several tens of nanometer, respectively. We explore the use of lysozyme as tracer particle for diffusion-base measurements of electrolyte solutions. We showed that the unusual stability of lysozyme and its enhanced colloidal stability enable viscosity measurement of salts


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Reid M.


    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  10. Initial Droplet Size Impacts pH-Induced Structural Changes in Phase-Separated Polymer Dispersions. (United States)

    Thongkaew, Chutima; Zeeb, Benjamin; Gibis, Monika; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen


    The effect of pH change on the morphology of whey protein isolate (WPI)-pectin dispersions obtained from phase-separated systems after mild shear was studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mixing speed on the initial particle size of biopolymer complexes and their structure morphology after sequentially changing the pH. Therefore, solutions of WPI and pectin were combined at pH 6.1, allowed to phase separate and were then mildly homogenized at 50, 100, and 150 rpm, respectively, to form a dispersion containing differently sized WPI droplets in a surrounding pectin-rich phase. Each dispersion was then subjected to a pH change, such as 6.1 to 5.2 and 3.2, by slowly adding hydrochloric acid. The systems morphology, size, appearance, rheology, and storage stability was then characterized by optical microscopy, static light scattering, visual inspections, and steady shear rheometry to gain insights into the structural rearrangements. Results indicated substantial changes in the structure of the dispersion when the pH was changed. Formation of core-shell structures from the WPI droplets was observed at an intermediate pH. There, initial droplet size was found to affect structures formed, that is, core-shell type particles would only form if droplets were large (>1.5 μm) prior to pH change. Insights gained may be of importance to food manufacturers intending to create new structures from mixtures of proteins and carbohydrates. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Enantiomeric separation of iridium (III) complexes using HPLC chiral stationary phases based on amylose derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Seo, Na Hyeon; Hyun, Myung Ho [Dept. of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes formed with three identical cyclometalating (C-N) ligands (homoleptic) or formed with two cyclometalating (C-N) ligands and one ancillary (LX) ligand (heteroleptic) have been known as highly phosphorescent materials and, thus, they have been utilized as efficient phosphorescent dopants in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) 1–3 or as effective phosphorescent chemosensors. 4–7 Cylometalated iridium (III) complexes are chiral compounds consisting of lambda (Λ, left-handed) and delta (Δ, right-handed) isomers. Racemic cyclometa- lated iridium (III) complexes emit light with no net polarization, but optically active cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes emit circularly polarized light. 8,9 Circularly polarized light can be used in various fields including highly efficient three dimensional electronic devices, photo nic devices for optical data storage, biological assays, and others. 8,9 In order to obtain optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes and to determine the enantiomeric composition of optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes, liquid chromatogr aphic enantiomer separation method on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been used. For example, Okamoto and coworkers first reported the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) direct enantiomeric separation of two homoleptic cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on immobilized amylose tris(3,5- dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak IA), coated cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralc el OD), and coated cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (Chiralce l OJ). 10 Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was also used by Bernhard and coworkers for the enantiomeric separation of cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak AD-H). 8 However, the general use of the HPLC method for the direct enantiomeric separation of homoleptic.

  12. Phase Behavior and Thermodynamic Model Parameters in Simulations of Extractive Distillation for Azeotrope Separation. (United States)

    Li, Min; Xu, Xicai; Li, Xin; Ma, Kang; Qin, Bin; Zhu, Zhaoyou; Wang, Yinglong


    Extractive distillation (ED) processes for separating ternary mixtures of benzene-cyclohexane-toluene with dimethyl formamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were studied using Aspen Plus and PRO/II simulators. The Aspen Plus built-in binary interaction parameters for the toluene-DMF, benzene-NMP and cyclohexane-NMP systems resulted in inaccurate phase behavior calculations. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for the three binary systems was regressed to illustrate the importance of using accurate model parameters. The obtained binary interaction parameters described the phase behavior more accurately compared with the built-in binary interaction parameters in Aspen Plus. In this study, the effects of the regressed and built-in binary interaction parameters on the ED process design are presented. The total annual cost (TAC) was calculated to further illustrate the importance of the regressed binary interaction parameters. The results show that phase behavior and thermodynamic model parameters should receive more attention during the research and development of ED processes.

  13. Hydration-Induced Phase Separation in Amphiphilic Polymer Matrices and its Influence on Voclosporin Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, I. John [The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Murthy, N. Sanjeeva [The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Kohn, Joachim [The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)


    Voclosporin is a highly potent, new cyclosporine -- a derivative that is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the USA as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases of the eye. Voclosporin represents a number of very sparingly soluble drugs that are difficult to administer. It was selected as a model drug that is dispersed within amphiphilic polymer matrices, and investigated the changing morphology of the matrices using neutron and x-ray scattering during voclosporin release and polymer resorption. The hydrophobic segments of the amphiphilic polymer chain are comprised of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) and desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT), and the hydrophilic component is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Water uptake in these matrices resulted in the phase separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains that are a few hundred Angstroms apart. These water-driven morphological changes influenced the release profile of voclosporin and facilitated a burst-free release from the polymer. No such morphological reorganization was observed in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which exhibits an extended lag period, followed by a burst-like release of voclosporin when the polymer was degraded. An understanding of the effect of polymer composition on the hydration behavior is central to understanding and controlling the phase behavior and resorption characteristics of the matrix for achieving long-term controlled release of hydrophobic drugs such as voclosporin.

  14. Tunnelling magnetoresistance and 1/f noise in phase-separated manganites

    CERN Document Server

    Sboychakov, A O; Kugel, K I; Kagan, M Y; Brodsky, I V


    The magnetoresistance and the noise power of non-metallic phase-separated manganites are studied. The material is modelled by a system of small ferromagnetic metallic droplets (magnetic polarons or ferrons) in an insulating matrix. The concentration of metallic phase is assumed to be far from the percolation threshold. The electron tunnelling between ferrons causes the charge transfer in such a system. The magnetoresistance is determined both by the increase in the volume of the metallic phase and by the change in the electron hopping probability. In the framework of such a model, the low-field magnetoresistance is proportional to H sup 2 and decreases with temperature as T sup - sup n , where n can vary from 1 to 5, depending on the parameters of the system. In the high-field limit, the tunnelling magnetoresistance grows exponentially. Different mechanisms of the voltage fluctuations in the system are analysed. The noise spectrum generated by the fluctuations of the number of droplets with extra electrons ha...

  15. Separation of neutral compounds by capillary electrokinetic chromatography using polyethyleneimine as replaceable cationic pseudostationary phase. (United States)

    Maichel, B; Potocek, B; Gas, B; Chiari, M; Kenndler, E


    Polyethyleneimine (PEI, molecular weight 6 x 10(5) - 1 x 10(6)) is applied as a positively charged pseudostationary phase for electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) of uncharged mono- and oligophenols. EKC is carried out in PEI-coated fused-silica capillaries (with electroosmotic flow directed towards the anode) in 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer (pH 7.0, 20 mM) with PEI added to the solution in concentrations up to 0.70% w/v. The pseudostationary phase leads to a retardation of the solutes mainly according to the number (and the position) of the OH-groups of the separands, and is not influenced significantly by methyl groups. For 0.70% w/v PEI solution, for instance, the relative retention, rho, has values between 0.33 and 0.53. For the systems with the highest resolution of the separands (0.25-0.30% PEI) 190,000 plates per meter are observed. The results indicate that the separation selectivity is mainly caused by ion-dipole interactions between the OH-groups of the solutes and the pseudostationary phase.

  16. Correspondence between the electronic structure and phase separation in a K-doped FeSe system (United States)

    Liu, C.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, J. O.; Qian, H. J.; Wu, R.; Wang, H. H.; Zhang, N.; Ibrahim, K.


    Phase separated potassium intercalated FeSe thin films have been synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. The coexistence of FeSe phase and 245 phase was investigated both by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction. The volume ratio of these two phases is sensitive to temperatures and amount of extra potassium dosing. The XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that these two phases shows the different hybridization strength between adjacent Fe layer and Se layer. We infer that the layered electronic structure is the necessary condition of superconductivity in potassium-doped FeSe system, and the phase separation is driven by competition between quasi-2D and 3D bonding mode within FeSe layer. Similar competition may also be able to interpret the phase seperation in K x Fe2-y Se2 bulk single crystal. Project supported under 11375228 by NSFC and 2016YFA0401002 by MOST of China.

  17. Effect of phase separation on the fracture toughness of SiO2–B2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –B2O3–Na2O system. The interface between the glass in glass separation enhances the fracture toughness. The increase in the connectivity of phase separated regions causes increase of fracture toughness from 0.98 through 1.43 to 1.54 ...

  18. Pressure-driven reverse-phase liquid chromatography separations in ordered non-porous pillar array columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Malsche, Wim; Eghbali, Hamed; Clicq, David; Vangelooven, Joris; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Desmet, Gert


    Building upon the micromachined column idea proposed by the group of Regnier in 1998, we report on the first high-resolution reversed-phase separations in micromachined pillar array columns under pressure-driven LC conditions. A three component mixture could be separated in 3 s using arrays of

  19. Protein formulation and lyophilization cycle design: prevention of damage due to freeze-concentration induced phase separation. (United States)

    Heller, M C; Carpenter, J F; Randolph, T W


    Hemoglobin has been previously shown to unfold during freeze drying when lyophilized from formulations that undergo freeze-concentration induced phase separation (Heller et al. 1997. Biotechnol Prog 13:590-596). In this report, we show that such damage may be avoided using kinetic strategies to arrest the phase separation. By rapidly cooling samples during liquid nitrogen spray-freeze drying, the time that the formulation spends in temperature regimes (ca. -3 to -23 degrees C) in which phase separation is both thermodynamically favorable and kinetically realizable is minimized. Increased protein damage with decreasing cooling rates and/or longer annealing periods at -7 degrees C is observed by FTIR spectroscopy. Phase separation and concomitant protein damage may also be avoided by addition of mannitol at concentrations sufficient to cause crystallization. Mannitol crystals segregate the freeze concentrated solution into microscopic domains that block propagation and nucleation of phase separating events. Addition of noncrystallizing sugars, such as sucrose and trehalose, or nonionic surfactants, such as Tween 80 and Triton X-100, has little protective effect against phase separation induced damage during freezing drying. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Solid-Phase Fe Speciation along the Vertical Redox Gradients in Floodplains using XAS and Mössbauer Spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chunmei [Department; Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental; Lazareva, Olesya [Department; Sparks, Donald L. [Department


    Properties of Fe minerals are poorly understood in natural soils and sediments with variable redox conditions. In this study, we combined 57Fe Mössbauer and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques to assess solid-phase Fe speciation along the vertical redox gradients of floodplain profiles, which exhibited a succession of oxic, anoxic and suboxic-oxic zones with increasing depth along the vertical profiles. The anoxic conditions at the intermediate horizon (55-80 cm) of the eastern floodplain resulted in extensive depletion of Fe(III)-oxides including both ferrihydrite and goethite, concurrent with a corresponding reduction of phyllosilicates(PS)-Fe(III) to PS-Fe(II). In addition, the anoxic conditions increased the crystallinity of Fe(III)-oxides in this reduced zone, relative to the oxic zones. In the most reduced intermediate sediments at 80-120cm of the western floodplain, the anoxic conditions drove the complete reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides, as well as the greatest reduction (48-55%) in PS-Fe(III). In both oxic near-surface horizon and oxic-suboxic gravel aquifers beneath the soil horizons, Fe(III)-oxides were mainly present as ferrihydrite with a less amount of goethite, which preferentially occurred as nanogoethite or Al/Si-substituted goethite. Ferrihydrite with varying crystallinity or impurities such as organic matter, Al or Si, persisted under suboxic-oxic conditions in the floodplain. This study indicates that vertical redox gradients exert a major control on the quantity and speciation of Fe(III) oxides as well as the oxidation state of structural Fe in PS, which could significantly affect nutrient cycling and carbon (de)stabilization.

  1. Protein separation through preliminary experiments concerning pH and salt concentration by tube radial distribution chromatography based on phase separation multiphase flow using a polytetrafluoroethylene capillary tube. (United States)

    Kan, Hyo; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko


    Protein mixtures were separated using tube radial distribution chromatography (TRDC) in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary (internal diameter=100µm) separation tube. Separation by TRDC is based on the annular flow in phase separation multiphase flow and features an open-tube capillary without the use of specific packing agents or application of high voltages. Preliminary experiments were conducted to examine the effects of pH and salt concentration on the phase diagram of the ternary mixed solvent solution of water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate (8:2:1 volume ratio) and on the TRDC system using the ternary mixed solvent solution. A model protein mixture containing peroxidase, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin was analyzed via TRDC with the ternary mixed solvent solution at various pH values, i.e., buffer-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate (8:2:1 volume ratio). Protein was separated on the chromatograms by the TRDC system, where the elution order was determined by the relation between the isoelectric points of protein and the pH values of the solvent solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-Catalyzed Growth of Vertically Aligned InN Nanorods by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. (United States)

    Tessarek, C; Fladischer, S; Dieker, C; Sarau, G; Hoffmann, B; Bashouti, M; Göbelt, M; Heilmann, M; Latzel, M; Butzen, E; Figge, S; Gust, A; Höflich, K; Feichtner, T; Büchele, M; Schwarzburg, K; Spiecker, E; Christiansen, S


    Vertically aligned hexagonal InN nanorods were grown mask-free by conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy without any foreign catalyst. The In droplets on top of the nanorods indicate a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. A systematic study on important growth parameters has been carried out for the optimization of nanorod morphology. The nanorod N-polarity, induced by high temperature nitridation of the sapphire substrate, is necessary to achieve vertical growth. Hydrogen, usually inapplicable during InN growth due to formation of metallic indium, and silane are needed to enhance the aspect ratio and to reduce parasitic deposition beside the nanorods on the sapphire surface. The results reveal many similarities between InN and GaN nanorod growth showing that the process despite the large difference in growth temperature is similar. Transmission electron microscopy, spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to analyze the structural properties. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations are carried out to verify the optical activity of the InN nanorods. The InN nanorods are expected to be the material of choice for high-efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  3. A self-standing two-fluid CFD model for vertical upward two-phase annular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province (China); Li, W.Z.; Quan, S.L. [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province (China)


    Research highlights: A mathematic model for two-phase annular flow is established in this paper. Pressure loss and wall shear stress increase with inlet gas and liquid flow velocities. Droplet mass fraction distribution exhibits a concave profile radially. - Abstract: In this paper, a new two-fluid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model is proposed to simulate the vertical upward two-phase annular flow. This model solves the basic mass and momentum equations for the gas core region flow and the liquid film flow, where the basic governing equations are accounted for by the commercial CFD package Fluent6.3.26. The liquid droplet flow and the interfacial inter-phase effects are accounted for by the programmable interface of Fluent, UDF (user defined function). Unlike previous models, the present model includes the effect of liquid roll waves directly determined from the CFD code. It is able to provide more detailed and, the most important, self-standing information for both the gas core flow and the film flow as well as the inner tube wall situations.

  4. FDTD Modelling of Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in Phase Separation Interface of H-PDLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Gui


    Full Text Available We report localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR of silver nanoparticles (NPs embedded in interface of phase separation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC gratings using Finite-Difference Time Domain method. We show that silver NPs exhibit double resonance peak at the interface, and these peaks are influenced by the angle of incident light. We observe a blue shift of the wavelength of resonance peak as the incident angle increases. However, the location of silver NPs at the interface has nearly no effect on the wavelength of resonance peak. Also we show near-field and far-field properties surrounding silver NPs and find that field distribution can be controlled through rotation of incident angle. Therefore, LSPR properties of silver NPs within H-PDLC gratings can be excited by appropriate wavelength and angle of the incident light.

  5. Early stages of spinodal decomposition for the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model of phase separation (United States)

    Elder, K. R.; Rogers, T. M.; Desai, Rashmi C.


    A computer simulation using discretized space and time is employed to examine the early stages of phase separation as described by the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook equation (CHCE). The relative simplicity of this simulation provides a direct test of various mathematical treatments of the nonlinear term in the CHCE. In particular, the numerical results are used to ascertain the validity of the approximations inherent in the perturbative expansions of Grant, San Miguel, Vinals, and Gunton, and of Langer, Bar-on, and Miller. The time of validity of all approximations is shown to be logarithmically related to the strength of the thermal fluctuations. In addition, the effect of the initial state on the dynamical evolution of the order parameter is examined.

  6. Phase Separation of Dirac Electrons in Topological Insulators at the Spatial Limit. (United States)

    Parra, Carolina; Rodrigues da Cunha, Thiago Henrique; Contryman, Alex W; Kong, Desheng; Montero-Silva, Francisco; Rezende Gonçalves, Pedro Henrique; Dos Reis, Diogo Duarte; Giraldo-Gallo, Paula; Segura, Rodrigo; Olivares, Fernanda; Niestemski, Francis; Cui, Yi; Magalhaes-Paniago, Rogerio; Manoharan, Hari C


    In this work we present unique signatures manifested by the local electronic properties of the topological surface state in Bi2Te3 nanostructures as the spatial limit is approached. We concentrate on the pure nanoscale limit (nanoplatelets) with spatial electronic resolution down to 1 nm. The highlights include strong dependencies on nanoplatelet size: (1) observation of a phase separation of Dirac electrons whose length scale decreases as the spatial limit is approached, and (2) the evolution from heavily n-type to lightly n-type surface doping as nanoplatelet thickness increases. Our results show a new approach to tune the Dirac point together with reduction of electronic disorder in topological insulator (TI) nanostructured systems. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of these nanostructured Dirac systems in electronic devices.

  7. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation. (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo


    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Phase change in an opinion-dynamics model with separation of time scales (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo K.; Barrio, R. A.


    We define an opinion formation model of agents in a one-dimensional ring, where the opinion of an agent evolves due to its interactions with close neighbors and due to its either positive or negative attitude toward the overall mood of all the other agents. While the dynamics of the agent’s opinion is described with an appropriate differential equation, from time to time pairs of agents are allowed to change their locations to improve the homogeneity of opinion (or comfort feeling) with respect to their short-range environment. In this way the timescale of transaction dynamics and that of environment update are well separated and controlled by a single parameter. By varying this parameter we discovered a phase change in the number of undecided individuals. This phenomenon arises from the fact that too frequent location exchanges among agents result in frustration in their opinion formation. Our mean field analysis supports this picture.

  9. Elaboration of porous poly(ether-imide membrane using vapor induced phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanoizele/ Elodie


    Full Text Available Polymeric films were prepared from poly (ether-imide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solutions using vapor induced phase separation process at 40 oC. The influence of such operating conditions as relative humidity and polymer concentration on the final morphology was investigated in order to consider potential future membrane applications with the objective of elaborating presupposed quality porous materials. In our experiments, the water vapor concentration in the atmosphere used during the film forming process was the predominant parameter governing the microstructure. Polymeric films with a cellular morphology were produced for a processing relative humidity (RH higher than 30% whereas dense homogeneous films were obtained below this value. The influence of the polymer concentration was studied at 40 % RH. The results were discussed with respect to the cell and pore size and to the occurrence of macro-void defects.

  10. Effect of oil droplets and their solid/liquid composition on the phase separation of protein-polysaccharide mixtures. (United States)

    Hanazawa, Tomohito; Murray, Brent S


    The phase separation of a model system consisting of sodium caseinate + xanthan ± a low fraction (up to 3 wt %) of an oil-in-water emulsion was studied at room temperature (20-25 °C). The composition of the oil phase was either 100 wt % n-tetradecane (TD); 50% TD + 50% eicosane (EC) or 100% EC. The droplets in these three "emulsions" were therefore totally liquid, partially solid, and totally solid, respectively. In the presence of 22 mM CaCl2, the mixed TD+EC droplets were most effective at inhibiting phase separation, while the EC emulsions could not prevent phase separation at all. At 32 mM CaCl2 the emulsions tended to promote phase separation, possibly due to enhanced calcium ion-induced droplet aggregation. The apparent interfacial viscosity (ηi) between two macroscopically separated phases was also measured. In the presence of the semisolid mixed droplets ηi = 25 mN s m(-1), significantly higher than ηi with the pure (liquid) TD droplets (15 mN s m(-1)) or with the pure solid EC droplets (12 mN s m(-1)) or in the absence of droplets (<3 mN s m(-1)). Confocal microscopy showed that the microstructure of the phase separating regions also depended upon the composition of the oil droplets, and it is tentatively suggested that the more marked effects of the mixed emulsion droplets were due to them forming a stronger network at the interface via partial coalescence. Control of the extent of interfacial aggregation of droplets is therefore possibly one way to influence the course of phase separation in biopolymer mixtures.

  11. Experimental investigations and phase-field simulations of triple-phase-separation kinetics within liquid ternary Co-Cu-Pb immiscible alloys. (United States)

    Wu, Y H; Wang, W L; Yan, N; Wei, B


    The phase-separation kinetics and microstructure evolution mechanisms of liquid ternary Co_{43}Cu_{40}Pb_{17} immiscible alloys are investigated by both the drop tube technique and phase-field method. Two successive phase separations take place during droplet falling and lead to the formation of a three-phase three-layer core-shell structure composed of a Co-rich core, a Cu-rich middle layer, and a Pb-rich shell. The Pb-rich shell becomes more and more conspicuous as droplet diameter decreases. Meanwhile, the Co-rich core center gradually moves away from the core-shell center. Theoretical analyses show that a larger temperature gradient inside a smaller alloy droplet induces the accelerated growth of the surface segregation shell during triple-phase separation. The residual Stokes motion and the asymmetric Marangoni convection result in the appearance of an eccentric Co-rich core and the core deviation degree is closely related to the droplet size and initial velocity. A three-dimensional phase-field model of ternary immiscible alloys, which considers the successive phase separations under the combined effects of Marangoni convection and surface segregation, is proposed to explore the formation mechanisms of three-phase core-shell structures. The simulated core-shell morphologies are consistent with the experimental observations, which verifies the model's validity in reproducing the core-shell dynamic evolution. Numerical results reveal that the development of three-phase three-layer core-shell structures can be attributed to the primary and then secondary phase separations dominated simultaneously by Marangoni convection and surface segregation. Furthermore, the effects of droplet temperature gradient on the growth kinetics of the surface segregation shell are analyzed in the light of phase-field theory.

  12. Experimental investigations and phase-field simulations of triple-phase-separation kinetics within liquid ternary Co-Cu-Pb immiscible alloys (United States)

    Wu, Y. H.; Wang, W. L.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.


    The phase-separation kinetics and microstructure evolution mechanisms of liquid ternary C o43C u40P b17 immiscible alloys are investigated by both the drop tube technique and phase-field method. Two successive phase separations take place during droplet falling and lead to the formation of a three-phase three-layer core-shell structure composed of a Co-rich core, a Cu-rich middle layer, and a Pb-rich shell. The Pb-rich shell becomes more and more conspicuous as droplet diameter decreases. Meanwhile, the Co-rich core center gradually moves away from the core-shell center. Theoretical analyses show that a larger temperature gradient inside a smaller alloy droplet induces the accelerated growth of the surface segregation shell during triple-phase separation. The residual Stokes motion and the asymmetric Marangoni convection result in the appearance of an eccentric Co-rich core and the core deviation degree is closely related to the droplet size and initial velocity. A three-dimensional phase-field model of ternary immiscible alloys, which considers the successive phase separations under the combined effects of Marangoni convection and surface segregation, is proposed to explore the formation mechanisms of three-phase core-shell structures. The simulated core-shell morphologies are consistent with the experimental observations, which verifies the model's validity in reproducing the core-shell dynamic evolution. Numerical results reveal that the development of three-phase three-layer core-shell structures can be attributed to the primary and then secondary phase separations dominated simultaneously by Marangoni convection and surface segregation. Furthermore, the effects of droplet temperature gradient on the growth kinetics of the surface segregation shell are analyzed in the light of phase-field theory.

  13. Interactions between phase separation, mineral precipitation, and permeability variations in saline magmatic-hydrothermal system (United States)

    Weis, P.


    Fluid flow through permeable rocks in saline magmatic-hydrothermal systems is influenced by non-linear fluid and rock properties as well as physical and chemical fluid-rock interactions. The same processes are of critical importance to a variety of different disciplines of Earth sciences such as volcanology, geothermal energy, hydrogeology and economic geology, and progress in understanding the relative importance of the interactions between different processes requires multi-method approaches investigating both active and fossil hydrothermal systems. Observations and model results suggest that many of these systems are highly dynamic and have a potential for self-organization, optimizing heat and mass transport by fluids in the upper crust. For example, numerical simulations in combination with oxygen isotopes of vein quartz suggest that ore precipitation in porphyry copper deposits occurs at the hydrological interface between a dynamic plume of ascending magmatic fluids and meteoric water convection, which is controlled by the transition from ductile to brittle rock behavior. With increasing ductile behavior, we infer that locally host rock permeability is reduced and the regional stress state is relaxed, resulting in fluid pressure build-up to near-lithostatic values with continued fluid expulsion, which eventually leads to episodic brittle failure of otherwise nominally ductile rocks. Sharp pressure drops and phase separation at this hydrological front can lead to saturation in solid halite, which is indicated to be a ubiquitous feature in hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons both by fluid inclusion studies and numerical simulations. Precipitation of solid halite can also lead to permeability reduction and evoke pulsating fluid migration. The presentation will show analytical and numerical results describing the role of non-linear fluid properties, phase separation, salt precipitation, fluid mixing, hydraulic fracturing and the brittle

  14. Effects of Phase Separation Behavior on Morphology and Performance of Polycarbonate Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamin Idris


    Full Text Available The phase separation behavior of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (PC, dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dichloromethane solvents in coagulant water, was studied by the cloud point method. The respective cloud point data were determined by titration against water at room temperature and the characteristic binodal curves for the ternary systems were plotted. Further, the physical properties such as viscosity, refractive index, and density of the solution were measured. The critical polymer concentrations were determined from the viscosity measurements. PC/NMP and PC/DCM membranes were fabricated by the dry-wet phase inversion technique and characterized for their morphology, structure, and thermal stability using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The membranes’ performances were tested for their permeance to CO2, CH4, and N2 gases at 24 ± 0.5 °C with varying feed pressures from 2 to 10 bar. The PC/DCM membranes appeared to be asymmetric dense membrane types with appreciable thermal stability, whereas the PC/NMP membranes were observed to be asymmetric with porous structures exhibiting 4.18% and 9.17% decrease in the initial and maximum degradation temperatures, respectively. The ideal CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities of the PC/NMP membrane decreased with the increase in feed pressures, while for the PC/DCM membrane, the average ideal CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities were found to be 25.1 ± 0.8 and 21.1 ± 0.6, respectively. Therefore, the PC/DCM membranes with dense morphologies are appropriate for gas separation applications.

  15. Chiral separation of helical chromenes with chloromethyl phenylcarbamate polysaccharide-based stationary phases. (United States)

    Ianni, Federica; Scorzoni, Stefania; Gentili, Pier Luigi; Di Michele, Alessandro; Frigoli, Michel; Camaioni, Emidio; Ortica, Fausto; Sardella, Roccaldo


    Two chloromethyl phenylcarbamate-based chiral stationary phases, one containing an amylose-type chiral selector (Lux Amylose 2, from Phenomenex) and the other a cellulose-type one (Lux Cellulose-4, from Phenomenex), were successfully used for the chiral resolution of three helical chromenes featuring a helicene-like structure. The compound bearing a phenyl substituent on the helicene-like structure was enantioresolved at 25°C with Lux Cellulose-4 and a n-hexane/1-propanol 99:1 v/v eluent. With a n-hexane/2-propanol 99.8:0.2 v/v mobile phase, the same column (operated at 35°C) provided the separation of the four isomers of the compound having a hexyl residue on the helicene-like motif and an additional asymmetric carbon. Lux Amylose-2 was necessary for the enantioseparation of the compound having the sole hexyl residue on the helical scaffold. For the last compound a n-hexane/2-propanol 99.8:0.2 v/v eluent was used, and the column temperature was fixed at 5°C. The enantiomer elution order was appraised by using electronic circular dichroism and theoretical calculations. Notably, different thermodynamics of retention and enantioseparation were observed for molecules with pronounced structural similarity, that is, the enantiomer pairs of the compound containing the additional asymmetric carbon atom. Indeed, both entropically and enthalpically controlled adsorption and separation processes were observed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effects of Phase Separation Behavior on Morphology and Performance of Polycarbonate Membranes (United States)

    Idris, Alamin; Man, Zakaria; Maulud, Abdulhalim S.; Khan, Muhammad Saad


    The phase separation behavior of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (PC), dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dichloromethane solvents in coagulant water, was studied by the cloud point method. The respective cloud point data were determined by titration against water at room temperature and the characteristic binodal curves for the ternary systems were plotted. Further, the physical properties such as viscosity, refractive index, and density of the solution were measured. The critical polymer concentrations were determined from the viscosity measurements. PC/NMP and PC/DCM membranes were fabricated by the dry-wet phase inversion technique and characterized for their morphology, structure, and thermal stability using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The membranes’ performances were tested for their permeance to CO2, CH4, and N2 gases at 24 ± 0.5 °C with varying feed pressures from 2 to 10 bar. The PC/DCM membranes appeared to be asymmetric dense membrane types with appreciable thermal stability, whereas the PC/NMP membranes were observed to be asymmetric with porous structures exhibiting 4.18% and 9.17% decrease in the initial and maximum degradation temperatures, respectively. The ideal CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities of the PC/NMP membrane decreased with the increase in feed pressures, while for the PC/DCM membrane, the average ideal CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities were found to be 25.1 ± 0.8 and 21.1 ± 0.6, respectively. Therefore, the PC/DCM membranes with dense morphologies are appropriate for gas separation applications. PMID:28379173

  17. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino County study phases 1-A, 1-B (United States)

    Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)


    User needs, data types, data automation, and preliminary applications are described for an effort to assemble a single data base for San Bernardino County from data bases which exist at several administrative levels. Each of the data bases used was registered and converted to a grid-based data file at a resolution of 4 acres and used to create a multivariable data base for the entire study area. To this data base were added classified LANDSAT data from 1976 and 1979. The resulting data base thus integrated in a uniform format all of the separately automated data within the study area. Several possible interactions between existing geocoded data bases and LANDSAT data were tested. The use of LANDSAT to update existing data base is to be tested.

  18. Melting of nanoparticles-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) in vertical semicircle enclosure: numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourabian, Mahmoud [University of Trieste, Piazzale (Italy); Farhadi, Mousa [Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Shariati Avenue (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Convection melting of ice as a Phase change material (PCM) dispersed with Cu nanoparticles, which is encapsulated in a semicircle enclosure is studied numerically. The enthalpy-based Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) combined with a Double distribution function (DDF) model is used to solve the convection-diffusion equation. The increase in solid concentration of nanoparticles results in the enhancement of thermal conductivity of PCM and the decrease in the latent heat of fusion. By enhancing solid concentration of nanoparticles, the viscosity of nanofluid increases and convective heat transfer dwindles. For all Rayleigh numbers investigated in this study, the insertion of nanoparticles in PCM has no effect on the average Nusselt number.

  19. Evolution of concentration fluctuation during phase separation of polystyrene/poly (vinyl methyl ether) blend in the presence of nanosilica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qi; Zuo, Min; Yang, Ruiquan


    and the linearized Cahn–Hilliard theory could describe the amplitude evolution of concentration fluctuation at the early stage of phase separation. Hydrophilic nanosilica A200 dispersed in PVME-rich phase behaved an obvious inhibition effect on the concentration fluctuation of blend matrix, while hydrophobic...

  20. Separation of bacteriochlorophyll homologues from green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria by reversed-phase HPLC. (United States)

    Borrego, C M; Garcia-Gil, L J


    A reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to accurately separate bacteriochlorophyllsc, d ande homologues in a reasonably short run time of 60 minutes. By using this method, two well-defined groups of bacteriochlorophyll homologue peaks can be discriminated. The first one consists of 4 peaks (min 24 to 30), which corresponds to the four main farnesyl homologues. The second peak subset is formed by a cluster of up to 10 minor peaks (min 33 to 40). These peaks can be related with series of several alcohol esters of the different chlorosome chlorophylls. The number of homologues was, however, quite variable depending on both, the bacteriochlorophyll and the bacterial species. The method hereby described, also provides a good separation of other photosynthetic pigments, either bacterial (Bacteriochlorophylla, chlorobactene, isorenieratene and okenone) or algal ones (Chlorophylla, Pheophytina and β-carotene). A preliminary screening of the homologue composition of several green photosynthetic bacterial species and isolates, has revealed different relative quantitative patterns. These differences seem to be related to physiological aspects rather than to taxonomic ones. The application of the method to the study of natural populations avoids the typical drawbacks on the pigment identification of overlapping eukaryotic and prokaryotic phototrophic microorganisms, giving further information about their physiological status.

  1. A Phase-Locked Loop with 30% Jitter Reduction Using Separate Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Je Lee


    Full Text Available A phase-locked loop (PLL using separate regulators to reject the supply noise is proposed in this paper. Two regulators, REG1 and REG2, are used to prevent the supply noise from the charge pump (CP and the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO, respectively. By using separate regulators, the area and the power consumption of the regulator can be reduced. Moreover, the jitter of the proposed PLL is proven on silicon to be less sensitive to the supply noise. The proposed PLL is fabricated using a typical 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. The peak-to-peak jitter (P2P jitter of the proposed PLL is measured to be 81.8 ps at 80 MHz when a 250 mVrms supply noise is added. By contrast, the P2P jitter is measured to be 118.2 ps without the two regulators when the same supply noise is coupled.

  2. Evaluation of the separation performance of polyvinylpyrrolidone as a virtual stationary phase for chromatographic NMR. (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wu, Rui; Bai, Zhengwu; Yang, Ying; Li, Suying; Dou, Xiaowei


    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a virtual stationary phase to separate p-xylene, benzyl alcohol, and p-methylphenol by the chromatographic NMR technique. The effects of concentration and weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of PVP, solvent viscosity, solvent polarity, and sample temperature on the resolution of these components were investigated. It was found that both higher PVP concentration and higher PVP Mw caused the increase of diffusion resolution for the three components. Moreover, the diffusion resolution did not change at viscosity-higher solvents. Moreover, the three components showed different resolution at different solvents. As temperature increased, the diffusion resolution between p-xylene and benzyl alcohol gradually increased, and the one between p-xylene and p-methylphenol slightly increased from 278 to 298 K and then decreased above 298 K. It was also found that the polarity of the analytes played an important role for the separation by affecting the diffusion coefficient. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction in two- phase, two-component flow in a vertical tube (United States)

    Sujumnong, Manit


    There are very few data existing in two-phase, two- component flow where heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction have all been measured under the same conditions. Such data are very valuable for two-phase heat-transfer model development and for testing existing heat-transfer models or correlations requiring frictional pressure drop (or wall shear stress) and/or void fraction. An experiment was performed which adds markedly to the available data of the type described in terms of the range of gas and liquid flow rates and liquid Prandtl number. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were taken in a vertical 11.68-mm i.d. tube for two-phase (gas-liquid) flows covering a wide range of conditions. Mean void fraction measurements were taken, using quick- closing valves, in a 12.7-mm i.d. tube matching very closely pressures, temperatures, gas-phase superficial velocities and liquid-phase superficial velocities to those used in the heat-transfer and pressure-drop experiments. The gas phase was air while water and two aqueous solutions of glycerine (59 and 82% by mass) were used as the liquid phase. In the two-phase experiments the liquid Prandtl number varied from 6 to 766, the superficial liquid velocity from 0.05 to 8.5 m/s, and the superficial gas velocity from 0.02 to 119 m/s. The measured two-phase heat-transfer coefficients varied by a factor of approximately 1000, the two-phase frictional pressure drop ranged from small negative values (in slug flow) to 93 kPa and the void fraction ranged from 0.01 to 0.99; the flow patterns observed included bubble, slug, churn, annular, froth, the various transitions and annular-mist. Existing heat-transfer models or correlations requiring frictional pressure drop (or wall shear stress) and/or void fraction were: tested against the present data for mean heat-transfer coefficients. It was found that the methods with more restrictions (in terms of the applicable range of void fraction, liquid Prandtl number or liquid

  4. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding. (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng


    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology.

  5. Developing methodologies for source attribution. Glass phase separation in Trinitite using NF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeman, Elizabeth C.; Simonetti, Antonio [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences; McNamara, Bruce K.; Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering; Burns, Peter C. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences; Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry


    This study details thermal reactions between glasses, common minerals, and Trinitite post-detonation material with the fluorinating agent nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ultimate goal of our investigation is to develop a relatively rapid method for the effective separation of bomb components from complex matrices resulting from a nuclear explosion. Trinitite samples, silicate minerals (quartz; plagioclase and microcline), amorphous SiO{sub 2}, calcite, a natural glass (obsidian), and two synthetic glasses were characterized extensively before and after the fluorination to fully understand the effects of the NF{sub 3} thermal treatment. Samples were reacted with NF{sub 3} using a combined thermogravimetric (TG) differential thermal analysis (DTA) unit, as well as in a stainless steel bomb reactor connected to a fluorination line. Subsequent to the NF{sub 3} treatment, samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy in order to document changes in grain size and morphology. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was performed to determine changes in major element abundances. Results demonstrate that rates of reaction are dependent on grain size, temperature, pressure, and time of fluorination. All mineral samples experienced mass loss during fluorination. Specifically, amorphous SiO{sub 2} (∝90% mass loss) experienced the most while calcite experienced the least (∝18%). Major element analysis reveals that mass loss is attributable to the volatilization of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in Si-bearing phases, or sample decomposition in calcite due to fluorination. Results for fluorinated samples of Trinitite demonstrate that mass loss occurs at different rates for each sample, but each sample experienced an expected large decrease in Si content (resulting from volatilization of SiF{sub 4}). Hence, the concentration of metals in the residual material increased due to the volatilization of Si. These results validate that this thermal-fluorination technique allows the

  6. Phase separation between nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli as defined by immersive refractometry. (United States)

    Valkenburg, J A; Woldringh, C L


    The refractive indices of nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli were derived theoretically and experimentally. For the theoretical estimates, we made use of the known macromolecular composition of E. coli B/r (G. Churchward and H. Bremer, J. Theor. Biol. 94:651-670, 1982) and of estimates of cell and nucleoid volumes. These were obtained from micrographs of living bacteria made with a confocal scanning light microscope. The theoretical values were calculated, assuming that all DNA occurred in the nucleoid and that all protein and RNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Comparison with experimental refractive index values directly obtained by immersive refractometry showed that, besides its DNA, the nucleoid must contain an additional amount of solids equivalent to 8.6% (wt/vol) protein. With the nucleoid containing 6.8% (wt/vol) DNA and 8.6% (wt/vol) protein and the cytoplasm containing 21% (wt/vol) protein and 4% (wt/vol) RNA, a mass difference is obtained, which accounts for the phase separation observed between the nucleoid and cytoplasm in living cells by phase-contrast microscopy. The decrease in the refractive index of the nucleoid relative to that of the cytoplasm observed upon, for instance, OsO4 fixation was interpreted as being indicative of the loss of protein content in the nucleoid. Images PMID:6389508

  7. Separation and determination of clenbuterol by HPLC using a vancomycin chiral stationary phase. (United States)

    Mostafa, Gamal A E; Hefnawy, Mohammed M; El-Majed, Abdulrahman


    Enantiomers of clenbuterol were separated by a new HPLC method on a chiral column. Enantiomeric resolution was achieved on a vancomycyin macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phase known as chirobiotic V with UV detection at 247 nm. The polar ionic mobile phase consisting of methanol-triethylamine-glacial acetic acid (100 + 0.05 + 0.025, v/v/v), was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Standard linear calibration curves were established for the R-(-) and S-(+) enantiomers over the range of 0.2-20 microg/mL, and an average recovery of 98.0% and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.5% were obtained at 5.0 microg/mL. The lower limit of detection was 0.05 microg/mL for each enantiomer. The mean recovery for R-(-) and S-(+)-clenbuterol enantiomers from plasma was 91.0-97.0% at 0.20-20 microg/mL. The method was successfully used to identify and quantify the clenbuterol enantiomers in human plasma.

  8. Integrating Whispering Gallery Mode Refractive Index Sensing with Capillary Electrophoresis Separations Using Phase Sensitive Detection. (United States)

    Kim, Daniel C; Dunn, Robert C


    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are small, radially symmetric dielectrics that recirculate light through continuous total internal reflection. High-Q resonances are observed that shift in response to changes in surrounding refractive index, leading to many applications in label-free sensing. Surface binding measurements with WGM resonators have demonstrated competitive analytical detection metrics compared to other sensing schemes. Similar figures of merit for detecting bulk refractive index changes, however, have proven more challenging. This has limited their use in applications such as capillary electrophoresis (CE), where their compact footprint and refractive index sensitivity offers advantages in nondestructive, universal detection. Here we couple WGM detection with CE by introducing a modulation scheme to improve detection limits. Phase sensitive WGM (PS-WGM) detection is developed to monitor real-time shifts in the WGM spectrum due to changes in surrounding refractive index. We directly compare phase sensitive detection with spectral measurements normally used to track WGM shifts. We report an improvement in detection limits by almost 300-fold using the PS-WGM method. The integrated CE with PS-WGM approach is demonstrated by detecting the separation of a three-component mixture of cations (Na(+), Li(+), and K(+)).

  9. Rapid nanostructuration of polymer colloid surfaces by nonsolvent induced phase separation. (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Ma, Zhaohui; Li, Zhanping; Yan, Qingfeng


    We have designed an effective strategy for producing nanostructures on the polymer colloid surfaces within few minutes. The poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized polystyrene colloid latex dispersed in ethanol was exposed to a nonsolvent medium of PVP and nanometric droplets formed on the polymer colloid surfaces within few minutes. Surface wettability of the polymer colloids with nanoprotrusions experienced a significant change as compared with the smooth polymer colloids. The formation mechanism was ascribed to the precipitation of PVP phase due to the nonsolvent induced phase separation. To further confirm the proposed mechanism, the material components included in the polymer colloid lattices before the nanostructuration process and surface compositions on the nanostructured polymer colloid surfaces were characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) respectively. This new strategy provides an alternative and promising method for patterning curved polymer surfaces. The polymer colloids with different surface textures would be ideal for use as model systems in biomedical research such as targets in phagocytosis and platforms of drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unconventional spin-charge phase separation in a model 2D cuprate (United States)

    Panov, Yu. D.; Budrin, K. S.; Chikov, A. A.; Moskvin, A. S.


    In this Letter we address a challenging problem of a competition of charge and spin orders for high-Tc cuprates within a simplified 2D spin-pseudospin model which takes into account both conventional Heisenberg Cu2+-Cu2+ antiferromagnetic spin exchange coupling (J) and the on-site (U) and inter-site (V) charge correlations in the CuO2 planes with the on-site Hilbert space reduced to only three effective charge states (nominally Cu1+;2+;3+). We performed classical Monte-Carlo calculations for large square lattices implying the mobile doped charges and focusing on a case of a small inter-site repulsion V ≪ J. The on-site attraction (U 0) the homogeneous ground state antiferromagnetic solutions of the doped system found in a mean-field approximation are shown to be unstable with respect to a phase separation with the charge and spin subsystems behaving like immiscible quantum liquids. Puzzlingly, with lowering the temperature one can observe two sequential phase transitions: first, an antiferromagnetic ordering in the spin subsystem diluted by randomly distributed charges, then, a charge condensation in the charge droplets. The effects are illustrated by the Monte-Carlo calculations of the specific heat and longitudinal magnetic susceptibility.

  11. Combining mechanical foaming and thermally induced phase separation to generate chitosan scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. (United States)

    Biswas, D P; Tran, P A; Tallon, C; O'Connor, A J


    In this paper, a novel foaming methodology consisting of turbulent mixing and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used to generate scaffolds for tissue engineering. Air bubbles were mechanically introduced into a chitosan solution which forms the continuous polymer/liquid phase in the foam created. The air bubbles entrained in the foam act as a template for the macroporous architecture of the final scaffolds. Wet foams were crosslinked via glutaraldehyde and frozen at -20 °C to induce TIPS in order to limit film drainage, bubble coalescence and Ostwald ripening. The effects of production parameters, including mixing speed, surfactant concentration and chitosan concentration, on foaming are explored. Using this method, hydrogel scaffolds were successfully produced with up to 80% porosity, average pore sizes of 120 μm and readily tuneable compressive modulus in the range of 2.6 to 25 kPa relevant to soft tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds supported 3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation and penetration and therefore show significant potential for application in soft tissue engineering.

  12. Method to separate lignin-rich solid phase from acidic biomass suspension at an acidic pH (United States)

    Yasarla, Kumar Lakshmi Rakesh; Ramarao, Bandaru V; Amidon, Thomas


    A method of separating a lignin-rich solid phase from a solution suspension, by pretreating a lignocellulosic biomass with a pretreatment fluid having remove soluble components, colloidal material and primarily lignin containing particles; separating the pretreated lignocellulosic biomass from the pretreatment fluid with soluble components, colloidal material and primarily lignin containing particles; flocculating the separated pretreatment fluid with soluble components, colloidal material and primarily lignin containing particles using polyethylene oxide (i.e., PEO) or cationic Poly acrylamide (i.e., CPAM) as a flocculating agent; and filtering the flocculated separated pretreatment fluid with soluble components, colloidal material and primarily lignin containing particles to remove agglomerates.

  13. Heat and mass transfer in porous media phase separation at temperatures below the lambda-point of He-4 (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.


    Newtonian fluid motion, coupled to heat transfer via latent heat of phase transition, is well known from numerous studies of condensation and boiling. Considerably less knowledge is available for vapor-liquid phase separation in the absence of gravity effect on the transport phenomena. The present studies are focused on heat and mass transfer associated with vapor-liquid phase separation required for long-term storage of the cryogen liquid He II in space vessels. Though space conditions are the dominant mode of interest in advanced equipment, e.g. IR telescopes, the systems may be operated in principle during terrestrial conditions. The latter are considered in the present work. It emphasizes the linear regime including an extrapolation based on variable thermophysical properties. Data taken with a phase separation approach show departures from the linear regime prediction. They agree with a transport equation proposed for the nonlinear, turbulent regime.

  14. Solution processing of polymer semiconductor: Insulator blends-Tailored optical properties through liquid-liquid phase separation control

    KAUST Repository

    Hellmann, Christoph


    © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. It has been demonstrated that the 0-0 absorption transition of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in blends with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) could be rationally tuned through the control of the liquid-liquid phase separation process during solution deposition. Pronounced J-like aggregation behavior, characteristic for systems of a low exciton band width, was found for blends where the most pronounced liquid-liquid phase separation occurred in solution, leading to domains of P3HT and PEO of high phase purity. Since liquid-liquid phase separation could be readily manipulated either by the solution temperature, solute concentration, or deposition temperature, to name a few parameters, our findings promise the design from the out-set of semiconductor:insulator architectures of pre-defined properties by manipulation of the interaction parameter between the solutes as well as the respective solute:solvent system using classical polymer science principles.

  15. 電信獨占事業接取網路垂直分離規範之探討 Vertical Separation of the Telecom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳人傑 Bruce J. C. Chen


    that once behavior regulations alone help little to discourage the incumbent operator from discriminatory practices or cross-subsidization, the regulatory authorities shall have resort of some structural remedies such as vertical separation. In order to ascertain when and how vertical separation is engaged, the AT&T breakup case, the BT functional separation case and the vertical separation norms in EU Telecoms Reform are analyzed in this article. The principle of “competition drives investment”, which European Commission adapts for the NGA access, is referable for dealing with the CHT dominance in the access network in Taiwan. This article concludes that a thorough review of functionality of the Telecom Act regarding to introduce workable competition on the infrastructure level and amendments which incorporate vertical separation are recommended.

  16. [Separation and purification of total flavonids of Astragalus membranaceus with ethanol/phosphate aqueous two-phase system]. (United States)

    Zhong, Ling; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Li, Xiao-Ju; Chi, Ru-An; Wang, Cun-Wen; Zhang, Mei


    To study separation and purification of flavonids with ethanol/phosphate aqueous two-phase system. The diversity of phase separation ability and the distribution of target products in various systems were taken as indicators to analyze aqueous two-phase extraction systems and phase diagrams formed by ethanol and some common salts, screen out EtOH/ K2HPO4 system as the optimla system for extracting total flavonids, and study the impact of proportion of components in EtOH/K2 HPO4 system on the partition coefficient and phase ratio of flavonids. The EtOH/K2 HPO4 system with omegaEtOH 36.05% and omegaKHPO4 18.20% has been proved as the optimal conditions for separating and purifying total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA). Under this optimal condition, the partition coefficient and the extraction yield of TFA reached 10.33 and 96.6%, respectively. After extraction, the contents of A. membranaceus saponins and A. membranaceus polysaccharides in top and bottom phases were determined at the same time, showing that A. membranaceus saponins in the removal rate reached 92.01%, and A. membranaceus polysaccharides were totally concentrated in bottom water phase, indicating a removal rate of 100%. Therefore, this is beneficial to separate and purify total flavonids from A. membranaceus crude extracts.

  17. Liquid-phase synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials on preheated alloy substrates (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanocarbons were selectively synthesized on commercially available alloy substrates by a simple liquid-phase technique. Fe- and Ni-rich stainless-steel (JIS SUS316L and Inconel®600, respectively) and Ni–Cu alloy (Monel®400) substrates were used for the synthesis, and each substrate was preheated in air to promote the self-formation of catalyst nanolayers on the surface. The substrates were resistance heated in ethanol without any addition of catalysts to grow CNTs. The yield of the CNTs effectively increased when the preheating process was employed. Highly aligned CNT arrays grew on the SUS316L substrate, while non-aligned CNTs and distinctive twisted fibers were observed on the other substrates. An Fe oxide layer was selectively formed on the preheated SUS316L substrate promoting the growth of the CNT arrays. Characterizations including cyclic voltammetry for the arrays revealed that the CNTs possess a comparatively defect-rich surface, which is a desirable characteristic for its application such as electrode materials for capacitors.

  18. Numerical and experimental study of disturbance wave development in vertical two-phase annular flow (United States)

    Hewitt, Geoffrey; Yang, Junfeng; Zhao, Yujie; Markides, Christos; Matar, Omar


    The annular flow regime is characterized by the presence of a thin, wavy liquid film driven along the wall by the shear stress exerted by the gas phase. Under certain liquid film Reynolds numbers, large disturbance waves are observed to traverse the interface, whose length is typically on the order of 20 mm and whose height is typically on the order of 5 times the thickness of the thin (substrate) layer between the waves. Experimental wok has been conducted to study the disturbance wave onset by probing the local film thickness for different Reynolds numbers. It is observed the disturbance waves grow gradually from wavy initiation and form the ring-like structure. To predict the wavy flow field observed in the experiment, 3D CFD simulations are performed using different low Reynolds number turbulence models and Large Eddy Simulation. Modeling results confirm that there is recirculation within the waves, and that they as a packet of turbulence traveling over a laminar substrate film. We also predict the coalescence and the break-up of waves leading to liquid droplet entrainment into the gas core. Skolkovo Foundation, UNIHEAT project.

  19. CMOS-compatible method for doping of buried vertical polysilicon structures by solid phase diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkulets, Yury [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel); Silber, Amir; Ripp, Alexander; Sokolovsky, Mark [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Shalish, Ilan, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel)


    Polysilicon receives attention nowadays as a means to incorporate 3D-structured photonic devices into silicon processes. However, doping of buried layers of a typical 3D structure has been a challenge. We present a method for doping of buried polysilicon layers by solid phase diffusion. Using an underlying silicon oxide layer as a dopant source facilitates diffusion of dopants into the bottom side of the polysilicon layer. The polysilicon is grown on top of the oxide layer, after the latter has been doped by ion implantation. Post-growth heat treatment drives in the dopant from the oxide into the polysilicon. To model the process, we studied the diffusion of the two most common silicon dopants, boron (B) and phosphorus (P), using secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. Our results show that shallow concentration profiles can be achieved in a buried polysilicon layer using the proposed technique. We present a quantitative 3D model for the diffusion of B and P in polysilicon, which turns the proposed method into an engineerable technique.

  20. Effect of Five-Finger Shoes on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Loading Rates and Perceived Comfort during the Stance Phase of the Running


    Seyede Zeynab Hoseini; Mansor Eslami


    Objective:  Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm) were selected. Subjects ...

  1. New data on two-phase two-component heat transfer and hydrodynamics in a vertical tube (United States)

    Rezkallah, K. S.; Sims, G. E.


    In forced-convective two-phase, two component (gas-liquid) flow, experimental data for mean heat-transfer coefficients, pressure drop and flow patterns were taken simultaneously for the flow in a 1.17-cm i.d. electrically heated vertical tube using three liquids: water, glycerine and water and silicone liquid with air as the gas phase. The combination of silicone liquid and the glycerine and water solution provided a set of data in which the surface tension changed by a factor of 3.4 (being lower for the silicone liquid) with a rough matching of other hydrodynamic properties and a precise matching of the Prandtl number (63 at 25 C). The flow-pattern results showed a significant change in the bubble-slug boundary for the silicone liquid compared with the glycerine and water solution, while the pressure drop results for silicone-air, in the range of V(SL) between 0.277 and 0.690 m/s at high V(SC) showed a sudden drop in Delta/P(tot) followed by a subsequent increase.

  2. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of eight drugs collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 on amylose ramification chiral stationary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang


    Full Text Available The enantiomers separation of eight pharmaceutical racemates collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 (Ch.P2010, including nitrendipine, felodipine, omeprazole, praziquantel, sulpiride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and chlorphenamine maleate, was performed on chiral stationary phase of amylose ramification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on Chiralpak AD-H column and Chiralpak AS-H column with the mobile phase consisted of isopropanol and n-hexane. The detection wavelength and the flow rate were set at 254 nm and 0.7 mL/min, respectively. The effects of proportion of organic additives, alcohol displacer and temperature on the separation were investigated. The results indicated that eight chiral drugs were separated on chiral stationary phase of amylase ramification in normal phase chromatographic system. The chromatographic retention and resolution of enantiomers were adjusted by factors, including the changes of the concentration of alcohol displacer in mobile phase, organic alkaline modifier and column temperature. It was shown that the resolution was improved with reducing concentration of alcohol displacer. When the concentration of organic alkaline modifier was 0.2%, the resolution and the peak shape were fairly good. Most racemates mentioned above had the best resolution at column temperature of 25 °C. The best temperature should be kept unchanged in the process of separation so as to obtain stable separation results.

  3. Sub/supercritical carbon dioxide induced phase switching for the reaction and separation in ILs/methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Xin


    Full Text Available Separation of products from ionic liquid (IL solvents is one of the main challenges that hinder their utilizations. In this study, the production of γ-valerolactone (GVL by selective hydrogenation of α-angelica lactone (AL and separation of the products from the IL solvent were carried out by using subcritical CO2 as a “switch” at room temperature. After the mixture was separated into two phases by subcritical CO2, AL and nano Pd/C catalyst were only found in the lower IL-rich phase, GVL was produced with quantitative yield and enriched in the upper methanol-rich phase. Pure GVL can be obtained by depressurizing to release CO2 and evaporation to remove methanol of the upper phase, the lower phase containing IL, catalyst and methanol can be recycled for the next reaction. The strategy may provide a new approach to produce and separate products from IL solvents at mild conditions. Keywords: Separation, Ionic liquids, Selective hydrogenation, Mild condition, Subcritical CO2

  4. Comparison of analytical protein separation characteristics for three amine-based capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) stationary phases. (United States)

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R Kenneth


    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber stationary phases are finding utility in the realms of protein analytics as well as downstream processing. We have recently described the modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) C-CP fibers to affect amine-rich phases for the weak anion-exchange (WAX) separation of proteins. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is covalently coupled to the PET surface, with subsequent cross-linking imparted by treatment with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BUDGE). These modifications yield vastly improved dynamic binding capacities over the unmodified fibers. We have also previously employed native (unmodified) nylon 6 C-CP fibers as weak anion/cation-exchange (mixed-mode) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) phases for protein separations. Polyamide, nylon 6, consists of amide groups along the polymer backbone, with primary amines and carboxylic acid end groups. The analytical separation characteristics of these three amine-based C-CP fiber phases are compared here. Each of the C-CP fiber columns in this study was shown to be able to separate a bovine serum albumin/hemoglobin/lysozyme mixture at high mobile phase linear velocity (∼70 mm s(-1)) but with different elution characteristics. These differences reflect the types of protein-surface interactions that are occurring, based on the active group composition of the fiber surfaces. This study provides important fundamental understanding for the development of surface-modified C-CP fiber columns for protein separation.

  5. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D.


    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses.

  6. Detecting phase separation of freeze-dried binary amorphous systems using pair-wise distribution function and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chieng, Norman; Trnka, Hjalte; Boetker, Johan


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis for powder X-ray diffraction-pair-wise distribution function (PXRD-PDF) data to detect phase separation in freeze-dried binary amorphous systems. Polymer-polymer and polymer-sugar binary systems at various ratios were...... freeze-dried. All samples were analyzed by PXRD, transformed to PDF and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). These results were validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) through characterization of glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrate solute (Tg'). Analysis of PXRD......-PDF data using PCA provides a more clear 'miscible' or 'phase separated' interpretation through the distribution pattern of samples on a score plot presentation compared to residual plot method. In a phase separated system, samples were found to be evenly distributed around the theoretical PDF profile...

  7. Nanotextured Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate and Ultraviolet Curable Poly(urethane acrylate Blends via Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyung Kim


    Full Text Available Domain structures of spin-coated immiscible poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and ultraviolet (UV curable poly(urethane acrylate (PUA blends were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Spin casting the PMMA/PUA blends in propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA was accompanied with phase separation, and PUA was subsequently cross-linked under UV radiation. Selective dissolution of PMMA in the phase-separated films was feasible using tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent after the UV curing process, because the cured PUA material is highly stable against THF. Morphology of phase-separated structure, including domain size and height, could be controlled by varying total concentration of the blended solution, and various nanoscale features such as island-like and hole-like structures were achieved by changing weight ratio of the two immiscible polymers.

  8. TES buffer-induced phase separation of aqueous solutions of several water-miscible organic solvents at 298.15 K: Phase diagrams and molecular dynamic simulations (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer


    Water and the organic solvents tetrahydrofuran, 1,3-dioxolane, 1,4-dioxane, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, tert-butanol, acetonitrile, or acetone are completely miscible in all proportions at room temperature. Here, we present new buffering-out phase separation systems that the above mentioned organic aqueous solutions can be induced to form two liquid phases in the presence of a biological buffer 2-[[1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-2-yl]amino]ethanesulfonic acid (TES). The lower liquid phase is rich in water and buffer, and the upper phase is organic rich. This observation has both practical and mechanistic interests. The phase diagrams of these systems were constructed by experimental measurements at ambient conditions. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were performed for TES + water + THF system to understand the interactions between TES, water, and organic solvent at molecular level. Several composition-sets for this system, beyond and inside the liquid-liquid phase-splitting region, have been simulated. Interestingly, the MD simulation for compositions inside the phase separation region showed that THF molecules are forced out from the water network to start forming a new liquid phase. The hydrogen-bonds, hydrogen-bonds lifetimes, hydrogen-bond energies, radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, the electrostatic interactions, and the van der Waals interactions between the different pairs have been calculated. Additionally, MD simulations for TES + water + tert-butanol/acetonitrile/acetone phase separation systems were simulated. The results from MD simulations provide an explanation for the buffering-out phenomena observed in [TES + water + organic solvent] systems by a mechanism controlled by the competitive interactions of the buffer and the organic solvent with water. The molecular mechanism reported here is helpful for designing new benign separation materials.

  9. Elucidation of adhesion-dependent spontaneous apoptosis in macrophages using phase separated PEG/polyurethane films (United States)

    Zachman, Angela L.; Page, Jonathan M.; Prabhakar, Gayathri; Guelcher, Scott A.; Sung, Hak-Joon


    Circulating monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis when there is no activation stimulus, which is critical to population control for proper host response to implants. As activation and apoptosis of monocytes/macrophages are regulated by cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, their regulatory mechanism was investigated in this study using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing polyurethane films in which PEG-rich and polyester-rich domains were phase separated. Human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (HBMs) preferentially adhered to PEG domains (cell–matrix interaction) due to the low molecular weight (600 g mol−1), resulting in increased HBM density (cell–cell interaction). As both cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions were promoted, HBM apoptosis increased, while their activation as measured by phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production decreased compared to PEG-free films. When cell seeding density and cell-adhesive gelatin coating on silicone films were controlled, a cooperative role of cell–matrix (adhesion) and cell–cell (density) interactions in inducing HBM apoptosis was observed. Expression of the macrophage adhesion molecule CD11b caused apoptosis in this context, which was mediated by tissue necrosis factor-α signaling but down-regulated by the ROS inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and the anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP, suggesting a new concept for the design of biomaterials that allows for cell adhesion without excessive inflammatory activation. PMID:23128157

  10. Elucidation of adhesion-dependent spontaneous apoptosis in macrophages using phase separated PEG/polyurethane films. (United States)

    Zachman, Angela L; Page, Jonathan M; Prabhakar, Gayathri; Guelcher, Scott A; Sung, Hak-Joon


    Circulating monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis when there is no activation stimulus, which is critical to population control for proper host response to implants. As activation and apoptosis of monocytes/macrophages are regulated by cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, their regulatory mechanism was investigated in this study using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing polyurethane films in which PEG-rich and polyester-rich domains were phase separated. Human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (HBMs) preferentially adhered to PEG domains (cell-matrix interaction) due to the low molecular weight (600 g mol⁻¹), resulting in increased HBM density (cell-cell interaction). As both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions were promoted, HBM apoptosis increased, while their activation as measured by phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production decreased compared to PEG-free films. When cell seeding density and cell-adhesive gelatin coating on silicone films were controlled, a cooperative role of cell-matrix (adhesion) and cell-cell (density) interactions in inducing HBM apoptosis was observed. Expression of the macrophage adhesion molecule CD11b caused apoptosis in this context, which was mediated by tissue necrosis factor-α signaling but down-regulated by the ROS inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and the anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP, suggesting a new concept for the design of biomaterials that allows for cell adhesion without excessive inflammatory activation. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coupling nonlinear optical waves to photoreactive and phase-separating soft matter: Current status and perspectives. (United States)

    Biria, Saeid; Morim, Derek R; An Tsao, Fu; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi; Hosein, Ian D


    Nonlinear optics and polymer systems are distinct fields that have been studied for decades. These two fields intersect with the observation of nonlinear wave propagation in photoreactive polymer systems. This has led to studies on the nonlinear dynamics of transmitted light in polymer media, particularly for optical self-trapping and optical modulation instability. The irreversibility of polymerization leads to permanent capture of nonlinear optical patterns in the polymer structure, which is a new synthetic route to complex structured soft materials. Over time more intricate polymer systems are employed, whereby nonlinear optical dynamics can couple to nonlinear chemical dynamics, opening opportunities for self-organization. This paper discusses the work to date on nonlinear optical pattern formation processes in polymers. A brief overview of nonlinear optical phenomenon is provided to set the stage for understanding their effects. We review the accomplishments of the field on studying nonlinear waveform propagation in photopolymerizable systems, then discuss our most recent progress in coupling nonlinear optical pattern formation to polymer blends and phase separation. To this end, perspectives on future directions and areas of sustained inquiry are provided. This review highlights the significant opportunity in exploiting nonlinear optical pattern formation in soft matter for the discovery of new light-directed and light-stimulated materials phenomenon, and in turn, soft matter provides a platform by which new nonlinear optical phenomenon may be discovered.

  12. Effect of Crystallizable Solvent on Phase Separation and Charge Transport in Polymer-fullerene Films (United States)

    Kaewprajak, A.; Lohawet, K.; Wutikhun, T.; Meemuk, B.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Sagawa, T.


    The effect of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) as crystallizable solvent on poly[N-9‧-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4‧,7‧-di-2-thienyl-2‧,1‧,3‧-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) was investigated. We found that phase separation of PCDTBT and PC71BM and formation of the condensed network of polymers were appropriately regulated by addition of TCB in the BHJ films, which were confirmed by optical microscopic, AFM, and TEM observations in addition to current-voltage analyses. Through the formation of a good continuous pathway for carrier transport by the addition of TCB, 2.5 times enhancement of the hole mobility in the BHJ film was attained from 5.82 × 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 without TCB to 1.48 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 with 20 mg ml-1 of TCB.

  13. Blind separation of overlapping partials in harmonic musical notes using amplitude and phase reconstruction (United States)

    de León, Jesús Ponce; Beltrán, José Ramón


    In this study, a new method of blind audio source separation (BASS) of monaural musical harmonic notes is presented. The input (mixed notes) signal is processed using a flexible analysis and synthesis algorithm (complex wavelet additive synthesis, CWAS), which is based on the complex continuous wavelet transform. When the harmonics from two or more sources overlap in a certain frequency band (or group of bands), a new technique based on amplitude similarity criteria is used to obtain an approximation to the original partial information. The aim is to show that the CWAS algorithm can be a powerful tool in BASS. Compared with other existing techniques, the main advantages of the proposed algorithm are its accuracy in the instantaneous phase estimation, its synthesis capability and that the only input information needed is the mixed signal itself. A set of synthetically mixed monaural isolated notes have been analyzed using this method, in eight different experiments: the same instrument playing two notes within the same octave and two harmonically related notes (5th and 12th intervals), two different musical instruments playing 5th and 12th intervals, two different instruments playing non-harmonic notes, major and minor chords played by the same musical instrument, three different instruments playing non-harmonically related notes and finally the mixture of a inharmonic instrument (piano) and one harmonic instrument. The results obtained show the strength of the technique.

  14. Graphene nanoplatelets-reinforced polyetherimide foams prepared by water vapor-induced phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbasi


    Full Text Available The present work considers the preparation of medium-density polyetherimide foams reinforced with variable amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (1–10 wt% by means of water vapor-induced phase separation (WVIPS and their characterization . A homogeneous closed-cell structure with cell sizes around 10 µm was obtained, with foams exhibiting zero crystallinity according to X-ray diffraction (XRD. Thermogravimetric analysis under nitrogen showed a two-step thermal decomposition behaviour for both unfilled and graphene-reinforced foams, with foams containing graphene presenting thermal stability improvements, related to a physical barrier effect promoted by the nanoplatelets. Thermo-mechanical analysis indicated that the specific storage modulus of the nanocomposite foams significantly increased owing to the high stiffness of graphene and finer cellular morphology of the foams. Although foamed nanocomposites displayed no further sign of graphene nanoplatelets exfoliation, the electrical conductivity of these foams was significant even for low graphene contents, with a tunnel-like model fitting well to the evolution of the electrical conductivity with the amount of graphene.

  15. Oxygen reduction at platimun/ionomer interface: effects of phase separation of ionomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the interface between platinum and recast ionomers (Nafion EW 1100 and 950 and 6F-40) was studied at different temperatures (20--80{sup o}C) and humidities (10--100%) employing smooth Pt and Pt-black-covered ultramicroelectrodes. ORR was strongly inhibited on smooth electrodes. The inhibition increased with the reduction time, temperature and humidity, but was absent for Nafion EW 1100 in contact with liquid water. It was attributed to the hydrophobic component of ionomer blocking both active sites and oxygen transport. It was postulated that the dynamic changes in interfacial phase separation of ionomer are facilitated by the attractive interactions between the hydrophobic component of ionomer and bare platinum and between oxide-covered Pt and the hydrophilic component of ionomer. These interactions were also proposed to be responsible for the differences in ORR voltammetry for films prepared and equilibrated under different conditions. The decrease in ORR inhibition, Nafion EW 950> Nafion EW 1100> 6F-40, was correlated with physical and molecular properties of the ionomers. The lack of inhibition for Pt-black-covered electrodes was attributed to the more random distribution of ionomer chains and the high activation barriers for the ionomer restructuring at rough interfaces.

  16. Three-phase partitioning for efficient extraction and separation of polysaccharides from Corbicula fluminea. (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Wang, Yao-Yao; Qiu, Wen-Yi; Shao, Ning


    Three-phase partitioning (TPP), which is a simple, efficient, and green bioseparation technique, was used to extract and separate polysaccharides from Corbicula fluminea (CFPS). The optimal parameters with a high yield of 9.32% were as follows: mass fraction of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 20.0% (w/v); amount of t-butanol, 9.8mL; temperature, 35.3°C; extraction time, 30min; and pH 6.0. The purified CFPS after TPP consisted of d-glucose, d-glucosamine, and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 57.1: 5.6:1.0 with high purity (86.5%) and different molecular weights (1311.1 and 41.5-92.8kDa). Amino acid analysis, UV-vis absorption and Fourier transform-infrared spectra indicated that the purified CFPS was a proteoglycan with O-glycosidic bonds. Moreover, the purified CFPS possessed strong free-radical scavenging abilities and antioxidant activities in vitro. The obtained Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and ferric-reducing ability of plasma values were 95.01μmol Trolox/g sample and 38.30μmol Fe 2+ /g sample, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Yb(3+) heavily doped photonic crystal fiber lasers prepared by the glass phase-separation technology. (United States)

    Chu, Yingbo; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xiongwei; Chen, Zhangru; Ma, Yunxiu; Liu, Yongguang; Wang, Yibo; Liao, Lei; Xing, Yinbin; Li, Haiqing; Peng, Jinggagn; Dai, Nengli; Li, Jinyan; Yang, Luyun


    We report a Yb(3+) heavily doped photonic crystal fiber with 30 μm core diameter manufactured for the first time by an alternative technique. Silica core rods with a diameter of 3 mm and a length of 280 mm were prepared by the sodium-borosilicate glass phase-separation technology. The measurements show that the fiber has an Yb(3+) concentration of 22810 ppm by weight, and a resultant absorption of approximately 8.5 dB/m at 976 nm. The Yb(3+) ions are distributed throughout the fiber core with an excellent homogeneity. The laser performance demonstrates a high slope efficiency of 64.5% for laser emission at 1033.4 nm and a low power threshold of 3 W within a short fiber length of 1 m. This novel approach provides an alternative means of preparing large active silica rods with high doping levels and excellent material homogeneity for large mode area fibers with complex designs.

  18. Novel chromatographic separation and carbon solid-phase extraction of acetanilide herbicide degradation products. (United States)

    Shoemaker, Jody A


    One acetamide and 5 acetanilide herbicides are currently registered for use in the United States. Over the past several years, ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OA) degradation products of these acetanilide/acetamide herbicides have been found in U.S. ground waters and surface waters. Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide degradation products are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1998 Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. Consequently, EPA is interested in obtaining national occurrence data for these contaminants in drinking water. EPA currently does not have a method for determining these acetanilide degradation products in drinking water; therefore, a research method is being developed using liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray/mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction (SPE). A novel chromatographic separation of the acetochlor/alachlor ESA and OA structural isomers was developed which uses an ammonium acetate-methanol gradient combined with heating the analytical column to 70 degrees C. Twelve acetanilide degradates were extracted by SPE from 100 mL water samples using carbon cartridges with mean recoveries >90% and relative standard deviations < or =16%.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of porous poly(L-lactide) scaffolds using solid-liquid phase separation. (United States)

    Goh, Yan Qi; Ooi, Chui Ping


    Freeze-extraction, which involves phase separation principle, gave highly porous scaffolds without the time and energy consuming freeze-drying process. The presented method eliminates the problem of formation of surface skin observed in freeze-drying methods. The effects of different freezing temperature (-80 and -24 degrees C), medium (dry ice/ethanol bath and freezer) and polymer concentrations (1, 3, and 5 wt.%) on the scaffold properties were investigated in connection with the porous morphology and physicomechanical characteristics of the final scaffolds. The FESEM micrographs showed porous PLLA scaffolds with ladder-like architecture. The size of the longitudinal pores was in the range of 20-40 microm and the scaffolds had high porosity values ranging from 90% to 98%. Variation in porosity, mechanical resistance, and degree of regularity in the spatial organization of pores were observed when polymer concentration was changed. More open scaffold architecture with enhanced pore interconnectivity was achieved when a dry ice/ethanol bath of -80 degrees C was used. Polymer concentration played an important role in fabricating highly porous scaffolds, with ladder-like architecture only appearing at polymer concentrations of above 3 wt.%. With the freeze-extraction method used here, highly porous and interconnected poly(L-lactide) scaffolds were successfully fabricated, holding great potential for tissue engineering applications.

  20. Femtosecond phase of charge separation in reaction centers of Chloroflexus aurantiacus. (United States)

    Yakovlev, A G; Shkuropatova, T A; Vasilieva, L G; Shkuropatov, A Ya; Shuvalov, V A


    Difference absorption spectroscopy with temporal resolution of approximately 20 fsec was used to study the primary phase of charge separation in isolated reaction centers (RCs) of Chloroflexus aurantiacus at 90 K. An ensemble of difference (light-minus-dark) absorption spectra in the 730-795 nm region measured at -0.1 to 4 psec delays relative to the excitation pulse was analyzed. Comparison with analogous data for RCs of HM182L mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides having the same pigment composition identified the 785 nm absorption band as the band of bacteriopheophytin Phi(B) in the B-branch. By study the bleaching of this absorption band due to formation of Phi(B)(-), it was found that a coherent electron transfer from P* to the B-branch occurs with a very small delay of 10-20 fsec after excitation of dimer bacteriochlorophyll P. Only at 120 fsec delay electron transfer from P* to the A-branch occurs with the formation of bacteriochlorophyll anion B(A)(-) absorption band at 1028 nm and the appearance of P* stimulated emission at 940 nm, as also occurs in native RCs of Rb. sphaeroides. It is concluded that a nuclear wave packet motion on the potential energy surface of P* after a 20-fsec light pulse excitation leads to the coherent formation of the P(+)Phi(B)(-) and P(+)B(A)(-) states.

  1. Large deflections of a hydrogel rod caused by internal phase separation (United States)

    Dimitriyev, Michael S.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Souslov, Anton; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Hydrogels are soft materials that consist of a cross-linked polymer matrix capable of undergoing large volume changes via absorption of a solvent. As with binary mixtures, hydrogels can undergo a macroscopic phase separation transition to create a more swollen region and a less swollen one. We address this transition in the case of an initially swollen hydrogel, in a slender-rod geometry, possibly curved, which is heated to a temperature at which one would expect deswelling of the entire sample. However, the rapidity of the rise in temperature inhibits the system from expelling solvent through the rod's surface, so that re-equilibration takes place at fixed solvent volume. Owing to this constraint and the system's elasticity, the solvent-poor region fails to fully deswell, and the hydrogel partitions into an incompletely deswollen region and an excessively swollen one, determined by stress balance and a lever rule. Because the polymer network remains contiguous the rod undergoes a macroscopic shape change. When the partitioning is constant along the rod, the interface-orientation is a Goldstone mode that couples to the rod's bending and twisting degrees of freedom and as a result, a large deflection of the rod occurs.

  2. Preparation of ultrafiltration membrane by phase separation coupled with microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryani, Puput Eka [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang 50275, Central Java (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani, Surakarta 57102, Central Java (Indonesia); Purnama, Herry [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani, Surakarta 57102, Central Java (Indonesia); Susanto, Heru, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang 50275, Central Java (Indonesia)


    Preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membrane is still a big challenge in the membrane field. In this paper, polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) coupled with microwave irradiation. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) were used as additives to improve membrane hydrophilicity. In this study, the concentration of additive, irradiation time and microwave power was varied. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the performances were tested by adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling experiments. The results show that the irradiation time and irradiation power are very important parameter that influence the membrane characteristic. In addition, type and concentration of additive are other important parameters. The results suggest that microwave irradiation is the most important parameter influencing the membrane characteristic. Both pure water flux and fouling resistance increase with increasing irradiation time, power irradiation, and additive concentration. PES membrane with addition of 10% w/w PEG and irradiated by 130 W microwave power for 180 seconds is the best membrane performance.

  3. Coupling nonlinear optical waves to photoreactive and phase-separating soft matter: Current status and perspectives (United States)

    Biria, Saeid; Morim, Derek R.; An Tsao, Fu; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi; Hosein, Ian D.


    Nonlinear optics and polymer systems are distinct fields that have been studied for decades. These two fields intersect with the observation of nonlinear wave propagation in photoreactive polymer systems. This has led to studies on the nonlinear dynamics of transmitted light in polymer media, particularly for optical self-trapping and optical modulation instability. The irreversibility of polymerization leads to permanent capture of nonlinear optical patterns in the polymer structure, which is a new synthetic route to complex structured soft materials. Over time more intricate polymer systems are employed, whereby nonlinear optical dynamics can couple to nonlinear chemical dynamics, opening opportunities for self-organization. This paper discusses the work to date on nonlinear optical pattern formation processes in polymers. A brief overview of nonlinear optical phenomenon is provided to set the stage for understanding their effects. We review the accomplishments of the field on studying nonlinear waveform propagation in photopolymerizable systems, then discuss our most recent progress in coupling nonlinear optical pattern formation to polymer blends and phase separation. To this end, perspectives on future directions and areas of sustained inquiry are provided. This review highlights the significant opportunity in exploiting nonlinear optical pattern formation in soft matter for the discovery of new light-directed and light-stimulated materials phenomenon, and in turn, soft matter provides a platform by which new nonlinear optical phenomenon may be discovered.

  4. Surface-phase separation of PEO-containing biodegradable PLLA blends and block copolymers (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Woon; Jeong, Euh Duck; Cho, Eun Jeong; Gardella, Joseph A.; Hicks, Wesley; Hard, Robert; Bright, Frank V.


    The surface chemistry of two series of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing biodegradable poly( L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix systems has been investigated using time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS) and XPS. The two systems are (1) PLLA blend matrices with an amphiphilic Pluronic ® P-104 surfactant, P(EO) 27- b-P(PO) 61- b-P(EO) 27, and (2) PLLA- b-PEO diblock and PLLA- b-PEO- b-PLLA triblock copolymers. The phase separation is analyzed in determining the surface enrichment of the component and chemical composition at the polymer-air interface. The PEO component is surface-dominant in the blend system in contrast to the surface excess of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) in pure Pluronic ® P-104. The block copolymer system shows the surface enrichment of PLLA component. These results can be explained in terms of the change in surface free energy for the block copolymers and the better miscibility of PLLA and PPO against amphiphilic PEO for the blends, respectively.

  5. Complexation-Induced Phase Separation: Preparation of Metal-Rich Polymeric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco


    The majority of state-of-the-art polymeric membranes for industrial or medical applications are fabricated by phase inversion. Complexation induced phase separation (CIPS)—a surprising variation of this well-known process—allows direct fabrication of hybrid membranes in existing facilities. In the CIPS process, a first step forms the thin metal-rich selective layer of the membrane, and a succeeding step the porous support. Precipitation of the selective layer takes place in the same solvent used to dissolve the polymer and is induced by a small concentration of metal ions. These ions form metal-coordination-based crosslinks leading to the formation of a solid skin floating on top of the liquid polymer film. A subsequent precipitation in a nonsolvent bath leads to the formation of the porous support structure. Forming the dense layer and porous support by different mechanisms while maintaining the simplicity of a phase inversion process, results in unprecedented control over the final structure of the membrane. The thickness and morphology of the dense layer as well as the porosity of the support can be controlled over a wide range by manipulating simple process parameters. CIPS facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. The nature of the CIPS process facilitates a precise loading of a high concentration of metal ions that are located in only the top layer of the membrane. Moreover, these metal ions can be converted—during the membrane fabrication process—to nanoparticles or crystals. This simple method opens up fascinating possibilities for the fabrication of metal-rich polymeric membranes with a new set of properties. This dissertation describes the process in depth and explores promising

  6. Extraction and separation of proteins by ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system. (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Zeng, Qun; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing


    A satisfactory protocol of protein extraction and separation has been established based on the ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS) for the purification of bioactive substances. Compared with the effects of eight different ionic liquids, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([omim][Br]) was selected as the suitable ionic liquid. Based on the single-factor experiment, an initial serial investigative test was used to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction. Owing to their different isoelectric points, bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb) and lysozyme (Lys) were used to determine the effect of pH value on the protein extraction. Trypsin (Try) was used to confirm the protein activity. The linearity for analyzing BSA, Hb, Try and Lys was in the concentration range of 0.05-1.00 mg ml(-1), 0.025-1 mg ml(-1), 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1) and 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of between 0.9985 and 0.9999. Limits of detection (LODs) were 16.47-7.02 μg ml(-1) and RSDs of inter-day stability were less than 2.9%. Repeatability and precision were respectively lower than 5.3% and 1.1%. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of BSA, Hb, Try and Lys were 90.5%, 94.5%, 92.7% and 93.8% and the obtained RSDs were 1.19%, 1.23%, 1.34% and 1.04%, respectively. According to UV spectra, conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the cluster phenomenon originating from IL itself or combined with protein was evaluated. As the driving forces which are involved in the partitioning of protein between the IL-rich phase and the phosphate phase, the cluster phenomenon could, in principle, be applied to a variety of different samples and exhibited potential value.

  7. Separation of isomeric naphthalenesulphonic acids by micro high-performance liquid chromatography with mobile phases containing cyclodextrin. (United States)

    Jandera, P; Bunceková, S; Planeta, J


    Aromatic sulphonic acids are important dye intermediates and the determination of the individual isomers after their preparation by sulphonation of the parent aromatic hydrocarbon is important for the monitoring of the dye production process. For this purpose, either reversed-phase chromatography with mobile phases containing strong electrolytes as additives or capillary zone electrophoresis with working electrolytes containing cyclodextrins can be used to separate and determine not only individual sulphonation products with various numbers of sulphonic groups, but also various isomeric di- and trisulphonic acids. However, the separation of some isomers using either of the two techniques is not fully satisfactory. In the present work, HPLC with mobile phases containing cyclodextrins was employed to improve previously achieved separations of aromatic sulphonic acids. Because of the high cost of cyclodextrin, microcolumn HPLC with diode-array detection on the columns prepared in laboratory by supercritical fluid packing technique was employed for this purpose. Capillary columns packed with various octadecyl silica gel materials were compared and their stability and efficiency were found suitable for the separation of the compounds tested. The selectivity of separation of some isomers improved significantly with respect to the previous methods. Procedures were designed for separation and analytical control of technological processes producing dye intermediates.

  8. Synthesis and development of ordered, phase-separated, room-temperature ionic liquid-based AB and ABC block copolymers for gas separation applications (United States)

    Wiesenauer, Erin F.

    CO2 capture process development is an economically and environmentally important challenge, as concerns over greenhouse gas emissions continue to receive worldwide attention. Many applications require the separation of CO 2 from other light gases such as N2, CH4, and H2 and a number of technologies have been developed to perform such separations. While current membrane technology offers an economical, easy to operate and scale-up solution, polymeric membranes cannot withstand high temperatures and aggressive chemical environments, and they often exhibit an unfavorable tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. Room-temperature ionic-liquids (RTILs) are very attractive as next-generation CO2-selective separation media and their development into polymerized membranes combat these challenges. Furthermore, polymers that can self-assemble into nanostructured, phase-separated morphologies (e.g., block copolymers, BCPs) have a direct effect on gas transport as materials morphology can influence molecular diffusion and membrane transport performance. In this thesis, nanophase-separated, RTIL-based AB and ABC di- and tri-BCPs were prepared via the sequential, living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of an IL-based monomer and one or more mutually immiscible co-monomers. This novel type of ion-containing BCP system forms various ordered nanostructures in the melt state via primary and secondary structure control. Monomer design and control of block composition, sequence, and overall polymer lengths were found to directly affect the ordered polymer assembly. Supported, composite membranes of these new BCPs were successfully fabricated, and the effect of BCP composition and nanostructure on CO2/light gas transport properties was studied. These nanostructured IL-based BCPs represent innovative polymer architectures and show great potential CO2/light gas membrane separation applications.

  9. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiyang


    ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  10. Screening Approach for Chiral Separation of β-Aminoketones by HPLC on Various Polysaccharide-Based Chiral Stationary Phases. (United States)

    Addadi, Khadidja; Sekkoum, Khaled; Belboukhari, Nasser; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    Nine β-aminoketones were synthesized via Mannich reaction when benzaldehyde was condensed with some primary amines and acetophenone. The purified compounds were identified by using spectroscopic methods. The enantiomeric separation of these derivatives was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using several coated and immobilized polysaccharide stationary phases, namely, Chiralcel(®) OD-H, Chiralcel(®) OD, Chiralcel(®) OJ, Chiralpak(®) AD, Chiralpak(®) IA, and Chiralpak(®) IB using different mobile phases composed of n-hexane and alcohol mixed in various ratios or pure ethanol or isopropanol. The retention behavior and selectivity of these chiral stationary phases were examined in isocratic normal phase mode. The results indicate that cellulose derivatives have higher enantioselectivity than amylose derivatives for the separation of racemic β-amino ketones. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The chiral separation of triazole pesticides enantiomers by amylose-tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Jiang, Shuren; Xu, Yangguang; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    The amylose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase was synthesized and used to separate the enantiomers of triazole pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mobile phase was n-hexane-isopropanol applying a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Six triazole pesticides were enantioselectively separated. Myclobutanil, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, and uniconazole obtained complete separation with the resolution factors of 5.73, 2.99, 1.72, and 2.07, respectively, and imazalil and diniconazole obtained partial separation with the resolution factors of 0.79 and 0.77 under the optimized conditions. The effect of the content of isopropanol as well as column temperature on the separation was investigated. A circular dichroism detector was used to identify the enantiomers and determine the elution orders. The results showed the low temperature was good for the chiral separation except for diniconazole. The thermodynamic parameters calculated based on linear Van't Hoff plots showed the chiral separations were controlled by enthalpy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article presents a mathematical model and the experimental results of automatic flights of the policopter UAV NAU PKF "Aurora" of oktacopter scheme with additional elektroimpeler engines of horizontal thrust. Methods: UAV NAU PKF "Aurora" is developed for experimental flights in manual, semi-automatic and unmanned modes. The uniqueness and scientific novelty of data of flight testes is in a complete separation and isolation of vertical and horizontal components of the flight, which enables a fundamentally new way of moving of vehicle in the aerial space. This approach gives a ability to obtain all advantages and to eliminate disadvantages of helicopter and airplane in fundamentally new aircraft by structure and by function – namely in the policopter flyer with additional independent engines of the lateral thrust. Results: Obtained a new experimental data that allowed to better understand the nature of the physical forces, providing the flight of the policopter. Discussion: Revised a physical basis of the airscrew (propeller, namely on the example of flight of the policopter proved that most of the thrust of the propeller provided by the mechanical impulse (kinetic energy Ек=mv2/2 by the impulse, that a airscrew receives at his collisions with air molecules,but not by the gradient of air pressure below and above the airscrew. Is put forward a hypothesis of gravitational nature of the flight and introduced the notion of "functional antigravity", that a force completely identical in function and opposite on the direction of the force of gravity (gravity force. Deduced a mathematical formula of "functionally antigravitational" transport, namely:G·M·m/R2 = mI·v2/2 – for the flights of the aircraft with a mass m over universal astronomical body with a mass M, and m·g = mI·v2/2 – for the flights of the aircraft with mass m over a planet Earth.

  13. Direct visualization of phase separation between superconducting and nematic domains in Co-doped CaFe2As2 close to a first-order phase transition (United States)

    Fente, Antón; Correa-Orellana, Alexandre; Böhmer, Anna E.; Kreyssig, Andreas; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Mompean, Federico J.; García-Hernández, Mar; Munuera, Carmen; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann


    We show that biaxial strain induces alternating tetragonal superconducting and orthorhombic nematic domains in Co-substituted CaFe2As2 . We use atomic force, magnetic force, and scanning tunneling microscopy to identify the domains and characterize their properties, finding in particular that tetragonal superconducting domains are very elongated, more than several tens of micrometers long and about 30 nm wide; have the same Tc as unstrained samples; and hold vortices in a magnetic field. Thus, biaxial strain produces a phase-separated state, where each phase is equivalent to what is found on either side of the first-order phase transition between antiferromagnetic orthorhombic and superconducting tetragonal phases found in unstrained samples when changing Co concentration. Having such alternating superconducting domains separated by normal conducting domains with sizes of the order of the coherence length opens opportunities to build Josephson junction networks or vortex pinning arrays and suggests that first-order quantum phase transitions lead to nanometric-size phase separation under the influence of strain.

  14. High-resolution peptide mapping separations with MS-friendly mobile phases and charge-surface-modified C18. (United States)

    Lauber, Matthew A; Koza, Stephan M; McCall, Scott A; Alden, Bonnie A; Iraneta, Pamela C; Fountain, Kenneth J


    Ionic analytes, such as peptides, can be challenging to separate by reverse-phase chromatography with optimal efficiency. They tend, for instance, to exhibit poor peak shapes, particularly when eluted with mobile phases preferred for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that a novel charged-surface C18 stationary phase alleviates some of the challenges associated with reverse-phase peptide separations. This column chemistry, known as CSH (charged-surface hybrid) C18, improves upon an already robust organosilica hybrid stationary phase, BEH (ethylene-bridged hybrid) C18. Based on separations of a nine-peptide standard, CSH C18 was found to exhibit improved loadability, greater peak capacities, and unique selectivity compared to BEH C18. Its performance was also seen to be significantly less dependent on TFA-ion pairing, making it ideal for MS applications where high sensitivity is desired. These performance advantages were evaluated through application to peptide mapping, wherein CSH C18 was found to aid the development of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity LC-UV-MS peptide mapping method for the therapeutic antibody, trastuzumab. From these results, the use of a C18 stationary phase with a charged surface, such as CSH C18, holds significant promise for facilitating challenging peptide analyses.

  15. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohno


    Full Text Available We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S. In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

  16. Design of phosphonium-type zwitterion as an additive to improve saturated water content of phase-separated ionic liquid from aqueous phase toward reversible extraction of proteins. (United States)

    Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki


    We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

  17. Electronic Identification of the Parental Phases and Mesoscopic Phase Separation of K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chen


    Full Text Available The nature of the parent compound of a high-temperature superconductor (HTS often plays a pivotal role in determining its superconductivity. The parent compounds of the cuprate HTSs are antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulators, while those of the iron-pnictide HTSs are metals with spin-density-wave order. Here we report the electronic identification of two insulating parental phases and one semiconducting parental phase of the newly discovered family of K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} superconductors. The two insulating phases exhibit Mott-insulator-like signatures, and one of the insulating phases is even present in the superconducting and semiconducting K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} compounds. However, it is mesoscopically phase-separated from the superconducting or semiconducting phase. Moreover, we find that both the superconducting and semiconducting phases are free of the magnetic and vacancy orders present in the insulating phases, and that the electronic structure of the superconducting phase could be developed by doping the semiconducting phase with electrons. The rich electronic properties discovered in these parental phases of the K_{x}Fe_{2-y}Se_{2} superconductors provide the foundation for studying the anomalous behavior in this new class of iron-based superconductors.

  18. Cesium vacancy ordering in phase-separated C sxF e2 -yS e2 (United States)

    Taddei, K. M.; Sturza, M.; Chung, D. Y.; Cao, H. B.; Claus, H.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, S.; Chmaissem, O.


    By simultaneously displaying magnetism and superconductivity in a single phase, the iron-based superconductors provide a model system for the study of magnetism's role in superconductivity. The class of intercalated iron selenide superconductors is unique among these in having the additional property of phase separation and coexistence of two distinct phases—one majority phase with iron vacancy ordering and strong antiferromagnetism, and the other a poorly understood minority microscopic phase with a contested structure. Adding to the intrigue, the majority phase has never been found to show superconductivity on its own while the minority phase has never been successfully synthesized separate from the majority phase. In order to better understand this minority phase, a series of high-quality C sxF e2 -yS e2 single crystals with (0.8 ≤x ≤1 ; 0 ≤y ≤0.3 ) were grown and studied. Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction performed on ground crystals show that the average I 4 /m m m structure of the minority phase is distinctly different from the high-temperature I 4 /m m m parent structure. Moreover, single-crystal diffraction reveals the presence of discrete superlattice reflections that remove the degeneracy of the Cs sites in both the majority and minority phases and reduce their structural symmetries from body centered to primitive. Group theoretical analysis in conjunction with structural modeling shows that the observed superlattice reflections originate from three-dimensional Cs vacancy ordering. This model predicts a 25 % vacancy of the Cs site in the minority phase which is consistent with the site's refined occupancy. Magnetization measurements performed in tandem with neutron single-crystal diffraction provide evidence that the minority phase is the host of superconductivity. Our results also reveal a superconducting dome in which the superconducting transition temperature varies as a function of the nominal valence of iron.

  19. Structural and hydrodynamic properties of an intrinsically disordered region of a germ cell-specific protein on phase separation. (United States)

    Brady, Jacob P; Farber, Patrick J; Sekhar, Ashok; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Rui; Bah, Alaji; Nott, Timothy J; Chan, Hue Sun; Baldwin, Andrew J; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Kay, Lewis E


    Membrane encapsulation is frequently used by the cell to sequester biomolecules and compartmentalize their function. Cells also concentrate molecules into phase-separated protein or protein/nucleic acid "membraneless organelles" that regulate a host of biochemical processes. Here, we use solution NMR spectroscopy to study phase-separated droplets formed from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal 236 residues of the germ-granule protein Ddx4. We show that the protein within the concentrated phase of phase-separated Ddx4, [Formula: see text], diffuses as a particle of 600-nm hydrodynamic radius dissolved in water. However, NMR spectra reveal sharp resonances with chemical shifts showing [Formula: see text] to be intrinsically disordered. Spin relaxation measurements indicate that the backbone amides of [Formula: see text] have significant mobility, explaining why high-resolution spectra are observed, but motion is reduced compared with an equivalently concentrated nonphase-separating control. Observation of a network of interchain interactions, as established by NOE spectroscopy, shows the importance of Phe and Arg interactions in driving the phase separation of Ddx4, while the salt dependence of both low- and high-concentration regions of phase diagrams establishes an important role for electrostatic interactions. The diffusion of a series of small probes and the compact but disordered 4E binding protein 2 (4E-BP2) protein in [Formula: see text] are explained by an excluded volume effect, similar to that found for globular protein solvents. No changes in structural propensities of 4E-BP2 dissolved in [Formula: see text] are observed, while changes to DNA and RNA molecules have been reported, highlighting the diverse roles that proteinaceous solvents play in dictating the properties of dissolved solutes.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance in strongly phase separated manganite thin films (United States)

    Kandpal, Lalit M.; Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Gupta, Anurag; Awana, V. P. S.; Singh, H. K.


    The present study reports the impact of magnetic anisotropy (MA) on magnetotransport properties such as the magnetic transitions, magnetic liquid behavior, glass transition and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in epitaxial film (thickness 42 nm) of strongly phase separated manganite La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (y≈0.4). Angle dependent magnetization measurement confirms the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy with the magnetic easy axes aligned in the plane of the film and the magnetic hard axis along the normal to the film plane. The more prominent divergence between the zero filed cooled (ZFC) and field cooled warming (FCW) and the stronger hysteresis between the field cooled cooling (FCC) and FCW magnetization for H ∥ shows the weakening of the magnetic liquid along the magnetic hard axis. The peak at Tp≈42 K in FCW magnetization, which characterizes the onset of spin freezing shifts down to Tp≈18 K as the field direction is switched from the easy axes (H ∥) to the hard axis (H ⊥). The glass transition, which appears at Tg≈28 K for H ∥ disappears for H ⊥. The easy axis magnetization (M∣∣) appears to saturate around H~20 kOe, but the hard axis counterpart (M⊥) does not show such tendency even up to H=50 kOe. MA appears well above the ferromagnetic (FM) transition at T≈170 K, which is nearly the same as the Neel temperature (TN) of M⊥ - T . The temperature dependent resistivity measured at H=10 kOe applied along the easy axis (ρ|| - T) and the hard axis (ρ⊥ - T) shows insulator metal transition (IMT) at ≈106 K and ≈99 K in the cooling cycle, respectively. The large difference between ρ⊥ - T and ρ|| - T during the cooling cycle and in the vicinity of IMT results in huge AMR of ≈-142% and -115%. The observed properties have been explained in terms of the MA induced variation in the relative fraction of the coexisting magnetic phases.

  1. Pareto-optimal reversed-phase chromatography separation of three insulin variants with a solubility constraint. (United States)

    Arkell, Karolina; Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Frederiksen, Søren S; Breil, Martin P; Nilsson, Bernt


    With the shift of focus of the regulatory bodies, from fixed process conditions towards flexible ones based on process understanding, model-based optimization is becoming an important tool for process development within the biopharmaceutical industry. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization study of separation of three insulin variants by reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) is presented. The decision variables were the load factor, the concentrations of ethanol and KCl in the eluent, and the cut points for the product pooling. In addition to the purity constraints, a solubility constraint on the total insulin concentration was applied. The insulin solubility is a function of the ethanol concentration in the mobile phase, and the main aim was to investigate the effect of this constraint on the maximal productivity. Multi-objective optimization was performed with and without the solubility constraint, and visualized as Pareto fronts, showing the optimal combinations of the two objectives productivity and yield for each case. Comparison of the constrained and unconstrained Pareto fronts showed that the former diverges when the constraint becomes active, because the increase in productivity with decreasing yield is almost halted. Consequently, we suggest the operating point at which the total outlet concentration of insulin reaches the solubility limit as the most suitable one. According to the results from the constrained optimizations, the maximal productivity on the C 4 adsorbent (0.41 kg/(m 3  column h)) is less than half of that on the C 18 adsorbent (0.87 kg/(m 3  column h)). This is partly caused by the higher selectivity between the insulin variants on the C 18 adsorbent, but the main reason is the difference in how the solubility constraint affects the processes. Since the optimal ethanol concentration for elution on the C 18 adsorbent is higher than for the C 4 one, the insulin solubility is also higher, allowing a higher pool concentration

  2. Preparation and Characterization of HDPE/EVA Flat Sheet Membranes by Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shoeyb


    Full Text Available The adjustment of material composition in fabrication of modified polymeric membrane has been considered the most efficient and easiest method. For this purpose blended membranes of high density polyethylene (HDPE–ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA were prepared by thermally induced phase separation method. The impact of EVA in the presence of diluent on the crystalization temperature was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The obtained results showed that EVA has no significant effect on the crystalization temperature of HDPE. The absorption frequencies at 1248 and 1749 cm-1, respectively, due to C-O and C=O streching vibrations of EVA functional groups, confirmed the existence of EVA in HDPE membrane. The pure water permeability of HDPE/EVA blend was measured and compared with that of neat HDPE membrane. The results showed that an EVA content up to 2.5 wt% raised water permeability considerably and the leafy structure of the membranes contracted and the pure water permeation dropped with higher EVA content. The results of porosity measurement and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM analysis also confirmed these findings. Contact angel measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM examinations and static absorption of collagen protein on the membrane surfaces revealed that EVA content up to 5 wt% lowered the hydrophobicity of the membrane. By EVA content above 10 wt%, due to the structural alteration on the membrane surface, the contact angel and the collagen absorption on the surface of membrane increased. The measurement of tensile strength showed that with increasing EVA content the mechanical properties of the membranes improved due to interactions of polar groups in EVA.

  3. Preparation of porous microsphere-scaffolds by electrohydrodynamic forming and thermally induced phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbar, Hanif; Luo, C.J.; Bakhshi, Poonam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Day, Richard [Division of Medicine, University College London, Rockefeller Building, 21 University Street, London, WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)


    The availability of forming technologies able to mass produce porous polymeric microspheres with diameters ranging from 150 to 300 μm is significant for some biomedical applications where tissue augmentation is required. Moreover, appropriate assembly of microspheres into scaffolds is an important challenge to enable direct usage of the as-formed structures in treatments. This work reports the production of poly (glycolic-co-lactic acid) and poly (ε-caprolactone) microspheres under ambient conditions using one-step electrohydrodynamic jetting (traditionally known as atomisation) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). To ensure robust production for practical uses, this work presents 12 comprehensive parametric mode mappings of the diameter distribution profiles of the microspheres obtained over a broad range of key processing parameters and correlating of this with the material parameters of 5 different polymer solutions of various concentrations. Poly (glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) in Dimethyl carbonate (DMC), a low toxicity solvent with moderate conductivity and low dielectric constant, generated microspheres within the targeted diameter range of 150–300 μm. The fabrication of the microspheres suitable for formation of the scaffold structure is achieved by changing the collection method from distilled water to liquid nitrogen and lyophilisation in a freeze dryer. Highlights: ► EHDA is a unique method for production of the desired size of microspheres. ► Polymer solution properties are used to tailor the size distribution of spheres. ► Process control parameters (flow rate and applied voltage) are key in size control. ► Combination of EHDA with TIPS provides porous microspheres for assembly of scaffold.

  4. Role of phase separation on the biological performance of 45S5 Bioglass®. (United States)

    Kowal, Tia J; Golovchak, Roman; Chokshi, Tanuj; Harms, Joseph; Thamma, Ukrit; Jain, Himanshu; Falk, Matthias M


    We analyzed the biological performance of spinodally and droplet-type phase-separated 45S5 Bioglass ® generated by quenching the melt from different equilibrium temperatures. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells attached more efficiently to 45S5 Bioglass® with spinodal than to the one with droplet morphology, providing the first demonstration of the role of micro-/nano-scale on the bioactivity of Bioglass®. Upon exposure to biological solutions, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cell culture medium (α-MEM), a layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on both glass morphologies. Although both Bioglass® varieties were incubated under identical conditions, and physico-chemical characteristics of the HA layers were similar, the adsorption magnitude of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA, an abundant blood serum component) and its β-sheet/β-turn ratio and α-helix content were significantly higher on spinodal than droplet type Bioglass®. These results indicate that: (i) a protein layer quickly adsorbs on the surface of 45S5 Bioglass® varieties (with or without HA layer), (ii) the amount and the conformation of adsorbed proteins are guided by the glass micro-/nano-structure, and (iii) cell attachment and proliferation are influenced by the concentration and the conformation of attached proteins with a significantly better cell adhesion to spinodal type 45S5 Bioglass® substrate. Taken together, our results indicate that the biological performance of 45S5 Bioglass® can be improved further with a relatively simple, inexpensive fabrication procedure that provides a superior glass micro-/nano-structure. A simple modification to the fabrication procedure of classic 45S5 Bioglass® generates spinodal (A(a)) and droplet (A(b)) varieties and has a significant impact on protein adsorption (B) and cell adhesion (C).

  5. Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Novel 4-Amino-Flavanes Series Diastereomers on a Polysaccharide-Type Chiral Stationary Phase. (United States)

    Rahou, Ismahane; Sekkoum, Khaled; Belboukhari, Nasser; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    Two broad approaches for the syntheses of a series of 4-aminoflavanes are used in this study, and they have been prepared in 30-99% overall yields using the reductive condensation of flavanone with primary amine, as a key step. By this methodology, the formyl derivatives of several secondary amines were obtained in good to excellent yields. The structures of all new products have been confirmed by spectral experiences (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR). However, the present non-stereoselective synthesis results in a mixture of 2-7: diastereomers, which differ from the configuration of the flavanone atom asymmetric center. Since each diastereomer may have different biological activity and pharmacokinetic profile, analytical methods have to be developed for their separation. The 4-aminoflavanes diastereomers were separated using polysaccharide chiral stationary phases columns consisting of cellulose (Chiralcel® OD-H and Chiralcel®OJ) by high-performance liquid chromatography; the separation was affected by the nature and concentration of the alcohol modifiers in the mobile phase. Separations were carried out under normal phase mode on the Chiralcel®OJ column. This method can properly separate the two diastereoisomers (Rs > 2) within an analysis time of <50 min. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Polar-horizontal versus polar-vertical reverse-tilt-domain walls: influence of a pretilt angle below the nematic-isotropic phase transition. (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Atherton, Timothy J; Kang, Daeseung; Petschek, Rolfe G; Rosenblatt, Charles


    On cooling through the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition in a cell whose substrates induce a large pretilt angle theta0 from the vertical direction, but with no preferential azimuthal orientation, tilt domains appear. The boundary walls between reverse tilt domains are found to be bendlike and twistlike when theta0(T=TNI) is sufficiently large just below the isotropic-nematic phase transition temperature TNI--i.e., for a nearly planar orientation. Here the director becomes planar approximately midway through the wall, and we refer to this type of wall as "polar horizontal," which is topologically stable. However, if theta0(T=TNI) is sufficiently small just below TNI--i.e., closer to vertical orientation--a splay like and twistlike domain wall obtains, where the director is vertically oriented approximately midway through the wall; we refer to this type of wall as "polar vertical," whose stability depends on the anchoring. On cooling through the nematic phase, the pretilt angle theta0 decreases, with the director aligning closer to the vertical orientation. Nevertheless, the structures of both types of domain walls remain unchanged on variation of theta0 with temperature owing to topological constraints and also are unchanged after the application and removal of a large electric field. We examine the structure of domain walls for the liquid crystal ZLI-4330 (Merck) as a function of pretilt angle theta0(T=TNI) and calculate a critical value theta0c(T=TNI) of the pretilt angle just below TNI for which the predominance of domain walls crosses over from polar horizontal to polar vertical.

  7. Mechanically driven phase separation and corresponding microhardness change in Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhou, Y.H.


    Rolling deformation of bulk Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glass has been performed at cryogenic temperature. The specimens exhibit excellent ductility, and are rolled up to 97% reduction in thickness without fracture. Crystallization is suppressed during the deformation, however, phase separation...

  8. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng


    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage

  9. Ultralow Interfacial Tensions in an Aqueous Phase-Separated Gelatin/Dextran and Gelatin/Gum Arabic System: A Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Visser, J.E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.


    Many protein/polysaccharide mixtures phase separate when the concentrations of these biopolymers are sufficiently high. One of the properties involved in this phenomenon is the interfacial tension. Here we present measurements of the interfacial tension of two different protein/polysaccharide


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayat Aprilita


    Full Text Available Capillary column with monolithic stationary phase was prepared from silanized fused-silica capillary of 200 µm I.D. by in situ free radical polymerization of divinylbenzene with glycidy methacrylate in the presence of decanol and tetrahydrofuran as porogens.  The hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties of this monolith, such as backpressure at different flow-rate, pore size distribution, van Deemter plot and the effect of varying gradient-rate were investigated.  Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene monolithic capillary has been used successfully for the reversed-phase chromatographic separation of proteins.   Keywords: monolithic stationary phase, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene, proteins

  11. Competition among Superconducting, Antiferromagnetic, and Charge Orders with Intervention by Phase Separation in the 2D Holstein-Hubbard Model (United States)

    Ohgoe, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi


    Using a variational Monte Carlo method, we study the competition of strong electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the ground state of the Holstein-Hubbard model on a square lattice. At half filling, an extended intermediate metallic or weakly superconducting (SC) phase emerges, sandwiched between antiferromagnetic and charge order (CO) insulating phases. By carrier doping into the CO insulator, the SC order dramatically increases for strong electron-phonon couplings, but is largely hampered by wide phase separation (PS) regions. Superconductivity is optimized at the border to the PS.

  12. Cold-induced aqueous acetonitrile phase separation: A salt-free way to begin quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe. (United States)

    Shao, Gang; Agar, Jeffrey; Giese, Roger W


    Cooling a 1:1 (v/v) solution of acetonitrile and water at -16° C is known to result in two clear phases. We will refer to this event as "cold-induced aqueous acetonitrile phase separation (CIPS)". On a molar basis, acetonitrile is 71.7% and 13.6% in the upper and lower phases, respectively, in our study. The phase separation proceeds as a descending cloud of microdroplets. At the convenient temperature (typical freezer) employed here the lower phase is rather resistant to solidification, although it emerges from the freezer as a solid if various insoluble matter is present at the outset. In a preliminary way, we replaced the initial (salting-out) step of a representative QuEChERS procedure with CIPS, applying this modified procedure ("CIPS-QuEChERS") to a homogenate of salmon (and partly to beef). Three phases resulted, where only the upper, acetonitrile-rich phase is a liquid (that is completely clear). The middle phase comprises ice and precipitated lipids, while the lower phase is the residual matrix of undissolved salmon or meat. Treating the upper phase from salmon, after isolation, with anhydrous MgSO4 and C18-Si (typical QuEChERS dispersive solid phase extraction sorbents), and injecting into a GC-MS in a nontargeted mode, gives two-fold more preliminary hits for chemicals, and also number of spiked pesticides recovered, relative to that from a comparable QuEChERS method. In part, this is because of much higher background signals in the latter case. Further study of CIPS-QuEChERS is encouraged, including taking advantage of other QuERChERS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence of phase separation in cubic InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers by resonant Raman scattering (United States)

    Silveira, E.; Tabata, A.; Leite, J. R.; Trentin, R.; Lemos, V.; Frey, T.; As, D. J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.


    Phase separation effects in cubic InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers were investigated by means of resonant Raman scattering. The alloy epilayers were grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The results, which are confirmed by x-ray diffractometry (XRD) experiments, show the presence of In-rich inclusions in c-InGaN layers with x=0.19 and 0.33. In-rich inclusions were also found by XRD in a lower In-content layer with x=0.07. Compositional inhomogeneity of about 10% was observed through selective resonances of localized regions in the In-rich separated inclusions. We find that the In-rich separated phase has nearly the same composition in all analyzed samples (x≅0.8).

  14. Green chromatography separation of analytes of greatly differing properties using a polyethylene glycol stationary phase and a low-toxic water-based mobile phase. (United States)

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Brabcová, Ivana; Maroušková, Alena; Chocholouš, Petr; Solich, Petr


    A simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly HPLC method was developed and validated for the separation of four compounds (4-aminophenol, caffeine, paracetamol, and propyphenazone) with different chemical properties. A "green" mobile phase, employing water as the major eluent, was proposed and applied to the separation of analytes with different polarity on polyethylene glycol (PEG) stationary phase. The chromatography separation of all compounds and internal standard benzoic acid was performed using isocratic elution with a low-toxicity mobile phase consisting of 0.04% (v/v) triethylamine and water. HPLC separation was carried out using a PEG reversed-phase stationary phase Supelco Discovery HS PEG column (15 × 4 mm; particle size 3 μm) at a temperature of 30 °C and flow rate at 1.0 mL min(-1). The UV detector was set at 210 nm. In this study, a PEG stationary phase was shown to be suitable for the efficient isocratic separation of compounds that differ widely in hydrophobicity and acid-base properties, particularly 4-aminophenol (log P, 0.30), caffeine (log P, -0.25), and propyphenazone (log P, 2.27). A polar PEG stationary phase provided specific selectivity which allowed traditional chromatographic problems related to the separation of analytes with different polarities to be solved. The retention properties of the group of structurally similar substances (aromatic amines, phenolic compounds, and xanthine derivatives) were tested with different mobile phases. The proposed green chromatography method was successfully applied to the analysis of active substances and one degradation impurity (4-aminophenol) in commercial preparation. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, standard calibration was carried out with good linearity correlation coefficients for all compounds in the range (0.99914-0.99997, n = 6) between the peak areas and concentration of compounds. Recovery of the sample preparation was in the range 100 ± 5% for all compounds

  15. Copolymer-grafted silica phase from a cation-anion monomer pair for enhanced separation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Mallik, Abul K; Qiu, Hongdeng; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka


    This work reports a new imidazolium and L-alanine derived copolymer-grafted silica stationary phase for ready separation of complex isomers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For this purpose, 1-allyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ([AyImC18]Br) and N-acryloyl-L-alanine sodium salt ([AAL]Na) ionic liquids (IL) monomers were synthesized. Subsequently, the bromide counteranion was exchanged with the 2-(acrylamido)propanoate organic counteranion by reacting the [AyImC18]Br with excess [AAL]Na in water. The obtained IL cation-anion monomer pair was then copolymerized on mercaptopropyl-modified silica (Sil-MPS) via a surface-initiated radical chain-transfer reaction. The selective retention behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including some positional isomers, steroids, and nucleobases were investigated using the newly obtained Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL), and octadecyl silylated silica (ODS) was used as the reference column. Interesting results were obtained for the separation of PAHs, steroids, and nucleobases with the new organic phase. The results showed that the Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL) presented multiple noncovalent interactions, including hydrophobic, π-π, carbonyl-π, and ion-dipole interactions for the separation of PAHs and dipolar compounds. Only pure water was sufficient as the mobile phase for the separation of the nucleobases. Ten nucleosides and bases were separated, using only water as the mobile phase, within a very short time using the Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL), which is otherwise difficult to achieve using conventional hydrophobic columns such as ODS. The combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are important for the effective separation of such basic compounds without the use of any organic additive as the eluent on the Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL) column.

  16. Fabrication of PVDF-based blend membrane with a thin hydrophilic deposition layer and a network structure supporting layer via the thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation process (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Tianyu; Qin, Shuhao; He, Benqiao; Han, Na; Li, Jianxin


    A simple strategy of thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (TIPS-NIPS) is reported to fabricate poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based blend membrane. The dissolved poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) in diluent prevents the crystallization of PVDF during the cooling process and deposites on the established PVDF matrix in the later extraction. Compared with traditional coating technique, this one-step TIPS-NIPS method can not only fabricate a supporting layer with an interconnected network structure even via solid-liquid phase separation of TIPS, but also form a uniform SMA skin layer approximately as thin as 200 nm via surface deposition of NIPS. Besides the better hydrophilicity, what's interesting is that the BSA rejection ratio increases from 48% to 94% with the increase of SMA, which indicates that the separation performance has improved. This strategy can be conveniently extended to the creation of firmly thin layer, surface functionalization and structure controllability of the membrane.

  17. Effect of Attapulgite Nanorods and Calcium Sulfate Microwhiskers on the Reaction-Induced Phase Separation of Epoxy/PES Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Tang


    Full Text Available The influence of two kinds of mesoscale inorganic rod fillers, nanoscale attapulgite and micron-sized CaSO4 whisker, on the reaction-induced phase separation of epoxy/aromatic amine/poly- (ether sulfone (PES blends has been investigated by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and time resolved light scattering (TRLS. By varying the PES concentration and curing temperature, we found that the incorporation of attapulgite and CaSO4 had dramatic impact on the phase separation process and the final phase morphology of blends. In blends at higher content than critical concentration, the process of phase separation was retarded by the incorporation of nanoscale fillers but accelerated by that of the micron-sized fillers, mainly due to the enhanced viscoelastic effect and the preferential wettable effect, respectively. Meanwhile both mesoscale fillers could change the cocontinuous phase structure of blends with lower PES content than critical concentration into PES-rich dispersed structure due to the surface affinity of fillers to epoxy matrix.

  18. Domain Size of Phase-Separated NaxCoO2 as Investigated by X-Ray Microdiffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Niwa


    Full Text Available O3-NaCoO 2 is a promising cathode material for sodium ion secondary batteries (SIBs. Na x CoO 2 shows phase separation (PS into the O3 and O ′ 3 phases in the Na concentration range of 0.89 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.99. In order to estimate the domain size (r in the two-phase region, we performed X-ray microdiffraction (XRMD of thin films of Na x CoO 2 at x = 0.97 and ∼1. We found that r (≈400 nm of the O ′ 3 domain is comparable to the particle size d (=331 ± 87 nm in the as-grown O3-NaCoO 2 film. This observation suggests that individual particles of Na x CoO 2 are single phase to minimize the strain at the O3–O ′ 3 phase boundary.

  19. Phase separation in quasi-incompressible fluids: Cahn-Hilliard model in the Cattaneo-Maxwell framework (United States)

    Alessia, Berti; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro


    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model of phase separation for a quasi-incompressible binary mixture where the spinodal decomposition is induced by an heat flux governed by the Cattaneo-Maxwell equation. As usual, the phase separation is considered in the framework of phase-field modeling so that the transition is described by an additional field, the mixture concentration c. The evolution of the mixture concentration is described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation, and in our model, it is coupled with the Navier-Stokes equation. Since thermal effect is included, the whole set of evolution equations is set up for the velocity, the mixture concentration, the temperature and the heat flux. The model is compatible with thermodynamics and a maximum theorem holds.

  20. Separation of primary solid phases from Al-Si alloy melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Kim


    Full Text Available The iron-rich solids formed during solidification of Al-Si alloys which are known to be detrimental to the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the alloys should be removed. On the other hand, Al-Si hypereutectic alloys are used to extract the pure primary silicon which is suitable for photovoltaic cells in the solvent refining process. One of the important issues in iron removal and in solvent refining is the effective separation of the crystallized solids from the Al-Si alloy melts. This paper describes the separation methods of the primary solids from Al-Si alloy melts such as sedimentation, draining, filtration, electromagnetic separation and centrifugal separation, focused on the iron removal and on the separation of silicon in the solvent refining process.

  1. Separation of peptides and intact proteins by electrostatic repulsion reversed phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges


    A new brand of BEH-C18 hybrid particles chemically bonded to a leash carrying an amine group permits the implementation of electrostatic repulsive interactions chromatography. Using columns packed with this material, the influence of the concentration of positive charges bonded to the BEH-C18 surface on the overloaded band profiles of a few positively charged peptides and proteins was investigated in the gradient elution mode. Three columns packed with endcapped BEH-C18 particles bonded with three different surface-charge densities (LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH) were used and compared with those provided by a column packed with non-doped, endcapped BEH-C18 particles. The surface concentrations of fixed charges in the LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH columns were estimated at 0.029, 0.050, and 0.064μmol/m(2), for example, about two orders of magnitude smaller than the surface density of bonded C18 chains (2.1μmol/m(2)). Three different mobile phase additives (0.1% v/v of trifluoro-acetic, phosphoric, and formic acid) were used to optimize the purification levels of proteins under different loading conditions. The weak ion-pairing ions (formate and phosphate) generate smaller retention but broader, more fronting band profiles than those eluted with a stronger ion-pairing ion (trifluoroactate). This effect is worse in the presence of fixed charges at the surface of the BEH-C18 particles. This was explained by an enhanced anti-Langmuirian adsorption behavior of the charged proteins in the presence of fixed surface charges. As the protein concentration increases in the bulk, so does the internal ionic strength, the electrostatic repulsive interactions weaken, and retention increases. Band fronting is mostly eliminated by replacing weak ion-pairing acids with TFA with which the adsorption isotherm remains weakly langmuirian. Faster but still complete gradient separation of insulin and myoglobin were achieved with the HIGH column than with the reference neutral column, despite a measurable

  2. Repeatability in column preparation of a reversed-phase C18 monolith and its application to separation of tocopherol homologues. (United States)

    Kositarat, Sirichai; Smith, Norman William; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Wilairat, Prapin; Chaisuwan, Patcharin


    This work investigated the repeatability of column preparation for a reversed-phase C18 monolith, namely stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (SMA-EDMA). The columns were thermally polymerised using three commonly available heating devices (GC oven, hot air oven and water bath) and their chromatographic performance evaluated using micro-liquid chromatography for separation of five test compounds. Precision in terms of %RSD of retention times were 9.0, 6.5, and 12.5 using GC oven, hot air oven and water bath, respectively. Between-batch precision for the hot air oven (n=3 days) was less than 10.4% for retention time. The SMA-EDMA monolith was applied to the separation of tocopherol homologues by capillary electrochromatography. Usually tocopherol homologues cannot be completely separated by conventional reversed-phase C8- or C18-packed bed or C18-silica based monolithic columns. Polymer monolith has been shown to give remarkable selectivity towards the tocopherols compared to the conventional microparticulate phase and silica based monolith. Successful separation of the tocopherol isomers was achieved on the SMA-EDMA monolith without any column modification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography separation of triacylglycerol regioisomers with isocratic mobile phase. Application to different oils and fats. (United States)

    Tamba Sompila, Arnaud W G; Héron, Sylvie; Hmida, Dorra; Tchapla, Alain


    The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time. In the present study, in order to decrease the analysis time while maintaining good chromatographic separation, we tested different monomeric and polymeric stationary phases and different chromatographic conditions (mobile phase composition and analysis temperature) using Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP-LC). It was demonstrated that mixed polymeric stationary bonded silica with accessible terminal hydroxyl groups leads to very good separation for the pairs of TAGs regioisomers constituted by two saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid (with double bond number: from 1 to 6). A Nucleodur C18 ISIS percolated by isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/2-propanol) at 18°C leads to their separations in less than 15min. The difference of retention times between two regioisomers XYX and XXY are large enough to confirm, as application, the presence of POP, SOP, SOS and PLP and no PPO, SPO, SSO and PPL in Theobroma cacao butter. In the same way, this study respectively shows the presence of SOS, SOP and no SSO, PSO in Butyrospermum parkii butter, POP, SOP, SOS and no PPO, PSO and SSO in Carapa oil and finally POP and no PPO in Pistacia Lentiscus oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Greener liquid chromatography using a guard column with micellar mobile phase for separation of some pharmaceuticals and determination of parabens. (United States)

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Chaida, Thanatcha; Khonyoung, Supada; Kuppithayanant, Nattawan; Tiyapongpattana, Warawut; Itharat, Arunporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon


    In this research, a greener chromatography employing a short column, Zorbax SB C18 cartridge (12.5 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) commonly used as a guard column in a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), was utilized as the analytical column in conjunction with a more eco-friendly micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for separation tertiary mixtures of local anesthetics and antihistamines; and binary mixture of colds drugs; and quaternary mixture of some parabens with different separation conditions. The chromatographic behavior of these analytes was studied to demonstrate separation efficiency of this guard column in a micellar mobile phase. Moreover, this column and SDS mobile phase was exploited for determination of parabens in 64 samples of cosmetic product, both those that were produced locally in the community and those that were commercially manufactured. Linear calibration graphs of the parabens as detected at 254 nm were obtained in the range of 1-100 μmol L(-1) with R(2)>0.9990. Percentage recoveries were 92.4-109.2 with %RSD<3, and the limit of detection and quantitation were 0.04-0.10 and 0.20-0.80 μmol L(-1), respectively. This analytical system is not only greener but also faster and employing simpler sample preparation than a conventional liquid chromatographic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Iterative signal separation based multiple phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod


    We propose a new method for signal separation from a multicomponent interference field recorded in a digital holographic interferometry setup. The setup consisting of multiple object illuminating beams results in an interference field containing multiple signal components. The proposed method utilizes an amplitude discrimination criteria established by setting different intensities to the object illuminating beams in order to separate the signal components iteratively. The signal separation is performed in a small block of the interference field at a time. The augmentation of the block matrix with its own rows and columns is performed which has an effect of noise subspace inflation. This operation offers an improved noise robustness to the signal separation capability of the proposed method. The simulation and experimental results are provided to substantiate the applicability of the proposed method in multidimensional deformation measurement.

  6. Modeling the gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: the importance of liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend


    Full Text Available The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH, as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene exhibits liquid-liquid phase separation over a wide range of relative humidities (simulated from 30% to 99% RH. Since fully coupled phase separation and gas-particle partitioning calculations are computationally expensive, several simplified model approaches are tested with regard to computational costs and accuracy of predictions compared to the benchmark calculation. It is shown that forcing a liquid one-phase aerosol with or without consideration of non-ideal mixing bears the potential for vastly incorrect partitioning predictions. Assuming an ideal mixture leads to substantial overestimation of the particulate organic mass, by more than 100% at RH values of 80% and by more than 200% at RH values of 95%. Moreover, the simplified one-phase cases stress two key points for accurate gas-particle partitioning calculations: (1 non-ideality in the condensed phase needs to be considered and (2 liquid-liquid phase separation is a consequence of considerable deviations

  7. Separation of triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in microalgal lipids by solid-phase extraction for separate fatty acid profiling analysis by gas chromatography. (United States)

    Paik, Man-Jeong; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Brand, Jerry; Kim, Kyoung-Rae


    Microalgal lipids were separated into two fractions, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), by solid-phase extraction employing sodium carbonate as the sorbent and dichloromethane (20% by volume) in n-hexane as the extracting solvent. The TAG fraction was then saponified, followed by acidification, extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl esterification. The FFA fraction was directly acidified, extracted and derivatized. From the lipid extracts of eight microalgal species examined, a total of 13 fatty acids were detected in the TAG fractions and nine were found in the FFA fractions, with at much higher total TAG content in all microalgae. Oleic acid was the most prominent fatty acid in three species, alpha-linolenic acid was more abundant in two others, and palmitic acid was present in highest concentration in the remaining three species.

  8. Phase separation of aqueous mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, M.W.; Linden, van der E.; Tromp, R.H.


    Abstract: The phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and dextran is studied as a function of the polymer concentration, the PEO molar mass, and temperature. The molar mass distributions of the two polymers in the coexisting phases are measured. From the temperature

  9. Bending Rigidity of Interfaces in Aqueous Phase-Separated Biopolymer Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.


    Using equations for the interfacial properties for a two-phase multicomponent system, we present a new model for the interfacial tension and bending rigidity for liquid-liquid interfaces between semidilute polymer phases. Using this model, we calculate the interfacial thickness and the bending

  10. Chiral separation of new designer drugs (Cathinones) on chiral ion-exchange type stationary phases. (United States)

    Wolrab, Denise; Frühauf, Peter; Moulisová, Alena; Kuchař, Martin; Gerner, Christopher; Lindner, Wolfgang; Kohout, Michal


    We present the enantioseparation of new designer drugs from the cathinone family on structurally different chiral ion-exchange type stationary phases. A novel strong cation-exchange type chiral stationary phase was synthesized and its performance compared with previously reported ion-exchange type chiral stationary phases. The influence of structural elements of the chiral selectors on their chromatographic performance was studied and the possibilities of tuning chromatographic parameters by varying the polarity of the employed mobile phases were determined. Evidence is provided that a change in mobile phase composition strongly influences the solvation shell of the polarized and polarizable units of the selectors and analytes, as well as ionizable mobile phase additives. Furthermore, the structural features of the selectors (e.g. the size of aromatic units and their substitution pattern) are shown to play a key role in the effective formation of diastereomeric complexes with analytes. Thus, we have achieved the enantioseparation of all test analytes with a mass spectrometry-compatible mobile phase with a chiral strong cation-exchange type stationary phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring binding and speciation of hydrophobic organic chemicals at controlled freely dissolved concentrations and without phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouliarmou, Varvara; Smith, K E C; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen


    , and simple linear regression provided precise partition ratios, salting out constants, and critical micelle concentrations. These parameters were generally in good agreement with published values obtained by solid phase microextraction and fluorescence quenching. The very good precision was indicated...... by the low relative standard errors for the partition ratios of 0.5–8%, equivalent to 0.002–0.03 log unit. This passive dosing approach allows binding and speciation of HOCs to be studied without any phase separation steps or mass balance assumptions....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S


    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  13. The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine. (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna T; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A; Tuhkanen, Tuula A


    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9-99% for anti-tuberculotics; urine utilization means should be considered.

  14. Magnetoresistive memory in phase-separated La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacanell, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Unidad de Actividad Fisica-Centro Atomico de Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Parisi, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Unidad de Actividad Fisica-Centro Atomico de Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Levy, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Unidad de Actividad Fisica-Centro Atomico de Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ghivelder, L. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    We have studied a non-volatile memory effect in the mixed valent compound La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 induced by magnetic field (H). In a previous work (Phys. Rev. B 65 (2002) 104403), it has been shown that the response of this system upon application of H strongly depends on the temperature range, related to three well-differentiated regimes of phase separation occurring below 220K. In this work we compare memory capabilities of the compound, determined following two different experimental procedures for applying H, namely zero-field cooling and field cooling the sample. These results are analyzed and discussed within the scenario of phase separation.

  15. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II (United States)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; hide


    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rojano Ortega


    Full Text Available In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2 in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively and the length of the impact absorption phase (T. Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p < 0.05 and a significant negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p < 0.05 were also found. There is a significant negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p < 0.05. T1 has a little effect in the impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster.

  17. Enhanced lipid isomer separation in human plasma using reversed-phase UPLC with ion-mobility/high-resolution MS detection. (United States)

    Damen, Carola W N; Isaac, Giorgis; Langridge, James; Hankemeier, Thomas; Vreeken, Rob J


    An ultraperformance LC (UPLC) method for the separation of different lipid molecular species and lipid isomers using a stationary phase incorporating charged surface hybrid (CSH) technology is described. The resulting enhanced separation possibilities of the method are demonstrated using standards and human plasma extracts. Lipids were extracted from human plasma samples with the Bligh and Dyer method. Separation of lipids was achieved on a 100 × 2.1 mm inner diameter CSH C18 column using gradient elution with aqueous-acetonitrile-isopropanol mobile phases containing 10 mM ammonium formate/0.1% formic acid buffers at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. A UPLC run time of 20 min was routinely used, and a shorter method with a 10 min run time is also described. The method shows extremely stable retention times when human plasma extracts and a variety of biofluids or tissues are analyzed [intra-assay relative standard deviation (RSD) mobility cell. Besides demonstrating the separation for different lipids using the chromatographic method, we demonstrate the use of the ion-mobility MS platform for the structural elucidation of lipids. The method can now be used to elucidate structures of a wide variety of lipids in biological samples of different matrices. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Separation of molecular constituents from a humic acid by solid-phase extraction following a transesterification reaction. (United States)

    Fiorentino, Gabriella; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro


    A selective removal of humic constituents involved in ester groups was conducted by a boron trifluoride-methanol transesterification reaction after removal of structurally unbound lipids. An analytical separation of subfractions containing specific classes of compound liberated from the humic matrix simplifies their identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We compared the traditional liquid-liquid separation into phenolic and aliphatic fractions with the modern and versatile fractionation technique using solid-phase extraction (SPE) on aminopropyl-bonded phases. Our results showed that both methods ensured separation of the same compounds, such as di- and tri-hydroxyalkanoic acids, alpha-, beta- and omega-hydroxy fatty acids, alkanoic acids, alpha,omega-alkanedioic acids, n-alkanols, phenolic acids and sterols. Moreover, the SPE method not only provided a larger recovery of compounds, but involved smaller sample and solvent requirements, and larger ease and rapidity of sample handling than the traditional liquid-liquid separation. The SPE method should be thus recommended in structural studies of natural organic matter.

  19. Dispersive solid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis separation of food colorants in beverages using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as both extractant and pseudostationary phase. (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Jie; Liu, Chuan-Ting; Li, Wei; Tang, An-Na


    In this work, a new method for the determination of food colorants in beverage samples is developed, using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles (dASNPs) as both adsorbents in dispersive solid-phase microextraction (dSPME) and pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. dASNPs were firstly used as adsorbents for the preconcentration of four colorants by the dSPME process. After that, colorants were efficiently separated by CE using 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 2 mM β-CD and 0.9 mg/mL dASNPs as additives. All factors influencing dSPME and CE separations were optimized in detail. The investigated analytes showed good linearities with correlation coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9932. The limits of detection for the four food colorants were between 0.030 and 0.36 mg/L, which are lower than those reported previously. The established method was also used to analyze four colorants in beverage samples with recoveries ranging from 82.7% to 114.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to use NPs both as extractants in dSPME and pseudostationary phases in CE for the analytical purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ranieri


    Full Text Available Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%, which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  1. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of phase-separating bismuth selenium telluride thin films via a two-step method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail:; Kurita, Kensuke [Department of Materials Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tanaka, Saburo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, 1 Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642 (Japan)


    A two-step method that combines homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing has been developed to enhance the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline bismuth selenium telluride thin films. The thin films, prepared using a flash evaporation method, were treated with EB irradiation in a N{sub 2} atmosphere at room temperature and an acceleration voltage of 0.17 MeV. Thermal annealing was performed under Ar/H{sub 2} (5%) at 300 °C for 60 min. X-ray diffraction was used to determine that compositional phase separation between bismuth telluride and bismuth selenium telluride developed in the thin films exposed to higher EB doses and thermal annealing. We propose that the phase separation was induced by fluctuations in the distribution of selenium atoms after EB irradiation, followed by the migration of selenium atoms to more stable sites during thermal annealing. As a result, thin film crystallinity improved and mobility was significantly enhanced. This indicates that the phase separation resulting from the two-step method enhanced, rather than disturbed, the electron transport. Both the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient were improved following the two-step method. Consequently, the power factor of thin films that underwent the two-step method was enhanced to 20 times (from 0.96 to 21.0 μW/(cm K{sup 2}) that of the thin films treated with EB irradiation alone.

  2. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of phase-separating bismuth selenium telluride thin films via a two-step method (United States)

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Kurita, Kensuke; Hagino, Harutoshi; Tanaka, Saburo; Miyazaki, Koji


    A two-step method that combines homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing has been developed to enhance the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline bismuth selenium telluride thin films. The thin films, prepared using a flash evaporation method, were treated with EB irradiation in a N2 atmosphere at room temperature and an acceleration voltage of 0.17 MeV. Thermal annealing was performed under Ar/H2 (5%) at 300 °C for 60 min. X-ray diffraction was used to determine that compositional phase separation between bismuth telluride and bismuth selenium telluride developed in the thin films exposed to higher EB doses and thermal annealing. We propose that the phase separation was induced by fluctuations in the distribution of selenium atoms after EB irradiation, followed by the migration of selenium atoms to more stable sites during thermal annealing. As a result, thin film crystallinity improved and mobility was significantly enhanced. This indicates that the phase separation resulting from the two-step method enhanced, rather than disturbed, the electron transport. Both the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient were improved following the two-step method. Consequently, the power factor of thin films that underwent the two-step method was enhanced to 20 times (from 0.96 to 21.0 μW/(cm K2) that of the thin films treated with EB irradiation alone.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrophilically Modified PVDF Membranes by a Novel Nonsolvent Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method (United States)

    Hu, Ningen; Xiao, Tonghu; Cai, Xinhai; Ding, Lining; Fu, Yuhua; Yang, Xing


    In this study, a nonsolvent thermally-induced phase separation (NTIPS) method was first proposed to fabricate hydrophilically-modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes to overcome the drawbacks of conventional thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) methods. Hydrophilically-modified PVDF membranes were successfully prepared by blending in hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at 140 °C. A series of PVDF/PVA blend membranes was prepared at different total polymer concentrations and blend ratios. The morphological analysis via SEM indicated that the formation mechanism of these hydrophilically-modified membranes was a combined NIPS and TIPS process. As the total polymer concentration increased, the tensile strength of the membranes increased; meanwhile, the membrane pore size, porosity and water flux decreased. With the PVDF/PVA blend ratio increased from 10:0 to 8:2, the membrane pore size and water flux increased. The dynamic water contact angle of these membranes showed that the hydrophilic properties of PVDF/PVA blend membranes were prominently improved. The higher hydrophilicity of the membranes resulted in reduced membrane resistance and, hence, higher permeability. The total resistance Rt of the modified PVDF membranes decreased significantly as the hydrophilicity increased. The irreversible fouling related to pore blocking and adsorption fouling onto the membrane surface was minimal, indicating good antifouling properties. PMID:27869711

  4. [Optimum separation conditions of catechin compounds by HCI program in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Jin, Yinzhe; Row, Kyung Ho


    An efficient optimization method was used to separate catechin compounds by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The binary mobile phase of water and methanol was utilized with the buffer of acetic acid (AA). The elution profiles were calculated by the plate theory based on the linear and quadratic equations of retention factor, In k = ln kw + SF, k = A + B/F, ln k = L + MF + NF2, where F is the volume fraction of methanol in the mobile phase. The retention theory was modified to calculate the elution profile in both isocratic and gradient modes. Based on the retention theory, elution profiles were predicted by introducing the concept of solute migration in the mobile phase with the linear and quadratic dependence of ln k in terms of the organic modifier content. Using the HCI program (a software designed by Inha University), the recommended experimental conditions of mobile phase composition and gradient step were suggested, and the elution profiles calculated by the quadratic relationship of ln k showed better coincidence with the experimental data than the linear correlation did. The calculated results of mobile phase condition for separation of catechin compounds suggested that the mobile phase composition was 0.1% AA in water/0.1% AA in methanol, 75/25 (v/v), then after 15 min, the composition was linearly changed to 50/50 (v/v) in 10 min and held at the isocratic mode to the end. In the experimental conditions, the agreement between the experimental elution profiles and the calculated values of eluted concentration was relatively good.

  5. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant design. (United States)

    Bernardini, C; Stoyanov, S D; Arnaudov, L N; Cohen Stuart, M A


    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion "colloid" is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids dispersed in a liquid), emulsions (liquids dispersed in liquid), and foams (gas dispersed in a liquid). Because the dispersed particles are small, there is a lot of interface per unit mass. Not surprisingly, therefore, the properties of the interface have often a decisive effect on the behaviour of colloids. Water-air interfaces have a special relevance in this field: many water-insoluble molecules can be spread on water and, given the right spreading conditions and enough available surface area, their spreading proceeds until a monolayer (a one-molecule thick layer) eventually remains. Several 2D phases have been identified for such monolayers, like "gas", "liquid expanded", "liquid condensed", and "solid". The central question of this review is whether these 2D phases can also exist as colloidal systems, and what stabilizes the dispersed state in such systems. We shall present several systems capable of yielding 2D phase separation, from those based on either natural or fluorinated amphiphiles, to polymer-based ones. We shall seek for analogies in 3D and we shall try to clarify if the lines between these 2D objects play a similar role as the interfaces between 3D colloidal systems. In particular, we shall consider the special role of molecules that tend to accumulate at the phase boundaries, that is, at the contact lines, which will therefore be denoted "line-actants" (molecules that adsorb at a 1D interface, separating two 2D colloidal entities), by analogy to the term "surfactant" (which indicates a molecule that adsorbs at a 2D interface separating two 3D colloidal entities).

  6. Study on two-phase swirling flows in a gas–liquid separator with three pick-off rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funahashi, H.; Hayashi, K.; Hosokawa, S.; Tomiyama, A., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Experiments on swirling flow in a separator with three PORs are carried out. • Flow observation and measurement of liquid film thickness in the barrel are carried out. • Liquid-separation rate and pressure drop at each POR are measured. • Effects of total gas and liquid inflows on separator performance are investigated. - Abstract: Experiments on air-water two-phase swirling flows in a one-fifth scale model of a steam separator with three pick-off rings (PORs) are carried out to investigate characteristics of two-phase swirling flows and separator performance. In addition to flow observation, liquid film thickness, flow rates of separated liquid and pressure drops are measured. The ranges of the gas and liquid volume fluxes, J{sub G} and J{sub L}, tested are 12.0 ⩽ J{sub G} ⩽ 17.8 m/s and 0.05 ⩽ J{sub L} ⩽ 0.11 m/s, respectively. The main conclusions obtained are as follows: (1) the liquid film thicknesses at the PORs are smaller than the gap widths of the PORs under the nominal operating condition, which results in a high liquid-separation rate, (2) the increase in J{sub G} decreases the flow rate of unseparated liquid, whereas the flow rate of unseparated liquid is independent of J{sub L} except for low J{sub G} conditions, under which the liquid film thicknesses at the 2nd and 3rd PORs tend to be larger than the gap widths of PORs, (3) the presence of the 2nd and 3rd PORs realizes high liquid-separation rates by capturing the liquid unseparated at the 1st POR and the pressure drops at the 2nd and 3rd PORs are much smaller than that at the 1st POR, and (4) the pressure drops at the swirler and the 1st POR, which are the main source of the pressure drop of the separator under the nominal operating condition, increase with J{sub G}, whereas J{sub L} increases only the latter.

  7. Striped nanoscale phase separation at the metal–insulator transition of heteroepitaxial nickelates (United States)

    Mattoni, G.; Zubko, P.; Maccherozzi, F.; van der Torren, A.J.H.; Boltje, D. B.; Hadjimichael, M.; Manca, N.; Catalano, S.; Gibert, M.; Liu, Y.; Aarts, J.; Triscone, J.-M.; Dhesi, S. S.; Caviglia, A. D.


    Nucleation processes of mixed-phase states are an intrinsic characteristic of first-order phase transitions, typically related to local symmetry breaking. Direct observation of emerging mixed-phase regions in materials showing a first-order metal–insulator transition (MIT) offers unique opportunities to uncover their driving mechanism. Using photoemission electron microscopy, we image the nanoscale formation and growth of insulating domains across the temperature-driven MIT in NdNiO3 epitaxial thin films. Heteroepitaxy is found to strongly determine the nanoscale nature of the phase transition, inducing preferential formation of striped domains along the terraces of atomically flat stepped surfaces. We show that the distribution of transition temperatures is a local property, set by surface morphology and stable across multiple temperature cycles. Our data provide new insights into the MIT of heteroepitaxial nickelates and point to a rich, nanoscale phenomenology in this strongly correlated material. PMID:27804954

  8. Striped nanoscale phase separation at the metal-insulator transition of heteroepitaxial nickelates (United States)

    Mattoni, G.; Zubko, P.; Maccherozzi, F.; van der Torren, A. J. H.; Boltje, D. B.; Hadjimichael, M.; Manca, N.; Catalano, S.; Gibert, M.; Liu, Y.; Aarts, J.; Triscone, J.-M.; Dhesi, S. S.; Caviglia, A. D.


    Nucleation processes of mixed-phase states are an intrinsic characteristic of first-order phase transitions, typically related to local symmetry breaking. Direct observation of emerging mixed-phase regions in materials showing a first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) offers unique opportunities to uncover their driving mechanism. Using photoemission electron microscopy, we image the nanoscale formation and growth of insulating domains across the temperature-driven MIT in NdNiO3 epitaxial thin films. Heteroepitaxy is found to strongly determine the nanoscale nature of the phase transition, inducing preferential formation of striped domains along the terraces of atomically flat stepped surfaces. We show that the distribution of transition temperatures is a local property, set by surface morphology and stable across multiple temperature cycles. Our data provide new insights into the MIT of heteroepitaxial nickelates and point to a rich, nanoscale phenomenology in this strongly correlated material.

  9. Manipulation of magnetic phase separation and orbital occupancy in manganites by strain engineering and electric field (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE) Team


    The modification of electronic phases in correlated oxides is one of the core issues of condensed matter. We report the reversible control of ferromagnetic phase transition in manganite films by ionic liquid gating, replicating the La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) phase diagram. The formation and annihilation of an insulating and magnetically hard phase in the soft magnetic matrix, which randomly nucleates and grows across the film, is directly observed under different gate voltages (VG) . The realization of reversible metal-insulator transition in colossal magnetoresistance materials can lead to the development of four-state memories. The orbital occupancy and magnetic anisotropy of LSMO films are manipulated by VG in a reversible and quantitative manner. Positive and negative VG increases and reduces the occupancy of the orbital and magnetic anisotropy that were initially favored by strain (irrespective of tensile and compressive), respectively. This finding fills in the blank of electrical manipulation of four degrees of freedom in correlated system.

  10. Thermomorphic phase separation in ionic liquid-organic liquid systems - conductivity and spectroscopic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Berg, Rolf W.


    Electrical conductivity, FT-Raman and NMR measurements are demonstrated as useful tools to probe and determine phase behavior of thermomorphic ionic liquid-organic liquid systems. To illustrate the methods, consecutive conductivity measurements of a thermomorphic methoxyethoxyethyl-imidazolium io...... of the components in the system, the liquid-liquid equilibrium phase diagram of the binary mixture, and signify the importance of hydrogen bonding between the ionic liquid and the hydroxyl group of the alcohol....

  11. Experimental and CFD Simulations of Vertical Two-Phase Slug Flow for Gas-Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Majumder, S.

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows are presented everywhere in industrial processes (i.e. gas-oil pipelines). In spite of the common occurrence of these two-phase flows, their understanding is limited compared to single-phase flows. Different studies on two-phase flow have focus on developing empirical c...

  12. Synthesis of nanofibrous gelatin/silica bioglass composite microspheres using emulsion coupled with thermally induced phase separation. (United States)

    Noh, Da-Young; An, Young-Hyeon; Jo, In-Hwan; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Hyoun-Ee


    This study proposes an innovative way of synthesizing porous gelatin/silica bioglass composite microspheres with a nanofibrous structure using emulsion coupled with thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). In particular, a mixture of the solvent (water) and non-solvent (ethanol) was used to induce a unique phase separation of gelatin/silica mixtures (i.e. gelatin/silica hybrid-rich and liquid-rich phases) at -70 °C for the creation of a nanofibrous structure. All the composite microspheres synthesized with silica contents of 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, and 20 wt.% had well-defined spherical shapes between 124 and 136 μm in size. In addition, they were comprised of nanofibrous gelatin/silica composite walls (several tens of nanometers in thickness), where the sol-gel derived silica bioglass phase was uniformly distributed throughout the gelatin matrix. The in vitro apatite-forming ability and biocompatibility of the nanofibrous gelatin/silica bioglass composite microspheres was significantly enhanced with an increase in silica content, demonstrating their great potential for the promotion of bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical behaviour and interfacial fluctuations in a phase-separating model colloid-polymer mixture: grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, R L C; Horbach, J [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7 (Germany)


    By using Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble we investigate the bulk phase behaviour of a model colloid-polymer mixture, the so-called Asakura-Oosawa model. In this model the colloids and polymers are considered as spheres with a hard-sphere colloid-colloid and colloid-polymer interaction and a zero interaction between polymers. In order to circumvent the problem of low acceptance rates for colloid insertions, we introduce a cluster move where a cluster of polymers is replaced by a colloid. We consider the transition from a colloid-poor to colloid-rich phase which is analogous to the gas-liquid transition in simple liquids. Successive umbrella sampling, recently introduced by Virnau and Mueller (2003 Preprint cond-mat/0306678), is used to access the phase-separated regime. We calculate the demixing binodal and the interfacial tension, also in the region close to the critical point. Finite size scaling techniques are used to accurately locate the critical point. Also investigated are the colloid density profiles in the phase-separated regime. We extract the interfacial thickness w from the latter profiles and demonstrate that the interfaces are subject to spatial fluctuations that can be understood by capillary wave theory. In particular, we find that, as predicted by capillary wave theory, w{sup 2} diverges logarithmically with the size of the system parallel to the interface.

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotubes as the pseudostationary phase for capillary EKC separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jin; Wang, Guan-Ren; Huang, Kuan-Pin; Hsieh, Yu-Fang; Liu, Chuen-Ying


    Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) can serve as the pseudostationary phase (PSP) for the capillary EKC separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To increase their hydrophilicity, we treated MWCNTs, with a sonochemical process in a concentrated nitric/sulfuric acid mixture. The oxidized MWCNTs were then characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We evaluated the potential of the PSP and the effects of buffer composition, pH, addition of organic modifier, and injection temperature on the NSAID separation. The PSP created a network structure of pi-pi interactions, hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interactions to separate NSAIDs, providing a different separation mode from SDS micelles. We achieved complete separation of six NSAIDs using a mixture of a borate buffer (75 mM, pH 10) with methanol (5%, v/v) containing 0.02 mg/mL f-MWCNTs, an applied voltage of +12 kV and detection at 214 nm. Better precision was obtained with a low injection temperature. The method was also satisfactorily applied to the analysis of NSAIDs spiked into a urine sample.

  15. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos; Toulouse, Julien


    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Sz-abo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse, W. Zhu, A. Savin, G. Jansen, and J. G. {\\'A}ngy{\\'a}n, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms...

  16. Isothermal microcalorimetry to investigate the phase separation for amorphous solid dispersions of AMG 517 with HPMC-AS. (United States)

    Calahan, Julie L; Zanon, Roger L; Alvarez-Nunez, Fernando; Munson, Eric J


    Understanding the crystallization kinetics of an amorphous drug is critical for the development of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation. This paper examines the phase separation and crystallization of the drug AMG 517 in ASDs of varying drug load at various conditions of temperature and relative humidity using isothermal microcalorimetry. ASDs of AMG 517 in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) were manufactured using a Buchi 290 mini spray dryer system. ASDs were characterized using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to isothermal microcalorimetry evaluation, and crystallinity was measured using (19)F solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SSNMR), before and after crystallization. The crystallization of ASDs of AMG 517 in HPMC-AS was significantly slowed by the presence of HPMC-AS polymer, indicating enhanced physical stability for the ASD formulations. A two-phase crystallization was observed by isothermal microcalorimetry at temperatures near the glass transition temperature (Tg), indicating a drug-rich phase and a miscible ASD phase. (19)F SSNMR showed that only partial crystallization of the drug occurred for the ASDs, suggesting a third phase which did not crystallize, possibly representing a thermodynamically stable, soluble component. Isothermal microcalorimetry provides important kinetic data for monitoring crystallization of the drug in the ASDs and, together with (19)F SSNMR, suggests a three-phase ASD system for AMG 517 in HPMC-AS.

  17. Effect of an organoclay on the reaction-induced phase-separation in a dynamically asymmetric epoxy/PCL system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rotrekl


    Full Text Available The addition of layered silicates can significantly affect the phase behaviour of both immiscible thermoplastic blends and partially miscible thermoset systems that undergo reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS during curing. This study focuses on the phase behaviour of polycaprolactone (PCL/epoxy in the presence of organically modified montmorillonite (oMMT. Due to the high dynamic asymmetry caused by the differences in the molecular weights and viscosities of the PCL and the uncured epoxy, the critical point is localised at low PCL concentrations, as indicated by the pseudophase diagram. The addition of oMMT to the system led to the marked shift of the critical point towards higher concentrations of PCL, with an increase in the oMMT content occurring as a consequence of the preferential localisation of the clay in the epoxy phase, making this phase more dynamically slow. Significant changes in morphology, including phase inversion of the PCL/epoxy systems caused by the presence of oMMT, were recorded for PCL concentrations ranging from 10 to 30%.

  18. Improving Liquid Entry Pressure of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF Membranes by Exploiting the Role of Fabrication Parameters in Vapor-Induced Phase Separation VIPS and Non-Solvent-Induced Phase Separation (NIPS Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Abdulla AlMarzooqi


    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF is a popular polymer material for making membranes for several applications, including membrane distillation (MD, via the phase inversion process. Non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS and vapor-induced phase separation (VIPS are applied to achieve a porous PVDF membrane with low mass-transfer resistance and high contact angle (hydrophobicity. In this work, firstly, the impacts of several preparation parameters on membrane properties using VIPS and NIPS were studied. Then, the performance of the selected membrane was assessed in a lab-scale direct-contact MD (DCMD unit. The parametric study shows that decreasing PVDF concentration while increasing both relative humidity (RH and exposure time increased the contact angle and bubble-point pore size (BP. Those trends were investigated further by varying the casting thickness. At higher casting thicknesses and longer exposure time (up to 7.5 min, contact angle (CA increased but BP significantly decreased. The latter showed a dominant trend leading to liquid entry pressure (LEP increase with thickness.

  19. Phase separation and crystallization induced by adding molybdenum and phosphorus to soda-lime-silica glasses; Separation de phase et cristallisation induites par l'ajout de molybdene et de phosphore dans un verre silico-sodo-calcique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousi, C


    Vitrification of high-level liquid nuclear wastes with high-Mo and P contents causes phase separation and crystallization in silicate matrix. [MoO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and [PO{sub 4}]{sup 3-} are not bonded to the silicate network and are surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} to guarantee their neutrality, involving a recondensation of the vitreous network (Si and P NMR results on SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-MoO{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses). For Mo-rich and P-rich glasses, different crystalline phases appear: Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, CaMoO{sub 4} and NaCaPO{sub 4}. Quantitative analysis by XRD (Rietveld refinement) has been conducted according to cooling rate and Mo and P contents. Phosphorus addition decreases the crystallization ability of molybdates. The chronology of the phenomena occurring during cooling in these glasses was determined: glass/glass phase separation (1170 deg C), phosphates crystallize at the border of these droplets before molybdates crystallize inside the droplets (920 deg C). (author)

  20. Gas-liquid two-phase flows in double inlet cyclones for natural gas separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Shuli; Wen, Chuang


    The gas-liquid two-phase flow within a double inlet cyclone for natural gasseparation was numerically simulated using the discrete phase model. The numericalapproach was validated with the experimental data, and the comparison resultsagreed well with each other. The simulation results showed...... that the strong swirlingflow produced a high centrifugal force to remove the particles from the gas mixture.The larger particles moved downward on the internal surface and were removeddue to the outer vortex near the wall. Most of the tiny particles went into the innervortex zones and escaped from the up...

  1. Separation of Flue Gas Components by SILP (Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase) Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, P.; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Mossin, Susanne L.


    -Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow processes for flue gas cleaning....... The results show that CO2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperature, pressure and gas concentration. © 2012...

  2. Polymethacrylate-based monoliths as stationary phases for separation of biopolymers and immobilization of enzymes. (United States)

    Martinović, Tamara; Josić, Djuro


    The experiences in the production and application of polymethacrylate-based monolithic supports, since their development almost thirty years ago, are presented. The main driving force for the development of new chromatographic supports was the necessity for the isolation and separation of physiologically active biopolymers and their use for therapeutic purposes. For this sake, a development of a method for fast separation, preventing denaturation and preserving their biological activity was necessary. Development of polysaccharide-based supports, followed by the introduction of polymer-based chromatographic media, is shortly described. This development was followed by the advances in monolithic media that are now used for both large- and small-scale separation of biopolymers and nanoparticles. Finally, a short overview is given about the applications of monoliths for sample displacement chromatography, resulting in isolation of physiologically active biomolecules, such as proteins, protein complexes, and nucleic acid, as well as high-throughput sample preparation for proteomic investigations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Five-Finger Shoes on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Loading Rates and Perceived Comfort during the Stance Phase of the Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zeynab Hoseini


    Full Text Available Objective:  Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm were selected. Subjects were asked to run over a force plate, in control shoe, five finger shoe and barefoot conditions. Loading rate using the slope of the vertical reaction force and perceived comfort were determined using a visual analogue scale. One factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the loading rate hypothesis and Paired t-tests was used to test the meaningfulness of perceived comfort (P<0/05. Results: The effect of shoes on loading rate was found to be not significant (P=0.1. However, comfort of control shoes increased by 10. 92% as compared to that of five-finger shoes (P=0.001.  Conclusion: The loading rate of five-finger shoes is the same as that of barefoot during running; however, as subjects did not perceive them as comfortable as regular shoes are five-finger shoes cannot be advised as a desirable choice in exercises.

  4. Effect of support corrugation on silica xerogel--supported phase-separated lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Goksu, Emel I; Nellis, Barbara A; Lin, Wan-Chen; Satcher, Joe H; Groves, Jay T; Risbud, Subhash H; Longo, Marjorie L


    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations hold interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g., porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, lateral diffusion coefficient, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by atomic force microscopy, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the silica xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface in the fluid regions. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of fluid lipids on silica xerogel (approximately 1.7 microm2/s) is lower than on mica (approximately 3.9 microm2/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on silica xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase lipid bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of approximately 50 nm silica xerogel beads.

  5. Separable interactions and liquid 3He : V. Phase diagram in the presence of a Hubbard interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capel, H.W.; Nijhoff, F.W.; Breems, A. den


    A comparison is made between the various extrema of the Landau expansion of liquid 3He derived in a previous paper. As an application the phase diagram is investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field assuming that the Hubbard interaction is small as compared to the pairing interaction

  6. Isotropic-nematic phase separation in asymmetrical rod-plate mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.H.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    Recent experiments on mixtures of rodlike and platelike colloidal particles have uncovered the phase behavior of strongly asymmetrical rod-plate mixtures. In these mixtures, in which the excluded volume of the platelets is much larger than that of the rods, an extended isotropic (I)–plate-rich

  7. Grand-canonical simulations of solvated ideal fermions. Evidence for phase separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, A.; Frenkel, D.


    A novel scheme to perform finite-temperature grand-canonical simulations of ideal fermions in arbitrary external potentials is introduced. This scheme is based on the evaluation of the grand-canonical function of lattice fermions. As an application, we present results on the phase behavior of a

  8. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion “colloid” is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids

  9. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L


    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  10. Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages (United States)

    Virnau, Peter; Müller, Marcus; González MacDowell, Luis; Binder, Kurt


    A coarse-grained model for solutions of polymers in supercritical fluids is introduced and applied to the system of hexadecane and carbon dioxide as a representative example. Fitting parameters of the model to the gas-liquid critical point properties of the pure systems, and allowing for a suitably chosen parameter that describes the deviation from the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule, we model the liquid-gas and fluid-fluid unmixing transitions of this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures in reasonable agreement with experiment. Interfaces between the polymer-rich phase and the gas can be studied at temperatures both above and below the end point of the triple line where liquid and vapour carbon dioxide and a polymer-rich phase coexist. In the first case interfacial adsorption of fluid carbon dioxide can be demonstrated. Our model can also be used to simulate quenches from the one-phase to the two-phase region. A short animation and a series of snapshots help to visualize the early stages of bubble nucleation and spinodal decomposition. Furthermore we discuss deviations from classical nucleation theory for small nuclei.

  11. Comparison of iso-eluotropic mobile phases at different temperatures for the separation of triacylglycerols in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography. (United States)

    Hmida, Dorra; Abderrabba, Manef; Tchapla, Alain; Héron, Sylvie; Moussa, Fathi


    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are a large class of neutral lipids that naturally occur in both plant and animal oils and fats. Their analyses in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP) require a mixture of weak solvent (mostly acetonitrile) and strong solvent. In the present work, we have established eluotropic solvent strength scale of several binary mobile phases on C18 bonded silica at different temperatures (acetonitrile/methylene chloride, acetonitrile/acetone, acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, acetonitrile/propan-2-ol, and acetonitrile/butan-1-ol at 25°C, 43°C, 63°C and 85°C); it is based on the methylene selectivity and the use of homologous series. We show that this scale is well suited to the TAGs analysis. The analysis of nine seed oils (Aleurites fordii, Calophyllum inophyllum, Glycina max, Olea europea, Orbignya olifeira, Pinus koraiensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Punica granatum and Ribes nigrum) in iso-eluotropic conditions leads to propose unambiguously the couple MeCN/BuOH at 25°C as the best system to separate TAGs. The use of butanol, as strong solvent, provides very good TAGs congeners separations and avoids the use of chlorinated solvents which gave to this day the best separations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipid diffusion and swelling in a phase separated biocompatible thermoplastic elastomer. (United States)

    Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R


    Lipid uptake was analyzed via gravimetric measurements in a biocompatible poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) (SIBS) copolymer. Absorption followed Fickian diffusion behavior very closely, although some deviation was noticed once saturation was reached. Diffusion parameters of three different SIBS formulations were calculated and used to predict the behavior of a fourth type based on molecular weight and relative polystyrene content. SIBS with lower polystyrene content and molecular weight showed lower physical stability and developed surface cracks that propagated with exposure to the lipid medium. Saturation lipid content varied from 45% to 63% by weight and was inversely related to polystyrene content, suggesting most of the plasticization is occurring in the isobutylene phase of SIBS. Moreover, swelling of specimens was monitored throughout the immersion in the lipid medium and ranged from 32% to 58%. Swelling in formulations with lower hard phase (polystyrene) was significantly higher than the swelling in SIBS with higher hard phase content. This is consistent with lipid-induced plasticization occurring in the soft (polyisobutylene) segments, relaxing the polymer network and leading to increased swelling and lipid uptake. The biocompatibility and tailorability of SIBS through control of hard/soft phase ratio offer significant advantages for in vivo applications. However, the lipophilic nature of the material and the associated degradation may render the polymer unusable in certain applications. The predictive model of lipid uptake introduced here will allow more accurate evaluation of lipid susceptibility during the preliminary design phase of SIBS-based in vivo structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic Studies Of Combustion And Structure Formation During Combustion Synthesis Of Advanced Materials: Phase Separation Mechanism For Bio-Alloys (United States)

    Varma, A.; Lau, C.; Mukasyan, A.


    Among all implant materials, Co-Cr-Mo alloys demonstrate perhaps the most useful balance of resistance to corrosion, fatigue and wear, along with strength and biocompatibility [1]. Currently, these widely used alloys are produced by conventional furnace technology. Owing to high melting points of the main alloy elements (e.g. Tm.p.(Co) 1768 K), high-temperature furnaces and long process times (several hours) are required. Therefore, attempts to develop more efficient and flexible methods for production of such alloys with superior properties are of great interest. The synthesis of materials using combustion phenomena is an advanced approach in powder metallurgy [2]. The process is characterized by unique conditions involving extremely fast heating rates (up to 10(exp 6 K/s), high temperatures (up to 3500 K), and short reaction times (on the order of seconds). As a result, combustion synthesis (CS) offers several attractive advantages over conventional metallurgical processing and alloy development technologies. The foremost is that solely the heat of chemical reaction (instead of an external source) supplies the energy for the synthesis. Also, simple equipment, rather than energy-intensive high-temperature furnaces, is sufficient. This work was devoted to experiments on CS of Co-based alloys by utilizing thermite (metal oxide-reducing metal) reactions, where phase separation subsequently produces materials with tailored compositions and properties. Owing to high reaction exothermicity, the CS process results in a significant increase of temperature (up to 3000 C), which is higher than melting points of all products. Since the products differ in density, phase separation may be a gravitydriven process: the heavy (metallic phase) settles while the light (slag) phase floats. The goal was to determine if buoyancy is indeed the major mechanism that controls phase segregation.

  14. [Chiral separation of five beta-blockers using di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as mobile phase additive by reversed-phase liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Qiaoling; Yang, Gengliang


    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using the di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as a chiral mobile phase additive was developed for the enantioseparation of five beta-blockers including propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and sotalol. In order to obtain a better enantioseparation, the influences of concentrations of di-n-butyl L-tartrate and boric acid, the type, concentration and pH of the buffer, methanol content as well as the molecular structure of analytes were extensively investigated. The separation of the analytes was performed on a Venusil MP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate-methanol containing 60 mmol/L boric acid, 70 mmol/L di-n-hexyl L-tartrate (pH 6.00). The volume ratios of 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate to methanol were 20: 80 for propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and 30: 70 for sotalol. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm. Under the optimized conditions, baseline enantioseparation was obtained separately for the five pairs of analytes.

  15. Aqueous two-phase extraction combined with chromatography: new strategies for preparative separation and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin. (United States)

    Zhao, Pei-Pei; Lu, Yan-Min; Tan, Cong-Ping; Liang, Yan; Cui, Bo


    Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %).

  16. Polystyrene bound stationary phase of excellent separation efficiency based on partially sub-2μm silica monolith particles. (United States)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo; A L Othman, Zeid A; A L Majid, Abdullah M


    Partially sub-2μm porous silica monolith particles have been synthesized by a renovated procedure and modified to polystyrene coated silica particles with excellent separation efficiency when used as chromatographic media. In the procedure of preparing silica monolith particles in this study, subtle control of formulation of the reaction mixture and multi-step heating followed by calcination, without any washing and sieving process, enabled formation of silica particles characterized by proper particle and pore size distribution for high separation efficiency. 3-Chloropropyl trimethoxysilane was used as the halogen terminal spacer to combine the initiator to silica particles. Uniform and thin coating of polystyrene layer on initiator attached silica particles was formed via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Micro-columns (1.0mm ID and 300mm length) were packed with the resultant phase and their chromatographic performance was elucidated by HPLC. A mobile phase of 60/40 (v/v) acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% TFA and a flow rate of 15μL/min were found to be the optimized conditions leading to number of theoretical plates close to 50,000 (165,000m(-1)). This is the very first study to get such highly efficient HPLC columns using a silica monolith particulate stationary phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Superhydrophobic Microporous Substrates via Photocuring: Coupling Optical Pattern Formation to Phase Separation for Process-Tunable Pore Architectures. (United States)

    Biria, Saeid; Hosein, Ian D


    We present a new approach to synthesize microporous surfaces through the combination of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and light pattern formation in photopolymer-solvent mixtures. The mixtures are irradiated with a wide-area light pattern consisting of high and low intensity regions. This light pattern undergoes self-focusing and filamentation, thereby preserving its spatial profile through the mixture. Over the course of irradiation, the mixture undergoes phase separation, with the polymer and solvent located in the bright and dark regions of the light profile, respectively, to produce a binary phase morphology with a congruent arrangement as the optical pattern. A congruently arranged microporous structure is attained upon solvent removal. The microporous surface structure can be varied by changing the irradiating light profile via photomask design. The porous architecture can be further tuned through the relative weight fractions of photopolymer and solvent in the mixture, resulting in porosities ranging from those with discrete and uniform pore sizes to hierarchical pore distributions. All surfaces become superhydrophobic (water contact angles >150°) when spray-coated with a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. The water contact angles can be enhanced by changing the surface porosity via the processing conditions. This is a scalable and tunable approach to precisely control microporous surface structure in thin films to create functional surfaces and antiwetting coatings.

  18. Oxidation of polycrystalline Ni studied by spectromicroscopy: Phase separation in the early stages of crystallite growth (United States)

    Cornish, A.; Eralp, T.; Shavorskiy, A.; Bennett, R. A.; Held, G.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Dhesi, S. S.


    Low-energy and photoemission electron microscopy enables the determination of facet planes of polycrystalline surfaces and the study of their chemical composition at the sub- μm scale. Using these techniques the early oxidation stages of nickel were studied. After exposing the surface to 20 L of oxygen at 373 K a uniform layer of chemisorbed oxygen was found on all facets. After oxygen exposure at 473-673 K, small NiO crystallites are formed on all facets but not in the vicinity of all grain boundaries. The crystallites are separated by areas of bare Ni without significant oxygen coverage.

  19. Effect of Gd and Cr substitution on the structural, electronic and magnetic phases of SrRuO3: a case study of doping and chemical phase separation (United States)

    Dalal, B.; Sarkar, B.; De, S. K.


    We explore the crystal structure, electrical resistivity and magnetic behavior of the compositional series (SrRuO3)1-x (GdCrO3) x (where 0 ≤slant x ≤slant 1 ), which resides between orthorhombic ferromagnetic (FM) metal SrRuO3 (TC = 160 K) and orthorhombic antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator GdCrO3 (TN = 170 K). Crystal structure analysis reveals that complete solid solution exists only up to x = 0.1 , above which chemical phase separation of two/three phases occurs, and persists up to x = 0.7 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement also corroborates the existence of Cr5+ for the intermediate composition x = 0.4 , which reinforces the astonishing scheelite-type GdCrO4 formation (at ambient pressure) for 0.2 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.5 compositions. Electrical resistivity measurements affirm the temperature driven metal to insulator (M–I) transition for x = 0.05 and 0.1 samples. Low temperature insulating state in these samples is interpreted by electron–electron interaction of weak disordered systems. Precise analysis of temperature dependent resistivity for x ≥slant 0.2 samples (which have insulating ground state) dictate that the transport phenomenon is mainly associated with Arrhenius-type charge conduction, Mott’s variable range hopping, short-range and long-range Coulomb interaction mediated hopping processes, due to the high degree of randomness. Interruption of magnetic Ru–O–Ru interaction by Ru–O–Cr and Cr–O–Cr interactions lowers the FM transition temperature (T C), and thereby introduces Griffiths phase in phase separated samples. Furthermore, we believe that a sharp rise in magnetization at low temperature for x ≥slant 0.2 samples is due to the formation of AFM GdCrO4 phase. Prominent thermal hysteresis in temperature dependent magnetization curves for x ≥slant 0.8 , and appearance of spin-reorientation transition for x = 1 are the distinct indications for transformation into canted AFM GdCrO3 oxide at higher x. The effective

  20. The effect of lead addition to the Bi-Cu HTSC: Phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senaris-Rodriguez, M.A.; Garcia-Alvarado, F.; Moran, E.; Alario-Franco, M.A. (Dept. Quimica Inorganica, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)); Gonzalez, M.A.; Vicent, J.L. (Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)); Ibanez, J. (C.E.N.I.M., C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain))


    We have prepared a series of samples with nominal composition Bi{sub 2-x}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}, 0 {le} x {le} 2. By means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy we have observed that for low Pb/Bi ratios lead incorporates into the structure of the so called 80 K and 110 K Bi-superconductors, which normally coexist. However the 110 K superconducting phase becomes predominant as the sintering time increases. From x=0.5 upwards an almost Bi-free second phase appears. It is non-superconducting and its structure appears to be hexagonal. Some Ca{sub 2}PbO{sub 4} is also present for x > 0.5. (orig.).

  1. Mesoscopic modeling of Li insertion in phase-separating electrode materials: application to lithium iron phosphate. (United States)

    Farkhondeh, Mohammad; Pritzker, Mark; Fowler, Michael; Safari, Mohammadhosein; Delacourt, Charles


    A simple mesoscopic model is presented which accounts for the inhomogeneity of physical properties and bi-stable nature of phase-change insertion materials used in battery electrodes. The model does not include any geometric detail of the active material and discretizes the total active material domain into meso-scale units featuring basic thermodynamic (non-monotonic equilibrium potential as a function of Li content) and kinetic (insertion-de-insertion resistance) properties. With only these two factors incorporated, the model is able to simultaneously capture unique phenomena including the memory effect observed in lithium iron phosphate electrodes. The analysis offers a new physical insight into modeling of phase-change active materials which are of special interest for use in high power Li-ion batteries.

  2. Design and fabrication of a low cost Darrieus vertical axis wing turbine system. Phase I. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The contract has two phases, a design phase and a fabrication and installation phase. Presented is the work completed in Phase I, the design phase. The Sandia 17 m was used as the background machine from which design information was drawn. By concentrating the modifications on an existing design, emphasis was focused on component cost reduction rather than selection of optimal configuration or operating modes. The resulting design is a stretched version of the Sandia 17 m preserving the same rotor diameter and many other good features, but in the meantime lighter in weight, larger in capacity, and anticipated to be more cost effective.


    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan


    We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.

  4. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li0.5FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors (United States)

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo


    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  5. Isoporous PS-b-PEO ultrafiltration membranes via self-assembly and water-induced phase separation

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan


    A simple and efficient approach towards the fabrication of a skinned membrane with highly ordered pores in the nanometer range is presented here. We successfully combined the self-assembly of PS-b-PEO block copolymer and water induced phase separation for the preparation of isoporous PS-b-PEO block copolymer membranes. We produced for the first time asymmetric isoporous PS-b-PEO membranes with a 100nm thin isoporous separating layer using water at room temperature as coagulant. This was possible by careful selection of the block lengths and the solvent system. FESEM, AFM and TEM measurements were employed to characterize the nanopores of membranes. The pure water fluxes were measured and the flux of membrane was exceptionally high (around 800Lm-2h-1bar-1). Protein rejection measurements were carried out for this membrane and the membrane had a retention of about 67% of BSA and 99% of γ-globulin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Separation of corticosteroids by microemulsion EKC with diethyl L-tartrate as the oil phase. (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Hung; Chen, Tse-Hsien; Huang, Kuan-Pin; Wang, Guan-Ren; Liu, Chuen-Ying


    A novel microemulsion based on a mixture of diethyl L-tartrate (DET) and SDS was developed for the microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) determination of structurally related steroids. The system consisted of 0.5% w/w DET, 1.7% w/w SDS, 1.2% w/w 1-butanol, 89.6% w/w phosphate buffer (40 mM, pH 7.0), and 7% w/w ACN. With an applied voltage of +10 kV, a baseline separation of aldosterone (A), cortisone acetate (CA), dexamethasone (D), hydrocortisone (H), hydrocortisone acetate (HA), prednisolone (P), prednisolone acetate (PA), prednisone (Ps), triamcinolone (T), and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) could be achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the reproducibility of the retention time (n = 4) for most of the compounds was less than +/-0.8% with the exception of A, Ps, and T. The average number of theoretical plates was 18 800 plates/m. The results were compared with those achieved by the modified micellar EKC (MEKC). MEEKC showed obvious advantages over MEKC for the separation of highly hydrophobic substances. To further evaluate the system, we tested the MEEKC method by analyzing corticosteroids in a spiked urine sample.

  7. Impact of the vertical emission profiles on background gas-phase pollution simulated from the EMEP emissions over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mailler


    Full Text Available Five one-year air quality simulations over a domain covering Europe have been performed using the CHIMERE chemistry transport model and the EMEP emission dataset for Europe. These five simulations differ only by the representation of the effective emission heights for anthropogenic emissions: one has been run using the EMEP standard recommendations, three others with vertical injection profiles derived from the EMEP recommendations but multiplying the injection height by 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25, respectively, while the last one uses vertical profiles derived from the recent literature. It is shown that using injection heights lower than the EMEP recommendations leads to significantly improved simulation of background SO2, NO2 and O3 concentrations when compared to the Airbase station measurements.

  8. Suppression of the structural phase transition and lattice softening in slightly underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 with electronic phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inosov, D.S.; Leineweber, A.; Yang, X.P.


    We present x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron-diffraction measurements on the slightly underdoped iron-pnictide superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2, Tc=32 K. Below the magnetic-transition temperature Tm=70 K, both techniques show an additional broadening of the nuclear Bragg peaks, suggesting...... separation previously observed in the same material and with the effect of lattice softening below the magnetic phase transition. We employ density-functional theory to evaluate the distribution of atomic positions in the presence of dopant atoms both in the normal and magnetic states and to quantify...

  9. Evidence for Phase-Separated Quantum Dots in Cubic InGaN Layers from Resonant Raman Scattering (United States)

    Lemos, V.; Silveira, E.; Leite, J. R.; Tabata, A.; Trentin, R.; Scolfaro, L. M. R.; Frey, T.; As, D. J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.


    The emission of light in the blue-green region from cubic InxGa1-xN alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy is observed at room temperature and 30 K. By using selective resonant Raman spectroscopy (RRS) we demonstrate that the emission is due to quantum confinement effects taking place in phase-separated In-rich quantum dots formed in the layers. RRS data show that the In content of the dots fluctuates across the volume of the layers. We find that dot size and alloy fluctuation determine the emission wavelengths.

  10. Stereo-complex crystallization of poly(lactic acid)s in block-copolymer phase separation. (United States)

    Uehara, Hiroki; Karaki, Yusuke; Wada, Shizuka; Yamanobe, Takeshi


    Block-copolymer containing a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) segment was blended with pure poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) chain in chloroform solution and casted into the dried film. This method could form the stereocomplex (Sc) crystal of PLLA/PDLA within the nanometer-sized phase separation self-assembled by block-copolymer. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements of the prepared and annealed films gave the maximum achievable melting temperature of 245 °C, which was highest among those previously reported for PLA Sc-crystals. Surprisingly, all of added PDLA chains were Sc-crystallized, depending on the blend composition with block-copolymer containing PLLA.

  11. Electronic Phase Separation in the Slightly Underdoped Iron Pnictide Superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, J.T.; Inosov, D.S.; Niedermayer, C.


    Here we present a combined study of the slightly underdoped novel pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 by means of x-ray powder diffraction, neutron scattering, muon-spin rotation (µSR), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Static antiferromagnetic order sets in below Tm70 K as inferred from......-state regions on a lateral scale of several tens of nanometers. Our findings indicate that such mesoscopic phase separation can be considered an intrinsic property of some iron pnictide superconductors....

  12. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in Phase Speed, Vertical Tilting, and Form Stress of Equatorial Waves in the Stratosphere (United States)

    Barton, C.; Cai, M.; Shin, C.


    We have diagnosed phase speed, wave tilt, and form drag of atmospheric waves in the equatorial stratosphere using daily fields in the NCEP-NCAR II reanalysis dataset. The time series of phase speed, wave tilt, and form drag, or pressure torque, are studied with respect to the tropical stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of mean zonal winds. Observed (ground-relative) phase speed values are found to oscillate quasi-biennially such that ground-relative phase speed increases during the local easterly QBO phase and decreases during the local westerly QBO phase. The wave is found to tilt westward during the local westerly phase and eastward during the local easterly phase. Such QBO oscillation of wave tilting is consistent with the well-known fact that Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity waves are dominant in the local easterly and westerly phase, respectively. The eastward tilting waves have positive pressure torque, acting to transfer easterly angular momentum downward, while westward tilting waves have negative pressure torque, transferring westerly angular momentum downward during the local westerly phase.

  13. Liquid/vapour phase separation in He-4 using electric fields (United States)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Jackson, H. W.; Petrac, D.


    In space, a replacement must be found for gravity to physically control and, in certain instances, contain cryogenic liquids. A program has been started at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the use of electric field generated forces to establish the required orienting effects. Measurements which show that it is possible to apply strong enough electric fields to a liquid/vapor interface of He-4 to obtain an orienting force comparable to gravity are presented. Our measurements span the temperature range 1.7-4.2 K and demonstrate the applicability of Pashen's law for maximum attainable field before breakdown occurs. Some advantages of the electric field separator as opposed to passive surface tension devices are identified.

  14. Pressure induced magnetic phase separation in La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 manganite. (United States)

    Baldini, M; Capogna, L; Capone, M; Arcangeletti, E; Petrillo, C; Goncharenko, I; Postorino, P


    The pressure dependence of the Curie temperature T(C)(P) in La(0.75)Ca(0.25)MnO(3) was determined by neutron diffraction up to 8 GPa, and compared with the metallization temperature T(IM)(P) (Postorino et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 175501). The behavior of the two temperatures appears similar over the whole pressure range, suggesting a key role of magnetic double-exchange also in the pressure regime where the superexchange interaction is dominant. The coexistence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic peaks at high pressure and low temperature indicates a phase separated regime which is well reproduced with a dynamical mean-field calculation for a simplified model. A new P-T phase diagram has been proposed on the basis of the whole set of experimental data.

  15. Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils Byg; Liu, I-Kang


    The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition...... critically on atom numbers. We demonstrate how monitoring of damping rates and frequencies of dipole oscillations enables the experimental mapping of the phase diagram by numerical implementation of a fully self-consistent finite-temperature kinetic theory for binary condensates. The change in damping rate...

  16. Phase separation of metastable CoCrFeNi high entropy alloy at intermediate temperatures


    He, Feng; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Junjie; Wang, Jincheng; Liu, C T


    The CoCrFeNi alloy is widely accepted as an exemplary stable base for high entropy alloys (HEAs). Although various investigations prove it to be stable solid solution, its phase stability is still suspicious. Here, we identified that the CoCrFeNi HEA was thermally metastable at intermediate temperatures, and composition decomposition occurred after annealed at 750oC for 800 hrs. The increased lattice distortion induced by minor addition of Al into the CoCrFeNi base accelerated the composition...

  17. Swift heavy ion induced nano-dimensional phase separation in liquid immiscible binary Mn-Bi (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Khan, S. A.; Sudheer Babu, P.; Avasthi, D. K.


    Pulsed laser deposited 60 nm thin film of homogeneous Mn0.82Bi0.18 composite has been irradiated by 100 MeV Au ions at fluence 1 × 1013 ions/cm2, and investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic hysteresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. Dispersed nanostructures of soft Bi-rich phase of about 20 nm diameter emerged in a hard Mn-rich matrix on irradiation. Such structures, as synthesized by the present novel swift heavy ion irradiation approach, are usable as self-lubricating thin films.

  18. Swift heavy ion induced nano-dimensional phase separation in liquid immiscible binary Mn–Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.K., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Khan, S.A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sudheer Babu, P. [Department of Physics, RGUKT, Nuzvid 521201 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)


    Pulsed laser deposited 60 nm thin film of homogeneous Mn{sub 0.82}Bi{sub 0.18} composite has been irradiated by 100 MeV Au ions at fluence 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}, and investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic hysteresis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. Dispersed nanostructures of soft Bi-rich phase of about 20 nm diameter emerged in a hard Mn-rich matrix on irradiation. Such structures, as synthesized by the present novel swift heavy ion irradiation approach, are usable as self-lubricating thin films.

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of chiral separations of coumarin-based anticoagulants on derivatized amylose stationary phase. (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Kahsay G; McGuffin, Victoria L


    Thermodynamic and kinetic studies are performed on amylose derivatized with tris-(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) stationary phase for the chiral separation of coumarin-based anticoagulants. Polar-organic eluents that contain acetonitrile as bulk solvent with modifiers such as methanol, i-butanol, t-butanol, and tetrahydrofuran are used in the study. Temperature is varied from 5 to 45 degrees C at constant pressure of 1500psi. In general, both retention and enantioselectivity decrease as the temperature increases and as hydrogen bond donating ability of the modifiers increases. The van't Hoff plots are found to show both linear and non-linear behavior. The non-linear plots are believed to be the result of conformational changes in the derivatized amylose phase and are observed around room temperature. The retention behavior in acetonitrile mobile phase provides a linear enthalpy-entropy compensation plot, indicating that all coumarins may have a similar retention mechanism. In contrast, enthalpy-entropy compensation is not observed for warfarin and coumatetralyl enantiomers when separated with different organic modifiers in the mobile phase. The kinetic data indicate that the rate of sorption is always greater than the rate of desorption. An increase in the concentration of alcohol modifiers causes an increase in the desorption rate constant. In contrast, an increase in the concentration of tetrahydrofuran causes a decrease in the desorption rate constant. This effect is most significant for the second eluted enantiomer of coumatetralyl, for which the desorption rate is 36 times slower than the first eluted enantiomer. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling solvent evaporation during thin film formation in phase separating polymer mixtures. (United States)

    Cummings, John; Lowengrub, John S; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wise, Steven M; Kumar, Rajeev


    Preparation of thin films by dissolving polymers in a common solvent followed by evaporation of the solvent has become a routine processing procedure. However, modeling of thin film formation in an evaporating solvent has been challenging due to a need to simulate processes at multiple length and time scales. In this work, we present a methodology based on the principles of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which allows systematic study of various effects such as the changes in the solvent properties due to phase transformation from liquid to vapor and polymer thermodynamics resulting from such solvent transformations. The methodology allows for the derivation of evaporative flux and boundary conditions near each surface for simulations of systems close to the equilibrium. We apply it to study thin film microstructural evolution in phase segregating polymer blends dissolved in a common volatile solvent and deposited on a planar substrate. Effects of the evaporation rates, interactions of the polymers with the underlying substrate and concentration dependent mobilities on the kinetics of thin film formation are studied.

  1. Optical diffractometry of highly anisotropic holographic gratings formed by liquid crystal and polymer phase separation. (United States)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Ogiwara, Akifumi


    Optical diffractometry is proposed as a practical method of quantitatively analyzing the microscopic structural origins of a wide range of highly efficient and linearly polarized optical diffraction grating produced from holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. The structure is organized by a spatially periodical distribution of submicrometer-scale liquid crystal (LC) droplets in a polymer matrix. Six independent Bragg diffraction spectra were obtained at two orthogonal polarization states at temperatures below, at, and above the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition point. These spectra were simultaneously analyzed by employing anisotropic diffraction theory under the restraint of a simple and widely useful structural model constructed on the basis of the previously reported microscopic observations. The refractive indices of spatially periodic LC- and polymer-rich phases were analyzed using Cauchy's equation as a function of optical wavelength. The present diffractometry was demonstrated for a variety of holographic structures, and the structural parameters were discussed such as the filling ratio of LC droplets to polymer matrix, the orientational order in the droplets, and the thermo-optic properties in the LC droplets. Furthermore, the higher order Bragg diffractions were measured and discussed. The proposed method was examined in consistency by comparisons with polarizing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Preventing phase separation in MOCVD-grown InAlAs compositionally graded buffer on silicon substrate using InGaAs interlayers (United States)

    Kohen, David; Nguyen, Xuan Sang; Made, Riko I.; Heidelberger, Christopher; Lee, Kwang Hong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.


    Compositionally graded InAlAs buffers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are impaired by phase separation occurring at In content higher than 35%. Phase separation results in rough epilayers with poor crystalline material quality. By introducing low temperature grown InGaAs interlayers in the compositionally graded InAlAs buffer, the surface roughness decreases, allowing a grading of up to In0.60Al0.40As without any phase separation occurring. This composite buffer is applied to fabricate a 200 mm diameter InP-on-Si virtual substrate with a threading dislocation density around 1 × 108 cm-2.

  3. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves. (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino


    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  4. Enhanced dielectric and piezoelectric responses in Zn1-xMgxO thin films near the phase separation boundary (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Shetty, Smitha; Garten, Lauren; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Maria, Jon-Paul


    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties for Zn1-xMgxO (ZMO) thin films are reported as a function of MgO composition up to and including the phase separation region. Zn1-xMgxO (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) thin films with c-axis textures were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on platinized sapphire substrates. The films were phase pure wurtzite for MgO concentrations up to 40%; above that limit, a second phase with rocksalt structure evolves with strong {100} texture. With increasing MgO concentration, the out-of-plane (d33,f) and in-plane (e31,f) piezoelectric coefficients increase by 360% and 290%, respectively. The increase in piezoelectric coefficients is accompanied by a 35% increase in relative permittivity. Loss tangent values fall monotonically with increasing MgO concentration, reaching a minimum of 0.001 for x ≥ 0.30, at which point the band gap is reported to be 4 eV. The enhanced piezoelectric response, the large band gap, and the low dielectric loss make Zn1-xMgxO an interesting candidate for thin film piezoelectric devices, and demonstrate that compositional phase transformations provide opportunities for property engineering.

  5. Highly Porous 3D Fibrous Nanostructured Bioplolymer Films with Stimuli-Responsive Porosity via Phase Separation in Polymer Blend. (United States)

    Tokarev, Igor; Gopishetty, Venkateshwarlu; Minko, Sergiy


    The article describes a novel polymer blend system that yields thin films with unique porous nanoscale morphologies and environmentally responsive properties. The blend consists of sodium alginate and amine end-terminated PEG, which undergoes phase separation during film deposition. The blend films can be readily converted into highly porous membranes using facile treatment with a solution containing divalent ions. The resulting membranes are primarily comprised of alginate hydrogel, whereas the PEG phase is removed from the films during exposure to the saline solution, yielding nanometer-sized pores. The alginate gel phase forms a three-dimensional nanostructure which can be best described as a filament or fibrous network. Because such network geometry is untypical of polymer blends in thin films, possible reasons for the observed phase morphology are discussed. Because of ionizable carboxyl groups, the hydrogel membranes demonstrate responsive behavior, in particular a drastic change in their porosity between a highly porous state and a state with completely closed pores in response to changes in the solution pH. The pore-size tunability can be explored in multiple applications where the regulation of material's permeability is needed.

  6. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Row, Kyung Ho


    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998) for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction. PMID:21673926

  7. Yeast lipids can phase separate into micrometer-scale membrane domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Christian; Ejsing, Christer S; Garcia-Saez, Ana J


    The lipid raft concept proposes that biological membranes have the potential to form functional domains based on a selective interaction between sphingolipids and sterols. These domains seem to be involved in signal transduction and vesicular sorting of proteins and lipids. Although...... there is biochemical evidence for lipid raft-dependent protein and lipid sorting in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, direct evidence for an interaction between yeast sphingolipids and the yeast sterol ergosterol, resulting in membrane domain formation, is lacking. Here we show that model membranes formed from yeast...... total lipid extracts possess an inherent self-organization potential resulting in Ld-Lo phase coexistence at physiologically relevant temperature. Analyses of lipid extracts from mutants defective in sphingolipid metabolism as well as reconstitution of purified yeast lipids in model membranes of defined...

  8. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row


    Full Text Available A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998 for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1 was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction.

  9. Characterization of gelatin-agar based phase separated hydrogel, emulgel and bigel: a comparative study. (United States)

    Wakhet, Senggam; Singh, Vinay K; Sahoo, Saikat; Sagiri, Sai Sateesh; Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Kumar, Naresh; Banerjee, Indranil; Pal, Kunal


    The current study describes the in-depth characterization of agar-gelatin based co-hydrogels, emulgels and bigels to have an insight about the differences in the properties of the formulations. Hydrogels have been extensively studied as vehicle for controlled drug release, whereas, the concept of emulgels and bigels is relatively new. The formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD and mechanical properties. The biocompatibility and the ability of the formulations to be used as drug delivery vehicle were also studied. The scanning electron micrographs suggested the presence of internal phases within the agar-gelatin composite matrices of co-hydrogel, emulgel and bigel. FTIR and XRD studies suggested higher crystallinity of emulgels and bigels. Electrical impedance and mechanical stability of the emulgel and the bigel was higher than the hydrogel. The prepared formulations were found to be biocompatible and suitable for drug delivery applications.

  10. Cheap C18-modified silica monolith particles as HPLC stationary phase of good separation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ashraf; Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Woo Jo [Dept. of of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The columns packed with particles have a high efficiency but they are accompanied with a high column back pressure due to lower permeability, while the monolithic columns have a high permeability but they result in inferior separation efficiency for the analysis of small molecules in HPLC. In our laboratory,we have been using the pseudo-monolithic silica particles with C-18 ligand or polystyrene film. The column to column reproducibility was evaluated based on three columns made of three different batches of silica monolith particles, and better than 4.5% in N, and 1.6% in retention time were observed. The day to day reproducibility of a single column for three consecutive days was found better than 1.5% both in N and retention time. The van Deemter plots were derived for awide range of flow rates. The trends of van Deemter plots were similar to those of common patterns and the optimal flow rate was found to be 25 μL/min.

  11. Tensiometric investigation of the interaction and phase separation in a polymer mixture–ionic surfactant ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The interaction and phase separation in a ternary mixture composed of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS were investigated by tensiometry. Surface tension measurements of binary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC and 0.00–2.00 % SDS and of ternary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC, 0.3 % NaCMC, and 0.00–2.00 % SDS were performed. The measurements indicated interaction between HPMC and SDS, which resulted in HPMC–SDS complex formation. The critical association concentration, CAC, and polymer saturation point, PSP, were determined. Phase separation of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures occurs at SDS concentration > CAC, i.e., when the HPMC–SDS complex is formed. The volume of the coacervate increases with increasing SDS concentration, and at SDS concentrations > 1.00 %, the coacervate vanishes. The surface tensions (s of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures in the pre-coacervation region and at the onset of the coacervation region are similar to the σ of the corresponding binary HPMC–SDS mixtures, while in the coacervation and post coacervation region, they are close to the s of the corresponding SDS solutions

  12. Ultrasound synergized with three-phase partitioning for extraction and separation of Corbicula fluminea polysaccharides and possible relevant mechanisms. (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Wang, Yao-Yao; Qiu, Wen-Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bin; Ma, Haile


    Ultrasound and three-phase partitioning (USTPP) were combined to extract and separate polysaccharides (PS) efficiently from Corbicula fluminea crude extracts. The following optimum experimental conditions were established: 20% (w/v) ammonium sulfate concentration, 1:1 (v/v) t-butanol to crude extract ratio, 180W ultrasonic power, 40kHz frequency, 100% duty cycle, 10min irradiation time, and 35°C. The maximum extraction yield of PS obtained from USTPP was approximately 11.22%, which was higher than the maximum yields from conventional three-phase partitioning (TPP; 9.32%) and ultrasound extraction (USE; 6.05%). The extraction time for USTPP was significantly reduced to 10min from 30 and 60min for TPP and USE methods, respectively. The primary chemical structures of PS collected through the three extraction protocols were basically conserved. The synergistic effects of ultrasound and TPP on PS extraction were also determined. Results revealed that USTPP is an effective technique to extract and separate PS from C. fluminea potentially applied in food, cosmetics, and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient separation of mannan-protein mixtures by ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system, comparison with lectin affinity purification. (United States)

    Čížová, Alžbeta; Korcová, Jana; Farkaš, Pavol; Bystrický, Slavomír


    Analysis of carbohydrates from complex biological samples often requires their isolation from proteins and other contaminants to avoid interference. An effective separation of mannan-protein mixtures by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide/K2HPO4 ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (IL-APTS) is reported. Extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) ranged from 92% to 97% while extraction efficiency of mannan reached values from 95% to about 100% depending on phase and/or model sample composition. On the contrary, lower efficiency of BSA removal (73-84%) was recorded for lectin affinity purification with concanavalin A-triazine bead cellulose (Con A-TBC); the low mannan-binding capacity was limiting factor here. The size exclusion chromatography pattern of model mannan-BSA samples after both IL-APTS and Con A-TBC treatments were consistent with the spectrophotometric component analysis. In case of biological experiment, the ionic liquid separation technique was superior in pre-purification of 2-aminobenzamide-labelled mannan from cell culture medium prior to HPLC-FLD analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of acid-induced conformational variability on protein separation in reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Bobály, Balázs; Tóth, Eszter; Drahos, László; Zsila, Ferenc; Visy, Júlia; Fekete, Jenő; Vékey, Károly


    Influence of acid concentration in the mobile phase on protein separation was studied in a wide concentration range using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and formic acid (FA). At low, 0.001-0.01 (v/v%) TFA concentration and appropriate solvent strength proteins elute before the column's dead time. This is explained by the proteins having a structured, but relatively extended conformation in the eluent; and are excluded from the pores of the stationary phase. Above ca. 0.01-0.05 (v/v%) TFA concentration proteins undergo further conformational change, leading to a compact, molten globule-like structure, likely stabilized by ion pairing. Proteins in this conformation enter the pores and are retained on the column. The results suggest a pore exclusion induced separation related to protein conformation. This effect is influenced by the pH and type of acid used, and is likely to involve ion-pair formation. The TFA concentration needed to result in protein folding (and therefore to observe retention on the column) depends on the protein; and therefore can be utilized to improve chromatographic performance. Conformation change was monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; and it was shown that not only TFA but FA can also induce molten globule formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. One step phase separation process to fabricate superhydrophobic PVC films and its corrosion prevention for AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Na; Li, Jicheng; Bai, Ningning; Xu, Lan; Li, Qing, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Independent superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film was prepared by phase separation process. • The superhydrophobic PVC film showed excellent stability in acid, alkali and salt corrosive solutions. • This film was prepared on magnesium surface protecting it from corrosion. • This method was simple and universal. - Abstract: A one step, simple fabrication method to prepare independent superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating is reported in this paper. The rough surface structure and low surface energy could be simply obtained only by a phase separation process. The independent PVC superhydrophobic film was also applied on AZ91D magnesium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurements, electrochemical test and adhesion tests have been performed to characterize the surface morphology, wettability, anti-corrosion and adhesion strength of independent PVC film and superhydrophobic magnesium alloy respectively. The results indicated that whether it was the PVC film or superhydrophobic magnesium, they show static contact angles higher than 150°, excellent anti-corrosion effect and adhesion strength. We believed that the presented method could provide a straightforward and simple route to fabricate low-cost and anti-corrosion coating on various substrate materials. Moreover, this one step process may find potential application in the field of industry because of its simplicity and universality.

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase in gas chromatographic separation and determination of argon, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Maleki, Norooz; Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi


    A chromatographic technique is introduced based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as stationary phase for separation of Ar, CO(2) and H(2) at parts per million (ppm) levels. The efficiency of SWCNTs was compared with solid materials such as molecular sieve, charcoal, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The morphology of SWCNTs was optimized for maximum adsorption of H(2), CO(2) and Ar and minimum adsorption of gases such as N(2), O(2), CO and H(2)O vapour. To control temperature of the gas chromatography column, peltier cooler was used. Mixtures of Ar, CO(2) and H(2) were separated according to column temperature program. Relative standard deviation for nine replicate analyses of 0.2 mL H(2) containing 10 microL of each Ar or CO(2) was 2.5% for Ar, 2.8% for CO(2) and 3.6% for H(2). The interfering effects of CO, and O(2) were investigated. Working ranges were evaluated as 40-600 ppm for Ar, 30-850 ppm for CO(2) and 10-1200 ppm for H(2). Significant sensitivity, small relative standard deviation (RSD) and acceptable limit of detection (LOD) were obtained for each analyte, showing capability of SWCNTs for gas separation and determination processes. Finally, the method was used to evaluate the contents of CO(2) in air sample. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Donor-Acceptor Phase Separation on the Charge Carrier Dynamics in pBTTT:PCBM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.


    The effect of donor–acceptor phase separation, controlled by the donor–acceptor mixing ratio, on the charge generation and recombination dynamics in pBTTT-C14:PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends is presented. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy spanning the dynamic range from pico- to microseconds in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions reveals that in a 1:1 blend exciton dissociation is ultrafast; however, charges cannot entirely escape their mutual Coulomb attraction and thus predominantly recombine geminately on a sub-ns timescale. In contrast, a polymer:fullerene mixing ratio of 1:4 facilitates the formation of spatially separated, that is free, charges and reduces substantially the fraction of geminate charge recombination, in turn leading to much more efficient photovoltaic devices. This illustrates that spatially extended donor or acceptor domains are required for the separation of charges on an ultrafast timescale (<100 fs), indicating that they are not only important for efficient charge transport and extraction, but also critically influence the initial stages of free charge carrier formation.

  18. Rapid Separation of Elemental Species by Fast Multicapillary Gas Chromatography with Multichannel Optical Spectrometry Detection following Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Giersz


    Full Text Available A method for conducting fast and efficient gas chromatography based on short multicapillaries in straight alignment combined with atomic emission detection was developed for field analysis. The strategy enables for speciation analysis of organometallic compounds. The analytes are simultaneously ethylated and preconcentrated on a solid phase microextraction (SPME fiber placed in the headspace over the sample for 25 min. The ethylated species are then completely separated and selectively quantified within 25 s under isothermal conditions. A new miniaturized speciation analyzer has been constructed and evaluated. The system consists of a GC injection port and a lab-made miniaturized GC unit directly coupled with miniaturized plasma excitation source. The emitted light is transferred via optical fiber and registered with a miniaturized charged coupled device (CCD based spectrometer. Working parameters for multicapillary column gas chromatography with atomic emission detector, including carrier gas flow rate, desorption temperature, and GC column temperature, were optimized to achieve good separation of analytes. Basic investigations of the fundamental properties of 5 cm-long multicapillary column, to evaluate its potential and limitations as a rapid separation unit, are presented. The adaptation of the technique for use with a SPME system and with a multichannel element-selective plasma-emission detector is highlighted.

  19. Simplified recovery process of Ralstonia solanacearum-synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates via chemical extraction complemented by liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine L. Macagnan

    Full Text Available Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is the most studied thermoplastic biopolymer belonging to the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA family, the main features of which include rapid biodegradability and biocompatibility. The bioplastic recovery process is an important step during production and can directly influence the characteristics of PHAs. However, more efficient methods for the production of P(3HB are necessary to make it economically viable. The aim of the present study was to improve the standard, chloroform-based, extraction step for the recovery of P(3HB. The polymer was produced using a Ralstonia solanacearum strain. The following parameters were improved in the recovery process: heating time, separation method (filtration or liquid-liquid phase separation, biomass state (fresh or dry cell concentrate and the solvent:biomass ratio. By improving the chemical extraction of P(3HB we recovered 98% of the cumulative polymer and reduced the heating time by 75%. Furthermore, we improved the separation process and developed an extraction solution that was faster and more economical.

  20. The impact of donor-acceptor phase separation on the charge carrier dynamics in pBTTT:PCBM photovoltaic blends. (United States)

    Gehrig, Dominik W; Howard, Ian A; Sweetnam, Sean; Burke, Timothy M; McGehee, Michael D; Laquai, Frédéric


    The effect of donor-acceptor phase separation, controlled by the donor-acceptor mixing ratio, on the charge generation and recombination dynamics in pBTTT-C14:PC70 BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends is presented. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy spanning the dynamic range from pico- to microseconds in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions reveals that in a 1:1 blend exciton dissociation is ultrafast; however, charges cannot entirely escape their mutual Coulomb attraction and thus predominantly recombine geminately on a sub-ns timescale. In contrast, a polymer:fullerene mixing ratio of 1:4 facilitates the formation of spatially separated, that is free, charges and reduces substantially the fraction of geminate charge recombination, in turn leading to much more efficient photovoltaic devices. This illustrates that spatially extended donor or acceptor domains are required for the separation of charges on an ultrafast timescale (<100 fs), indicating that they are not only important for efficient charge transport and extraction, but also critically influence the initial stages of free charge carrier formation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.