WorldWideScience

Sample records for vertebral entrapment syndrome

  1. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  2. Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintas, Ümit; Helgstrand, Ulf Johan Vilhelm; Hansen, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings in symptoma......The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings...

  3. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrona E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Chrona,1,2 Georgia Kostopanagiotou,1 Dimitrios Damigos,3 Chrysanthi Batistaki1 1Second Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Attikon” Hospital, Athens, 2Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of “Ag. Panteleimon,” Piraeus, 3Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School of Ioannina, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES is a commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated chronic state of pain. This syndrome is characterized by the entrapment of the cutaneous branches of the lower thoracoabdominal intercostal nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle, which causes severe, often refractory, chronic pain. This narrative review aims to identify the possible therapeutic strategies for the management of the syndrome. Seventeen studies about ACNES therapy were reviewed; of them, 15 were case–control studies, case series, or case reports, and two were randomized controlled trials. The presently available management strategies for ACNES include trigger point injections (diagnostic and therapeutic, ultrasound-guided blocks, chemical neurolysis, and surgical ­neurectomy, in combination with systemic medication, as well as some emerging techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation and neuromodulation. An increased awareness of the syndrome and the use of specific diagnostic criteria for its recognition are required to facilitate an early and successful management. This review compiles the proposed ­management strategies for ACNES. Keywords: anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, intercostal, neuralgia, management

  4. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay [Queensland X-Ray, Sunnybank, Queensland, 4109 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection.

  5. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome misdiagnosed as chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    months apart he was symptom-free, except for some discomfort in the fasciotomy scars. PAES is a relatively underdiagnosed cause of exercise-induced lower limb claudication. The syndrome usually affects young athletes who undertake vigorous exercise leading to muscle hypertrophy of the calf muscles which unmasks ...

  6. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome misdiagnosed as chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -induced pain in the lower extremity of young athletes. However, it might explain the symptoms of those athletes who do not respond to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes. We present a case of a young professional male ...

  7. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: morphological classification utilizing MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Hyeok Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    To retrospectively analyze magnetic resonance (MR) findings in patients with popliteal arterial entrapment syndrome. This study was a retrospective MRI and CT scan review of 12 patients with 23 limbs with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) treated over a 10-yr period. All 12 patients (23 limbs) were evaluated with MR and CT scan (11 patients - bilateral sides; one patient - unilateral side). All cases were classified as to various types of anomalous relationships between the popliteal artery and the neighboring muscles. The PAES was classified to gastrocnemius medial head and lateral head anomaly. Gastrocnemius medial head anomaly was classified according to the classification made by Whelan and Rich, from type 1 to type 6 [12, 13]. Gastrocnemius lateral head anomaly was defined as popliteal artery entrapment due to medially inserted gastrocnemius lateral head or aberrant accessory head of gastrocnemius lateral head. The gastrocnemius medial head anomaly was found in 14 limbs (14/23). The classic type 1 was found in none, type 2 in five patients (six limbs), type 3 in four patients (five limbs), type 4 in none, type 5 in one patient (one limb) and type 6 in one patient (two limbs). The uncommon type, i.e. lateral head of gastrocnemius anomaly, was found in five patients (eight limbs). The gastrocnemius medial head anomaly was the cause of PAES, and PAES was classified by medial head anomaly. However the gastrocnemius lateral head anomaly was also the cause of PAES, and most cases of gastrocnemius lateral head anomaly showed aberrant accessory slip which entrapped the popliteal artery and vein. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging and MR angiography in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atilla, S.; Akpek, S.; Yuecel, C.; Tali, E.T.; Isik, S.; Ilgit, E.T. [Department of Radiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-07-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment (PAE) syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly seen in young adults causing ischemic symptoms in the lower extremities. It is the result of various types of anomalous relationships between the popliteal artery and the neighboring muscular structures. The purpose of this study was to define the role of MR imaging combined with MR angiography in the diagnosis of PAE cases. Four cases with segmental occlusion and medial displacement of popliteal artery in digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations were diagnosed as PAE syndrome by MR imaging and MR angiography. The DSA and MRA images are compared. All of the cases showed various degrees of abnormal intercondylar insertion of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The MR images showed detailed anatomy of the region revealing the cause of the arterial entrapment. Subclassification of the cases were done and fat tissue filling the normal localization of the muscle was evaluated. The DSA and MRA images demonstrated the length and localization of the occluded segment and collateral vascular developments equally. It is concluded that angiographic evaluation alone in PAE syndrome might result in overlooking the underlying cause of the arterial occlusion, which in turn leads to unsuccessful therapy procedures such as balloon angioplasty. Magnetic resonance imaging combined with MR angiography demonstrates both the vascular anatomy and the variations in the muscular structures in the popliteal fossa successfully, and this combination seems to be the most effective way of evaluating young adults with ischemic symptoms suggesting PAE syndrome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 17 refs.

  9. Extensive thoracolumbosacral vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, D. H R; van Dijk, M.; Hoepelman, A. I M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074382160; Oner, F. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188615326; Verlaan, J. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269057285

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a unique case of multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome. Methods: A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented in the Emergency Department in septic shock because of Lemierre syndrome for which he was subsequently treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin

  10. Heel pain syndrome: electrodiagnostic support for nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, L C; Glennon, T P; Baxter, D E

    1993-01-01

    A local entrapment neuropathy has been proposed as one of the etiologies of heel pain, but it has never been documented by electrodiagnostic studies. Primary symptoms in patients suspected of having a neurologic basis for their heel pain include neuritic medial heel pain and radiation either proximally or distally. On physical examination, all patients in our series had reproduction of their symptomatology with palpation over the proximal aspect of the abductor hallucis and/or the origin of the plantar fascia from the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. Twenty-seven patients (20 women and seven men; average age 49) with these clinical characteristics were examined by electromyography and motor/sensory/mixed nerve conduction studies. Bilateral heel signs and symptoms were present in 11 patients. Ten of the patients had a significant history of back pain with referral to the legs. In 23 of the 38 symptomatic heels, abnormalities were identified in the lateral and/or the medial plantar nerves. The number of abnormal values per heel ranged from one to four, with a mean of 2.1. The most common finding was involvement of the medial nerve (57%). Thirty percent of the heels had isolated findings in the lateral plantar nerve and 13% had abnormalities in both plantar nerves. Two patients had electrophysiologic evidence of active S1 radiculopathy, with ipsilateral evidence of plantar nerve entrapment suggesting a "double crush" syndrome. The results of this study support the presence of abnormalities of plantar nerve function in a selected group of patients with neuritic heel pain.

  11. Treatment response and central pain processing in Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckevorsel, D.C.M. van; Boelens, O.B.A.; Roumen, R.M.; Wilder, O.H.; Goor, H. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 10-30% of chronic abdominal pain originates in the abdominal wall. A common cause for chronic abdominal wall pain is the Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES), in which an intercostal nerve branch is entrapped in the abdominal rectus sheath. Treatment consists of local

  12. Entrapment neuropathies and polyneuropathies in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, G; Padua, L; Celletti, C; Castori, M; Saraceni, V M; Camerota, F

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients with particular attention to entrapment syndromes. We consecutively enrolled Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients. Patients underwent clinical, neurophysiological and ultrasound evaluations. Dynamic ultrasound evaluation was also performed in healthy subjects as control group. Fifteen Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients and fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled. Most of patients presented tingling, numbness, cramps in their hands or feet. Clinical evaluation was normal in all patients. One patient was affected with carpal tunnel syndrome and one with ulnar nerve entrapment at elbow. One patient had an increased and hypoechoic ulnar nerve at elbow at ultrasound evaluation. Dynamic ultrasound evaluation of ulnar nerve at elbow showed, in patients, twelve subluxations and three luxations. In the control group dynamic evaluation showed one case of ulnar nerve luxation. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the occurrence of ulnar nerve subluxation and luxation between patients and control subjects. The study shows an inconsistency between symptoms and neurophysiological and ultrasound evidences of focal or diffuse nerve involvement. The high prevalence of ulnar nerve subluxation/luxation at elbow in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients could be explained by the presence of Osborne ligament laxity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  14. [Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome in 3 young athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Daza, R; Moga Donadeu, L L; Muncunill Gil, J; Mañosa Bonamich, J; Vidal Conde, V

    1993-01-01

    Three cases of entrapment of the popliteal arteries from three young patients are reported. In all cases, the symptomatology was erroneously attributed to several muscular injuries produced in practice of a sport: Basketball, Football and Roller Hockey, respectively. In all cases, symptoms were progressing for 6 months as a minimum. The roads followed by these patients until they were visited in a Vascular Surgery Department is described. Clinical picture, the results from the different examinations practiced and the applied treatments to each patients are described.

  15. Management of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in a cohort of 139 patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, O.B.A.; Scheltinga, M.R.M.; Houterman, S.; Roumen, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is generally neglected as a source of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a diagnostic workup protocol and treatment regimen in patients with suspected ACNES. METHODS: A cohort of all

  16. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome caused by a rare anomalous slip of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Patrick T.; Moyer, Adrian C.; Huettl, Eric A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Radiology, Scottsdale (United States); Fowl, Richard J.; Stone, William M. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Vascular Surgery, Scottsdale (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome can result in calf claudication, aneurysm formation, distal arterial emboli, or popliteal vessel thrombosis. The most commonly reported causes of this syndrome have been anomalies of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle as it relates to the course of the popliteal artery. We report two cases of rare anomalous slips of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle causing popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome. (orig.)

  18. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Moisés Fernández; Cerezal, Luis; Pérez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included "piriformis syndrome," a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation.

  19. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  20. [New criteria for the classification of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Our experience with 14 extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Valenzuela, V; Matas, M; Maeso, J; Díaz, J; Juan, J; de Sobregrau, R C

    1991-01-01

    Authors explain their experiences with eight patients (14 affected limbs) with a popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Classification, diagnosis and treatment were reviewed. Six limbs, with any malformation and presenting as a unique sign an important hypertrophy of their intern gastrocnemius muscle, couldn't be classified. As a result, a new classification of this pathology is presented being based on the anatomical and arteriographic aspects as well as oh the surgical indication. The important correlation between anomaly, physical complexion typus athletic and sports is noted.

  1. Frequency of upper extremity nerve entrapment syndromes in surgically operated patients: a ten-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzan M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Nerve entrapment neuropathies are relatively frequent in the upper limb. Significant costs related to resultant disability and treatment, and also simultaneous occurrence of some of these syndromes can result in alteration in the treatment approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these syndromes, the rate of concurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome as the most prevalent syndrome with others, related risk factors, and accordance of clinical and electrophysiological findings."n"nMethods: In a retrospective study, data of the 170 affected patients to these syndromes operated during a period of 10 years in a referral center were searched using recorded documents. Information about patient's gender, age, occupation and associated co-morbidities, clinical and surgical findings and their accordance to the EMG-NCV findings, and also concurrence of these syndromes were assessed."n"nResults: Patients' range of age was 10-91 year (mean: 48.09 year and 74.5% of them were female. In this study carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndrome were the most frequent (81.7% and 15.8% respectively. In 23.5% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, electrophysiological findings were negative but there

  2. POSTTRAUMATIC MYOCARDIAL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VERTEBRAL COMPRESSION FRACTURES

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Zavorova; O. M. Andryuschenko; M. G. Dudin

    2010-01-01

    Complex clinical and instrumental observation of the children with vertebral compression fractures (VCF) revealed pathological changes in the heart. Clinical symptomatology, confirmed by electrocardiogram and appropriate anamnesis gives opportunity to consider this fact as a posttraumatic myocardial syndrome. Special drug therapy resulted in the positive dynamics.

  3. Intravascular ultrasound as a novel tool for the diagnosis and targeted treatment of functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Boniakowski, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose, as the imaging modalities presently employed are designed to detect anatomic entrapment. We describe a novel imaging technique to aid in diagnosis in this cohort. A 22-year-old cyclist presented with exercise-limiting claudication. Magnetic resonance angiography with provocative maneuvers was nondiagnostic. Digital subtraction angiography revealed long-segment occlusion of the popliteal artery with plantar flexion; however, the specific site of compression remained unclear. Intravascular ultrasound allowed specific localization of compression and further confirmed the diagnosis. Thus, we report this as an adjunctive imaging modality to definitively diagnose functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and to assist in operative planning.

  4. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome: MRI evaluation of vertebral and disk malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitling, Magnus; Rabin, Michael [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lemire, Edmond G. [University of Saskatchewan, Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized primarily by vertebral malsegmentation, carpal/tarsal coalition, and a dysmorphic appearance. Differentiating SSS from other congenital scoliosis syndromes requires evaluation of the vertebrae, ribs, soft tissues, and spinal cord. The enhanced resolution over plain radiographs seen with MRI allows more detailed assessment of vertebral malformation and surrounding anatomy. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of congenital scoliosis might be enhanced using this technology. We report on a 12-year-old girl of unaffected parents with SSS who was evaluated with MRI sequences of the spine to show various types of malsegmentation. Additionally, there is the new finding of fusion of teeth, with developmental failure of a canine incisor. (orig.)

  5. Treatment response and central pain processing in Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijckevorsel, Dagmar C; Boelens, Oliver B; Roumen, Rudi M; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H; van Goor, Harry

    2017-01-01

    10-30% of chronic abdominal pain originates in the abdominal wall. A common cause for chronic abdominal wall pain is the Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES), in which an intercostal nerve branch is entrapped in the abdominal rectus sheath. Treatment consists of local anaesthetics and neurectomy, and is ineffective in 25% of cases for yet unknown reasons. In some conditions, chronic pain is the result of altered pain processing. This so-called sensitization can manifest as segmental or even generalized hyperalgesia, and is generally difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to assess pain processing in ACNES patients responsive and refractory to treatment by using Quantitative Sensory Testing, in order to explore whether signs of altered central pain processing are present in ACNES and are a possible explanation for poor treatment outcomes. 50 patients treated for ACNES with locally orientated treatment were included. They were allocated to a responsive or refractory group based on their response to treatment. Patients showing an improvement of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain score combined with a current absolute VAS of dermatomes and at four control areas on the non-dominant side of the body, i.e. the musculus trapezius pars medialis, musculus rectus femoris, musculus abductor hallucis and the thenar. The ACNES dermatomes were chosen to signal segmental hyperalgesia and the sum of the control areas together as a reflection of generalized hyperalgesia. Lower thresholds were interpreted as signs of sensitized pain processing. To test for alterations in endogenous pain inhibition, a conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response to a cold pressor task was determined. Also, patients filled in three pain-related questionnaires, to evaluate possible influence of psychological characteristics on the experienced pain. Patients refractory to treatment showed significantly lower pressure pain thresholds in the ACNES dermatomes and for the sum of as

  6. [Vertebral destruction with sever pain in the SAPHO syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, D; Pfaffenbach, B; Schmid, G; Adamek, R J

    1999-02-05

    A 57-year-old man had for the past 18 months complained of recurrent, recently worsening, belt-like backache radiating ventrally. On admission a skin rash consisting of blister and pustules was noted on the palms of both hands. He had pain on pressure over the right upper abdomen, an enlarged prostate and definite pain on percussing the vertebral column with restricted movement of the thoracic vertebral column, but no other physical signs. Radiology revealed clearly increased sclerosis of several thoracic vertebrae with osteolytic destruction and a paravertebral soft tissue tumor. Search for a primary tumor was unsuccessful. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated nuclide enrichment of the thoracic vertebrae and of the sternoclavicular joints without increase in the LeukoScan. These findings indicated the diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome (synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteomyelitis). Rapid subjective and objective improvement followed the administration of clindamycin and ibuprofen. In case of bone pain of uncertain aetiology, especially when associated with skin rash, the rare SAPHO syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis, avoiding lengthy diagnostic steps and allowing early treatment.

  7. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N. [Brooklyn Hospital Center, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  8. Traumatic entrapment, appeasement and complex post-traumatic stress disorder: evolutionary perspectives of hostage reactions, domestic abuse and the Stockholm syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Chris; Price, John

    2007-05-01

    Evolutionary theory and cross-species comparisons are explored to shed new insights into behavioural responses to traumatic entrapment, examining their relationships to the Stockholm syndrome (a specific response to traumatic entrapment) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A selective literature review is undertaken examining responses to traumatic entrapment (including hostage, domestic abuse and similar situations) and the Stockholm syndrome, before examining mammalian, reptilian and other defensive responses to relevant threats. Chimpanzees, the closest relatives of humans, are closely examined from this perspective and commonalities in behavioural responses are highlighted. The neurobiological basis of defensive behaviours underlying PTSD is explored with reference to the triune brain model. Victims of protracted traumatic entrapment under certain circumstances may display the Stockholm syndrome, which involves paradoxically positive relationships with their oppressors that may persist beyond release. Similar responses are observed in many mammalian species, especially primates. Ethological concepts including dominance hierarchies, reverted escape, de-escalation and conditional reconciliation appear relevant and are illustrated. These phenomena are commonly encountered in victims of severe abuse and understanding these concepts may assist clinical management. Appeasement is the mammalian defence most relevant to the survival challenge presented by traumatic entrapment and appears to be the foundation of complex PTSD. Evolutionary perspectives have considerable potential to bridge and integrate neurobiology and the social sciences with respect to traumatic stress responses.

  9. Goldenhar syndrome: a case report with facial ocular auricular vertebral manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotian Rashmishree R, Vinuta Hegde, Atul P. Sattur , Krishna N. Burde, Venkatesh G. Naikmasur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar’s Syndrome (GS is a rare condition described initially by Von Arlt. It is characterized by a combination of anomalies: epibulbar tumors, preauricular tags and malformation of the ears. In 1963, Gorlin suggested the name oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV dysplasia for this condition and also included vertebral anomalies as signs of the syndrome. The malformations are said to arise from the first and second branchial arches. This work reports a case of GS in 11-years-old boy with the clinical signs of pseudo macrostomia, preauricular tags and epibulbar tumours.

  10. Protective and Predisposing Morphological Factors in Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment Syndrome: A Fundamental Review Based on Recent Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łabętowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome (SNES is a neuropathy caused by compression of the nerve along its course. The most common compression sites include the suprascapular notch and the spinoglenoid notch. The aim of this article was to review the anatomical factors influencing the occurrence of SNES in the light of the newest reports. Potential predisposing morphological factors include a V-shaped, narrow, or “deep” suprascapular notch; a band-shaped, bifurcated, or completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL; particular arrangements of the suprascapular nerve and vessels at the suprascapular notch. A very recent report indicates structures at the suprascapular notch region that may protect from SNES, such as the suprascapular notch veins (SNV. The role of the anterior coracoscapular ligament (ACSL is still not clear. While some studies indicate that it may predispose for SNES, the newest study proposes a protective function. Knowledge of these variations is essential for arthroscopic and other surgical procedures of this area in order to avoid iatrogenic injury of the suprascapular nerve or unexpected bleeding from the suprascapular vessels running alongside the STSL.

  11. The effects of Botulinum Toxin injection in an elite sportsman with Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Myles; Charlesworth, Jonathon; Koh, Eamon

    2017-09-01

    Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A) is an effective intervention for Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (FPAES) however, concerns with this intervention include reductions in strength and performance. This case presents an elite male athlete with FPAES who underwent BoNT-A injection and the results of testing before and after injection. The athlete experienced a decrease in strength and performance at one week post-injection however, he returned to baseline levels within four weeks. When comparing sprint distance during games, before and after injection, the athlete had an increase in his sprint distance per game post-injection. Finally on ultrasound he had visible medial gastrocnemius denervation atrophy with a decrease in arterial flow velocity at four weeks post-injection. BoNT-A may be an effective minimally invasive treatment option for FPAES however, athletes may experience a transient decrease in function following BoNT-A injection and consequently caution must be taken with regard to treatment timing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Appendicitis, Somatosensory Disturbances ("Head Zones"), and the Differential Diagnosis of Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumen, Rudi M H; Vening, Wouter; Wouda, Rosanne; Scheltinga, Marc M

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy. Potential associations between altered skin sensations and various items including age, sex, history, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, and type of appendicopathy (normal, inflamed, necrotic, or perforated) were assessed. A total of 39 patients demonstrated at least one right lower abdominal quadrant skin somatosensory disturbance before the laparoscopic appendectomy. However, locoregional skin sensation normalized in all but 2 patients 2 weeks postoperatively. No differences were found concerning patient characteristics or type of appendicopathy between populations with or without altered lower abdominal skin sensations. A substantial portion of patients with acute appendicitis demonstrate right lower abdominal somatosensory disturbances that are similar as observed in acute ACNES. Both may be different sides of the same coin and are possibly expressions of segmental phenomena as described by Head. McBurney's point, a landmark area of maximum pain in acute appendicitis, is possibly a trigger point within a Head zone. Differentiating acute appendicitis from acute ACNES is extremely difficult, but imaging and observation may aid in the diagnostic process.

  13. [Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm complicating Klippel-Feil syndrome: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Kojima, T; Morooka, Y; Tanaka, K; Nakagawa, Y; Kuroki, M

    1996-10-01

    The Klippel-Feil syndrome is one of the spinal malformations characterized by fusion of the cervical vertebrae. It is well known that the malformation can cause some neurologic disorders. However, an aneurysm in the vertebral artery associated with the Klippel-Feil syndrome is extremely rare, with only one case having been reported in the literature. We present a 39-year-old female with a sudden onset of disturbed consciousness. Lateral cervical x-ray films showed the Klippel-Feil syndrome and hypermobility between C1 and C2. MRI showed multiple infarctions in the posterior circulation, including bilateral thalami. Right vertebral angiogram identified the extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm as the source of the emboli. The patient gradually recovered with conservative therapy. The aneurysm was thought to be produced by chronic arterial trauma secondary to excessive movement between C1 and C2. We conclude that an extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm is a serious complication in a patient with the Klippel-Feil syndrome.

  14. [Intraneural cyst of the supraescapular nerve: Atypical cause of peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome. Case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Beatriz; Isla, Alberto; Román de Aragón, María; Hernández, Borja; García Feijoo, Pablo; Palpán Flores, Alexis; Santiago, Susana

    2017-11-20

    Intraneural cysts are benign lesions located within the epineurium of some peripheral nerves and their aetiopathogenesis is controversial. Most are located at the level of the lower limbs. In the upper limbs, the most frequently affected nerve is the ulnar nerve. Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome due to the formation of an intraneural cyst is rare. In this article, we show a new case and perform a literature review of intraneural cysts located in the suprascapular nerve. We present a 49-year-old woman with pain in the lateral shoulder region of several months' evolution. A brachial plexus MR showed a tumour of approximately 2×1.5cm, with a cystic appearance, in relation to the upper trunk of the right brachial plexus. We used a supra-infraclavicular approach. The cystic tumour affected the suprascapular nerve. After locating a zone on the surface without nervous fascicles, we performed a partial resection of the capsule and emptying of the cyst, with a xanthochromic gelatinous content. The anatomopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of intraneural cyst. The suprascapular nerve is a mixed nerve, coming from the upper trunk. It provides the motor branches to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle. Compression of the suprascapular nerve leads to atrophy of these muscles. This entity is one of the differential diagnoses in a patient with pain irradiating to the shoulder, and its correct treatment often results in complete remission of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of supine/standing urinalysis for differential diagnosis of left renal vein entrapment syndrome combined with or without glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meiling; Hu, Panpan; Ding, Rui; Chen, Pu; Qiu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Shuwen; Xie, Yuansheng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of supine/standing urinalysis for differential diagnosis of left renal vein entrapment syndrome (LRVES) combined with or without glomerulopathy. The enrolled patients with abnormal urinalysis and LRVES demonstrated by Doppler sonography were guided to perform a supine/standing urinalysis. Fifty-two patients were enrolled. Most of them were adolescents (aged 14-29 years, 73.1%) and with low body mass index (BMI, mean BMI, 19.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)). Seventeen cases (32.7%) manifested orthostatic urine abnormalities (OUA, proteinuria and/or haematuria show negative in supine while positive after 15 min standing), two patients who had undergone renal biopsies both showed no evidence of kidney lesions, another two patients were changed from abnormal to normal urinalysis after weight gain. The remaining 35 cases (67.3%) manifested non-orthostatic urine abnormalities (NOUA, proteinuria and/or haematuria show positive both in supine and standing), 15 patients had undergone renal biopsies and showed different degrees of glomerulopathy. After prednisone/immunosuppression therapy, four patients with glomerulonephritis were changed from the NOUA to the OUA classification. Statistics analyses showed that serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower (P = 0.028, 0.007, respectively) and urinary protein was significantly higher (P = 0.007) in the NOUA group than in the OUA group. After the indication of LRVES by ultrasound, patients with OUA likely have only LRVES, while patients with NOUA likely also have glomerulopathy. Supine/standing urinalysis combined with Doppler sonography can be helpful for differential diagnosis of LRVES combined with or without glomerulopathy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Ulnar nerve entrapment by anconeus epitrochlearis ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2012-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is the second most common upper limb entrapment neuropathy other than carpal tunnel syndrome. There have been many causes identified ranging from chronic aging joint changes to inflammatory conditions or systemic disorders. Among them, uncommon anatomical variants accounts for a small number of cases. Here, we report our experience in managing ulnar nerve entrapment caused by a rare vestigial structure, anconeus epitrochlearis ligament, and provide a brief review of the literature of its management.

  17. Common peroneal nerve entrapment with the communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa and variations in its branching pattern are common. The most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs is common peroneal nerve entrapment at fibular head. Invariably it can also be trapped in ...

  18. Options of Physiotherapy Approaches for Patients with Vertebral Algic Syndrome of Lumbar Spine using ICF Core Set

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelařová, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACHELOR THESIS ABSTRACT Author's first name and surname: Anna Chmelařová Bachelor thesis supervizor: MUDr. Petra Sládková, Ph.D. Oponent: Title of bachelor thesis: Options of Physiotherapy Approaches for Patients with Vertebral Algic Syndrome of Lumbar Spine using ICF Core Set Abstract: This bachelor thesis deals with options of physiotherapy approaches for patients with vertebral algic syndrome of lumbar spine as well as with the clinical appliacation of the International classification of ...

  19. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral Spectrum (Goldenhar′s Syndrome - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mohan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar′s syndrome also known as Hemifacial microsomia and Oculo auriculo vertebral dysplasia is a type of mandibulofacial dysostosis, with ocular problems, abnormal pinna, a small mandible and epibulbar dermoids. It represents a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by abnormalities of structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. The case presented here had all the typical manifestations of the syndrome but the facial asymmetry was less pronounced. It presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the maxillofacial, orthodontic and other dental and medical specialists. The management of this condition requires a coordinated team effort from many specialists. A rare syndrome, it presents with varying features and involves many organs and systems making an interesting study. The features of this syndrome are discussed along with a case presentation. This patient had maxillary hypoplasia and also cleft lip and cleft palate.

  20. Vertebral artery dissection presenting as a Brown-Séquard syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Saul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vertebral artery dissection has become increasingly recognized as an important cause of stroke. It usually presents with posterior headache or neck pain followed within hours or days by signs of posterior circulation stroke. To the best of our knowledge, the clinical presentation of a Brown-Séquard syndrome with a vertebral artery dissection has been reported only once before. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 35-year-old man presented with acute left-sided weakness. He had experienced left-sided posterior neck pain after a 4-hour flight 4 weeks previously. Physical examination was consistent with a left Brown-Séquard syndrome. Magnetic resonance angiography showed evidence of left vertebral artery dissection. He improved after therapy with anticoagulants. Conclusion We report a case of an unusual presentation of a relatively uncommon condition. This diagnosis should be considered early in relatively young patients with stroke-like symptoms or unexplained neck pain, because missing a dissection can result in adverse outcomes.

  1. Síndrome do aprisionamento da artéria poplítea: relato de caso Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bettega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do aprisionamento da artéria poplítea caracteriza-se pela compressão desta artéria sendo a principal causa de claudicação intermitente em jovens. Homem, 18 anos, branco, apresentava parestesia, frialdade e palidez do pé direito, iniciada 24 horas após exercício físico. Em membro inferior direito, ausência de pulsos tibial posterior e dorsal do pé. À flexão dorsal e flexão plantar forçadas, houve diminuição dos pulsos tibial posterior e dorsal do pé à esquerda. Tratado cirurgicamente, o paciente apresentou pulso em ambas as artérias. A síndrome é mais frequente em homens e a prevalência varia entre 0,16 e 3,5%. O aprisionamento da artéria poplítea tipo III é mais comum. A falta de tratamento pode levar à embolia, trombose e aneurismas pós-estenóticos. Esta síndrome deve ser lembrada como causa de dor na perna, especialmente em homens jovens e de prática esportiva intensa.Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is the compression of the popliteal artery and is the main cause of intermittent claudication in young patients. An 18-year-old man was admitted at our service complaining of right foot paresthesia, coldness, and pallor that appeared 24 hours after physical activity. Posterior tibial and dorsal artery of foot pulses were not present in right lower limb. Diminished posterior tibial and dorsal artery of the foot pulses were found in left lower limb at dorsal flexion and forced plantar flexion. After surgery, both pulses were present. This syndrome is more frequent in men and its prevalence varies between 0.16 and 3.5%. Popliteal artery entrapment type III is most common. Non-treated entrapment can lead to embolism, thrombosis and post-stenotic aneurysms. The syndrome must be considered as a cause of lower limb pain specially in young men with intense sport practice history.

  2. Congenital constriction band syndrome associated with late-onset entrapment neuropathy at distal 1/3 of left crus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet sukru sahin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The congenital constriction band syndrome of lower extremity is a very uncommon and well-described disease which includes several congenital deformities. The true incidence in general population is unknown. The type of malformation depends on the time of gestational period. Although congenital constriction band syndrome is a well-known congenital condition, the development mechanism of this anomaly has not been clarified fully. There are many intrinsic and extrinsic theories regarding the etiology of this rare syndrome. Generally accepted mechanism is the process that consists of the early amniotic rupture leading to formation of mesodermal fibrous strands which constrict and amputate distal portions of limbs. It is characterized by syndactyly, hypoplasia, brachydactyly, symphalangism, symbrachydactyly, club foot, cleft lip, cleft palate, and cranial defects. The lesion can involve skin only or goes to deeper structure up to bone, which can lead to gangrene of foot or autoamputation. The treatment should be tailored to the individual patient. The aim of surgical treatment requires release of deep as well as superficial structures. We are presenting a patient with constriction band syndrome which has been treated because of late onset beginning of entrapment neuropathy at his left leg. To our knowledge, no such cases have been previously reported in the literature. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(3.000: 103-106

  3. Suite of simple metrics reveals common movement syndromes across vertebrate taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahms, Briana; Seidel, Dana P; Dougherty, Eric; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Wilson, Alan M; Weldon McNutt, J; Costa, Daniel P; Blake, Stephen; Brashares, Justin S; Getz, Wayne M

    2017-01-01

    Because empirical studies of animal movement are most-often site- and species-specific, we lack understanding of the level of consistency in movement patterns across diverse taxa, as well as a framework for quantitatively classifying movement patterns. We aim to address this gap by determining the extent to which statistical signatures of animal movement patterns recur across ecological systems. We assessed a suite of movement metrics derived from GPS trajectories of thirteen marine and terrestrial vertebrate species spanning three taxonomic classes, orders of magnitude in body size, and modes of movement (swimming, flying, walking). Using these metrics, we performed a principal components analysis and cluster analysis to determine if individuals organized into statistically distinct clusters. Finally, to identify and interpret commonalities within clusters, we compared them to computer-simulated idealized movement syndromes representing suites of correlated movement traits observed across taxa (migration, nomadism, territoriality, and central place foraging). Two principal components explained 70% of the variance among the movement metrics we evaluated across the thirteen species, and were used for the cluster analysis. The resulting analysis revealed four statistically distinct clusters. All simulated individuals of each idealized movement syndrome organized into separate clusters, suggesting that the four clusters are explained by common movement syndrome. Our results offer early indication of widespread recurrent patterns in movement ecology that have consistent statistical signatures, regardless of taxon, body size, mode of movement, or environment. We further show that a simple set of metrics can be used to classify broad-scale movement patterns in disparate vertebrate taxa. Our comparative approach provides a general framework for quantifying and classifying animal movements, and facilitates new inquiries into relationships between movement syndromes and

  4. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Elmadag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12–L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy.

  5. Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Muchhala, Nathan; Davis, Charles C

    2017-08-01

    Although specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators. This supports the existence of pollination syndromes in the centropogonids, an idea corroborated by ecological studies. We further demonstrate that hummingbird pollination is ancestral, and that bat pollination has evolved ∼13 times independently, with ∼11 reversals. This convergence is associated with correlated evolution of floral traits within selective regimes corresponding to pollination syndrome. Collectively, our results suggest that floral morphological diversity is extremely labile, likely resulting from selection imposed by pollinators. Finally, even though this clade's rapid diversification is partially attributed to their association with vertebrate pollinators, we detect no difference in diversification rates between hummingbird- and bat-pollinated lineages. Our study demonstrates the utility of pollination syndromes as a proxy for ecological relationships in macroevolutionary studies of certain species-rich clades. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Ultrasound assessment on selected peripheral nerve pathologies. Part I: Entrapment neuropathies of the upper limb – excluding carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US is one of the methods for imaging entrapment neuropathies, post-trau‑ matic changes to nerves, nerve tumors and postoperative complications to nerves. This type of examination is becoming more and more popular, not only for economic reasons, but also due to its value in making accurate diagnosis. It provides a very precise assess‑ ment of peripheral nerve trunk pathology – both in terms of morphology and localization. During examination there are several options available to the specialist: the making of a dynamic assessment, observation of pain radiation through the application of precise palpation and the comparison of resultant images with the contra lateral limb. Entrap‑ ment neuropathies of the upper limb are discussed in this study, with the omission of median nerve neuropathy at the level of the carpal canal, as extensive literature on this subject exists. The following pathologies are presented: pronator teres muscle syndrome, anterior interosseus nerve neuropathy, ulnar nerve groove syndrome and cubital tun‑ nel syndrome, Guyon’s canal syndrome, radial nerve neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve neuropathy, Wartenberg’s disease, suprascapular nerve neuropathy and thoracic outlet syndrome. Peripheral nerve examination technique has been presented in previous articles presenting information about peripheral nerve anatomy [Journal of Ultrasonog‑ raphy 2012; 12 (49: 120–163 – Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the exam‑ ple of the median nerve; Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb; Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb]. In this article potential compression sites of particular nerves are discussed, taking into account pathomechanisms of damage, including predisposing anatomical variants (accessory muscles. The parameters of ultrasound assessment have been established – echogenicity and

  7. FEATURES OF SURGICAL TACTICS FOR PATIENTS WITH COXO-VERTEBRAL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Kudyashev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study – to design the algorithm of selection for rational surgical tactics for treatment of patients with coxo-vertebral syndrome.Material and methods. 175 patients with coxo-vertebral syndrome were included into the study who underwent total hip replacement in the period from 2009 till 2016. The authors analyzed outcomes of treatment of 134 patients at midterm follow up of 9 months (range from 8 to 10 months after the surgery. Mean age of patients was 54,4±12,7 y.o. Patients were subdivided into a test group (94 patients and control group (81 patients. Standard THR approaches were used in the control group by restoring anatomical center of rotation and lower leg length. The suggested algorithm of the optimal procedure selection was applied in the test group. Clinical and functional data was evaluated by Harris Hip Score and Oswestry score. Radiographic evaluation was performed based on x-rays of vertebral-pelvic complex in standing position, by functional x-rays, CT and MRI. Evaluation of differences significance between the groups was performed by MannWhitney U-test and McNemar test.Results. Application of proposed surgical approaches allowed to increase the number of patients with good clinical and functional outcomes (test group – 82,4%, control group – 26,7% and achieve better function of hip joint and patients’ life quality in short-term postoperative period. Excellent outcomes by Harris hip score were observed in 53,2% of patients, in control group – in 9,7%. Share of the patients complaining of lumber pain, limping and need for a walking stick after THR in the test group was less than in control group. Share of patients demonstrating pain at palpation of spinous processes, with positive test of elevated extended leg and radicular syndrome was also significantly less in test group as compared to control group.Conclusion. Practical application of proposed algorithm for selection of a rational tactics of surgical

  8. Síndrome de atrapamiento de la arteria poplítea con aneurisma: reporte de un caso Popliteal entrapment syndrome caused by an aneurism: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Buccolini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La verdadera prevalencia del síndrome de atrapamiento de la arteria poplítea es desconocida; se estima en un 0.16%. Se considera la principal causa de claudicación intermitente en jóvenes deportistas sin factores de riesgo cardiovasculares. Se caracteriza por la compresión extrínseca de la arteria poplítea, ya sea por defecto anatómico de las estructuras músculo-tendinosas o por hipertrofia de los músculos gemelos, lo cual ocasiona el atrapamiento y síntomas de parestesias, frialdad y claudicación intermitente en la extremidad comprometida. La compresión crónica de la arteria puede llevar a daño irreversible con formación de trombos y aneurismas y a la consiguiente amputación de la extremidad, por lo que el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos son de gran importancia para el paciente.The true prevalence of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is unknown, it is estimated to be 0.16%. It is considered as the main cause of intermittent claudication in young athletes without cardiovascular risk factors. It is characterized by the extrinsic compression of the popliteal artery either caused by defects of the muscle-tendon structures or by the hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle leading to the arterial entrapment and symptoms of paresthesia, intermittent claudication and coldness of the affected limb. Chronic compression of the artery may lead to irreversible damage with formation of thrombi and aneurysms and the subsequent amputation of the limb. Therefore, correct diagnosis and treatment are of great importance for the patient.

  9. Autism Spectrum Conditions in Individuals with Mobius Sequence, CHARGE Syndrome and Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum: Diagnostic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of multidisciplinary surveys of three Behavioural Phenotype Conditions (BPCs); Mobius sequence (Mobius), CHARGE syndrome (CHARGE) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) was diagnosed in 45%, 68% and 42% of the individuals, respectively. Diagnostic difficulties due to additional dysfunctions such as…

  10. Usefulness of combination of grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasound findings in the diagnosis of ulnar nerve entrapment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ulnar nerve entrapment (UNE has been diagnosed with clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. This study was designed to determine the value of a combination of grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasound findings in the diagnosis of patients with UNE. Materials and Methods: During May to August 2013 41 patients with UNE (proven by electrodiagnostic studies and 44 healthy volunteers were evaluated by ultrasound study. Three cross-sectional area (CSA of ulnar nerve around cubital fossa was determined and measured in both groups. The maximum and minimum diameter of ulnar nerve was measured for calculating flattening ratio index (FRI. Vascularity of ulnar nerve around cubital fossa was also examined in proper color Doppler setting. Results: The mean CSA of nerve at all proximal, middle and distal levels were greater in patients with UNE than in controls (P = 0.02, <0.001 and 0.34 respectively. A cut-off point of 10.5 mm 2 for CSA (in the level of the cubital fossa yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively. Mean FRI was 3.1 ± 0.6 in patients with UNE group and 1.4 ± 0.2 in the control group with a significant difference (P < 0.001. FRI with cutoff point 2.15 has been shown as an important parameter for the detection of UNE. The vascularity in UNE has a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 93.2%, respectively, and has a higher probability of being positive in severe UNE. Conclusion: Combination of grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasound may provide valuable diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of UNE.

  11. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, cat eye, and distal 22q11 microdeletion syndromes: a unique double rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torti, Erin E; Braddock, Stephen R; Bernreuter, Kristen; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2013-08-01

    An array-CGH on 19-year-old male showed a proximal 1.11 Mb duplication and a distal 1.7 Mb deletion of 22q11.2 regions flanking the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome region that remained intact. FISH analyses revealed both abnormalities to be on the same homolog 22. This double rearrangement lead to the co-existence of two syndromes: Cat eye and distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndromes with a rare associated phenotype of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS). A review of the literature indicates that this is the second report of a proximal duplication and the fifth report of a distal deletion and OAVS suggestive of a possible OAVS candidate gene in this region. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  13. A case of anomalous origin and course of vertebral artery in a patient with klippel feil syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulusoy, Onur Levent; Barlas, Sezgi Burcin; Mutlu, Ayhan [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkmenistan); Sasani, Hadi [Dept. of Radiology, Near East University School of Medicine, Nicosia (Cyprus); Sasani, Mehdi [Dept. of Anatomy, Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2016-07-15

    Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) have an increased incidence of vascular anomalies as well as vertebral artery (VA) anomalies. In this article, we presented imaging findings of a 15-year-old female patient with KFS with a rare association of extraforaminal cranially ascending right VA that originated from the ipsilateral carotid bulb. Trifurcation of the carotid bulb with VA is a very unusual variation and to the best of our knowledge, right-sided one has not been reported in the literature.

  14. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Али Аль-Каисси

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  15. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  16. Vertebral artery dissection complicating occipital injection of heparin for treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinek, Judy; Hart, Amy P

    2012-03-01

    A 38-year-old woman with a 2-year history of chronic neck pain radiating down her right arm underwent radiological and neurological evaluations, which revealed no anatomical cause for her pain. She sought alternative therapies including intramuscular heparin injections. Following a right occipital injection of heparin, cyanocobalamin, and lidocaine, she had a sudden cardiorespiratory arrest and was successfully resuscitated, but did not regain consciousness.Computed tomography of the head and neck and subsequent autopsy revealed a right vertebral artery dissection, but at autopsy, no significant subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted at the base of the brain. This is the first case report where heparin (a potent anticoagulant) used in an occipital injection was documented to cause a vertebral artery dissection. It is also the first reported case where radiographically and histologically documented vertebral artery dissection did not present with overwhelming subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain. The subtle gross anatomical findings in this case highlight the importance of evaluating the cervical spinal cord in any case of sudden cardiorespiratory arrest following even apparently minor neck injury.

  17. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.; Green, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated.

  18. Role of Underweight and Overweight in the Development of Vertebral Pain Syndrome in Systemic Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povorozniuk

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Underweight in women of older age groups with systemic osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk and severity of pain syndrome in the thoracic region. Overweight promotes pain in the back, but did not affect the course of pain syndrome in this region of the spine in systemic osteoporosis.

  19. Autism spectrum conditions in individuals with Möbius sequence, CHARGE syndrome and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: diagnostic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of multidisciplinary surveys of three Behavioural Phenotype Conditions (BPCs); Möbius sequence (Möbius), CHARGE syndrome (CHARGE) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) was diagnosed in 45%, 68% and 42% of the individuals, respectively. Diagnostic difficulties due to additional dysfunctions such as mental retardation (MR), impaired vision, reduced hearing and cranial nerve dysfunction, were experienced in all three BPC groups. The applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments, such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Autistic Behaviour Checklist (ABC), in individuals with ASCs and Möbius/CHARGE/OAV was analysed. Use of an extensive battery of diagnostic instruments, including both observational schedules and parent interviews, and, if possible, independent judgements from two clinicians, is essential in the diagnostics of ASCs in these individuals. Further, in individuals who are deaf and blind the applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments is highly questionable.

  20. Exertional leg pain: teasing out arterial entrapments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thomas T; Kapur, Rahul; Harwood, Marc I

    2007-12-01

    Vascular causes of exertional lower extremity pain are relatively rare, but may be the answer in athletes refractory to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes of the lower extremities. It is important to differentiate these vascular causes from chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and stress fractures in order to develop appropriate treatment plans, avoid complications, and return athletes to play expeditiously. Important vascular etiologies to be considered are popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), endofibrotic disease, popliteal artery aneurysm, cystic adventitial disease, and peripheral arterial dissections. The diagnostic workup involves angiography or noninvasive vascular studies such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance angiography in both the neutral and provocative positions. Treatment of these vascular abnormalities typically involves surgical correction of the vascular anomaly.

  1. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Calder, Alistair Duncan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Muthialu, Nagarajan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects (''rib gaps''). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  2. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Calder, Alistair Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects ("rib gaps"). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia.

  3. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  4. [Features of vertebral pain syndromes in older women depending on the duration of postmenopausal period and bone mineral density indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlyk, T V; Grygorieva, N V; Povoroznyuk, V V

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed the vertebral pain syndrome (VPS) rate in 2 844 women aged 40-89 years, divided into groups according to the period of life (reproductive, perimenopausal and postmenopausal (PMP)) and evaluated the relationship between VPS frequency and indices of bone mineral density (BMD). It was found that the frequency of VPS during different physiological periods of woman life ranges from 84,1 to 94,4 %, with significant increase when the PMP period is more than 20 years compared with women in reproductive and early postmenopausal periods. The significant increase of the VPS frequency in thoracic and lumbar spines starts from 1-3 years of PMP and is retained at higher level for all subsequent periods of PMP. In postmenopausal women, a significant increase of the relative risk of VPS in the thoracic (in 1,3-1,4 times) and the lumbar (1,2-1,3 times) spines was found. In patients with osteoporosis with duration of PMP for 1-3 years, the frequency of VPS in thoracic spine was significantly higher than the indices in women with osteopenia, while patients with duration of PMP of 7-9 years had significantly higher frequency comparing to groups with osteopenia and norms. In patients without vertebral fractures and osteoporosis VPS frequency in the thoracic spine was significantly higher during periods of 4-6 and 7-9 years of PMP compared with women in reproductive period and compared with the women with normal BMD indices. The revealed features of the VPS should be considered while planning therapeutic interventions in women of older age groups.

  5. Thoracic meningocele in lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome in a child: possible enlargement with repeated motion by anchoring to the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataya, Takafumi; Horikawa, Kyohei; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tashiro, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by hemivertebrae, congenital absence of ribs, meningocele, and hypoplasia of the truncal and abdominal wall presenting as a congenital lumbar hernia. An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl was referred to the authors' hospital with soft swelling on her left middle back; scoliosis had been present since birth. Imaging revealed a thoracic meningocele, ectopia of the spleen suggesting lumbar hernia, multiple anomalies of the thoracic vertebral columns, and defects of the ribs; thus, LCVS was diagnosed. Surgical observation revealed that the meningocele was firmly anchored to part of the diaphragm, which created stretching tension in the meningocele continuously with exhalation. Once detached, the meningocele shrank spontaneously and never developed again after cauterization. In this case, continuous or pulsatile pressure in the presence of a vertebral defect was thus considered to be an important factor for formation of the thoracic meningocele.

  6. Operative and endovascular management of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome:a clinical dilemma--case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2002-01-01

    The most prevalent lesion of the vertebral artery is an atheromatous plaque located at its origin from the subclavian artery. A case of successful management of a symptomatic vertebral artery aneurysm due to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is reported. The patient had asymptomatic posterior intracerebral artery dissection on the contralateral side. A common carotid artery to V-3 segment bypass using reversed saphenous vein graft was carried out. Avulsion of the V-2 segment occurred peroperatively and endovascular coil embolization of the vertebral artery aneurysm was performed. Endovascular equipment and training must be in the armamentarium of vascular surgeons as more complex cases are being treated, which demands new approaches for ultimate clinical success. This unique case outlines what might unexpectedly occur. Endovascular intervention as an adjuvant procedure provides a satisfactory outcome in what could have been a catastrophe.

  7. Sonography of entrapment neuropathies in the upper limb (wrist excluded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano; Pugliese, Francesca; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Gauglio, Cristina; Valle, Maura; Derchi, Lorenzo E

    2004-01-01

    The progressive refinement of broadband transducers with frequencies higher than 10 MHz and improved near-field resolution has enhanced the potential of sonography to evaluate a variety of nerve entrapment syndromes occurring in the upper limb, such as suprascapular neuropathy in the area of the spinoglenoid-supraspinous notch, the quadrilateral space syndrome (axillary neuropathy), radial neuropathy in the area of the spiral groove, the supinator syndrome (posterior interosseous neuropathy), the cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar neuropathy), and the Kiloh-Nevin syndrome (anterior interosseous neuropathy). In these settings, high-resolution sonography can depict changes in the nerve's shape and echotexture and can depict many extrinsic causes of nerve entrapment. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subaxial rotational vertebral artery syndrome: resection of the uncinate process and anterior fusion can be sufficient!: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelfaut, Sebastiaan; Verhasselt, Skrallan; Carpentier, Karel; Moke, Lieven

    2015-03-01

    A case report on rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) and surgical treatment. To illustrate a safe treatment option of RVAS with diminished risk of iatrogenic damage to the vertebral artery. RVAS is an uncommon cause of symptomatic transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency induced by physiological head rotation with temporary significant external compression of the dominant subaxial vertebral artery. Previous reports state that the treatment of choice consists of decompression of the vessel with resection of the anterior rim of the transverse process and any fibrotic sheet or intertransverse muscle, if necessary, combined with an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with uncus resection. This is a case report on RVAS and its surgical treatment. The diagnosis of RVAS due to an osteophyte of the uncinate process at level C5/C6 was confirmed using computed tomographic angiography. We performed a classic ACDF using the contralateral approach with complete resection of the uncovertebral joint at the pathologic site. In our case, the symptoms of transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency induced by head rotation completely resolved postoperatively, and computed tomographic angiography images at 3 months postoperatively showed good bony ingrowth and restoration of vertebral artery patency during extreme rotation. Classic ACDF with complete resection of the uncovertebral joint is a safe treatment option for RVAS in the subaxial cervical spine. Fusion at the pathologic level will eliminate rotation and prevent further formation of osteophytes at the operated level. Unroofing of the vertebral artery seems not always necessary, diminishing the surgical risk.

  9. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Jiang-qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy. A 36-year-old right-handed man...

  10. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  11. Reproduction abnormalities and twin pregnancies in parents of sporadic patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum/Goldenhar syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, D.; Ludwig, M.; Boehringer, S.; Jongbloet, P.H.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Horsthemke, B.

    2007-01-01

    A great number of case reports on concordant and discordant twins with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) suggest that there might be an association between reproductive abnormalities, twinning and OAVS. The etiology of OAVS is unknown, but may involve epigenetic dysregulation of the oocyte or

  12. Axillary nerve entrapment in the quadrilateral space. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKowen, H C; Voorhies, R M

    1987-06-01

    The quadrilateral space syndrome is a recently established entity with seemingly consistent pathological and radiographic features. An example of this syndrome is reported. In this patient, entrapment of the axillary nerve by fibrous bands in the quadrilateral space caused shoulder pain with paresthesias in the upper extremity. Subclavian angiography provided the diagnosis by demonstrating that the posterior humeral circumflex artery, which was normal when the arm was in a neutral position, was occluded when the arm was abducted and externally rotated. Axillary neurolysis through a posterior approach resulted in relief of symptoms.

  13. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome misdiagnosed as chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of the anterior compartment. He was referred to an orthopaedic surgeon who did a fasciotomy of the anterior compartments. After 6 months of rehabilitation he started playing rugby again, but the pain and discomfort in his calves became so.

  14. Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Emily Johnson, a new high school assistant principal, ponders how to handle an unexpected dilemma over the faculty award nomination procedures. As chair of the faculty awards committee, she has to decide how to handle the arrival of late nominations. They were submitted by a committee member Jack Fitch, who had been a candidate for the assistant…

  15. Arthroplasty-CervicalP001 - Double Crush Syndrome of the Vertebral Artery Loop and Foraminal Stenosis Causing Monoparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rho, Young Joon; Choi, Hoon; Kurpad, Shekar; Soliman, Hesham; Heo, Dong Hwa; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Jung Hwan; Benitez, Hugo Alberto Santos; Rivera, Miguel Angel Fuentes; Moga, Amado Gonzalez; Hernandez, Gabriel Huerta; Urbina, Mizraim Castillo; Ozkunt, Okan; Sariyilmaz, Kerim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To report a case of monoparesis caused by a vertebral artery (VA) anomaly and foraminal stenosis treated with microvascular decompression by the posterior approach. Material and Methods: A 51-year-old man was referred because of a 4-year history of progressive left shoulder pain refractory to other forms of treatment and a 7-month history of arm weakness. Clinical and radiologic evaluation showed an abnormally tortuous loop of left C5-6 cervical foramina with foraminal stenosis ...

  16. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy.A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs.Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection.

  17. Peripheral nerve entrapment caused by motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coert, J H; Dellon, A L

    1994-08-01

    During the era before seatbelts and air bags, extensive injury was common after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). Yet upper extremity peripheral nerve problems, other than the brachial plexus injury, have not been ascribed previously to MVCs. Seven hundred twenty-five patients with the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), cubital tunnel syndrome (CT), and radial sensory nerve (RSN) entrapment in the forearm were reviewed. The number of MVC-caused nerve entrapments was 157 (68 for CTS, 64 for CT, and 25 for RSN). In 25% of the patients, the nerve entrapment was bilateral. This paper discusses the causal relationship between MVCs and subsequent nerve compressions in the upper extremity and discusses a suggested pathomechanism of injury. The most common pattern was for the injured person to be the driver, to have the injured hand or hands on the steering wheel, to be hit from the front or rear, and to develop a sudden onset of nerve compression symptoms within 1 week. Awareness of this causal relationship may allow early recognition and treatment.

  18. Identification of a Novel BBS Gene (BBS12) Highlights the Major Role of a Vertebrate-Specific Branch of Chaperonin-Related Proteins in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Corinne; Muller, Jean; Laurier, Virginie; Davis, Erica E.; Zaghloul, Norann A.; Vicaire, Serge; Jacquelin, Cécile; Plewniak, Frédéric; Leitch, Carmen C.; Sarda, Pierre; Hamel, Christian; de Ravel, Thomy J. L.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Friederich, Evelyne; Thibault, Christelle; Danse, Jean-Marc; Verloes, Alain; Bonneau, Dominique; Katsanis, Nicholas; Poch, Olivier; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Dollfus, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is primarily an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, obesity, cognitive impairment, polydactyly, and kidney anomalies. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous, with 11 BBS genes identified to date, which account for ∼70% of affected families. We have combined single-nucleotide–polymorphism array homozygosity mapping with in silico analysis to identify a new BBS gene, BBS12. Patients from two Gypsy families were homozygous and haploidentical in a 6-Mb region of chromosome 4q27. FLJ35630 was selected as a candidate gene, because it was predicted to encode a protein with similarity to members of the type II chaperonin superfamily, which includes BBS6 and BBS10. We found pathogenic mutations in both Gypsy families, as well as in 14 other families of various ethnic backgrounds, indicating that BBS12 accounts for ∼5% of all BBS cases. BBS12 is vertebrate specific and, together with BBS6 and BBS10, defines a novel branch of the type II chaperonin superfamily. These three genes are characterized by unusually rapid evolution and are likely to perform ciliary functions specific to vertebrates that are important in the pathophysiology of the syndrome, and together they account for about one-third of the total BBS mutational load. Consistent with this notion, suppression of each family member in zebrafish yielded gastrulation-movement defects characteristic of other BBS morphants, whereas simultaneous suppression of all three members resulted in severely affected embryos, possibly hinting at partial functional redundancy within this protein family. PMID:17160889

  19. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.

  20. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  1. Upper limb tendinitis and entrapment neuropathy in coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdolap, Senay; Emre, Ufuk; Karamercan, Ayşe; Sarikaya, Selda; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-05-01

    It is well-known that work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, particularly tendinitis and nerve entrapment, remain a difficult and costly problem in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate tendinitis and entrapment neuropathy of the upper limb of Turkish coal miners. Eighty coal miners and 43 age-matched clerical workers were included in the study. The evaluation procedures included collection of personal and clinical data, physical examination and bilateral electrodiagnostic testing. Subjects were examined to diagnose tendinitis and nerve entrapment of the upper limb. Bilateral median and ulnar nerves conduction tests were performed on all subjects. Data were collected between August 2011 and December 2011. There were 33 subjects with lateral epicondylitis, 10 with medial epicondylitis, and 22 with De Quervain's disease among the coal miners. There were seven subjects with lateral epicondylitis, eight with medial epicondylitis, and four with De Quervain's disease in the control group. The two groups significantly differed in the prevalences of lateral epicondylitis and De Quervain's disease (P = 0.024 and P =0.029, respectively). Sixteen subjects in the coal miners and 12 subjects in the controls had carpal tunnel syndrome (P = 0.66). Thirty-seven subjects in the coal miners had ulnar neuropathy of the elbow (UNE), while four subjects in the controls had UNE; this difference was statistically significant (P Quervain disease, and ulnar neuropathy are common work-related upper limb disorders among coal miners. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pudendal nerve entrapment in an Ironman athlete: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Jaclyn A; Macintyre, Ian G

    2010-12-01

    To present the diagnostic and clinical features of pudendal nerve entrapment and create awareness amongst clinicians of this rare and painful condition. A 41-year old male ironman athlete complaining of insidious constant penis pain 12-24h after long distance cycling and pain after sexual intercourse. A diagnosis of "cyclist syndrome" also known as pudendal nerve entrapment was made. Patient was treated twice a week for four weeks using the soft tissue protocol described by Active Release Technique(®) to the obturator internus muscle. After two weeks of treatment his pain decreased to a 5/10 on the pain intensity scale and he began to cycle again. After four weeks of treatment his pain had decreased to 1/10 in intensity and he continued to cycle. At follow-up, approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks later the patient communicated that his pain is resolved and he has began to train for Ironman Lake Placid 2010. Pudendal nerve entrapment is a rare, painful condition and is often misdiagnosed due to the fact that the clinical manifestations can mimic other pathologies. It is important to be aware of the clinical features to obtain appropriate diagnosis and treatment of this condition promptly.

  3. Superior gluteal nerve entrapment between two bellies of piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Y

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A double belly composition of piriformis muscle with superior gluteal nerve entrapment between the two muscle masses was detected. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. Patients suffering from buttock pain are most often diagnosed as having piriformis syndrome, where anatomical variation of the piriformis is an important contributor. The present variation showed two distinct bellies of piriformis muscle. Interestingly the superior gluteal nerve was interposed between the two bellies. Such incidental findings on cadavers may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome. Furthermore, such observations are also relevant to the radiologists while interpreting MRI scans in cases of undiagnosed chronic gluteal pain.

  4. Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Blomberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV like retroviruses (MLLVs are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered.

  5. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  6. Central nervous system abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome Anormalidades do sistema nervoso central em pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (síndrome de Goldenhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the central nervous system (CNS alterations present in a sample of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS patients, trying to correlate them with other clinical features. METHOD: Seventeen patients with diagnosis of OAVS were evaluated. All presented radiological evaluation of the CNS, normal GTG-Banding karyotype and clinical features involving at least two from the four following areas: oro-cranio-facial, ocular, auricular and vertebral. RESULTS: CNS alterations were verified in eight from seventeen patients (47%. Diffuse cerebral hypoplasia, dilated lateral cerebral ventricles (asymptomatic hydrocephalus, corpus callosum dysgenesis and frontal hypodensities were the most frequent abnormalities. Presence of ophthalmologic abnormalities was the only clinical association observed, being significantly more frequent among patients with cerebral alterations (63% versus 11%. CONCLUSION: CNS abnormalities are frequent in patients with OAVS, especially in carriers of ophthalmologic alterations. However, the absence of detectable cerebral abnormalities did not exclude the possibility that these subjects will subsequently present neurological symptoms.OBJETIVO: Descrever as alterações do sistema nervoso central (SNC presentes em uma amostra de pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV, tentando correlacioná-las com os demais achados clínicos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dezessete pacientes com diagnóstico de EOAV. Todos apresentavam avaliação radiológica do SNC, cariótipo por bandas GTG normal e achados clínicos em pelo menos duas das quatro das seguintes áreas: oro-crânio-facial, ocular, auricular e vertebral. RESULTADOS: Alterações do SNC foram verificadas em oito dos dezessete pacientes (47%. Hipoplasia cerebral difusa, dilatação dos ventrículos cerebrais laterais (hidrocefalia assintomática, disgenesia do corpo caloso e hipondesidades frontais foram as anormalidades mais frequentes. A presença de

  7. Nerve entrapment of the foot and ankle in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P C; Baxter, D E

    1985-10-01

    In the 10 years 1972 through 1982, the senior author performed 21 operations on 15 runners with persistent foot and ankle pain. The operative procedures involved decompression of peripheral nerves in the foot and ankle, consisting of release of soft tissues in the tarsal tunnel and foot or removal of abnormal bony excrescences that were irritating these nerves. All 15 runners had good to excellent results and all returned to their preinjury running status, including the competitive athletes. Foot and ankle pain is best treated conservatively, but when signs and symptoms culled from a careful history and physical examination reflect a nerve entrapment syndrome, surgical intervention has its place in the armamentarium of the surgeon.

  8. Vascular entrapment of the sciatic plexus causing catamenial sciatica and urinary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Nucelio; Marques, Renato Moretti; Kamergorodsky, Gil; Ploger, Christine; Schor, Eduardo; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic congestion syndrome is a well-known cause of cyclic pelvic pain (Ganeshan et al., Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 30(6):1105-11, 2007). What is much less well known is that dilated or malformed branches of the internal or external iliac vessels can entrap the nerves of the sacral plexus against the pelvic sidewalls, producing symptoms that are not commonly seen in gynecological practice, such as sciatica, or refractory urinary and anorectal dysfunction (Possover et al., Fertil Steril 95(2):756-8. 2011). The objective of this video is to explain and describe the symptoms suggestive of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus, as well as the technique for the laparoscopic decompression of these nerves. Two anecdotal cases of intrapelvic vascular entrapment are used to review the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus and demonstrate the laparoscopic surgical technique for decompression at two different sites, one on the sciatic nerve and one on the sacral nerve roots. After surgery, the patient with the sciatic entrapment showed full recovery of the sciatica and partial recovery of the myofascial pain. The patient with sacral nerve root entrapment showed full recovery with resolution of symptoms. The symptoms suggestive of intrapelvic nerve entrapment are: perineal pain or pain irradiating to the lower limbs in the absence of a spinal disorder, and lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of prolapse of a bladder lesion. In the presence of such symptoms, the radiologist should provide specific MRI sequences of the intrapelvic portion of the sacral plexus and a team and equipment to expose and decompress the sacral nerves should be prepared.

  9. Mutations in the T (brachyury) gene cause a novel syndrome consisting of sacral agenesis, abnormal ossification of the vertebral bodies and a persistent notochordal canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A V; Alders, M; Sylva, M; Bilardo, C M; Pajkrt, E; van Rijn, R R; Schulte-Merker, S; Bulk, S; Stefanovic, S; Ilgun, A; Barnett, P; Mannens, M M A M; Moorman, A F M; Oostra, R J; van Maarle, M C

    BACKGROUND: The T gene (brachyury gene) is the founding member of the T-box family of transcription factors and is vital for the formation and differentiation of the mesoderm and the axial development of all vertebrates. RESULTS: We report here on four patients from three consanguineous families

  10. Ear abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome Anormalidades auriculares em pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (síndrome de Goldenhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS is a rare condition characterized by the involvement of the first branchial arches. PURPOSE: To investigate the ear abnormalities of a sample of patients with OAVS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 12 patients with OAVS seen at the Clinical Genetics Unit, UFCSPA/CHSCPA. The study included only patients who underwent mastoid computed tomography and with normal karyotype. We performed a review of its clinical features, giving emphasis to the ear findings. RESULTS: Nine patients were male, the ages ranged from 1 day to 17 years. Ear abnormalities were observed in all patients and involved the external (n=12, middle (n=10 and inner ear (n=3. Microtia was the most frequent finding (n=12. The most common abnormalities of the middle ear were: opacification (n=2, displacement (n=2 and malformation of the ossicular chain. Agenesis of the internal auditory canal (n=2 was the most frequent alteration of the inner ear. CONCLUSIONS: Ear abnormalities are variable in patients with OAVS and often there is no correlation between findings in the external, middle and inner ear. The evaluation of these structures is important in the management of individuals with OAVSO espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV é uma condição rara caracterizada pelo envolvimento dos primeiros arcos branquiais. OBJETIVOS: Verificar as alterações auriculares de uma amostra de pacientes com EOAV. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 12 pacientes com EOAV atendidos no Serviço de Genética Clínica da UFCSPA/CHSCPA. Foram incluídos no estudo apenas pacientes submetidos à tomografia computadorizada de mastoide e com cariótipo normal. Realizou-se uma revisão dos seus achados clínicos, dando-se ênfase aos achados auriculares. RESULTADOS: Nove pacientes eram do sexo masculino, idades variaram de 1 dia a 17 anos. Anormalidades auriculares foram observadas em todos os pacientes e envolveram a orelha externa (n=12

  11. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  12. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-04-29

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  13. Ring Entrapment of the Finger in a Psychiatric Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is usually amenable to conservative treatment by removal of the entrapped ring. Gangrene of the affected digit is rare. This is a report of a ... Entrapped rings would usually cause distal swelling, l and sometimes gangrene of the digits, .... secondary to systemic sclerosis. (scleroderma). Iloprost has been found to be more ...

  14. Physiology and biochemistry of human subjects during entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Giotaki, Z K; Kolostoumbis, D; Papageorgiou, C; Zorba, E; Spiliopoulou, C; Amann, A; Statheropoulos, M

    2013-03-01

    A classification of various categories of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings after earthquakes, technical failures or explosions is proposed. Type and degree of injury at the moment of building collapse and duration of entrapment are the two basic parameters in this classification. The aim is to provide sources and types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be used for establishing a new method for locating entrapped victims based on human chemical signatures. Potential target compounds, among others, are ammonia, acetone, isoprene, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and trimethylamine. In this context, the possible neuroendocrine, metabolic and physical responses of potential victims during the different types of entrapment are correlated with the sources of VOCs such as expired air, urine, blood and sweat. The proposed classification scheme was developed as part of an integrated research project which investigates the use of combined audio, video and chemical methods for the early location of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings.

  15. Preparation and characterization of liposomes entrapping allergenic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. M. Cabral

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of the preparation and characterization of small unilamellar liposomes for entrapping allergenic proteins extracted from the biomass of Dreschlera (Helminthosporium monoceras cultivated by solid fermentation. Protein was entrapped by the dehydration-rehydration method, using lyophilization of preformed liposomes in order to prevent their degradation The reconstitution of lyophilized liposomes by hydration, their capacity for entrapping allergenic proteins and their stability in plasma were analyzed. Liposomes were reconstituted in size by including trehalose sugar in the formulation. The protection of the liposomal membrane by trehalose was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The reconstituted membrane had an osmotic behavior similar to that of nondehydrated ones. Allergenic proteins ranging in molecular weight from 14 to 170 kDa were entrapped in the lipid matrix with an efficiency of approximately 80%. These results are promising for producing liposomes by entrapping allergenic proteins from mold extracts, which can be useful for allergy therapy.

  16. Assessment of the utility of ultrasonography with high-frequency transducers in the diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this paper was to assess the relevance of high-frequency ultrasound examination in qualifying patients for either surgical or conservative treatment of peripheral entrapment neuropathies. The study was conducted in a group of 55 patients aged 7–83 (mean age 43.6, including 28 males and 27 females, who in 2009–2011 were referred to an ultrasound examination due to a clinical suspicion of entrapment neuropathies. For the purposes of the analysis, the patients were divided into four groups: carpal tunnel syndrome (1, ulnar nerve entrapment (2 (cubital tunnel syndrome and Guyon’s canal syndrome, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome (3 and other entrapment neuropathies (4. The cases of isolated idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were excluded from the analysis. All patients underwent the interview, physical examination and ultrasound examination. Ultrasound examinations were performed with Esaote MyLab 50 and MyLab 60 systems using high-frequency broadband linear transducers: 6–18 MHz. Sixty-seven percent of patients (37 persons underwent a neurophysiological test. Nerve echostructure, its hyperemia as well as nerve cross-sectional area or, in the case of small nerves, diameter were assessed in all patients. Furthermore, the following were assessed in individual groups: notch sign in group 1, nerve instability in a dynamic ultrasound examination in group 2, nerve angulation in a dynamic ultrasound examination and tenderness on nerve compression at the site of the visualized pathology in group 3. The analyses of the collected material were performed by means of descriptive statistics. The results of clinical and surgical verification were consistent with ultrasound findings in 96.4%. The results indicate that high-frequency ultrasonography is a valuable method in qualifying patients for various types of treatment of peripheral neuropathies resulting from compression.

  17. Drop impact splashing and air entrapment

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2013-03-01

    Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.

  18. Rwanda: a case of demographic entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneux, L

    1994-12-17

    When King published 3 articles about demographic entrapment, he recommended that primary health care stop targeting child mortality, indeed that oral rehydration solutions be withheld, in order to reduce population size and evade the demographic trap of a region endangered by the growth of its own population. Using Rwanda as an example, it is possible to calculate the effect of decreasing child mortality on population growth. From 1970, when there were no programs to reduce child mortality, until 1993 the birth rate remained constant and the child mortality rate slowed so that an extra 0.5/5 children would survive to their fifth birthday. Thus, most of the population growth increase of 0.5% is probably attributable to decreased child mortality. If the high mortality rate had been maintained, the growth rate would have remained at 2.9% and the population doubling time would have been 24.2 years. The actual doubling time between 1970 and 1993 was 22.1 years, so only 2 years would have been gained by increased child mortality. The problem in Rwanda was not decreased child mortality, therefore, but the constant birth rate. Rwanda has a very Catholic population which embraces the Roman Catholic Church's anti-family planning policy. It is very hard for illiterate poor to refute the teachings of the church. The collapse of Rwanda caused by its overpopulation presents an example to the world of the devastating consequences of denying effective family planning to the poor.

  19. Enzyme-entrapping behaviors in alginate fibers and their papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Matsuo, R.; Ohya, T.; Yokoi, N.

    1987-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization in the form of fiber and paper was easily achieved by wet spinning of aqueous admixture of sodium alginate and enzymes into divalent metallic ion solution as a coagulating bath, followed by paper making of resultant shortly cut fibers. Entrapment yields of enzymes used, e.g., glucoamylase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, endo-polygalacturonase, and protease, were always higher in calcium alginate fibers and their papers than those in corresponding beads. It was found that the yields increased with an increase of the discharge rate through the spinning nozzle because the higher discharge rate could provide more highly oriented metal-chelate linear polymer molecules along the fiber axis for preventing leakage of entrapped enzymes. Divalent metallic ions affected greatly the entrapment of glucoamylase in alginate fibers, the order of which followed rougly the ionotropic series of Thiele. Entrapment of glucoamylase in bicomponent systems comprising alginate and other water-soluble polymers was also investigated. (Refs. 41).

  20. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, XRD and PIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very heterogeneous.

  1. The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Annina B; Bland, Jeremy D P; Bhat, Manzoor A; Bennett, David L H

    2014-12-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (Parchitecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients' symptoms or function deficits, the presence of elongated nodes was inversely correlated with a number of functional and symptom related scores (Psensory axons. We also document for the first time that entrapment neuropathies lead to a clear reduction in intraepidermal nerve fibre density, which was independent of electrodiagnostic test severity. The presence of elongated nodes in the target tissue further suggests that entrapment

  2. Environmental controls of wood entrapment in upper Midwestern streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Eric C.; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Locations of pieces were determined in summer 2007 and again following an overbank stormflow event in fall 2007. The ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio) and the weight of the piece were important in a multiple logistic regression model that explained 25% of the variance in wood entrapment. Entrapment remains difficult to predict in natural streams, and often may simply occur wherever wood pieces are located when high water recedes. However, this study can inform stream modifications to discourage entrapment at road crossings or other infrastructure by applying the model formula to estimate the effective width required to pass particular wood pieces. Conversely, these results could also be used to determine conditions (e.g. pre-existing large, stable pieces) that encourage entrapment where wood is valued for ecological functions.

  3. Evaluación de una nueva sistematización de estudios para el diagnóstico del síndrome de destrucción vertebral Avaliação de nova sistematização de exames para o diagnóstico da síndrome de destruição vertebral Evaluation of a new systematization of tests for the diagnosis of vertebral destruction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alpizar Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    ínicas e os resultados foram obtidos por estatística descritiva, média e desvio padrão para as variáveis quantitativas e porcentagens para as qualitativas. RESULTADOS: Média de idade de 53,3 ± 16,56 anos; 10 homens e 10 mulheres. Trinta vértebras afetadas nos 20 pacientes; 8 deles tinham afecção em duas ou mais vértebras. O nível mais afetado foi o lombar em 18 casos, seguido pelo torácico em 12. A tuberculose da coluna vertebral (doença de Pott foi diagnosticada em 7 casos (35%, a osteomielite, em 4 (20%, o mieloma múltiplo, em 2 (10% discite, metástase de adenocarcinoma, linfoma e osteoporose, cada um em um caso (5%. Em 3 casos (15% não se obteve diagnóstico específico. CONCLUSÕES: Esta proposta de sistematização foi útil para chegar ao diagnóstico etiológico definitivo da SDV em 85% dos casos, com redução da quantidade de exames realizados. É preciso estudar um número maior de pacientes para aumentar a evidência de sua utilidade.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of a systematic set of diagnostic tests in a protocol sheet for determination of vertebral destruction syndrome in patients treated in our service. METHODS: We analysed a proposal for systematization through a pilot study of 20 patients who underwent 10 different laboratory and imaging tests, as well as the histopathological study through percutaneous biopsy. We described the demographic and clinical characteristics and likewise the results obtained by means of descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables and percentage for qualitative variables. RESULTS: Average age of 53.3 ± 16.56 years; 10 men and 10 women. Thirty vertebrae affected in 20 patients; 8 patients had disease in two or more vertebrae. The most affected level was the lumbar in 18 cases, followed by thoracic in 12. The spinal tuberculosis (Pott's disease was detected in 7 cases (35%, osteomyelitis in 4 (20%, multiple myeloma, in 2 (10%, and discitis, metastasis of adenocarcinoma

  4. Malformação da transição crânio-vertebral como causa de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de dois casos Cerebello-pontine angle syndrome associated with cranio-vertebral malformation: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Batista da Silva

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar nos quais não havia neoplasia nessa região. Ambos os pacientes apresentavam uma associação de impressão basilar com síndrome de Arnold-Chiari. Após cirurgia descompressiva de fossa posterior os casos evoluiram favoravelmente com a diminuição progressiva dos sintomas neurológicos, restando apenas, no segundo paciente, certo grau de paralisia e de espasmo facial, à direita. São feitas considerações em tôrno das causas mais freqüentes da síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar, bem como acêrca dos quadros clínicos mais usualmente encontrados em doentes que apresentam malformações da transição crânio-vertebral. Finalmente, os autores tecem breves considerações a respeito do possível mecanismo lesionai do VIII, do V e do VII nervos cranianos nos dois casos relatados.Two cases of cerebelo-pontine angle syndrome associated with basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation are reported. In both cases neuroradiological studies and surgical exploration failled to demonstrate any space occupying lesion. After surgery the patients progressively recovered disapearing the neurological symptoms except for a slaight hemifacial spasm that remained in case 2. Clinical signs present in cerebello-pontine angle lesions and the occipito-cervical malformations are discussed. A possible mechanism to explain the association of both conditions is discussed.

  5. Epidural catheter fragment entrapment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Epidural catheters are seldom difficult to remove from patients. The breakage of the catheters is uncommon, troublesome and occasionally dangerous. "n"nCase presentation: A lumbar epidural catheter inserted in a 17 year-old man for applying anesthesia for internal fixation of femur fracture and subsequent postoperative epidural analgesia. In the third postoperative day, during unsuccessful attempt for removing the catheter, it was broken and was retained in his back. A CT- scan was performed and shows a fragment of catheter in the sub- laminar ligament between L3 and L4 without any connection with epidural space. As the patient had no complaint the fractured fragment was left in site and he was just followed up in the clinic."n"nConclusion: The knowledge of practical method in locating the retained epidural catheter, and the indication for surgical removal are very important. CT- scan is useful in showing the mechanism and locating the epidural catheter entrapment and facilitating surgical follow-up.

  6. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  7. The course of the nerve root in the neural foramen and its relationship with foraminal entrapment or impingement in adult patients with lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis and radicular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Won; Chung, Jin-Wha; Park, Jong-Beom; Song, Seok-Whan; Ha, Kee-Yong; An, Howard S

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the course of a nerve root in the neural foramen and its relationship with foraminal entrapment or impingement in 19 adult patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis and radicular pain. Myelo-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the course of the nerve root was normal (ie, medial and then inferior, along the pedicle) in 10 patients and was deviated posteriorly in 9 patients. The patients with a normal nerve root course (N-NRC) had either a bony callus projecting medially into the spinal canal (n = 6) or a low mean percentile of vertebral slip (n = 4; 13.9 +/- 1.3). Those nine patients with a posteriorly deviated nerve root course (PD-NRC) had no medially projecting bony callus in the spinal canal but had a higher mean percentile of vertebral slip (n = 9; 31.5 +/- 10.1; P = 0.005). In the neural foramen, nerve roots of the N-NRC patients were entrapped craniocaudally between the pedicle and superior part of the intervertebral disc. In contrast, nerve roots of the PD-NRC patients were impinged ventrodorsally between the posterosuperior part of the intervertebral disc and either bony callus projecting inferiorly toward the neural foramen or fibrocartilaginous mass arising around the isthmic defect. The foraminal craniocaudal entrapment and ventrodorsal impingement highly agreed with the side of radicular pain (kappa= 0.73, P radicular pain.

  8. Entrapment of ciliates at the water-air interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ferracci

    Full Text Available The importance of water-air interfaces (WAI on microorganism activities has been recognized by many researchers. In this paper, we report a novel phenomenon: the entrapment of ciliates Tetrahymena at the WAI. We first characterized the behavior of cells at the interface and showed that the cells' swimming velocity was considerably reduced at the WAI. To verify the possible causes of the entrapment, we investigated the effects of positive chemotaxis for oxygen, negative geotaxis and surface properties. Even though the taxes were still effective, the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on the physiological conditions, but was instead affected by the physical properties at the interface. This knowledge is useful for a better understanding of the physiology of microorganisms at interfaces in nature and in industry.

  9. Dendrimer-entrapped metal colloids as imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du; Wen, Shihui; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    This review reports the recent advances in dendrimer-entrapped metal colloids as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. The versatile dendrimer scaffolds with 3-dimensional spherical shape, highly branched internal cavity, tunable surface conjugation chemistry, and excellent biocompatibility and nonimmunogenicity afford their uses as templates to create multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped metal colloids for mono- or multi- mode molecular imaging applications. In particular, multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles with different surface modifications have been used for fluorescence imaging, targeted tumor computed tomography (CT) imaging, enhanced blood pool CT imaging, dual mode CT/MR imaging, and tumor theranostics (combined CT imaging and chemotherapy) will be introduced and discussed in detail. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lower leg pain. Diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndromes and other pain syndromes of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliopolous, S; Hershman, E B

    1999-03-01

    Leg pain in athletes has many aetiologies. The clinician must strive to specifically define the clinical problem in order to administer the appropriate treatment for the athlete's condition. Clinical conditions in the leg causing symptoms in athletes include chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECC), tendinitis, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, fascial defects, musculotendinous junction disruptions (tennis leg), popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, effort-induced venous thrombosis and nerve entrapment. Appropriate diagnostic studies are needed to allow accurate diagnosis. A work-up might include radiographs, bone scans and compartment pressure measurement. Many of these conditions relate to overuse and training errors. Conservative measures including rest, activity modification and rehabilitation will permit a gradual return to participation in sports. Some problems such as CECC, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and nerve entrapment may require surgical intervention to allow the resolution of symptoms. Clinicians should be familiar with the range of problems causing leg pain in order to prescribe specific treatment for each athlete.

  11. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...... of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly...... of improving the prediction of bone strength of the vertebral body. The correlations between BV/TV of L-2 and bone strength of L-3 were comparable with the correlation obtained by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptrometry (DEXA) of L-3 and bone strength...

  12. Management of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J.; Collins, Anton; Parissis, Haralambos

    2012-01-01

    An intra-aortic balloon pump is one of the most valuable tools in the cardiac surgeon's armament to assist in the management of the failing heart. Despite its widespread use, there are associated risks and complications, one of which is balloon rupture with associated entrapment. Numerous approaches for dealing with this complication have been described; here we review the previous experience with intra-aortic balloon pump entrapment and discuss potential management, with particular reference to a recent case of our own. PMID:23109753

  13. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  14. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  15. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  16. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah A; Gaunt, Matthew C; Taylor, Susan M; Snead, Elizabeth C R

    2010-09-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

  17. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Compositional and structural information were obtained from an ancient 1600-year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, µXRD and µPIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very hetero-.

  18. Amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Prathvi; Menezes, Leo Theobald; Tauro, Leo Francis; Diddigi, Kumar Arun

    2013-10-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder without any genetic or hereditary disposition. It involves fetal entrapment in strands of amniotic tissue and causes an array of deletions and deformations. Primary treatment is plastic and reconstructive surgery after birth with in utero fetal surgery also coming in vogue.

  19. Amniotic Band Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Prathvi; Menezes, Leo Theobald; Tauro, Leo Francis; Diddigi, Kumar Arun

    2012-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder without any genetic or hereditary disposition. It involves fetal entrapment in strands of amniotic tissue and causes an array of deletions and deformations. Primary treatment is plastic and reconstructive surgery after birth with in utero fetal surgery also coming in vogue.

  20. Unusual Variation of the Biceps Brachii with Possible Median Nerve Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylo Yershov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biceps brachii is one of three muscles of the anterior compartment of arm. Variations of the biceps brachii are not rare. The most frequent is the existence of a third head called the humeral head by Le Double (1897 (Rodríguez-Vázquez et al., 1999. Our article is based on the unexpected result of a routine dissection class held for medical students. Dissection was performed according to the guidelines accepted by the anatomy department (Seichert, 1999. We describe a third (accessory head of the biceps brachii. In addition of two regular heads, the third head originated together with the short head from the coracoid process and had three insertions on the humerus after enfolding the median nerve and the brachial artery. This particular variation is important from a clinical perspective as the third head may cause entrapment syndrome of the median nerve and hypoperfusion of the upper limb due to compression of the brachial artery.

  1. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo [Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Medical Univ., School of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.).

  2. Short Bi-Iliac Distance in Prenatal Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Ulla B.; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Keeling, Jean W.

    2002-01-01

    prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography......prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography...

  3. Vertebral contour in spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Rho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. K. [Wallace memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The defect in the pars interarticularis of spondylolisthesis may be dependent on contributing factors related to trauma and stress to which the neural arch is subjected, superimposed on a hereditary diasthesis. Posterior wedging of 5th lumber vertebral body in lumbosacral spondylolisthesis together with the degree of slip have been measured. The average wedging in spondylolisthesis is significantly greater than patient without this condition, and forms a characteristic radiological sign. The degree of wedging and slip show a statistically valid correlation. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is becoming more prevalent as the complexity of our society result in the increasing use of roentgenography of the lumbar spine. Isolated lateral deviation and rotation of spinous process seen in anteroposterior radiographs of the lumbar spine seems to be associated with pathology in the pars interarticularis.

  4. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  5. Audiological Findings in Patients with Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleifer, Pricila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, also referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by alterations involving the development of the structures of the first and second branchial arches. The abnormalities primarily affect the face, the eyes, the spine, and the ears, and the auricular abnormalities are associated with possible hearing loss. Objective To analyze the audiological findings of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum through liminal pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry test. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted on 10 patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and clinical findings on at least two of the following areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular, and vertebral. All patients underwent tonal and vocal hearing evaluations. Results Seven patients were male and three were female; all had ear abnormalities, and the right side was the most often affected. Conductive hearing loss was the most common (found in 10 ears, followed by sensorineural hearing loss (in five ears, with mixed hearing loss in only one ear. The impairment of the hearing loss ranged from mild to moderate, with one case of profound loss. Conclusions The results show a higher frequency of conductive hearing loss among individuals with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum phenotype, especially moderate loss affecting the right side. Furthermore, research in auditory thresholds in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is important in speech therapy findings about the disease to facilitate early intervention for possible alterations.

  6. Testing a German Adaption of the Entrapment Scale and Assessing the Relation to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Manuel; Krieger, Tobias; Gilbert, Paul; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The construct of entrapment is used in evolutionary theory to explain the etiology of depression. The perception of entrapment can emerge when defeated individuals want to escape but are incapable. Studies have shown relationships of entrapment to depression, and suicidal tendencies. The aim of this study was a psychometric evaluation and validation of the Entrapment Scale in German (ES-D). 540 normal subjects completed the ES-D along with other measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and distress. Good reliability and validity of the ES-D was demonstrated. Further, whereas entrapment originally has been regarded as a two-dimensional construct, our analyses supported a single-factor model. Entrapment explained variance in depressive symptoms beyond that explained by stress and hopelessness supporting the relevance of the construct for depression research. These findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical implications as well as to the future use of the entrapment scale in clinical research and practice. PMID:21152219

  7. Testing a German Adaption of the Entrapment Scale and Assessing the Relation to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Trachsel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of entrapment is used in evolutionary theory to explain the etiology of depression. The perception of entrapment can emerge when defeated individuals want to escape but are incapable. Studies have shown relationships of entrapment to depression, and suicidal tendencies. The aim of this study was a psychometric evaluation and validation of the Entrapment Scale in German (ES-D. 540 normal subjects completed the ES-D along with other measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and distress. Good reliability and validity of the ES-D was demonstrated. Further, whereas entrapment originally has been regarded as a two-dimensional construct, our analyses supported a single-factor model. Entrapment explained variance in depressive symptoms beyond that explained by stress and hopelessness supporting the relevance of the construct for depression research. These findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical implications as well as to the future use of the entrapment scale in clinical research and practice.

  8. A case of goldenhar's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Atabey, A.; Barutçu, A.

    1992-01-01

    Goldenhar's syndrome (Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome, facioauricuiovertebral sequence, oculoauriculoverteb- ral dysplasia) is a variant of craniofacial microsomia (first and second branchial arch syndrome). It is generally characterized by epibulbar dermoids and/or lipo- dermoids, pretragal blinded fistulas, skin tags on the cheek and vertebral anomalies. A 24-year-old female patient with Goldenhar's syndrome was presented in this paper.

  9. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Lethal head entrapment--a problem characteristic of early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Charlwood, Cheryl

    2009-08-01

    Accidental deaths in infancy and early childhood often result from young childrens' lack of understanding of the dangers of certain situations and their physical inability to extricate themselves from potentially lethal circumstances. Two cases are reported to demonstrate an age-related susceptibility in the young to lethal head entrapment. Case 1: a 5-month-old girl smothered when she slipped down in her stroller, trapping her head beneath the frame and forcing her face into the soft material of the base. Case 2: a 14-month-old boy was hanged while exploring a filing cabinet when his head became caught between two lower drawers. Additional mental and physical characteristics that predispose young children and infants to lethal head entrapment include an inability to effectively problem solve once confronted with a hazardous situation, and relatively large heads and weak neck musculature. Because of these features lethal head entrapment represents a particular circumstance that may predispose to accidental asphyxial deaths in the very young. A combination of careful death scene and autopsy evaluations will be required to confirm the alleged circumstances of death in these cases, including mortuary re-enactments and assessment of the deceased infant's level of physical maturity and mobility.

  11. Entrapment and dissolution of DNAPLs in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Rathfelder, Klaus M; Lang, John; Abriola, Linda M

    2003-12-01

    Two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport simulators were refined and used to numerically investigate the entrapment and dissolution behavior of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in heterogeneous porous media containing spatial variations in wettability. Measured hydraulic properties, residual saturations, and dissolution parameters were employed in these simulations. Entrapment was quantified using experimentally verified hydraulic property and residual saturation models that account for hysteresis and wettability variations. The nonequilibrium dissolution of PCE was modeled using independent estimates of the film mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area for entrapped and continuous (PCE pools or films) saturations. Flow simulations demonstrate that the spatial distribution of PCE is highly dependent on subsurface wettability characteristics that create differences in PCE retention mechanisms and the presence of subsurface capillary barriers. For a given soil texture, the maximum and minimum PCE infiltration depth was obtained when the sand had intermediate (an organic-wet mass fraction of 25%) and strong (water- or organic-wet) wettability conditions, respectively. In heterogeneous systems, subsurface wettability variations were also found to enhance or diminish the performance of soil texture-induced capillary barriers. The dissolution behavior of PCE was found to depend on the soil wettability and the spatial PCE distribution. Shorter dissolution times tended to occur when PCE was distributed over large regions due to an increased access of flowing water to the PCE. In heterogeneous systems, capillary barriers that produced high PCE saturations tended to exhibit longer dissolution times.

  12. Vertebral Artery Caught in the Fracture Gap after Traumatic C2/3 Spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Henkelmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. Patient with a C2 fracture and entrapment of the right vertebral artery in the fracture gap. Purpose. Presentation of a case with follow-up until end of treatment. Study Design. Case report. Methods. A 25-year-old woman was brought into our emergency room after falling while riding a horse. She complained of pain in the cervical spine. Clinical examinations showed local tenderness at the upper cervical spine and painful impairment of the mobility of the neck, with no signs of neurological impairment. Radiological diagnostics revealed a traumatic C2/3 spondylolisthesis. A computer tomography (CT angiographic scan showed a dislocation of the right vertebral artery into the fracture gap without injury to the artery. Open reduction and osteosynthesis were considered of too high risk. Therefore, we conducted fracture treatment with closed reduction and halo fixation. After removal of the halo fixator, the patient was given a soft cervical collar and was advised to rest for additional 6 weeks before beginning gradual activity. Results. Conventional follow-up revealed osseous consolidation and a CT angiographic scan showed consistent blood flow to the artery. Conclusion. Halo fixation was a safe and effective therapy strategy in the case of vertebral artery entrapment after traumatic C2 spondylolisthesis.

  13. Craniofacial features in Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, C; Reddy, R Sudhakara; Uloopi, K S; Madhuri, V; Sekhar, R Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome was first reported by Dr Maurice Goldenhar in 1952. It is a rare disease entity characterized by craniofacial anomalies such as hypoplasia of the mandible and malar bones, microtia, and vertebral anomalies. The etiology of this disease still remains unclear and occurs as sporadic. This report presents goldenhar syndrome in a 12-year-old male patient.

  14. Craniofacial features in Goldenhar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome was first reported by Dr Maurice Goldenhar in 1952. It is a rare disease entity characterized by craniofacial anomalies such as hypoplasia of the mandible and malar bones, microtia, and vertebral anomalies. The etiology of this disease still remains unclear and occurs as sporadic. This report presents goldenhar syndrome in a 12-year-old male patient.

  15. Vertebral Malformations in French Bulldogs

    OpenAIRE

    KURICOVÁ, Mária; LEDECKÝ, Valent; KVETKOVÁ, Jaroslava; LIPTÁK, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect vertebral malformations among French Bulldogs admitted between the years 2011 – 2016 due to the high popularity of the breed and the intentions to increase the breed welfare by reducing the occurrence of congenital anomalies. Besides, we aimed to look for gender predisposition, possible vertebral predisposition, occurrence of clinical symptoms and radiographic findings. A total of 73 French Bulldogs met the inclusion criteria (radiographs of the whole spine...

  16. Application of living microbial cells entrapped with synthetic resin prepolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, S; Tanaka, A

    1989-12-01

    Living and growing microbial cells were immobilized by entrapping in synthetic resin gels prepared from their prepolymers, and used in the production of various useful substances. The production of the desired metabolites and also both the activity and the stability of the catalytic systems were seriously affected by the physico-chemical properties of the prepolymers, and those of the resin gels subsequently formed, such as gel network, hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity balance and ionic nature, as well as by the type of bioreactors. Hydroxylation of steroids and production of antibiotics, polypeptides and other biologically active substances, and the effects of gel properties on them are discussed as examples.

  17. Releasing of zipper-entrapped foreskin: a novel nonsurgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam

    2007-07-01

    This report describes a novel technique of releasing the zipper-entrapped penile skin. The thin blade of a small screwdriver is inserted between the outer and inner faceplates of the zip fastener, and twisting movement is made toward the median bar. This will widen the gap between faceplates disengaging the prepuce. This technique was used in 12 children and was found to be safe, effective, simple, painless, and nontraumatic. This can be done by attending pediatrician even in nonhospital settings without resorting to surgical help.

  18. DMRT genes in vertebrate gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkower, David

    2013-01-01

    Genes containing the DM domain DNA-binding motif regulate sex determination and sexual differentiation in a broad variety of metazoans, including nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. They can function in primary sex determination or downstream in sexual differentiation, and they can act either throughout the body or in highly restricted cell types. In vertebrates, several DM domain genes--DMRT genes--play critical roles in gonadal differentiation or gametogenesis. DMRT1 has the most prominent role and likely regulates testicular differentiation in all vertebrates. In the mammalian gonad, DMRT1 exerts both intrinsic and extrinsic control of gametogenesis; it is required for germ cell differentiation in males and regulates meiosis in both sexes, and it is required in supporting cells for the establishment and maintenance of male fate in the testis. These varied functions of DMRT1 serve to coordinate gonadal development and function. In other vertebrates, DMRT1 regulates gonadal differentiation, and it also appears to have played a central role in the evolution of new sex-determining mechanisms in at least three vertebrate clades. This chapter focuses on the regulation of vertebrate gametogenesis by DMRT1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial Cretaceous park: biodiversity of microbial fossils entrapped in amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Ana; Wierzchos, Jacek; Gutiérrez, Juan C; Alonso, Jesús; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms are the most ancient cells on this planet and they include key phyla for understanding cell evolution and Earth history, but, unfortunately, their microbial records are scarce. Here, we present a critical review of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms entrapped in Cretaceous ambers (but not exclusively from this geological period) obtained from deposits worldwide. Microbiota in ambers are rather diverse and include bacteria, fungi, and protists. We comment on the most important microbial records from the last 25 years, although it is not an exhaustive bibliographic compilation. The most frequently reported eukaryotic microfossils are shells of amoebae and protists with a cell wall or a complex cortex. Likewise, diverse dormant stages (palmeloid forms, resting cysts, spores, etc.) are abundant in ambers. Besides, viral and protist pathogens have been identified inside insects entrapped in amber. The situation regarding filamentous bacteria and fungi is quite confusing because in some cases, the same record was identified consecutively as a member of these phylogenetically distant groups. To avoid these identification errors in the future, we propose to apply a more resolute microscopic and analytical method in amber studies. Also, we discuss the most recent findings about ancient DNA repair and bacterial survival in remote substrates, which support the real possibility of ancient DNA amplification and bacterial resuscitation from Cretaceous resins.

  20. Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.

  1. Sustained release from a metal - Analgesics entrapped within biocidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menagen, Barak; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2017-06-23

    Matrices for sustained release of drugs have been based on polymers, biomaterials and oxides. The use of the major family of metals as matrices for sustained release is, to the best of our knowledge, unknown. In this context we describe a new family of bio-composites for sustained release of drugs, namely analgesic drugs entrapped within metallic silver. Synthetic methodologies were developed for the preparation of ibuprofen@Ag, naproxen@Ag, tramadol@Ag and bupivacaine@Ag composites. Detailed kinetic analysis of the release of the drugs from within the metal, is provided, demonstrating that metals can indeed serve as reservoirs for drug release. The metal in our case acts not only as a drug releasing source, but also as an antibacterial agent and this property of the composites was studied. Unexpectedly, it was found that the entrapment of the analgesics within silver, dramatically enhances the growth inhibition activity of wild type Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exceeding by far the inhibition activity of the separate components. A mechanism for this interesting observation is provided. The strong antimicrobial activity combined with the analgesic activity open the road for future applications of these materials as dual-purpose components in wound treatment.

  2. Reconstructing the ancestral vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Murakami, Yasunori; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain. Previous developmental studies had shown that the lamprey lacked well-established brain compartments that are present in gnathostomes, such as the medial ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip. The most accepted scenario suggested that cyclostomes had fewer compartments than that of the gnathostome brain and that gnathostomes thus evolved by a stepwise addition of innovations on its developmental sequence. However, recent studies have revealed that these compartments are present in hagfish embryos, indicating that these brain regions have been acquired before the split of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. By comparing two cyclostome lineages and gnathostomes, it has become possible to speculate about a more complex ancestral state of the brain, excluding derived traits in either of the lineages. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the brain development of the lamprey and hagfish. Then, we attempt to reconstruct the possible brain architecture of the last common ancestor of vertebrates. Finally, we discuss how the developmental plan of the vertebrate brain has been modified independently in different vertebrate lineages. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Alternative diagnostic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Takashi [Aiko Orthopaedic Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeru; Shibata, Kunio [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathies are common clinical syndromes characterized by neurologic deficits due to mechanical or dynamic compression of peripheral nerves. However, the definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is difficult in many cases, and the electrophysiological diagnostic method is solely used as a supplementary diagnostic method at present. As a new diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy, the present study investigated the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome. On enhanced MRI of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, contrast-enhancement in the median nerve was found in 30 of 34 hands (88.2%). Enhanced MRI allows to visualize intraneural edema in the nerve easily on the naked eye. Therefore, this technique supplied useful information for making definitive diagnosis and is promising as a non-invasive diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy. (author)

  4. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater...

  5. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  6. Goldenhar syndrome: ocular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhallil, S; Benatiya, I; El Abdouni, O; Mahjoubi, B; Hicham, T

    2010-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which consists of a triad of an ocular dermoid cyst, preauricular skin tags and vertebral dysplasia. We report two cases of Goldenhar syndrome, diagnosed in a 4-year-old girl and in a 20-year-old young adult. The dermoid cyst is a benign tumour with serious ophthalmologic complications.

  7. Entrapment of proteins and peptides in chitosan-polyphosphoric acid hydrogel beads: A new approach to achieve both high entrapment efficiency and controlled in vitro release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongdong; Jacquier, Jean Christophe; O'Riordan, E Dolores

    2018-01-15

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), whey protein isolate (WPI), insulin and a casein hydrolysate were entrapped in chitosan-polyphosphoric acid (PPA) beads. The in vitro release of protein from the beads in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 3) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7) was evaluated. High entrapment efficiencies were achieved for intact proteins (>95% in all cases) but entrapment was lower for the casein hydrolysate (circa 50%), possibly indicating a physical or steric entrapment of the proteins in these chitosan-PPA beads. Inhibited release of BSA, in both SGF and SIF, was achieved with low PPA concentration. Insulin and WPI were effectively retained in SGF and gradually released in SIF. Peptides from casein hydrolysate were partially (circa 35%) but quickly released in SGF with no further release in SIF. Overall, these results indicate that chitosan-PPA beads show potential for lower gastrointestinal delivery of bioactive protein material. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  9. Acoustical and optical characterization of air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; de Jong, J.; Reinten, H.; van den Berg, M.; Wijshoff, H.; Wijshoff, H.; Versluis, Michel; de Bruin, G.J.; de Jong, N.; Lohse, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Air bubbles can cause nozzle failures in piezo-driven inkjet printheads [1]. The time development of the entrapped air bubbles has experimentally been studied [2]. It was found that the air bubble has a radius of 5μm just after the entrapment. The bubble then grows by rectified diffusion due to the

  10. Entrapment and escape of liquid lubricant in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Using a transparent tool entrapment, compression and eventual escape of liquid lubricant in surface pockets is observed in plane strip drawing. The two mechanisms of lubricant escape. Micro Plasto HydroDynamic and Hydrostatic Lubrication (MPHDL and MPHSL), are observed and quantified experimentally...... with Varying viscosity, speed, reduction, workpiece material, back tension and friction. The mechanisms are influenced by all these parameters in an explicable way. Theoretical models of the escape mechanisms are established combining continuum mechanic analyses of the die pressure distribution with a fluid...... mechanic analysis of the lubricant escape. Oscillations in the drawing force are caused by the local escape of lubricant. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  11. THE EXPERIENCE OF ‘ENTRAPPED GRIEF’ FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Finlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some abortions can result in prolonged, complex grief reactions where the effects endure in problematic ways. Research findings suggest that such women suffer a turbulent spiral of often contradictory emotions and, if insufficiently acknowledged at the time of the abortion by self or other, this emotional turmoil can become pushed down and disenfranchised. This paper discusses the nature of this entrapped grief by reviewing the literature and reporting on some phenomenological case study research. A final section discusses integrative psychotherapy approaches to working in this area. Better understanding of the experience of traumatic abortion may enable therapists to be more present to this phenomenon, in particular the voicelessness some clients may experience, rendering them unable to process their feelings about the event and associated loss.

  12. A study of median nerve entrapment neuropathy at wrist in uremic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Shende

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy seen in uremic patients. The study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of CTS in uremic patients and to identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic test. Study was conducted on 80 subjects of age 30-60 years. End-stage kidney disease patients were recruited for the clinical evaluation, motor nerve conduction studies (NCS, sensory NCS, F wave study and median-versus-ulnar comparison studies (palm-to-wrist mixed comparison study, digit 4 sensory latencies study and lumbrical-interossei comparison study. Among three different diagnostic modalities, frequency of CTS was found to be 17.5% with clinical evaluation, 15% with routine NCS studies and 25% with median-versus-ulnar comparison studies. Among the median-versus-ulnar comparison studies, lumbrical-interossei comparison study was found to be most sensitive (90%. The comparative tests for CTS are more sensitive compared to routine NCS and clinical examination. Among the comparative tests, lumbrical-interossei comparison study is the most sensitive. Early diagnosis of CTS may help patients of uremia to seek proper treatment at an appropriate time.

  13. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Bo, Maolin [Yangtze Normal University, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing 408100 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O{sup 2−} lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta{sup +} electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta{sup +}; the sp{sup 3}-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent

  14. Fat pad entrapment at the hip: a new diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, Narlaka; Aprato, Alessandro; Villar, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    To establish if a positive impingement sign in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) may result from entrapment of the fat pad located at the anterior head-neck junction of the upper femur. This fat pad is routinely removed before any cam lesion excision. We report a prospective study of 142 consecutive hip arthroscopies for symptomatic FAI where the aim was to remove the arthroscopically identified area of impingement, not necessarily to create a spherical femoral head. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 92; 34 females, 58 males), where a cam-type bony FAI lesion was identified and excised in addition to the fat pad which overlay it, and Group 2 (n = 50; 29 females, 21 males) where the only identified point of impingement was a prominent fat pad. In this situation the fat pad was excised in isolation and the underlying bone preserved. Patients were assessed preoperatively, at six weeks, six months, one year and two years with a modified Harris hip score (mHHS). Both groups were comparable preoperatively for mean age, mean alpha angle and mean anterior offset ratio. Both groups improved significantly after surgery at all time points. However, Group 1 (fat pad and bone resection) demonstrated 16.0% improvement in mHHS by two years while for Group 2 (fat pad resection only) the improvement was 18.9% (p = 0.628). The fat pad found at the anterior head/neck junction of the hip joint can be a source of pain and we propose fat pad entrapment as a new, previously undescribed diagnosis. Our findings also suggest that a large number of cam lesions are being excised unnecessarily and that further efforts should be made to understand the role of the fat pad as a source of groin discomfort. Level IV, case series.

  15. Fat pad entrapment at the hip: a new diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlaka Jayasekera

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish if a positive impingement sign in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI may result from entrapment of the fat pad located at the anterior head-neck junction of the upper femur. This fat pad is routinely removed before any cam lesion excision. METHODS: We report a prospective study of 142 consecutive hip arthroscopies for symptomatic FAI where the aim was to remove the arthroscopically identified area of impingement, not necessarily to create a spherical femoral head. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 92; 34 females, 58 males, where a cam-type bony FAI lesion was identified and excised in addition to the fat pad which overlay it, and Group 2 (n = 50; 29 females, 21 males where the only identified point of impingement was a prominent fat pad. In this situation the fat pad was excised in isolation and the underlying bone preserved. Patients were assessed preoperatively, at six weeks, six months, one year and two years with a modified Harris hip score (mHHS. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable preoperatively for mean age, mean alpha angle and mean anterior offset ratio. Both groups improved significantly after surgery at all time points. However, Group 1 (fat pad and bone resection demonstrated 16.0% improvement in mHHS by two years while for Group 2 (fat pad resection only the improvement was 18.9% (p = 0.628. CONCLUSIONS: The fat pad found at the anterior head/neck junction of the hip joint can be a source of pain and we propose fat pad entrapment as a new, previously undescribed diagnosis. Our findings also suggest that a large number of cam lesions are being excised unnecessarily and that further efforts should be made to understand the role of the fat pad as a source of groin discomfort. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.

  16. Entrapment of conjunctival goblet cells by desiccation-induced cornification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Rosa Maria; de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Li, De-Quan; Farley, William Johnson; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Bergmanson, Jan Per Gustav; Pflugfelder, Stephen Carl

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of desiccating stress on conjunctival goblet cell density and morphology and the expression of cornified envelope precursors by the ocular surface epithelia. Experimental dry eye (EDE) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Real-time PCR evaluated the expression of cornified envelope (CE) precursor proteins (involucrin and small proline-rich [Sprr] -1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -2f, and -2g proteins), the cross-linking transglutaminase 1 enzyme (Tg-1) and Muc5AC mRNA transcripts by the ocular surface epithelia. Laser scanning confocal microscopy evaluated the expression of the CE precursor proteins Tg-1 and Muc5AC in cryosections. Tg-1 activity was measured by a fluorescein cadaverine assay. Muc5AC concentration was measured by ELISA. Levels of involucrin; Sprr-1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -2f, and -2g; and Tg1-1 mRNA transcripts in ocular surface tissues increased in response to desiccating stress. Expression and activity of Tg in the conjunctiva markedly increased after EDE. Desiccating stress caused progressive loss of mucin-filled goblet cells. The apical portion of the remaining conjunctival goblet cells became entrapped by adjacent stratified apical epithelia expressing increased levels of cornified envelope precursors. Exposure to desiccating stress stimulates ocular surface epithelia to produce cornified envelope precursors and the tissue transglutaminase enzyme that cross-links them. This effect is accompanied by loss of mucin-filled goblet cells and entrapment of mucin contents in the remaining ones by cornifying cells that block the egress of mucin contents to the ocular surface. This mechanism may contribute to the conjunctival mucin deficiency that develops in dry eye.

  17. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo......Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... saturation 7%) and agree satisfactory well with model predictions. In contrast, much larger mineralization rates are measured for wet conditions (water saturation of 68%). This discrepancy originates from extensive cell dispersal, not accounted for in the model, which occurs in wet conditions...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  18. Dupla meningocele na coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de dupla meningocele de coluna vertebral, respectivamente nas regiões cervico-torácica e tóraco-lombar, no qual ocorreu hidrocéfalo após pneumoventriculografia. Para a compensação do hidrocéfalo foi feita drenagem ventrículo-peritonial.

  19. [Fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Hernández, A; Rodríguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S

    1992-02-01

    The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity.

  20. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features.

  1. Percutanous vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fracture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; a report of two cases. ... Background: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common in the geriatric age group. ... Conclusion: Percutanous vertebroplasty offers effective, immediate and sustained pain relief in osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  2. Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome with Left Renal Vein Duplication: A Rare Cause of Haematuria in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Preza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutcracker syndrome (NCS is a rare cause of haematuria. It embraces an extended nonpathognomonic spectrum of symptoms that imply a difficult diagnosis. Ultimately it may be associated with substantial morbidity and even life-threatening events. We report a rare cause if a 12-year-old boy who presented with a history of frequent intermittent episodes of painless constant haematuria. The cystoscopy showed a bloody urine ejaculate from the left ureter meatus. The Doppler ultrasonography showed turbulent pattern of venous blood flow of the posterior renal vein branch behind the aorta. The abdominopelvic computer tomography (apCT revealed left renal vein (LRV duplication with a dilated retroaortic branch, entrapped between the aorta and the vertebral column, promoting the renal nutcracker syndrome. The patient was initially hospitalized and managed with oral iron supplements and continuous saline bladder irrigation, not requiring additional treatment. The child is currently asymptomatic, with haemoglobin value returning to normal and therefore proposed to conservative management with close followup. The authors present a case report of episodic haematuria caused by a rare entity—posterior nutcracker syndrome with renal vein duplication.

  3. [Depression status of academic high school students in Seoul: mediating role of entrapment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joo; Shin, Nah-Mee; Han, Kuem-Sun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Cheon, Sook-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2011-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate the status of depression in academic high school students and path analysis model for exploring the mediating role of entrapment to depression in relation to academic stress and perceived social support. Measurements were four reliable questionnaires measuring academic stress, social support, entrapment, and depression. Data were collected from students in 17 high schools in Seoul. Students (n=5,346) completing the questionnaires indicated depression & entrapment from academic stress. Depression was more prevalent in girls, those whose parents' household income was less than two million won, who did not live with father or mother or both due to divorce, separation, or death, and those who smoked or used alcohol. Entrapment was more prevalent in students similar to cases of depression and in seniors. According to the proposed path model, 48.6% of depression was explained by academic stress, social support, and entrapment. The indirect effect of entrapment as a mediator between academic stress and depression was verified and larger than the direct effect of academic stress on depression. Considering levels of depression and entrapment demonstrated by these students, better mental health programs with diverse strategies should be developed for their psychological well-being.

  4. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  5. The infertility trap: how defeat and entrapment affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J

    2016-02-01

    Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in

  6. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord.

  8. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  9. Phloxine B as a Probe for Entrapment in Microcrystalline Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique San Román

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The photophysical behaviour of phloxine B adsorbed onto microcrystalline cellulose was evaluated by reflectance spectroscopy and laser induced time-resolved luminescence in the picosecond-nanosecond and microsecond-millisecond ranges. Analysis of the absorption spectral changes with concentration points to a small tendency of the dye to aggregate in the range of concentrations under study. Prompt fluorescence, phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence spectral decays were measured at room temperature and 77 K, without the need of sample degassing because cellulose protects triplet states from oxygen quenching. In all cases, spectral changes with time and lifetime distribution analysis were consistent with the dye coexisting in two different environments: dyes tightly entrapped between polymer chains in crystalline regions of cellulose showed longer fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes and more energetic triplet states, while dyes adsorbed in more amorphous regions of the support showed shorter lifetimes and less energetic triplet states. This behaviour is discussed in terms of the different dye-support interactions in both kinds of adsorption sites.

  10. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. VINTILA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  11. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: Part 2. Upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-02-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  12. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy--what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: part 2. Upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjun; Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Kim, Seung Min; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2007-02-01

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging.

  13. Management of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Entrapment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J.; Collins, Anton; Parissis, Haralambos

    2012-01-01

    An intra-aortic balloon pump is one of the most valuable tools in the cardiac surgeon's armament to assist in the management of the failing heart. Despite its widespread use, there are associated risks and complications, one of which is balloon rupture with associated entrapment. Numerous approaches for dealing with this complication have been described; here we review the previous experience with intra-aortic balloon pump entrapment and discuss potential management, with particular reference...

  14. Entrapment of Common Peroneal Nerve by Surgical Suture following Distal Biceps Femoris Tendon Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Aki; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Kato, Ko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    We describe entrapment of the common peroneal nerve by a suture after surgical repair of the distal biceps femoris tendon. Complete rupture of the distal biceps femoris tendon of a 16-year-old male athlete was surgically repaired. Postoperative common peroneal nerve palsy was evident, but conservative treatment did not cause any neurological improvement. Reexploration revealed that the common peroneal nerve was entrapped by the surgical suture. Complete removal of the suture and external neur...

  15. Volatile metabolites produced from agro-industrial wastes by Na-alginate entrapped Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Güneşer

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alginate entrapment on fermentation metabolites of Kluyveromyces marxianus grown in agrowastes that served as the liquid culture media. K. marxianus cells entrapped in Na-alginate were prepared using the traditional liquid-droplet-forming method. Whey and pomaces from processed tomatoes, peppers, and grapes were used as the culture media. The changes in the concentrations of sugar, alcohol, organic acids, and flavor compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Both free and entrapped, K. marxianus were used individually to metabolize sugars, organic acids, alcohols, and flavor compounds in the tomato, pepper, grape, and acid whey based media. Marked changes in the fermentation behaviors of entrapped and free K. marxianus were observed in each culture. A 1.45-log increase was observed in the cell numbers of free K. marxianus during fermentation. On the contrary, the cell numbers of entrapped K. marxianus remained the same. Both free and entrapped K. marxianus brought about the fermentation of sugars such as glucose, fructose, and lactose in the agrowaste cultures. The highest volume of ethanol was produced by K. marxianus in the whey based media. The concentrations of flavor compounds such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl isobutyrate, phenylethyl acetate, and phenylethyl alcohol were higher in fermented agrowaste based media compared to the control.

  16. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  17. Suffering, hope, and entrapment: resilience and cultural values in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    A critical health-related issue in war-affected areas is how people make sense of adversity and why they show resilience in a high-risk environment. In Afghanistan, the burden of poor mental health arises in contexts of pervasive poverty, social inequality, and persistent violence. In 2006, we conducted face-to-face interviews with 1011 children (age 11-16) and 1011 adult caregivers, randomly selected in a school-based survey in three northern and central areas. Participants narrated their experiences as part of a systematic health survey, including an open-ended questionnaire on major life stressors and solutions to mitigate them. Responses were analysed using an inductive thematic approach and categorised for quantitative presentation, producing a conceptual model. For adults, the primary concern is repairing their "broken economy," the root of all miseries in social, educational, governance, and health domains. For students, frustrations focus on learning environments as well as poverty, as education is perceived as the gateway to upward social and economic mobility. Hope arises from a sense of moral and social order embodied in the expression of key cultural values: faith, family unity, service, effort, morals, and honour. These values form the bedrock of resilience, drive social aspirations, and underpin self-respect and dignity. However, economic impediments, social expectations, and cultural dictates also combine to create entrapment, as the ability to realise personal and social aspirations is frustrated by structural inequalities injurious to health and wellbeing. This study contributes to a small but growing body of work on resilience in public health and conflict settings. It demonstrates that culture functions both as an anchor for resilience and an anvil of pain, and highlights the relevance of ethnographic work in identifying what matters most in formulating social and public health policies to promote a hopeful future. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Cubital tunnel syndrome caused by hypertrophic burn scarring: Sonographic envisage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Bayram Carli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In nerve entrapment syndromes, an electrodiagnostic study during physical examination would usually suffice to assess localization of injury. However, in daily clinical practice, sometimes it may be necessary to depict the insight; in other words to use an imaging tool. From this point of view, with its manifold advantages, ultrasound (US is superior to other imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. According to a study, US increased the sensitivity of electrodiagnostic studies from 78% to 98%. By presenting a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by hypertrophic scarring, we wanted to highlight the complementary role of US in nerve entrapment syndromes in confirming the entrapment, as well as the usefulness of it in the follow-up period of burn patients. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(2.000: 44-46

  19. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

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    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  20. Osteocondromas da coluna vertebral: um diagnóstico a considerar nas síndromes de compressão medular Osteochondromas of the spine: a diagnosis to consider in spinal cord compression syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. A. Botelho

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram revisão dos 312 casos de osteocondroma solitário e osteocondromatose múltipla, atendidos no Hospital SARAH do Aparelho Locomotor durante período de 13 anos - compreendido entre 1982 e 1994. Destes, foram selecionados seis casos de pacientes com lesão da coluna vertebral, correspondendo a 1,92% do total de casos diagnosticados desta entidade. Os casos selecionados foram submetidos a propedêutica radiológica que envolveu radiografias simples, mielografia, tomografia computadorizada e, em um dos casos, ressonância magnética. Todos foram submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico descompressivo, com retirada das lesões, as quais foram encaminhadas a análise histopatológica que confirmou a impressão diagnóstica inicial. Este estudo abrange ainda revisão dos possíveis mecanismos implicados na patogênese do processo.The authors reviewed 312 cases of solitary and multiple osteochondromas seen in SARAH Hospital for the Locomotor System during a period of 13 years - from 1982 to 1994. They selected six cases of patients with osteochondromas of the spine, corresponding to 1.92% of the total number of diagnosed cases of this entity. The selected cases were submitted to roentgenographic examination that comprised plain roentgenograms, myelography, computerized tomography and, in one of them, magnetic resonance imaging. They were submitted to decompressive surgical procedures (including laminectomy with exeresis of the lesions and posterior histopathological examination which confirmed the initial diagnostic hypothesis. This study also includes a review of the possible mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  1. [Goldenhar's syndrome--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Ewa; Bandzul, Krzysztof; Komaszyło-Spalińska, Katrzyna; Florczyk, Bozena

    2012-01-01

    Goldenhar's syndrome is a very rare, multiple, developmental disease, with characteristic oculo-auriculo-vertebral triad of abnormalities. Ophthalmological changes are mainly: microphthalmia or anophthalmia and rarely, coloboma of upper eyelid or coloboma of optic nerve head. The aim of the article is to present the case of anophthalmia in the new-born child with phenotype of Goldenhar's syndrome.

  2. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  3. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eve R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  4. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Eve R.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Bagriantsev, Slav N.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates.

  5. Vertebral wedging characteristic changes in scoliotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques

    2004-10-15

    A morphometric analysis of vertebral wedging in vertebrae from scoliotic specimens. To quantify the vertebral body changes in 30 anatomic specimens affected by a scoliotic deformity. Only a few studies have evaluated the exact changes occurring at the level of the vertebral body in scoliotic spines. Most are observational studies of rare scoliotic specimens presenting major curvatures. The orientation of vertebral wedging is important for the planning of corrective surgery, performing vertebral osteotomy, and the evaluation of possible growth modulation. Thirty scoliotic specimens with curves presenting various degrees of severity were studied using a three-dimensional digitizing protocol developed to create a precise three-dimensional reconstruction of the vertebrae. Every scoliotic specimen was then matched with a normal specimen, and comparisons were made on the vertebral body parameters both for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Analysis of variance and t test calculations were performed to identify significant differences with P = 0.05. A total of 471 vertebrae from scoliotic spines and 510 vertebrae from normal specimens were measured. Vertebral wedging increased progressively towards the apex of the curve and was maximal at the apex. Vertebral wedging was more prominent in the frontal plane, and there was minimal wedging in the sagittal plane. Vertebral heights were significantly different at T3 and T4 for the upper adjacent curve and at T6-T8 for a typical right thoracic curve, with smaller heights located on the concavity of the curve. No changes were observed on the convexity of the curve. Vertebral wedging is an essential component of the scoliotic deformity. The present study provides critical information for corrective surgery and vertebral osteotomy, as vertebral wedging occurs primarily in the frontal plane. Accurate knowledge of this deformity should also provide new insight into corrective surgical strategies aiming at growth modulation and more

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in a Patient with Paraplegia and Immobilization Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Masala, Salvatore; Calabria, Eros; Nezzo, Marco; De Vivo, Dominique; Neroni, Luca; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We will discuss a potential role of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the management of a patient with immobilization syndrome due to paraplegia and vertebral osteoporotic fractures. While PVP is commonly used for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures, its role in vertebral stabilization in patient with immobilization syndrome has not been reported in the literature. A 73-year-old woman affected by immobilization syndrome due to paraplegia and vertebra...

  7. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  8. Osteopathic manipulative medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Gilbert; Jaffe, J Douglas; Rafique, Maryum; Weinik, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 1 of the most common peripheral nerve entrapment disorders. Osteopathic manipulative medicine can be invaluable in diagnosing and managing CTS. Combined with a patient's history and a standard physical examination, an osteopathic structural examination can facilitate localizing the nerve entrapment, diagnosing CTS, and monitoring the disease process. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is noninvasive and can be used to supplement traditional CTS treatment methods. The authors also review the relevant anatomy involving CTS and the clinical efficacy of osteopathic manipulative medicine in the management of this disorder.

  9. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  10. Case report: airway and concurrent hemodynamic management in a neonate with oculo-auriculo-vertebral (Goldenhar) syndrome, severe cervical scoliosis, interrupted aortic arch, multiple ventricular septal defects, and an unstable cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Danton S; Gipp, Melanie; Boltz, M Gail; Williams, Glyn D

    2012-09-01

    We report the challenging case of a 1-week-old, term, 2.4 kg neonate with Goldenhar syndrome (including microcephaly, left microtia, left facial palsy, dextro-scoliosis of the cervical spine, and cervico-thoracic levoscoliosis), multiple ventricular septal defects, a type B interrupted aortic arch, a large patent ductus arteriosis, and radiographic and clinical signs concerning for an unstable cervical spine. Our anesthesia team was consulted for perioperative management of this patient during her surgical repair. This case report describes the use of the Air-Q size 1 laryngeal airway (LA) to assist fiberoptic intubation in an ASA 4 neonate with cardiac disease, an anticipated difficult airway with the addition of an unstable cervical spine, as well as the anesthetic techniques used to maintain hemodynamic stability while the airway was secured. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Goldenhar Syndrome in Association with Duane Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U D Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome (GHS is also known as Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral (OAV syndrome or Branchial arch syndrome. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital disorder of ocular motility characterized by limited abduction, adduction or both. It is unilateral in 80% of cases. The important and interesting part of this eight months old child is presence of GHS with DRS. She has bilateral invol-vement, which is seen in only 5-8% of GHS, as compared to high incidence of unilateral involve-ment. This child also had refractive error of + 6.00/ - 1.5 * 180. At four year of age her vision with glass was 6/9. Children with GHS and DRS should have early eye examination done to treat the problem of refractive error. Keywords: Duane retraction syndrome; goldenhar syndrome, refractive error.

  12. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronze-Uhle ES

    2016-12-01

    chemical morphology characterization and in vitro release studies indicated the potential use of these NPs as drug carriers in biological systems requiring a fast release of SA. Keywords: albumin nanoparticles, drug delivery, salicylic acid entrapped, nano-carriers

  13. Kinesiotherapy and physical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sochová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Author: Jitka Sochová Institution: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine The Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové Title: Kinesiotherapy and physical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome Supervisor: Mgr. Zuzana Hamarová Pages: 128 Inserts: 7 The year of presentation: 2013 Keywords: Carpal tunnel, rehabilitation therapy, entrapment syndromes, electromyography This Bachelor Diploma deals with carpal tunnel syndrome. In theoretical part I focus on anatomy, lead and innervation of the median nerve,...

  14. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  15. Minimally invasive endoscopic ulnar nerve assessment and surgery for cubital tunnel syndrome patients—Relation between endoscopic nerve findings and clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Yoshida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To minimize damage to healthy tissues, we have been performing endoscopically assisted cubital tunnel syndrome surgery based on endoscopic nerve findings since 1995. This is the first study to focus on endoscopic surgery for cubital tunnel syndrome based on endoscopic ulnar nerve findings and the subsequent postoperative clinical results. We analysed 82 upper extremities of 74 cubital tunnel syndrome patients who had undergone endoscopically assisted release surgery using the Universal Subcutaneous Endoscope system. Endoscopic observations of the ulnar nerve were made from a single 1- to 3-cm endoscopic portal incision at the cubital tunnel to 10 cm proximal and 10 cm distal. The abnormal nerve areas were identified and released based on nerve degeneration findings under endoscopic observation. The abnormal areas spread eccentrically from the entrapment point(s. In 82 diseased upper extremities, ulnar nerve entrapment occurred at the cubital tunnel. However, one extremity suffered from entrapment at the arcade of Struthers' in addition to the cubital tunnel. All patients showed improved clinical symptoms following surgery. There is no statistical relation between pre- and postoperative clinical scores of Dellon's Staging and abnormal nerve length findings. Cubital tunnel syndrome is usually caused by entrapment at the cubital tunnel; however, in some cases, there are other point entrapment(s. Our endoscopically assisted procedure avoids any damage to healthy tissues because the surgeon can observe the entrapment point(s prior to release. Postoperative clinical recovery results clearly indicate that endoscopic nerve findings reveal entrapment points and ulnar nerve degeneration can spread maximally 10 cm distally and proximally from the entrapment point(s, even in clinically mild severity cases. All other possible entrapment points should, therefore, be observed and released using our procedure.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Klippel-Feil syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Klippel-Feil deformity Klippel-Feil sequence vertebral cervical fusion syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Encyclopedia: ...

  17. An exploratory study into therapeutic alliance, defeat, entrapment and suicidality on mental health wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunster-Page, C A; Berry, K; Wainwright, L; Haddock, G

    2017-11-22

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The strength of a relationship between people with mental health difficulties and professionals has been linked to patients feeling suicidal. A relationship has been found between how defeated and trapped people with mental health difficulties feel and how suicidal they feel. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study explored the relationship between alliance, suicidality, defeat and entrapment in people admitted to mental health wards as previous research has focused on people in the community. Patient-rated defeat, entrapment and suicidality are related in this sample of people admitted to mental health wards. A relationship was found between how well nurses said they bonded with their named patient and how trapped the patients felt by their environment. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses should consider if patients are feeling defeated or trapped when helping people with mental health difficulties to feel less suicidal. Introduction Suicidality is prevalent worldwide, particularly in people who access mental health services. The quality of therapeutic alliance between people with mental health difficulties and staff has been associated with suicidality but only in community settings. Defeat and entrapment are correlated with suicidality and may mediate any relationship between alliance and suicidality. Therefore, this exploratory study explored these relationships in people admitted to mental health wards. Aim To explore defeat, entrapment, suicidality and alliance between nurses and people admitted to mental health wards. Method Fifty inpatient nurse-patient dyads completed questionnaires regarding demographics, defeat, entrapment, suicidality and alliance with their named nurse. Nurses completed questionnaires on demographics, alliance with their patient and the patients' suicidality. Results Defeat, entrapment and suicidality were correlated. A correlation between nurse-rated bond and external

  18. Origin and Distribution of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Alpine Proglacial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biqing; Schroth, Martin H.; Henneberger, Ruth; Kübler, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing in recent years, which is caused by imbalance between sources and sinks. Methane has been recently discovered to be entrapped in calcareous Swiss Alpine proglacial soil. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact and acidification. However, the amount, distribution and environmental fate of this entrapped CH4 in proglacial environment remain unknown. The entrapped CH4 in proglacial soil may be of modern or ancient origin. Modern origin includes ongoing or recent microbial CH4 production (methanogenesis) in subglacial or proglacial environments. An ancient origin mainly refers to CH4 produced thermogenically. This soil entrapped CH4 might be a common phenomenon along the entire glacial forefield, or it might only be present at few locations and depth. We present results of studies from two Swiss Alpine Glacier catchments, Wildstrubel Glacier (Canton Valais) and the Griessfirn Glacier (Canton Uri). Our main goals were 1) to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in various glacial environments (subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial, soil and bedrocks) using geochemical and microbiological evidence; 2) to assess the spatial distribution of entrapped CH4. We performed geochemical analysis (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkane ratio), CH4 stable 13C- and 2H-isotopes, TOC) on subglacial, proglacial, and supraglacial soil samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations. Geochemical analysis was also selectively conducted on pore-water samples and on rock samples collected from different geological formations along the catchments. We also performed batch incubations on soil samples collected from subglacial, proglacial water-logged and supraglacial zones. In addition, for the aforementioned three types of samples, we also performed molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase

  19. Entrapment of bacteria in fluid inclusions in laboratory-grown halite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, James C; Roberts, Jennifer A; Goldstein, Robert H

    2006-08-01

    Cells of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were genetically modified to produce green fluorescent protein, were entrapped in fluid inclusions in laboratory-grown halite. The bacteria were used to inoculate NaCl-saturated aqueous solutions, which were allowed to evaporate and precipitate halite. The number, size, and distribution of fluid inclusions were highly variable, but did not appear to be affected by the presence of the bacteria. Many of the inclusions in crystals from inoculated solutions contained cells in populations ranging from two to 20. Microbial attachment to crystal surfaces was neither evident nor necessary for entrapment. Cells occurred exclusively within fluid inclusions and were not present in the crystal matrix. In both the inclusions and the hypersaline solution, the cells fluoresced and twitched, which indicates that the bacteria might have remained viable after entrapment. The fluorescence continued up to 13 months after entrapment, which indicates that little degradation of the bacteria occurred over that time interval. The entrapment, fluorescence, and preservation of cells were independent of the volume of hypersaline solution used or whether the solutions were completely evaporated prior to crystal extraction. The results of this study have a wide range of implications for the long-term survival of microorganisms in fluid inclusions and their detection through petrography. The results also demonstrate the preservation potential for microbes in hypersaline fluid inclusions, which could allow cells to survive harsh conditions of space, the deep geologic past, or burial in sedimentary basins.

  20. Entrapment of Probiotics in Water Extractable Arabinoxylan Gels: Rheological and Microstructural Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales-Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their porous structure, aqueous environment and dietary fiber nature arabinoxylan (AX gels could have potential applications for colon-specific therapeutic molecule delivery. In addition, prebiotic and health related effects of AX have been previously demonstrated. It has been also reported that cross-linked AX can be degraded by bacteria from the intestinal microbiota. However, AX gels have not been abundantly studied as carrier systems and there is no information available concerning their capability to entrap cells. In this regard, probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium longum have been the focus of intense research activity lately. The objective of this research was to investigate the entrapment of probiotic B. longum in AX gels. AX solution at 2% (w/v containing B. longum (1 × 107 CFU/cm formed gels induced by laccase as cross-linking agent. The entrapment of B. longum decreased gel elasticity from 31 to 23 Pa, probably by affecting the physical interactions taking place between WEAX chains. Images of AX gels containing B. longum viewed under a scanning electron microscope show the gel network with the bacterial cells entrapped inside. The microstructure of these gels resembles that of an imperfect honeycomb. The results suggest that AX gels can be potential candidates for the entrapment of probiotics.

  1. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  2. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Johnathan [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Abel, Mark F. [University of Virginia, Department of Orthopedics, P.O. Box 801016, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery. (orig.)

  3. Electrostatically entrapped colistin liposomes for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Enbo; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    The potential use of liposomes for the pulmonary delivery of colistin has been hindered by their phospholipid membrane permeability resulting in a very low entrapment of colistin in the liposomes. To increase the entrapment capacity of colistin in liposomes, the anionic lipid sodium cholesteryl sulfate (Chol-SO4(-)) was used to enhance the electrostatic attraction between colistin and the lipid membrane. The resulting colistin-entrapped liposomes of Chol-SO4(-) (CCL) showed significantly greater entrapment efficiency in comparison with liposomes without Chol-SO4(-). A time-kill kinetics study showed that colistin could redistribute from the liposomes into a new bacterial cell membrane to exert bactericidal activity. After intratracheal instillation, the CCL exhibited prolonged colistin retention in the lung with less colistin being transferred to the bloodstream and kidney, and the improved biodistribution further resulted in the enhanced therapeutic efficacy in a murine pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model compared with the colistin solution. These results highlight the suitability of applying an electrostatic attraction to entrap colistin in liposomes for pulmonary delivery by increasing colistin retention in the lung, while reducing the systemic exposure.

  4. Entrapment of probiotics in water extractable arabinoxylan gels: rheological and microstructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ortega, Adriana; Carvajal-Millan, Elizabeth; Brown-Bojorquez, Francisco; Rascón-Chu, Agustín; Torres-Chavez, Patricia; López-Franco, Yolanda L; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Martínez-López, Ana L; Campa-Mada, Alma C

    2014-03-24

    Due to their porous structure, aqueous environment and dietary fiber nature arabinoxylan (AX) gels could have potential applications for colon-specific therapeutic molecule delivery. In addition, prebiotic and health related effects of AX have been previously demonstrated. It has been also reported that cross-linked AX can be degraded by bacteria from the intestinal microbiota. However, AX gels have not been abundantly studied as carrier systems and there is no information available concerning their capability to entrap cells. In this regard, probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium longum have been the focus of intense research activity lately. The objective of this research was to investigate the entrapment of probiotic B. longum in AX gels. AX solution at 2% (w/v) containing B. longum (1 × 10⁷ CFU/cm) formed gels induced by laccase as cross-linking agent. The entrapment of B. longum decreased gel elasticity from 31 to 23 Pa, probably by affecting the physical interactions taking place between WEAX chains. Images of AX gels containing B. longum viewed under a scanning electron microscope show the gel network with the bacterial cells entrapped inside. The microstructure of these gels resembles that of an imperfect honeycomb. The results suggest that AX gels can be potential candidates for the entrapment of probiotics.

  5. Light-Regulated Release of Entrapped Drugs from Photoresponsive Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniknun Sreejivungsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of a payload in a spatiotemporal fashion has a substantial impact on increasing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, a novel monolayer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs featuring light-responsive ligands was investigated as a potential drug carrier whose drug release can be triggered by UV light. Hydrophobic molecules were noncovalently entrapped in the compartments of its monolayers. Once irradiated with UV light, the dinitrobenzyl linker was cleaved, leading to release of the entrapped agent. AuNPs were characterized using UV spectrophotometry, TEM, and a zetasizer. A naturally occurring compound extracted from Goniothalamus elegans Ast was chosen as a hydrophobic model drug. Entrapment and release of dye were monitored using fluorimetry. The percent encapsulation of dye was of 13.53%. Entrapped dye can be released upon UV irradiation and can be regulated by changing irradiation time. Up to 83.95±2.2% entrapped dye can be released after irradiation for 20 minutes. In the absence of UV light, dye release was only 19.75%. For comparison purposes, AuNPs having no dinitrobenzyl groups showed a minimal release of 12.23% and 11.69% with and without UV light, respectively. This demonstrated an alternative strategy to encapsulate drugs using a noncovalent approach followed by their controlled release upon UV irradiation.

  6. Near miss, gambler's fallacy and entrapment: their influence on lottery gamblers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Phengphol, Varich

    2008-09-01

    Near miss, gambler's fallacy and entrapment are hypothesized to influence gambling behavior but their individual impact on gambling behavior and their relationships have not been investigated. This study examines the direct and mediated effects of near miss, gambler's fallacy and entrapment on lottery gambling among Thai lottery gamblers. Two groups of 200 lottery gamblers participated in the study. One group used superstitious methods to search for lottery numbers to bet, whereas the other group simply bought their tickets from lottery stalls. The superstitious group shows higher levels of near miss, gambler's fallacy, entrapment and lottery gambling. Three models of relationships among near miss, gambler's fallacy, entrapment and lottery gambling were constructed using LISREL program. The model that shows a direct effect of near miss, and one that shows a mediated effect of near miss fit the data equally. The results confirm a gambler's fallacy and entrapment as starting points in the theory of cognitive psychology of lottery gambling and the generalization of near miss in gambling motivation.

  7. Nightmares and Suicide in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Mediating Role of Defeat, Entrapment, and Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Donna L; Gooding, Patricia A; Panagioti, Maria; Kyle, Simon D

    2016-03-01

    Although nightmares appear to be related to suicidal behaviors, the mechanisms which underpin this relationship are unknown. We sought to address this gap by examining a multiple mediation hypothesis whereby nightmares were predicted to have an indirect effect on suicidal behaviors through perceptions of defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Data were collected from 91 participants who had experienced trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nightmares were measured by summing the frequency and intensity ratings of relevant items on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of suicidal behavior, hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment. Given the interrelations between insomnia, PTSD, and suicide, a measure of insomnia was included as a covariate. Furthermore, analyses were conducted with and without those participants who had comorbid depression. Suicidal behaviors were higher in those participants who experienced nightmares (62%), in comparison to those who did not (20%). Bootstrapped analyses provided support for the hypothesized multistep mediational model. Specifically, nightmares were both directly and indirectly associated with suicidal behaviors, through perceptions of defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness, independent of comorbid insomnia and depression. For the first time we show that the relationship between nightmares and suicidal behaviors is partially mediated by a multistep pathway via defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Clinically, our work highlights the importance of monitoring and targeting nightmares and perceptions of defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness when working with clients who have experienced trauma. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 289. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. Entrapment of Bacteria in Fluid Inclusions in Laboratory-Grown Halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, James C.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Goldstein, Robert H.

    2006-08-01

    Cells of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were genetically modified to produce green fluorescent protein, were entrapped in fluid inclusions in laboratory-grown halite. The bacteria were used to inoculate NaCl-saturated aqueous solutions, which were allowed to evaporate and precipitate halite. The number, size, and distribution of fluid inclusions were highly variable, but did not appear to be affected by the presence of the bacteria. Many of the inclusions in crystals from inoculated solutions contained cells in populations ranging from two to 20. Microbial attachment to crystal surfaces was neither evident nor necessary for entrapment. Cells occurred exclusively within fluid inclusions and were not present in the crystal matrix. In both the inclusions and the hypersaline solution, the cells fluoresced and twitched, which indicates that the bacteria might have remained viable after entrapment. The fluorescence continued up to 13 months after entrapment, which indicates that little degradation of the bacteria occurred over that time interval. The entrapment, fluorescence, and preservation of cells were independent of the volume of hypersaline solution used or whether the solutions were completely evaporated prior to crystal extraction. The results of this study have a wide range of implications for the long-term survival of microorganisms in fluid inclusions and their detection through petrography. The results also demonstrate the preservation potential for microbes in hypersaline fluid inclusions, which could allow cells to survive harsh conditions of space, the deep geologic past, or burial in sedimentary basins.

  9. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Sofia N. Chatziioannou; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned ca...

  10. Proximal junctional vertebral fracture-subluxation after adult spine deformity surgery. Does vertebral augmentation avoid this complication? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Baíllo Nicomedes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report to the orthopedic community a case of vertebral fracture and adjacent vertebral subluxation through the upper instrumented vertebra after thoracolumbar fusion with augmentation of the cranial level. Methods This report reviewed the patient`s medical record, her imaging studies and related literature. The possible factors contributing to this fracture are hypothesized. Results A 70-year-old woman underwent decompressive surgery and posterolateral fusion for adult lumbar scoliosis. We used pedicular screws from T10 to S1 and iliac screw at the right side, augmented with cement at T10, T11, L1, L5 and S1; and prophylactic vertebroplasty at T9 to avoid the "topping-off syndrome". Thirty days after discharge, without recognizable inciting trauma, the patient complained of pain in the lower thoracic area. The exam revealed overall neurological deficit below the level of fracture. CT scan and MRI demonstrated a T10 vertebral collapse and T9 vertebral subluxation with morphologic features of flexion-distraction fracture through the upper edge of the screw. At this point, the authors performed posterior decompression at T9 to T10 and extended posterolateral arthrodesis from T2 to T10. To our knowledge, this is an unreported fracture. Conclusions Augmentation of the cranial level in a long thoracolumbar fusion has been developed to avoid the junctional kyphosis and compression fractures at that level. We alert the orthopedic community that this augmentation may lead to further and more severe fractures, although this opinion requires investigation for confirmation.

  11. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  12. The MHC molecules of nonmammalian vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    to develop. There is no molecular evidence yet to decide whether vertebrate immune systems (and particularly the MHC molecules) are evolutionarily related to invertebrate allorecognition systems, and the functional evidence can be interpreted either way. Even among the vertebrates, there is great...

  13. [Spondylosis: diseases of the vertebral column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Amador Schüller

    2008-01-01

    Frequent and transcendent diseases for the difficulties of his diagnosis and treatment. The components of the vertebral column, vertebral bodies, discs and unvertebral joints, spondylosis ligaments must be considered to be a functional Unit. The Patology of each one of their parts concerns or reverberates in others.

  14. BK Channels in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, S. J.; Duncan, R. K.; Contet, C

    2016-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the

  15. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  16. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  17. Quadrilateral Space Syndrome Caused by a Humeral Osteochondroma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cirpar, Meric; Gudemez, Eftal; Cetik, Ozgur; Uslu, Murad; Eksioglu, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    Quadrilateral space syndrome (QSS) is a rare condition in which the posterior humeral circumflex artery and the axillary nerve are entrapped within the quadrilateral space. The main causes of the entrapment are abnormal fibrous bands and hypertrophy of the muscular boundaries. Many other space-occupying causes such as a glenoidal labral cyst or fracture hematoma have been reported in the literature. However, we could not find a report on classical QSS caused by an osteochondroma. The aim of t...

  18. A handy review of carpal tunnel syndrome: From anatomy to diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Nosair, Emad; Vegh, Andrea; Mohammadi, Afshin; Akkad, Adam; Lesha, Emal; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Sayed, Doaa; Davarian, Ali; Maleki-Miyandoab, Tooraj; Hasan, Anwarul

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most commonly diagnosed disabling condition of the upper extremities. It is the most commonly known and prevalent type of peripheral entrapment neuropathy that accounts for about 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. This review aims to provide an outline of CTS by considering anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnostic modalities and management of this common condition, with an emphasis on the diagnostic imaging evaluation. PMID:24976931

  19. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  20. Evaluation of the schistosomicidal efficacy of liposome - Entrapped Oxamniquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Frézard

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxamniquine (OXA was sucessfully encapsulated in small unilamellar vesicles using a pH gradient method. This procedure led to a high drug encapsulation efficiency (> 85% at a drug to lipid molar ratio of 1/10. Moreover, these liposomes were found to retain encapsulated OXA efficciently under dialysis conditions at 37º C. Liposome-entrapped OXA (LOXA, OXA, and empty liposomes were tested against Schistosoma mansoni in a murine model. LOXA produced a significant reduction of the worm burden compared to the other preparations, when inoculated by subcutaneous route (s.c. with 10 mg OXA/kg animal one day before the infection, and 3, 7, and 14 days after. However, LOXA was not effective when given 7 days before, or 35 days after infections. OXA, in the free form, was effective in relation to the untreated group, only when administered 3 days after the infection. Maximum effect of LOXA, with 97% reduction of the parasite number, was observed when the preparation was given s.c.one day before the infection. On the other hand, LOXA inoculated intraperitoneally one day before the infection didn’t show any reduction of the parasite count. It can be concluded that LOXA is more effective than OXA for the treatment of experimental schistosomiasis, particularly when administered subcutaneously at a time close to the infectionAvaliação da eficácia esquistossomicida da oxamniquina encapsulada em liposomas. Oxamniquina (OXA foi encapsulada em vesículas unilamelares pequenas de distearoilfosfatidilcolina usando-se técnica de encapsulação ativa em gradiante de pH. Este procedimento produziu uma alta eficiência de encapsulação (> 85% com uma razão molar de 1/10, além de reter, eficientemente, a droga encapsulada sob condições de diálise à 37º C. OXA encapsulada (LOXA, OXA livre (OXA, (10 mg/kg respectivamente ou liposomas vazios foram testados durante o curso da infecção experimental pelo Schistosoma mansoni. Verificou-se uma redu

  1. Cubital tunnel syndrome due to heterotrophic ossification caused by radial head fracture: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyitali Gumustas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel is the second most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the upper extremity after carpal tunnel syndrome. Although various etiologies have been described, heterotrophic ossification is rarely seen. Heterotrophic ossification should be kept in mind as a cause of ulnar nerve entrapment after elbow trauma. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention are important in such cases before completion of the maturation phase. We report a case of heterotrophic ossification due to elbow trauma that caused cubital tunnel syndrome. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 24-28

  2. Entrapment of Guide Wire in an Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A Technique for Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel, E-mail: akamel@uabmc.edu; Saddekni, Souheil [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology (United States); Hamed, Maysoon Farouk [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Fitzpatrick, Farley [Radiology Specialists of Louisville (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Entrapment of a central venous catheter (CVC) guide wire in an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a rare, but reported complication during CVC placement. With the increasing use of vena cava filters (VCFs), this number will most likely continue to grow. The consequences of this complication can be serious, as continued traction upon the guide wire may result in filter dislodgement and migration, filter fracture, or injury to the IVC. We describe a case in which a J-tipped guide wire introduced through a left subclavian access without fluoroscopic guidance during CVC placement was entrapped at the apex of an IVC filter. We describe a technique that we used successfully in removing the entrapped wire through the left subclavian access site. We also present simple useful recommendations to prevent this complication.

  3. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in the mucus...... even when a single D. acuminata cell was present in a 3.4 mL growth medium. Both Dinophysis species were able to detect immobile or partly immobile ciliates at a distance and circled around the prey prior to the capture with a stretched out peduncle. Relatively high entrapment and lysis of M. rubrum...

  4. Kinesio tape management for superficial radial nerve entrapment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2013-04-01

    This case report describes a 41-year-old female who presented with complaints of pain in the lower lateral one-third of the right radius extending into the first web space. Tinel's sign reproducing the patient's symptoms was elicited 8.2 cm above the radial styloid process. Physical diagnosis for superficial radial nerve entrapment was made based on a positive upper limb neural tension test 2a along with symptom reproduction during resisted isometrics to brachioradialis and wrist extensors. A potential first time successful conservative Kinesio tape (KT) management for entrapment of the superficial radial nerve is described in this report. An immediate improvement in grip strength and functional activities along with a reduction in pain and swelling was noted in this patient after the first treatment session, which was maintained at a 6 month follow-up. A model is proposed describing the mechanism by which KT application could be used to intervene for nerve entrapment interfaces.

  5. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I-Ching Kuan; Chia-Chi Lee; Bing-Hong Tsai; Shiow-Ling Lee; Wei-Ting Lee; Chi-Yang Yu [Department of Bioengineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil) and n-hexane content (w/w of oil) were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 deg C or room temperature.

  6. Incidence of tendon entrapment and dislocation with calcaneus and pilon fractures on CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresley, Jonathan [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Subhawong, Ty K.; Singer, Adam D.; Clifford, Paul D. [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To examine the association between tibial pilon and calcaneal fracture classification and tendon entrapment or dislocation. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive CT scans with calcaneal or pilon fractures from 5 years at a level 1 trauma center. We categorized calcaneal fractures according to the Sanders classification, and pilon fractures according to the Ruedi and Allgower and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen-Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classifications. Ankle tendons were assessed for dislocation or entrapment. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. A total of 312 fractures (91 pilon only, 193 calcaneal only, and 14 ankles with ipsilateral pilon and calcaneal fractures) were identified in 273 patients. Twenty-two pilon, 42 calcaneal, and nine combination fractures were associated with 99 occurrences of tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Such findings were associated with multiple fractures (p = 0.002). Multifragmentary pilon fractures were associated with posterior tibial and flexor digitorum longus tendon entrapment (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 for Ruedi/Allgower and AO-OTA, respectively), and multifragmentary Sanders type 3 or 4 calcaneal fractures were associated with superior peroneal retinacular injury (p = 0.0473) compared to simple fracture patterns. Thirty-nine percent of tendon entrapments or retinacular injuries were prospectively identified, 85 % by musculoskeletal radiologists (p < 0.0001). Approximately 25 % of calcaneal and pilon fractures were retrospectively identified to contain posteromedial tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Radiologists should meticulously search for such injuries, particularly when analyzing multifragmentary and multiple fractures. (orig.)

  7. Kinetic model and thermodynamic study of Acid Red 1 entrapment at electropolymerised polypyrrole films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Mominul; Wong, Danny K Y

    2015-11-01

    This work is focussed on the determination of a kinetic model and the thermodynamic study of the electrochemical entrapment of the model azo dye, Acid Red 1, at conducting polypyrrole films, which is proposed as a potential green technology for treatment of azo dyes in industrial effluents. The entrapment kinetic data were found to follow a pseudosecond order model involving an intra-particle diffusion. However, the equilibrium data obtained for Acid Red 1 entrapment at polypyrrole did not obey any common surface adsorption models such as the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Accordingly, the entrapment process may lead to an enhanced quantity of dye embedded in a polypyrrole film, making it a more effective and efficient technology than those involving only adsorption. Similarly, dye leakage from polypyrrole film surface to a sample matrix will be easily prevented. For this treatment process, a negative ΔG° range between -1.46±0.78 and -2.94±0.24 kJ mol(-1) at the corresponding temperature range of 298-318 K, and a ΔH° of 20.5±2.5 kJ mol(-1) indicate a spontaneous and endothermic entrapment process. Also, a positive ΔS° (73.6±8.2 J mol(-1) K(-1)) reveals increased randomness of the interface and an affinity of Acid Red 1 towards polypyrrole films. A low activation energy (7.67±0.80 kJ mol(-1)) confirms a physical process for Acid Red 1 entrapment at polypyrrole films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stump entrapment of the anterior cruciate ligament in late childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Displacement of a portion of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) into the intercondylar notch can cause a focal fibrotic reaction similar to that seen following ACL reconstruction. This displacement, which can result in locking or limitation of knee extension, is termed stump entrapment and is described in adult MR imaging literature. We present a pictorial essay of the etiology and appearance of stump entrapment on MR imaging of the knee in an older child and adolescents and review the significance of this finding. (orig.)

  9. Entrapment of the acetabular labrum following reduction of traumatic hip dislocation in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.A. [The Catholic University of Korea Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uijongbu, Kyunggi-Do 480-130 (Korea); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City (United States); Morcuende, J. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Iowa City (United States); El-Khoury, G.Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-12-01

    In traumatic hip dislocation, concentric reduction can be prevented by various causes. Soft-tissue interposition, such as entrapment of the acetabular labrum, is a rare but important cause of failed reduction of a hip. Early diagnosis of incomplete reduction due to interposition of soft tissue is important, because delayed treatment is associated with a greater incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and early onset of osteoarthritis. This report describes a case of acetabular labral entrapment following reduction of traumatic hip dislocation in a child. The importance of CT and MRI in arriving at an early diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  10. Alumina-entrapped Ag catalyzed nitro compounds coupled with alcohols using borrowing hydrogen methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Chuah, Gaik Khuan; Jaenicke, Stephan

    2015-06-14

    Supported silver catalysts were reported for the first time to be able to catalyze the coupling reaction between nitroarenes and alcohols via the borrowing hydrogen scheme. The recyclable, non-leaching catalyst is synthesized by the entrapment method, which allows entrapping of silver nanoparticles in an alumina matrix. Alcohols, acting as the reducing agents for nitro-groups, alkylated the resultant amines smoothly over these silver catalysts giving a yield of >98% towards the N-substituted amines. In this process, multiple steps were realized in one-pot over a single catalyst with very high efficiency. It offers another clean and economic way to achieve amination of alcohols.

  11. Your money or your self-esteem: threatened egotism promotes costly entrapment in losing endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqing; Baumeister, Roy F

    2006-07-01

    The present research explored egotism-maintaining favorable views of the self-as a motivation underlying entrapment in losing endeavors. Four studies suggested that threatened selfesteem would cause decision makers to invest and lose more money in a previously chosen course of action. Ego-threatened participants consistently lost more money than nonthreatened participants across diverse entrapping situations regardless of whether the outcome was ostensibly determined by luck (Experiments 1 and 4), ability (Experiment 2), or interpersonal competition (Experiment 3). Thus, pursuing favorable views of the self could be costly to decision makers' financial well-being and may produce self-defeating behaviors.

  12. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasbergen, K.; Stone, M.; Krishnappan, B.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.

    2015-03-01

    While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (under the maximum applied shear stresses (1.11 Pa) used in the experiment. The gravel bed had an entrapment coefficient (ratio between the entrapment flux and the settling flux) of 0.2. Accordingly, when flow conditions are sufficient to produce a shear stress that will mobilize the armour layer of the gravel bed (>16 Pa), cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  13. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  14. The defeat-entrapment theory versus Beck's hopelessness theory of depression and suicidality: A cross-national analysis in Iran and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsafi, Mahdieh; Kalantarkousheh, Seyed Mohammad; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    The defeat-entrapment theory has been proposed to explain both depression and suicidal behavior. Measures of defeat, entrapment, hopelessness and depression were administered to Iranian and American students. Scores on measures of hopelessness, defeat, entrapment and depression were strongly associated. In both nations, scores for defeat and entrapment were stronger predictors of past suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Overall, the Iranian respondents had higher scores on the measures of defeat, entrapment, hopelessness and depression, but less often reported prior suicidal ideation. The defeat-entrapment theory of depression and suicidal behavior appears to have validity in both Iran and America. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome : literature review and report of 11 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, C.; Robinson, P.H.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    1998-01-01

    The anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) is characterized by weakness of the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus of the index finger. The orthopedic literature suggests that this syndrome is caused by mechanical compression of the nerve (an entrapment neuropathy) and

  16. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  17. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  18. Molecular Synapomorphies Resolve Evolutionary Relationships of Extant Jawed Vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrappa Venkatesh; Mark V. Erdmann; Sydney Brenner

    2001-01-01

    .... We identified 13 derived shared molecular markers (synapomorphies) that define clades in the vertebrate lineage and used them to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of extant jawed vertebrates...

  19. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  20. Epidemiology of acute vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, M R; Wagn, P; Bengtsson, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of acute, non-tuberculous, hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark during 1978-1982. 137 patients fulfilled the criteria for acute vertebral osteomyelitis. The incidence was 5/mill/year. There were no cases in the age group 20-29 years. The highest incidence......-1993, the relative number of reported patients with vertebral osteomyelitis had increased in the age group 20-49 years, compared to 1978-1982, but the incidence was highest in the group aged 60-79 years....

  1. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  2. Superior Cluneal Nerve Entrapment Neuropathy and Gluteus Medius Muscle Pain: Their Effect on Very Old Patients with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Rinko; Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Morimoto, Daijiro; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio

    2017-02-01

    In the very elderly, their general condition and poor compliance with drug regimens can render the treatment of low back pain (LBP) difficult. We report the effectiveness of a less-invasive treatment for intractable LBP from superior cluneal nerve entrapment neuropathy (SCN-EN) and gluteus medius muscle (GMeM) pain. Between April 2013 and March 2015, we treated 17 consecutive elders with LBP, buttock pain, and leg pain. They were 4 men and 13 women ranging in age from 85 to 91 years (mean 86.6 years). We carefully ascertained that their symptoms were attributable to SCN-EN and GMeM pain. The median follow-up period was 21.5 ± 12.2 months (range 2-35 months). SCN-EN was diagnosed in 15 patients (28 sites) and GMeM pain in 14 (27 sites). In 5 patients, we obtained symptom control by local block (Numerical Rating Scale for LBP: declined from 7.8 to 0.8 [P pain postoperatively, they subsequently underwent peroneal nerve neurolysis and surgery for tarsal tunnel syndrome. These treatments resulted in significantly symptom abatement (Numerical Rating Scale: from 8.2 to 1.7, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire score: from 12.8 to 8.6; P pain, and leg pain due to SCN-EN or GMeM pain can be treated successfully by peripheral block and less-invasive surgery under local anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rheological properties and mechanical stability of new gel-entrapment systems applied in bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelsang, C.; Wijffels, R.H.; Ostgaard, K.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical stability of gels applied for entrapment and retention of biocatalysts in bioreactors is of crucial importance for successful scale-up applications. Gel abrasion in agitated reactors will depend on liquid shear, bubble shear, and wall shear, as well as collisions between the gel

  4. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  5. Penile Fracture from Entrapment of an Erect Penis in the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    ABSTRACT. Penile fracture is an uncommon urological emergency where the tunica albuginea ruptures as a result of blunt trauma to the erect penis. An 18 year old rural patient presented with penile fracture, presumably from entrapment of his penis in the African bamboo bed during nocturnal penile tumescence. He was ...

  6. Case Report: Penile Fracture from Entrapment of an Erect Penis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penile fracture is an uncommon urological emergency where the tunica albuginea ruptures as a result of blunt trauma to the erect penis. An 18 year old rural patient presented with penile fracture, presumably from entrapment of his penis in the African bamboo bed during nocturnal penile tumescence. He was managed ...

  7. Alginate-sterculia gum gel-coated oil-entrapped alginate beads for gastroretentive risperidone delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Hriday; Kandukuri, Saisharan Goud; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Boddupalli, Shashank

    2015-04-20

    Novel floating-mucoadhesive oil-entrapped alginate beads coated with crossslinked alginate-sterculia gum gel membrane was developed for gastroretentive risperidone delivery. Oil-entrapped alginate beads containing risperidone as core were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. Effects of polymer to drug ratio and oil to water ratio on drug entrapment efficiency (%) and cumulative drug release after 8h (%) were studied to optimize the core beads by a 3(2) factorial design. The optimized beads (F-O) demonstrated drug entrapment efficiency of 83.73±0.81% and cumulative drug release of 70.84±0.27% after 8h. The biopolymeric-coated optimized beads exhibited excellent buoyancy, better ex vivo mucoadhesion and slower drug release rate. The drug release profiles of risperidone-loaded uncoated and coated beads were best fitted in Korsmeyer-Peppas model with Fickian diffusion mechanism. The beads were also examined for the drug-excipients compatibility, drug crystallinity and surface morphology by FTIR, P-XRD and SEM analyses, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between Computer Use and Entrapment Neuropathies in the Wrist Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, S.; Bamac, B.; Colak, T.; Ozbek, A.

    2013-01-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that computer use is often associated with an increased prevalence of hand and wrist disorders. Symptoms may be associated with specific clinical entities such as peripheral nerve entrapment. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and vibration threshold in the hand of computer users have been…

  9. Simultaneous sorption and mechanical entrapment during polymer flow through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R.; Bedrikovetsky, P.; Lotfollahi, M.; Lake, L. W.

    2016-03-01

    Physical adsorption and mechanical entrapment are two major causes of polymer retention in porous media. Physical adsorption is considered an equilibrium process and is often modeled by assuming a Langmuir isotherm. The outcome is a steady state pressure response because the permeability reduction is also accounted for by adsorption. However, some experimental data show gradual increase of pressure with time, implying that polymer retention is a time-dependent process. We discuss simultaneous effect of sorption and mechanical entrapment on the polymer retention in porous media. An exact solution for 1-D flow problem for the case of constant filtration coefficient and Langmuir-sorption isotherm, including explicit formulae for breakthrough concentration and pressure drop across the core is derived. The general model with a varying filtration coefficient was successfully matched with experimental data confirming the occurrence of simultaneous sorption with deep-bed filtration during polymer flow in porous media. In the absence of mechanical entrapment, the physical adsorption causes delay in the polymer front and does not affect the polymer concentration behind the front. Addition of mechanical entrapment results in slow recovery of the injected concentration at the outlet (for a varying filtration coefficient) or reaching to a steady state concentration, which is only a fraction of the injected concentration (for a constant filtration coefficient). Accurate assessment and quantification of the polymer retention requires both pressure and effluent concentration data at the outlet of the porous medium.

  10. The Role of Defeat and Entrapment in Depression, Anxiety, and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia; Wood, Alex M.; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Defeat and entrapment are psychological constructs that have played a central role in evolutionary accounts of depression. These concepts have since been implicated in theoretical accounts of anxiety disorders and suicidality. The current article reports on a systematic review of the existing research investigating the links among defeat,…

  11. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Oil-Entrapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of pH-Sensitive. Oil-Entrapped Buoyant Beads of Clarithromycin. GK Tripathi* andS Singh. Industrial Pharmacy Laboratory, Department of ...

  12. Horizontal one-dimensional redistribution of oil and water with hysteresis due to oil entrapment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I.J. van Dijke; S.E.A.T.M. van der Zee

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRedistribution of oil and water in a long horizontal column, including oil entrapment by water, is described by a nonlinear diffusion problem with a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. This problem admits a similarity solution that was found previously for redistribution of water

  13. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Disposition of Nanosystem-Entrapped Betulin After Endotracheal Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Karlina, Marina V; Shikov, Alexander N; Kosman, Vera M; Makarov, Valery G; Casals, Eudald; Rosenholm, Jessica M

    2017-04-01

    Betulin is a triterpene extracted from the cork layer of the outer bark of Betula spp. It has a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including being lung protective; however, its bioavailability is low. To increase its bioavailability, betulin was entrapped in a nanosystem (BN). In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of nanosystem-entrapped betulin after single dose endotracheal administration to rats. Betulin was nanosystem-entrapped using a solvent exchange technique. The surface morphology and size of the nanosystem were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The plasma and tissue concentrations of betulin were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The highest concentration of betulin was found in lungs and liver, and the lowest in the heart. Betulin did not penetrate highly vascularized tissues or tissue with an average degree of vascularization, nor did it cross the blood-brain barrier. Tissue availability in the lungs was 1.3 times higher for BN than for free betulin. Betulin was detected in the bloodstream at 15 min after administration of BN compared with only at 1 h after administration of free betulin. Penetration of betulin in the liver tissue was characterized by a high degree of intensity both for BN and free betulin. Betulin in the heart tissue was detected in much smaller quantities than in the liver. Entrapment of betulin in nanosystem form shows promise as a novel strategy in the treatment of pulmonary diseases.

  14. Prospective Predictors of Suicidality: Defeat and Entrapment Lead to Changes in Suicidal Ideation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia A.; Wood, Alex M.; Johnson, Judith; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives into suicidality have suggested that heightened perceptions of defeat and entrapment lead to suicidality. However, all previous empirical work has been cross-sectional. We provide the first longitudinal test of the theoretical predictions, in a sample of 79 students who reported suicidality. Participants completed…

  15. Investigation of air entrapment and weld line defects in micro injection moulded thermoplastic elastomer micro rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasnaes, F.B.; Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The micro injection moulding (μIM) process for the production of micro rings in thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) was investigated and optimized. The objective was to minimize the formation of air entrapments and the depth of micro weld line created on the surface of the TPE micro moulded rings...

  16. Survival interval in earthquake entrapments: research findings reinforced during the 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anthony G; Barbera, Joseph A; Petinaux, Bruno P

    2011-03-01

    Earthquakes can result in collapsed structures with the potential to entrap individuals. In some cases, people can survive entrapment for lengthy periods. The search for and rescue of entrapped people is resource intensive and competes with other postdisaster priorities. The decision to end search and rescue activities is often difficult and in some cases protracted. Medical providers participating in response may be consulted about the probability of continued survival in undiscovered trapped individuals. Historically, many espouse a rigid time frame for viability of entrapped living people (eg, 2 days, 4 days, 14 days). The available medical and engineering data and media reports demonstrate a wide variety in survival "time to rescue," arguing against the acceptance of a single time interval applicable to all incidents. This article presents historical evidence and reports from the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Factors that may contribute to survival after entombment are listed. Finally, a decision process for projecting viability that considers the critical factors in each incident rather than adhering to a single time frame for ceasing search and rescue activities is proposed. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous sorption and mechanical entrapment during polymer flow through porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.; Bedrikovetsky, P; Lotfollahi, M; Lake, L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical adsorption and mechanical entrapment are two major causes of polymer retention in porous media. Physical adsorption is considered an equilibrium process and is often modeled by assuming a Langmuir isotherm. The outcome is a steady state pressure response because the permeability

  18. A similarity solution for oil lens redistribution including capillary forces and oil entrapment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, van J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Redistribution of a LNAPL lens (oil) at the phreatic surface is described using a multi-phase flow model, with emphasis on the effect of oil entrapment by water. The flow process is analyzed under the assumption that the vertical capillary and gravitational forces balance. Vertical integration leads

  19. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  20. Vertebral Fractures After Discontinuation of Denosumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Steven R; Ferrari, Serge; Eastell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Denosumab reduces bone resorption and vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. Denosumab discontinuation increases bone turnover markers 3 months after a scheduled dose is omitted, reaching above-baseline levels by 6 months, and decreases bone mineral density (BMD) to baseline levels by 12 months....... We analyzed the risk of new or worsening vertebral fractures, especially multiple vertebral fractures, in participants who discontinued denosumab during the FREEDOM study or its Extension. Participants received ≥2 doses of denosumab or placebo Q6M, discontinued treatment, and stayed in the study ≥7...... months after the last dose. Of 1001 participants who discontinued denosumab during FREEDOM or Extension, the vertebral fracture rate increased from 1.2 per 100 participant-years during the on-treatment period to 7.1, similar to participants who received and then discontinued placebo (n = 470; 8.5 per 100...

  1. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  2. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process.

  4. Bilateral Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral subclavian steal syndrome is a rare condition. It is usually due to reversal of vertebral blood flow in the setting of bilateral proximal subclavian or left subclavian plus innominate artery severe stenosis or occlusion. This finding may cause cerebral ischemia related to upper extremities exercise. We report a case of bilateral subclavian steal secondary to total occlusion of the innominate and left subclavian arteries in a patient who presented with cardiomyopathy and flow reversal in the right carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries.

  5. Giant lipoma: an unusual cause of carpal tunnel syndrome | Jalan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, in its idiopathic form, is an extremely common entrapment neuropathy in the clinical practice however secondary compressive causes are rare. Among secondary causes, tumors are even rarer. Although lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumor in the body, <5% of the benign tumors of the ...

  6. Extracranial vertebral artery dissection in children: natural history and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonnet, Hina; Deiva, Kumaran; Bellesme, Céline; Cabasson, Sébastien; Husson, Béatrice; Toulgoat, Frédérique; Théaudin, Marie; Ducreux, Denis; Tardieu, Marc; Saliou, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe clinical and imaging presentation and outcome in extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Single-centre retrospective study over a 14-year period included 20 consecutive patients under the age of 16 years with extracranial vertebral artery dissection. The diagnosis was based on vascular imaging performed at the acute phase and clinical symptoms. A male predominance was observed (sex ratio 9/1). The first symptoms consisted of headache (45%), neck pain (15%), nausea (30%) and vertigo (30%). Clinical signs leading to admission to hospital were hemiparesis (60%), visual disorders with oculomotor disorders (20%) or visual field defects (20%) and cerebellar syndrome (35%). Eight patients (40%) reported repeated transient episodes of neurological deficits, prior to the diagnosis. The segment most commonly affected was V2-V3 (50%), followed by V3 (15%) and V2 (15%), V3-V4 (10%) and proximal V4 (10%). All patients but one presented cerebral infarction. Eleven patients received first-line treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and nine patients received aspirin. Three patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms, one under vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and 2 under aspirin. All three were switched to LMWH with success. Fifty-eight percent of the dissected arteries were occluded at long-term follow-up, although 73% of them were patent at the acute phase. Initial imaging must include posterior fossa vessels and the craniocervical region with V2-V3 segments. Conventional angiography may be indicated in the absence of a definitive diagnosis on noninvasive imaging. Healing of the dissected vertebral artery predominantly resulted in occlusion, which does not constitute a pejorative factor but indicates good quality healing.

  7. In quest of Great Lakes ice age vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holman, J. Alan

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Pleistocene in the Great Lakes Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Where to Find Vertebrate Fossils...

  8. The use of CT-angiography for monitoring thrombus formation after balloon occlusion of a dissecting vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Marco J. T.; Hulsmans, Frans-Jan H.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Bouma, Gerrit J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a 49-year-old man with a subarachnoid haemorrhage from a dissecting vertebral artery (VA) pseudoaneurysm treated with a proximal balloon occlusion. The clinical course was complicated by the sudden appearance of a lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg), which completely resolved after

  9. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  10. Goldenhar syndrome in association with Duane syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome (GHS) is also known as Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral (OAV) syndrome or Branchial arch syndrome. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital disorder of ocular motility characterized by limited abduction, adduction or both. It is unilateral in 80% of cases. The important and interesting part of this eight months old child is presence of GHS with DRS. She has bilateral invol-vement, which is seen in only 5-8% of GHS, as compared to high incidence of unilateral involve-ment. This child also had refractive error of + 6.00/ - 1.5 * 180. At four year of age her vision with glass was 6/9. Children with GHS and DRS should have early eye examination done to treat the problem of refractive error.

  11. Goldenhar Syndrome: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Ruchi; Pati, Abhishek Ranjan; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Nayak, Bikash Bishwadarshee

    2016-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome or oculoauriculovertebral spectrum is a complex syndrome characterized by an association of maxillomandibular hypoplasia, deformity of the ear, ocular dermoid and vertebral anomalies and the most severe form of hemifacial microsomia. Here, we describe a 26-year-old male patient with unilateral hemifacial microsomia, preauricular ear tags, macrosomia on the right side of the face.

  12. Potential underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Birkan İlhan, Fatih Tufan, Gülistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif KaranDivision of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read with great interest the article by Liang et al “Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study”.1\tIn their study, the authors investigated the factors possibly associated with new vertebral compression fractures in patients who previously had vertebral augmentation procedures. They reported that osteoporosis (OP was not observed as a risk factor for repeat vertebral augmentation. Among multiple chronic diseases, hypertension (HT was reported as one factor associated with new vertebral fractures. Among the medications used to treat or prevent OP, they reported calcium/vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and calcitonin were associated with not having repeat vertebral augmentation. However, steroids, paracetamol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with having repeat vertebral augmentation. We would like to comment on their article.View original paper by Kurimato and colleagues.

  13. Anatomical etiology of “pseudo-sciatica” from superior cluneal nerve entrapment: a laboratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Hiroshi Kuniya,1 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Spine & Spinal Cord Surgery, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The superior cluneal nerve (SCN may become entrapped where it pierces the thoracolumbar fascia over the iliac crest; this can cause low back pain (LBP and referred pain radiating into the posterior thigh, calf, and occasionally the foot, producing the condition known as “pseudo-sciatica.” Because the SCN was thought to be a cutaneous branch of the lumbar dorsal rami, originating from the dorsal roots of L1–L3, previous anatomical studies failed to explain why SCN causes “pseudo-sciatica”. The purpose of the present anatomical study was to better elucidate the anatomy and improve the understanding of “pseudo-sciatica” from SCN entrapment. Materials and methods: SCN branches were dissected from their origin to termination in subcutaneous tissue in 16 cadavers (5 male and 11 female with a mean death age of 88 years (range 81–101 years. Special attention was paid to identify SCNs from their emergence from nerve roots and passage through the fascial attachment to the iliac crest. Results: Eighty-one SCN branches were identified originating from T12 to L5 nerve roots with 13 branches passing through the osteofibrous tunnel. These 13 branches originated from L3 (two sides, L4 (six sides, and L5 (five sides. Ten of the 13 branches showed macroscopic entrapment in the tunnel. Conclusion: The majority of SCNs at risk of nerve entrapment originated from the lower lumbar nerve. These anatomical results may explain why patients with SCN entrapment often evince leg pain or tingling that mimics sciatica. Keywords: superior cluneal nerve, entrapment neuropathy, dorsal rami

  14. Vertebral body stenting versus kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Osterhoff, Georg; Schlickeiser, Jannis; Jenni, Raphael; Wanner, Guido A; Ossendorf, Christian; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-03

    In the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, vertebral body stenting with an expandable scaffold inserted before application of the bone cement was developed to impede secondary loss of vertebral height encountered in patients treated with balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there are relevant differences between balloon kyphoplasty and vertebral body stenting with regard to perioperative and postoperative findings. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial, patients with a total of 100 fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were treated with either balloon kyphoplasty or vertebral body stenting. The primary outcome was the post-interventional change in the kyphotic angle on radiographs. The secondary outcomes were the maximum pressure of the balloon tamp during inflation, radiation exposure time, perioperative complications, and cement leakage. The mean reduction (and standard deviation) of kyphosis (the kyphotic correction angle) was 4.5° ± 3.6° after balloon kyphoplasty and 4.7° ± 4.2° after vertebral body stenting (p = 0.972). The mean pressures were 24 ± 5 bar (348 ± 72 pounds per square inch [psi]) during vertebral body stenting and 16 ± 6 bar (233 ± 81 psi) during balloon kyphoplasty (p = 0.014). There were no significant differences in radiation exposure time.None of the patients underwent revision surgery, and postoperative neurologic sequelae were not observed. Cement leakage occurred at twenty-five of the 100 vertebral levels without significant differences between the two intervention arms (p = 0.230). Intraoperative material-related complications were observed at one of the fifty vertebral levels in the balloon kyphoplasty group and at nine of the fifty levels in the vertebral body stenting group. No beneficial effect of vertebral body stenting over balloon kyphoplasty was found among patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures with regard to kyphotic correction, cement leakage

  15. Goldenhar syndrome - review with case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, C Seethalakshmi; Sreenivasan, Arathi; Saraswathy, Gopal K

    2014-04-01

    Goldenhar's syndrome is a rare condition which was described initially in the early 1950s. It is characterized by a combination of anomalies: dermal epibulbar cysts, auricular appendices and malformations of the ears. In 1963, Gorlin suggested the name, oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) dysplasia for this condition and he also included vertebral anomalies as signs of this syndrome. The aetiology of this rare disease has not been fully understood, as it has shown itself to be variable genetically and to be caused due to unclear reasons. Here, we are reporting two cases of Goldenhar's syndrome, where almost all the classical signs of this rare condition were present.

  16. A case of bowel entrapment after penetrating injury of the pelvis: don't forget the omentumplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsman Jan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bowel entrapment within a pelvic injury is rare and difficult to diagnose. Usually, it is diagnosed late because of concomitant abdominal injuries. It may present itself as an acute intestinal obstruction or, more commonly, as a prolonged or intermittent ileus. Therefore, one should be aware of this late complication and primarily take measures for avoiding bowel entrapment. This report describes an unusual case of bowel entrapment within a pelvic fracture after a penetrating injury, and discusses options for preventing such a complication.

  17. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma: Treatment with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aich Ranen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebrae are the second commonest site among skeletal locations affected by hemangioma, but only about one per cent becomes symptomatic throughout the life. Though surgery, intra vertebral injection of various sclerosing agents have been tried in treating this benign process, no general consensus regarding management has been reached. Radiotherapy is emerging as a low cost, simple, non-invasive but very effective modality of treatment of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma. Aim: This study aims to find out the role of external beam radiotherapy in alleviating the symptoms of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas without compromising the quality of life. Materials and Methods: Seven consecutive patients with symptomatic vertebral hemangioma were treated with a fixed dose of external beam radiotherapy; and muscle power was assessed before, after treatment and during follow-up. Results: All patients showed improvement of muscle power, which increased with the passage of time. Pain relief with improvement of quality of life was obtained in all the patients. Conclusion: Effect of radiotherapy on vertebral hemangioma is dose-dependent and the dose limiting factor is the spinal cord tolerance. In the present era of IMRT, greater dose can be delivered to the parts of vertebra affected by the hemangioma without compromising the spinal cord tolerance and expected to give better results.

  18. Bone creep can cause progressive vertebral deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollintine, Phillip; Luo, Jin; Offa-Jones, Ben; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2009-09-01

    Vertebral deformities in elderly people are conventionally termed "fractures", but their onset is often insidious, suggesting that time-dependent (creep) processes may also be involved. Creep has been studied in small samples of bone, but nothing is known about creep deformity of whole vertebrae, or how it might be influenced by bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesise that sustained compressive loading can cause progressive and measurable creep deformity in elderly human vertebrae. 27 thoracolumbar "motion segments" (two vertebrae and the intervening disc and ligaments) were dissected from 20 human cadavers aged 42-91 yrs. A constant compressive force of approximately 1.0 kN was applied to each specimen for either 0.5 h or 2 h, while the anterior, middle and posterior heights of each of the 54 vertebral bodies were measured at 1 Hz using a MacReflex 2D optical tracking system. This located 6 reflective markers attached to the lateral cortex of each vertebral body, with resolution better than 10 microm. Experiments were at laboratory temperature, and polythene film was used to minimise water loss. Volumetric BMD was calculated for each vertebral body, using DXA to measure mineral content, and water immersion for volume. In the 0.5 h tests, creep deformation in the anterior, middle and posterior vertebral cortex averaged 4331, 1629 and 614 micro-strains respectively, where 10,000 micro-strains represents 1% loss in height. Anterior creep strains exceeded posterior (Pspecimens with average BMDfracture.

  19. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  20. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Review of the Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I; Khan, W.S; Goddard, N; Smitham, P

    2012-01-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) remains a puzzling and disabling condition present in 3.8% of the general population. CTS is the most well-known and frequent form of median nerve entrapment, and accounts for 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. This review aims to provide an overview of this common condition, with an emphasis on the pathophysiology involved in CTS. The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with CTS are discussed in this paper. Also, the various methods of diagnosis are explored; including nerve conduction studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22470412

  1. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  2. Mitochondrial genome organization and vertebrate phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Sérgio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of DNA sequencing techniques the organization of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome shows variation between higher taxonomic levels. The most conserved gene order is found in placental mammals, turtles, fishes, some lizards and Xenopus. Birds, other species of lizards, crocodilians, marsupial mammals, snakes, tuatara, lamprey, and some other amphibians and one species of fish have gene orders that are less conserved. The most probable mechanism for new gene rearrangements seems to be tandem duplication and multiple deletion events, always associated with tRNA sequences. Some new rearrangements seem to be typical of monophyletic groups and the use of data from these groups may be useful for answering phylogenetic questions involving vertebrate higher taxonomic levels. Other features such as the secondary structure of tRNA, and the start and stop codons of protein-coding genes may also be useful in comparisons of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  3. Entrapment of Common Peroneal Nerve by Surgical Suture following Distal Biceps Femoris Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Fukuda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe entrapment of the common peroneal nerve by a suture after surgical repair of the distal biceps femoris tendon. Complete rupture of the distal biceps femoris tendon of a 16-year-old male athlete was surgically repaired. Postoperative common peroneal nerve palsy was evident, but conservative treatment did not cause any neurological improvement. Reexploration revealed that the common peroneal nerve was entrapped by the surgical suture. Complete removal of the suture and external neurolysis significantly improved the palsy. The common peroneal nerve is prone to damage as a result of its close proximity to the biceps femoris tendon and it should be identified during surgical repair of a ruptured distal biceps femoris tendon.

  4. Assessment of protein entrapment in hydroxyapatite scaffolds by size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espanol, Montserrat; Casals, Isidre; Lamtahri, Sarah; Valderas, Maria-Teresa; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2012-12-01

    Although it is well known that the textural properties of scaffolds play an important role in the process of tissue regeneration, the investigation of such effects remain difficult especially at the micro/nano level. Texture confers the material the additional ability to entrap/concentrate molecules circulating in the body fluid regardless of their binding affinity to the material. The goal of the present work is to isolate protein entrapment from protein adsorption phenomena in two macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with identical chemical structure, similar macroporosity but different micro/nanoporosity using proteins of different sizes. This was achieved implementing size exclusion chromatography and using the scaffolds as chromatographic columns. The results showed that the larger the crystal size and the lower the packing density of the crystals composing the scaffold increased protein retention but decreased the protein dwelling time in the column. Differences in the amount of protein retained depended on the protein type.

  5. Inhibitory effect of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Lin, L

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5.0mg/mL) presented the optimal polydispersity index (0.246), zeta-potential (-58.9mV) and entrapment efficiency (25.7%). The liposomes displayed satisfactory antibiotic activity against L. monocytogenes in cheese over the storage period at 4°C. We observed no effects on the physical and sensory properties of the cheese after the liposome treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Catheter entrapment in a pulmonary vein: a unique complication of pulmonary vein isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monney, Pierre; Pascale, Patrizio; Fromer, Martin; Pruvot, Etienne

    2010-08-01

    Ablation strategies for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with several potential complications. During electro-anatomic mapping of the left atrium (LA) before ablation, the ablation catheter was entrapped in the right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV). After multiple unsuccessful gentle tractions, stronger maneuvers with rotation of the catheter slowly allowed its retrieval. Examination of the catheter showed a thin, translucent membrane covering its tip, suggesting complete stripping of a vein branch. Occlusion of the superior branch of the RIPV was confirmed by LA angiogram. During the following days, no pericardial effusion was noted, but the patient complained of light chest pain and mild hemoptysis, spontaneously resolving within 48 h. This case shows that catheter entrapment and mechanical disruption of a PV branch can be a rare potential complication of AF ablation. In this case, the outcome was spontaneously favorable and symptoms only included transient mild hemoptysis.

  7. Materialization of single multicomposite nanowire: entrapment of ZnO nanoparticles in polyaniline nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present materialization of single multicomposite nanowire (SMNW-entrapped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs via an electrochemical growth method, which is a newly developed fabrication method to grow a single nanowire between a pair of pre-patterned electrodes. Entrapment of ZnO NPs was controlled via different conditions of SMNW fabrication such as an applied potential and mixture ratio of NPs and aniline solution. The controlled concentration of ZnO NP results in changes in the physical properties of the SMNWs, as shown in transmission electron microscopy images. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity and elasticity of SMNWs show improvement over those of pure polyaniline nanowire. The new nano-multicomposite material showed synergistic effects on mechanical and electrical properties, with logarithmical change and saturation increasing ZnO NP concentration.

  8. [The effect of entrapment of procaine hydrochloride in liposomes on its local anesthetic action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stozek, T; Krówczyński, L

    1989-07-01

    The study has shown the effect of liposomally entrapped procaine hydrochloride on local anaesthesia and its intensity after intradermal administration. The experiments of anaesthetic infiltration have been carried out on guinea pig skin applying mechanical stimulus. Liposomes were prepared by the shaking method followed by suspending in phosphate buffer pH 7.2, 0.5% methylcellulose in phosphate buffer or 5% glucose solution. The results of the study were compared with those of procaine hydrochloride in analogous solutions. The study has shown significant influence of liposomally entrapped procaine hydrochloride on the prolongation of local anaesthesia and its intensity. It has also been shown that local anaesthesia was influenced by the composition of the solutions in which liposomes were suspended. The longest effect (55 min) has been observed after administration of liposomes in phosphate buffer with methylcellulose.

  9. Bioconversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide using polyacrylamide entrapped cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, J; Prasad, S; Sharma, N N; Bhalla, T C

    2010-09-01

    The nitrile hydratase (NHase) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 catalyzed the conversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide. The resting cells (having NHase activity) (8 %; 1 mL corresponds to 22 mg dry cell mass, DCM) were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel containing 12.5 % acrylamide, 0.6 % bisacrylamide, 0.2 % diammonium persulfate and 0.4 % TEMED. The polyacrylamide entrapped cells (1.12 mg DCM/mL) completely converted acrylonitrile in 3 h at 10 °C, using 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer. In a partitioned fed batch reactor, 432 g/L acrylamide was accumulated after 1 d. The polyacrylamide discs were recycled up to 3×; 405, 210 and 170 g/L acrylamide was produced in 1st, 2nd and 3rd recycling reactions. In four cycles, a total of 1217 g acrylamide was produced by recycling the same mass of entrapped cells.

  10. Hydrodynamic entrapment, scattering, and escape of swimming bodies near colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolie, Saverio; Moreno Flores, Gregorio; Bartolo, Denis; Lauga, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Microorganisms and other self-propelling bodies in viscous fluids are known to traverse complex trajectories in the presence of boundaries, due to passive hydrodynamic and other physical effects. Motivated by the experimental findings of Takagi et al.. on self-propulsion in a field of colloidal particles, we derive the far-field hydrodynamic interaction between model ``pusher'' and ``puller'' dipole swimmers and no-slip spherical bodies of varying size. Using the analytical estimates for the swimming trajectories, we predict the critical colloid size or dipole strength for which hydrodynamic entrapment occurs, the scattering dynamics for near-obstacle interactions, and the consequences of Brownian fluctuations. The dynamics include billiard-like motion between colloids, intermittent periods of entrapped/orbiting states near single colloids, and apparently randomized escape behavior. We envision applications of the theory to techniques for sorting microorganisms or other self-propelled swimmers, and to the behavior of motile suspensions in inhomogeneous environments.

  11. Median nerve and brachial artery entrapment in the tendinous arch of coracobrachialis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variation in the pattern of muscle insertion and possible neurovascular entrapment is important for orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons and physiotherapists. We found a variation in the insertion pattern of coracobrachialis and entrapped median nerve and brachial artery by the tendinous arch of the muscle, in relation to the neurovascular bundle. The coracobrachialis had an additional insertion in the form of a tendinous arch which extended from the lower part of the muscle to the medial intermuscular septum. The median nerve, brachial artery, its venae commitantes and a muscular branch from brachial artery passed deep to this arch. The abnormality reported here might result in neurovascular compression symptoms in upper limb.

  12. First record of sea snake (Hydrophis elegans, Hydrophiinae) entrapped in marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udyawer, Vinay; Read, Mark A; Hamann, Mark; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Heupel, Michelle R

    2013-08-15

    Entanglement in derelict fishing gear and other marine debris is a major threat to the survival of large marine wildlife like cetaceans, seabirds and sea turtles. However, no previous reports of entanglement or entrapment have been recorded in sea snakes (Hydrophiinae). We report here on a sea snake (Hydrophis elegans) found with a ceramic washer encircling its body captured from the north-east coast of Queensland, Australia. The ring had constricted the body and over time caused extensive damage to the underlying tissues. A post-mortem examination showed the snake was severely emaciated as the ring restricted the passage of food to the stomach and intestine. This is the first record of mortality due to marine debris entrapment in sea snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Entrapment of the Temporal Horn as a Cause of Pure Wernicke Aphasia: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Aldo; Belvisi, Daniele; Marsili, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Entrapment of the temporal horn is an extremely rare pathologic condition occurring as a result of surgery for tumors, intraventricular infections, hemorrhage, or traumatic events involving the peritrigonal area. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with pure Wernicke aphasia (never described before in the albeit rare cases of isolated temporal horn dilatation) that regressed completely following successful ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The relevant literature is also briefly reviewed.

  14. Migration and Entrapment of DNAPLs in Heterogeneous Systems: Impact of Waste and Porous Medium Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda M. Abriola; Avery H. Demond

    2005-01-10

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) pose a significant threat to soil and groundwater at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Evidence suggests that subsurface wettability variations are present at many of these sites as a result of spatical and temporal variations in aqueous phase chemistry, contaminant aging, mineralogy and organic matter. The presence of such heterogeneity may significantly influence DNAPL migration and entrapment in the saturated zone.

  15. Anti-aging efficacy of topical formulations containing niosomes entrapped with rice bran bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2012-02-01

    Rice [Oryza sativa L. (Gramineae)] bran is a rich source of phytochemicals. Its oil also contains several bioactive components that exhibit antioxidative properties such as ferulic acid (F), γ-oryzanol (O), and phytic acid (P) which can be a new source of cosmetic raw materials. To evaluate the anti-aging effects of the gel and cream containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds. The semi-purified rice bran extracts containing F, O, and P which indicated the growth stimulation of human fibroblasts and the inhibition of MMP-2 by sulforhodamine B and gelatin zymography, respectively, were entrapped in niosomes by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid (scCO(2)) and incorporated in gel and cream formulations. The skin hydration, elasticity, thickness and roughness, and pigmentation in human volunteers after treated with these gel and creams were investigated by corneometer, cutometer, visiometer, and mexameter, respectively. Gel and cream containing the semi-purified rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes gave no sign of erythema and edema detected within 72 h on the shaved rabbit skin by the closed patch test investigated by mexameter and visual observation, respectively. These formulations also demonstrated higher hydration enhancement and improvement of skin lightening, thickness, roughness, and elasticity on the skin of 30 human volunteers within the 28-day treatment not more than 9, 27, 7, 3, and 3 times, respectively. The formulations containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds gave superior clinical anti-aging activity which can be applied as a novel skin product.

  16. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  17. Cervical vertebral fusion with anterior meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mathew J; Chavredakis, Emmanuel; Carter, David; Bhojak, Manesh; Jenkinson, Michael D; Clark, Simon R

    2015-04-01

    We present the first described case of cervical vertebral fusion associated with anterior meningocele and syringomyelia. A 45-year-old woman presented with minor trauma, and plain cervical spine radiographs highlighted a congenital deformity of the cervical vertebral bodies. She had a normal neurological examination; however, further imaging revealed a meningocele and syringomyelia. This case highlights the importance of thorough imaging investigation when presented with a congenital deformity in order to detect and prevent development of degenerative spinal cord pathologies. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  19. Microbiological and chemical properties of kefir manufactured by entrapped microorganisms isolated from kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T-H; Wang, S-Y; Chen, K-N; Liu, J-R; Chen, M-J

    2009-07-01

    In this study, various yeasts (Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces turicensis, Pichia fermentans) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were entrapped in 2 different microspheres using an entrapment ratio for the strains that was based on the distribution ratio of these organisms in kefir grains. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique to produce kefir using immobilized starter cultures isolated from kefir grains. An increase in cell counts with fermentation cycles was observed for both the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, whereas the cell counts of kefir grains were very stable during cultivation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the short-chain lactobacilli and lactococci occupied the surface of the LAB microspheres, whereas the long-chain lactobacilli were inside the microspheres. When the yeasts were analyzed, cells at a high density were entrapped in cracks on the surface and within the microspheres, where they were surrounded by the short-chain lactobacilli. The distribution of the LAB and yeast species in kefir produced from grains and microspheres showed that there was no significant difference between the kefirs produced by the 2 methods; moreover, Leu. mesenteroides and K. marxianus were the predominating microflora in both types of kefir. There was no significant difference in the ethanol and exopolysaccharide contents between the 2 kefirs, although the acidity was different.

  20. Holographic Imaging Reveals the Mechanism of Wall Entrapment in Swimming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Silvio; Saglimbeni, Filippo; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Self-propelled particles, both biological and synthetic, are stably trapped by walls and develop high concentration peaks over bounding surfaces. In swimming bacteria, like E. coli, the physical mechanism behind wall entrapment is an intricate mixture of hydrodynamic and steric interactions with a strongly anisotropic character. The building of a clear physical picture of this phenomenon demands direct and full three-dimensional experimental observations of individual wall entrapment events. Here, we demonstrate that, by using a combination of three-axis holographic microscopy and optical tweezers, it is possible to obtain volumetric reconstructions of individual E. coli cells that are sequentially released at a controlled distance and angle from a flat solid wall. We find that hydrodynamic couplings can slow down the cell before collision, but reorientation only occurs while the cell is in constant contact with the wall. In the trapped state, all cells swim with the average body axis pointing into the surface. The amplitude of this pitch angle is anticorrelated to the amplitude of wobbling, thus indicating that entrapment is dominated by near-field couplings between the cell body and the wall. Our approach opens the way to three-dimensional quantitative studies of a broad range of fast dynamical processes in motile bacteria and eukaryotic cells.

  1. Entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater: Performances, fouling, and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntawang, Chaipon; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory scale study on treatment performances and fouling of entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (E-AnMBR) in comparison with suspended cells-based-bioreactor (S-AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was conducted. The difference between E-AnMBR and S-AnMBR was the uses of cells entrapped in phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol versus planktonic cells. Bulk organic removal efficiencies by the two AnMBRs were comparable. Lower concentrations of suspended biomass, bound extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in E-AnMBR resulted in less fouling compared to S-AnMBR. S-AnMBR provided 7 days of operation time versus 11 days for E-AnMBR before chemical cleaning was required. The less frequent chemical cleaning potentially leads to a longer membrane life-span for E-AnMBR compared to S-AnMBR. Phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant in cake sludge from both AnMBRs but their abundances were different between the two AnMBRs, suggesting influence of cell entrapment on the bacteria community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of the colistin-entrapped liposome driven by electrostatic interaction for intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Huang, Lingling; Tang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Enbo; Ding, Lei; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Potential use of liposome for polycationic colistin is hindered by their phospholipid membrane permeability. In this study, liposomes were modified with sodium cholesteryl sulphate (Chol-SO4(-)) for improving the colistin loading by enhancing the colistin-bilayer electrostatic attraction. We have evaluated two liposomes: colistin-entrapped liposome of Chol-SO4(-) (CCL) and coated Chol-SO4(-)/colistin complex liposome (CCCL). In comparison with CCL which formed large aggregates at Chol-SO4(-)/colistin charge ratio below 2:1, CCCL showed a smaller size less dependent on the charge ratio, probably arising from more colistin entrapped on the inner leaflet of bilayer. Both liposomes exhibited significantly increased entrapment efficiency as compared with the liposome without Chol-SO4(-). But colistin released upon dilution, implying free transfer of colistin through bilayers. Pharmacokinetics results showed the approximately four-fold increase in the plasma AUC0-8 h for CCCL and CCL as compared with colistin solution, showing potential benefit for infectious target localisation by prolonging the systemic circulation of colistin.

  3. Entrapment of an organometallic complex within a metal: a concept for heterogeneous catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Itzik; Abu-Reziq, Raed; Avnir, David

    2008-09-10

    A novel family of composite materials, organically doped metals, has been recently introduced. Here, we demonstrate their use as a new platform for heterogeneous catalysis, namely the doping of a metal with a catalytic organometallic complex. Specifically, a rhodium(I) catalyst, (RhCl(COD)(Ph2P(C6H4SO3Na))), ([Rh]), was physically entrapped within silver, thus creating a new type of catalytic material: [Rh]@Ag. Several aspects were demonstrated with the development of this heterogeneous catalyst: a metal can be used as a support for heterogenizing a homogeneous catalyst; the homogeneous catalyst is stabilized by the entrapment within the metal; the products of the composite catalyst are different compared to those obtained from the homogeneous one; and the adsorption of [Rh] on the surface of Ag and its entrapment are very different processes only the latter provided appreciable catalytic activity. Thus, while homogeneous [Rh] was entirely destroyed after converting styrene to ethylbenzne at 50%, [Rh]@Ag remained active after effecting the same reaction to a yield of 85% (compared to only 7% for [Rh] adsorbed on Ag), and while homogeneous [Rh] hydrogenated diphenylacetylene to bibenzyl (and was completely deactivated after one cycle) with no trace of cis-stilbene, [Rh]@Ag afforded that compound as the main product and could be reused.

  4. Successful retrieval of an entrapped Rotablator burr using 5 Fr guiding catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayoshi; Shiraishi, Jun; Kohno, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Although burr entrapment is a rare complication of the Rotablator, it is extremely difficult to retrieve a fixedly entrapped burr without surgical procedure. An 84-year-old male with effort angina had heavily calcified coronary trees as well as severe stenosis in the mid LCx, and moderate stenosis in the proximal LCx, and in the LMT. We planned to perform rotational atherectomy in the LCx lesions. Using 7 Fr Q-curve guiding catheter and Rotawire floppy, we began to ablate using 1.5-mm burr at 200,000 rpm. Because the burr could not pass the proximal stenosis, we exchanged the wire for Rotawire extrasupport and the burr for 1.25-mm burr, and restarted the ablation at 220,000 rpm. Although the burr could manage to pass the proximal stenosis, it had become trapped in the mid LCx lesion. Simple pull on the Rotablator, rotation of the burr, and crossing the Conquest (Confianza) wire could not retrieve it. Thus, we cut off the drive shaft and sheath of the Rotablator, inserted 5 Fr 120-cm straight guiding catheter (Heartrail ST01; Terumo) through the remaining Rotablator system, pushed the catheter tip to the lesion around the burr as well as simultaneously pulled the Rotablator, and finally could retrieve it. Then we implanted stents in the LCx and in the LMT without difficulty. The 5 Fr straight guiding catheter might be useful for retrieving an entrapped burr (1.25-mm burr). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil and n-hexane content (w/w of oil were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 °C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 °C or room temperature.

  6. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Karla A. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Lopes, Flavio Marques [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Unidade Universitária de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Yamashita, Fabio [Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos e Medicamentos, Laboratório de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fernandes, Kátia Flávia, E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film.

  7. Hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in posttraumatic stress disorder: their association with suicidal behavior and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown an increased frequency of suicidal behaviors in those with PTSD, but few studies have investigated the factors that underlie the emergence of suicidal behavior in PTSD. Two theories of suicide, the Cry of Pain and the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide, propose that feelings of hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment are core components of suicidality. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal behavior and hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in trauma victims with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The results demonstrated that hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment were significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in those with PTSD. Hopelessness and defeat were also significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in trauma victims without PTSD. In those with PTSD, the relationship between suicidal behavior and hopelessness and entrapment remained significant after controlling for comorbid depression. The findings provide support for the contemporary theories of suicidality and have important clinical implications.

  8. Transesterification by lipase entrapped in electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers and its application to a flow-through reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Antoku, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-06-01

    We entrapped lipase in electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers of approximately 1 mum in diameter and evaluated the transesterification activity by converting (s)-glycidol to glycidyl n-butyrate with vinyl n-butyrate. The initial transesterification rate of the entrapped lipase was 5.2-fold faster than that of non-treated lipase. The fibrous membrane could be used as a component of a flow-through reactor for continuous transesterification.

  9. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  10. Optical coherence tomography assessment of a coronary bare cobalt chromium stent deformed by the removal of an entrapped "jailed" guidewire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Van Belle, Eric; Stella, Pieter R

    2010-09-01

    A 64-year-old male with an ongoing acute coronary syndrome was treated percutaneously for a subtotal occlusion of a first diagonal branch. After predilatation of the diagonal, an important secondary branch was evident at the level of the subocclusion. A jailed wire was placed in this vessel, and stenting of the main diagonal branch was performed with a last-generation thin-strut bare cobalt-chromium stent. Conventional retrieval of the jailed wire was impossible, as the distal tip of the wire remained entrapped at the level of the stent. The strong pulling of the wire led only to a deep intubation of the guiding catheter with possible risk of dissection. Retrieval of the wire was finally possible with the support of an over-the-wire microcatheter. However, the stent, though still patent, appeared deformed. At a scheduled control angiogram 4 months later (while the patient was still asymptomatic), an optical coherence tomography (OCT) investigation of the stented segment confirmed the deformation of the stent. OCT showed a complete lack of stent struts on the side of origin of the secondary branch and an "overlap" or "accumulation" of several layers of stent struts on the other side. There were no signs of uncovered struts overall nor malapposition, and even the sites where multiple stent layers were visible were completely covered by neointimal hyperplasia. Despite the multiple layers of metal, the neointimal reaction was moderate and did not lead to a flow-limiting stenosis, thus the patient was further treated medically without the need for a new intervention.

  11. Attachment style and suicide behaviors in high risk psychiatric inpatients following hospital discharge: The mediating role of entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Galynker, Igor I; Briggs, Jessica; Duffy, Molly; Frechette-Hagan, Anna; Kim, Hae-Joon; Cohen, Lisa J; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2017-11-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with suicidal behavior. This relationship and its possible mediators have not been examined in high-risk psychiatric inpatients with respect to the critical high-risk period following hospital discharge. Attachment styles and perception of entrapment were assessed in 200 high-risk adult psychiatric inpatients hospitalized following suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Suicidal behaviors were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale at 1-2 months post-discharge. Associations between different attachment styles and suicidal behaviors were assessed and mediation of attachment effects by entrapment was modeled. Fearful attachment was associated with post-discharge suicidal behavior and there was a trend-level negative association for secure attachment. In addition, entrapment mediated the relationship between fearful attachment and suicidal behavior. The current study highlights the mediating role of perceptions of entrapment in the contribution of fearful attachment to suicidal behavior in high-risk patients, suggesting entrapment as potential therapeutic target to prevent suicidal behavior in these individuals. Further research is warranted to establish the mechanisms by which entrapment experiences emerge in patients with insecure attachment styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Shalev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes development of a sol-gel based immunoaffinity method for the steroid hormone levonorgestrel (LNG and the effects of changes in the sol-gel matrix format on the activity of the entrapped antibodies (Abs and on matrix structure. The best sol-gel format for Ab entrapment was found to be a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS based matrix at a TMOS:water ratio of 1:8, containing 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG of MW 0.4 kDa. Addition of higher percentages of PEG or a higher MW PEG did not improve activity. No activity was obtained with a TMOS:water ratio of 1:12, most likely because of the very dense polymer that resulted from these polymerization conditions. Only minor differences in the non-specific binding were obtained with the various formats. TMOS was found to be more effective than tetrakis (2-hydroxyethylorthosilicate (THEOS for entrapment of anti-levonorgestrel (LNG Abs. However, aging the THEOS-based sol-gel for a few weeks at 4 °C stabilized the entrapped Abs and increased its binding capacity. Confocal fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC labeled immunoglobulines (IgGs entrapped in the sol-gel matrix showed that the entrapped Abs were distributed homogenously within the gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images have shown the diverse structures of the various sol-gel formats and precursors.

  13. les hemangiomes vertebraux agressifs vertebral hemangiomas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background 1. Vertebral hemangiomas are benign tumeurs and are raré< ly symptomatic Aggressive forms represent less than. 1% of all cases Medical imaging allows both diagnosis ... '+ tro'ubles sphinctêriens. Irritation pyramidale '. Laminectomie - échec [saignement important) embolieationcomplêtée par une résection.

  14. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  15. Separation of vertebral epiphyses in bovine carcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M

    1987-01-01

    Separation of vertebral epiphyses in the thoracolumbar region is a cause of rejection of beef carcases for Intervention storage. Incidence is highest in younger cattle and the problem is associated with certain types of hide puller and dressing technique. Three dressing methods are evaluated and tensile strenght of bone specimens is measured. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jason; Davis, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. VCFs can lead to chronic pain, disfigurement, height loss, impaired activities of daily living, increased risk of pressure sores, pneumonia, and psychological distress. Patients with an acute VCF may report abrupt onset of back pain with position changes, coughing, sneezing, or lifting. Physical examination findings are often normal, but can demonstrate kyphosis and midline spine tenderness. More than two-thirds of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on plain radiography. Acute VCFs may be treated with analgesics such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, and calcitonin. Physicians must be mindful of medication adverse effects in older patients. Other conservative therapeutic options include limited bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, nerve root blocks, and epidural injections. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, is controversial, but can be considered in patients with inadequate pain relief with nonsurgical care or when persistent pain substantially affects quality of life. Family physicians can help prevent vertebral fractures through management of risk factors and the treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R.; Oguiza, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. Database URL: VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php PMID:28365718

  18. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.G.; Martin, I.R.; Shaw, D.G.; Robinson, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    Four cases of progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion are described. Three cases remain relatively asymptomatic, but one has developed spinal cord compression secondary to an acute angled kyphosis. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features are reviewed and some comparisons with the spinal changes in thalidomide embryopathy are made.

  19. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  20. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its ... of the size of the bone's building blocks (such as osteon or trabecular thickness) to meet the metabolic demand concomitant to minimal expenditure of energy.

  1. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates: potential approach to palaeontological investigations. S MISHRA. School of Engineering Systems and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology,. Brisbane 4000, Australia. (Email, sk.mishra@qut.edu.au).

  2. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  3. Comparison between entrapment methods for phenol removal and operation of bioreactor packed with co-entrapped activated carbon and Pseudomonas fluorescence KNU417.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyung Han; Jung, Kang-Yeoun; Yeom, Sung Ho

    2009-02-01

    A microorganism capable of degrading phenol was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescence. A porous polymer bead of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Xanthan gum was found to be the best entrapment for phenol degradation in terms of bead shape (spherical form), bead strength, non-agglomeration, phenol degradation rate, and cell holding inside the bead. Activated carbon was co-immobilized with the microorganism in the bead, which readily adsorbed phenol to decrease initial phenol concentration. Due to the decreased phenol concentration, the cells needed shorter adaptation time after which the microorganism stably degraded phenol. When the bead containing microorganism with 1% of activated carbon was packed in a packed-bed bioreactor, the start-up period was shortened by 40 h and the removal efficiency of phenol during the period was increased by 28% than the case with only microorganism.

  4. The CW domain, a structural module shared amongst vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jason; Zhao, Yunde

    2003-11-01

    A previously undetected domain, named CW for its conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues, appears to be a four-cysteine zinc-finger motif found exclusively in vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants. Of the twelve distinct nuclear protein families that comprise the CW domain-containing superfamily, only the microrchida (MORC) family has begun to be characterized. However, several families contain other domains suggesting a relationship between the CW domain and either chromatin methylation status or early embryonic development.

  5. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called "vertebral body stenting" (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean +/- SD in %, p VBS: 3.7 +/- 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 +/- 9.4; VBS: 13.3 +/- 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.

  6. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called ?vertebral body stenting? (VBS) was tested in?vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be impl...

  7. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  8. Multiple vertebral fractures following osteoporosis treatment discontinuation: a case-report after long-term Odanacatib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, N; Krueger, D; de Papp, A E

    2018-02-18

    Case reports of women sustaining multiple vertebral fractures (VF) soon afterdenosumab discontinuation are accumulating. We report a woman with five new vertebral fractures in ~8 months following discontinuation of long-term odanacatib (ODN), an experimental cathepsin K inhibitor. DXA examination demonstrated an ~12% decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and ~9% decline in trabecular bone score (TBS) since ODN discontinuation. Laboratory evaluation did not reveal a secondary cause of bone loss. This case mimics observations following denosumab discontinuation, but, to our knowledge, is the first reported with ODN and the first documenting substantial decline in TBS. While not directly clinically relevant as ODN is no longer being developed, this case raises the possibility that a syndrome of multiple vertebral fractures could follow discontinuation of various potent osteoporosis therapies that produce major BMD increases but do not have persisting bone effects (i.e., all non-bisphosphonates). Use of antiresorptive therapies to prevent rapid bone loss following discontinuation of potent bone active agents seems appropriate. Identification of those patients who could be at risk for the multiple VF syndrome is needed.

  9. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  10. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  11. Relation between obesity and bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-11-01

    The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study design, we evaluated the associations between obesity or metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) or vertebral fracture. A total of 907 postmenopausal healthy female subjects, aged 60-79 years, were recruited from woman hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. BMD, vetebral fracture, bone markers, and body composition including body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and waist circumference were measured. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total calcium intake, and total energy intake, waist circumference was negatively related to BMD of all sites (lumbar BMD p = 0.037, all sites of femur BMD p BMD of all sites (p BMD (p = 0.016), femoral neck BMD (p = 0.0335), and femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0082). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was positively related to femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0366) and was lower in the control group than the fracture group (p = 0.011). In contrast to the effect favorable body weight on bone mineral density, high percentage body fat and waist circumference are related to low BMD and a vertebral fracture. Some components of metabolic syndrome were related to BMD and a vertebral fracture.

  12. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Meng, Bin; Gan, Minfeng; Niu, Junjie; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are minimally invasive and effective vertebral augmentation techniques for managing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Recent meta-analyses have compared the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques or conservative treatment; however, the inclusions were not thorough and rigorous enough, and the effects of each technique on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures remain unclear. To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies with more rigorous inclusion criteria on the effects of vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for OVCF on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant original articles comparing the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for patients with OVCFs. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were identified. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated, relevant data were extracted and recorded, and an appropriate meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 articles were included. The pooled results from included studies showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis comparing different study designs, durations of symptoms, follow-up times, races of patients, and techniques were conducted, and no significant differences in the incidence of secondary fractures were identified (P > 0.05). No obvious publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.360 > 0.05) or Egger's test (P = 0.373 > 0.05). Despite current thinking in the

  13. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  14. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  15. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  16. Distinguishing Goldenhar Syndrome from Craniofacial Microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuin, Jorien; Tahiri, Youssef; Paliga, James T; Taylor, Jesse A; Bartlett, Scott P

    2015-09-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is characterized by the typical features of craniofacial microsomia (CFM) with the addition of epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The aim of this study is to examine the objective differences between patients carrying a diagnosis of Goldenhar syndrome to those diagnosed with CFM. Thus, we performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review on all patients who presented with a diagnosis of CFM or Goldenhar syndrome from January 1990 to December 2012. Demographic, diagnosis, OMENS+ classification, accompanying diagnoses, and radiographic data were collected. For subjective analysis, subgroups were designed based on the diagnosis Goldenhar syndrome or CFM per history. For objective analysis, subgroups were designed based on the presence of epibulbar dermoids and/or vertebral anomalies. The cohorts were compared with respect to associated medical abnormalities and severity of CFM features. One hundred thirty eight patients met inclusion criteria. Epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies were seen in 17% and 34% of the patients, respectively. Only 10 patients (7.2%) had both epibulbar dermoids and vertebral anomalies. The subjective "Goldenhar" group (N = 44, 32%) was found to have a higher percentage of bilaterally affected patients (P = 0.001), a more severe mandibular deformity (P = Goldenhar syndrome remain unclear, thereby making clinical use of the term "Goldenhar" inconsequential. Goldenhar syndrome is over diagnosed subjectively in patients who show more severe CFM features.

  17. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cancers that metastasize to the spine and primary cancers such as multiple myeloma can result in vertebral compression fractures or instability. Conservative strategies, including bed rest, bracing, and analgesic use, can be ineffective, resulting in continued pain and progressive functional disability limiting mobility and self-care. Surgery is not usually an option for cancer patients in advanced disease states because of their poor medical health or functional status and limited life expectancy. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous image-guided vertebral augmentation techniques, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, for palliation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures. We performed a systematic literature search for studies on vertebral augmentation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures published from January 1, 2000, to October 2014; abstracts were screened by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Owing to the heterogeneity of the clinical reports, we performed a narrative synthesis based on an analytical framework constructed for the type of cancer-related vertebral fractures and the diversity of the vertebral augmentation interventions. The evidence review identified 3,391 citations, of which 111 clinical reports (4,235 patients) evaluated the effectiveness of vertebroplasty (78 reports, 2,545 patients) or kyphoplasty (33 reports, 1,690 patients) for patients with mixed primary spinal metastatic cancers, multiple myeloma, or hemangiomas. Overall the mean pain intensity scores often reported within 48 hours of vertebral augmentation (kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty), were significantly reduced. Analgesic use, although variably reported, usually involved parallel decreases, particularly in opioids, and mean pain-related disability scores were also significantly improved. In a randomized controlled trial comparing kyphoplasty

  18. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. The base case considered each of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

  19. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para aumentar a segurança cirúrgica. OBJETIVO: Estudar a morfometria da artéria vertebral no atlas através da tomografia computadorizada do sulco da artéria vertebral (SAV em 30 atlas isolados de cadáveres. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O SAV e suas relações com a linha média foram avaliados através de oito medidas lineares e duas angulares, bilateralmente. A média, valor máximo e mínimo, e desvio padrão foram calculados para cada parâmetro. RESULTADOS: O SAV apresentou uma maior largura e maior espessura do lado esquerdo (pINTRODUCTION: Several surgical techniques have been carried through in the skull-cervical region due to various pathologies. During the surgical access to this region, a potential risk of iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery exists, related to extended lateral access and the inadequate evaluation of the local anatomy. Variations in the groove of the vertebral artery lead to a greater risk of vascular injury during surgery. Preoperative image study of the vertebral artery anatomy and its groove has been realized to enhance surgical safety. OBJECTIVE: to study the morphometry of atlas vertebral artery on computed tomography scan images of the vertebral artery groove (VAG in 30 dry atlas. METHODS: VAG and its relationship with the midline were evaluated through eight linear and two angular measures, bilaterally. The average, maximum and minimum values, and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter

  20. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. Methods We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. Results The base case considered each of

  1. Goldenhar syndrome: Cardiac anesthesiologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Minati; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2017-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome or oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia was defined by Goldenhar in 1952 and redefined by Grolin et al. later. As the name denotes, children with this syndrome present with craniofacial and vertebral anomalies which increase the risk of airway compromise. Neonates and infants with this syndrome often have premature internal organs, low birth weight, and airway disorders. For this reason, safe anesthesia in such infants requires a complete knowledge regarding metabolism and side effects of the drugs. The association of cardiovascular abnormalities is not uncommon and possesses additional challenge for anesthetic management. The aim of this review is to draw attention to the various perioperative problems that can be faced in these infants when they undergo surgery or the correction of the underlying cardiac problem.

  2. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  3. Can hydrocarbons entrapped in seep carbonates serve as gas geochemistry recorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Schlömer, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    The geochemistry of seep gases is useful for an understanding of the local petroleum system. Here it was tested whether individual light hydrocarbons in seep gases are representatively entrapped in authigenic carbonates that formed near active seep sites. If applicable, it would be possible to extract geochemical information not only on the origin but also on the thermal maturity of the hydrocarbon source rocks from the gases entrapped in carbonates in the past. Respective data could be used for a better understanding of paleoenvironments and might directly serve as calibration point for, amongst others, petroleum system modeling. For this approach, (sub)-recent seep carbonates from the Black Sea (Paleodnjepr region and Batumi seep area), two sites of the Campeche Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Venere mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea) were selected. These seep carbonates derive from sites for which geochemical data on the currently seeping gases exist. During treatment with phosphoric acid, methane and higher hydrocarbons were released from all carbonates, but in low concentrations. Compositional studies demonstrate that the ratio of methane to the sum of higher hydrocarbons (C1/(C2+C3)) is (partly strongly) positively biased in the entrapped gas fraction. δ13C values of C1 were determined for all samples and, for the samples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, also of C2 and C3. The present dataset from six seep sites indicates that information on the seeped methane can be—although with a scatter of several permil—recorded in seep carbonate matrices, but other valuable information like the composition and δ13C of ethane and propane appears to be modified or lost during, for example, enclosure or at an early stage of diagenesis.

  4. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shamit S., E-mail: shamit.desai@northwestern.edu [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Konanur, Meghana [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (United States); Foltz, Gretchen [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University, Interventional Radiology (United States); Malaisrie, S. Chris [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Resnick, Scott, E-mail: sresnick@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital (United States)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.

  5. Activity retention after nisin entrapment in a polyethylene oxide brush layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxier, Julie A; Schilke, Karl F; McGuire, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    The cationic, amphiphilic peptide nisin is an effective inhibitor of gram-positive bacteria whose mode of action does not encourage pathogenic resistance, and its proper incorporation into food packaging could enhance food stability, safety, and quality in a number of circumstances. Sufficiently small peptides have been shown to integrate into otherwise nonfouling polyethylene oxide (PEO) brush layers in accordance with their amphiphilicity and ordered structure, including nisin, and we have recently shown that nisin entrapment within a PEO layer does not compromise the nonfouling character of that layer. In this work we test the hypothesis that surface-bound, pendant PEO chains will inhibit displacement of entrapped nisin by competing proteins and, in this way, prolong retention of nisin activity at the interface. For this purpose, the antimicrobial activity of nisinloaded, PEO-coated surfaces was evaluated against the gram-positive indicator strain, Pediococcus pentosaceous. The retained antimicrobial activity of nisin layers was evaluated on uncoated and PEO-coated surfaces after incubation in the presence of bovine serum albumin for contact periods up to 1 week. Nisin-loaded, uncoated and PEO-coated samples were withdrawn at selected times and were incubated on plates inoculated with P. pentosaceous to quantify nisin activity by determination of kill zone radii. Our results indicate that nisin activity is retained at a higher level for a longer period of time after entrapment within PEO than after direct adsorption in the absence of PEO, owing to inhibition of nisin exchange with dissolved protein afforded by the pendant PEO chains.

  6. Surgical treatment and outcomes in 15 patients with anterior interosseous nerve entrapments and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel H; Murovic, Judith A; Kim, Yong-Yeon; Kline, David G

    2006-05-01

    The authors present data obtained in 15 surgically treated patients with anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) entrapments and injuries. Fifteen patients with AIN entrapments and injuries underwent surgery between 1967 and 1997 at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) or Stanford University Medical Center. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. The LSUHSC grading system was used to evaluate the function of muscles supplied by the AIN. Nontraumatic injuries included seven AIN compressions by bone or soft tissue. Traumatic injury mechanisms consisted of stretch or contusion (six patients), injection (one patient), and burn scar (one patient). Presentations included weakness in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle to the index finger, FDP muscle to the middle finger, pronator quadratus muscle, and flexion of the distal phalanx of the thumb. Preoperative evaluations included electromyography and nerve conduction studies as well as elbow and forearm plain radiographs. On surgery, lesions in continuity involved seven compressions, four stretch or contusion injuries, and one injection injury, all of which demonstrated nerve action potentials (NAPs) and were treated with neurolysis. Among the seven compression and four stretch or contusion injury cases, six and three patients, respectively, had LSUHSC Grade 3 or better functional recoveries postoperatively. Two stretch or contusion injuries involved lesions in continuity but demonstrated negative NAPs at surgery. Thus, each was treated using a graft repair after resection of a neuroma. There was one burn scar injury, which was treated via an end-to-end suture anastomosis, leading to a functional recovery better than Grade 3. Fifteen AIN entrapments or injuries responded favorably to nerve release and/or repair.

  7. Co-contamination of Cu and Cd in paddy fields: Using periphyton to entrap heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiali [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Cilai [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wang, Fengwu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); School of Civil Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, 808 Shuang Gang East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Wu, Yonghong, E-mail: yhwu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Periphyton was capable of simultaneously entrapping Cu and Cd from paddy fields. • Cu and Cd bioavailability decreased with time after exposure to periphyton. • Periodic adsorption–desorption was the main mechanism used to remove Cd and Cu. • Periphyton was able to adapt to steady accumulation of Cu and Cd. • The inclusion of periphyton will help entrap heavy metals in paddy fields. - Abstract: The ubiquitous native periphyton was used to entrap Cu and Cd from paddy fields. Results showed that Cu- and Cd-hydrate species such as CuOH{sup +}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+}, CdOH{sup +}, and Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2+} decreased with time in the presence of periphyton. When the initial concentrations of Cu and Cd were 10 mg/L, the heavy metal content in the periphyton fluctuated from 145.20 mg/kg to 342.42 mg/kg for Cu and from 101.75 mg/kg to 236.29 mg/kg for Cd after 2 h exposure. The concentration of Cd in periphytic cells varied from 42.93 mg/kg to 174 mg/kg after 2 h. The dominant periphyton microorganism species shifted from photoautotrophs to heterotrophs during the exposure of periphyton to Cu and Cd co-contamination. Although Cu and Cd could inhibit periphyton photosynthesis and carbon utilization, the periphyton was able to adapt to the test conditions. Cu and Cd accumulation in rice markedly decreased in the presence of periphyton while the number of rice seeds germinating was higher in the periphyton treatments. These results suggest that the inclusion of native periphyton in paddy fields provides a promising buffer to minimize the effects of Cu and Cd pollution on rice growth and food safety.

  8. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: sukhanovat@mail.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Cell Interactions, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Prudchenko, Igor A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Peptide Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtilman, Mikhail I. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory Polymers for Biology, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable.

  9. A highly effective polymerase chain reaction enhancer based on dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Xueyan; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Peng, Chen; Xiao, Tongyu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-01-07

    In molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has played an important role but suffers a general problem of low efficiency and specificity. Development of suitable PCR additives to improve the specificity and efficiency still remains a great challenge. Here we report the use of dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) as a novel class of enhancers to improve the specificity and efficiency of PCR. We show that the Au DENPs prepared using amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5.NH(2)) as templates are much more effective than the same dendrimers without AuNPs entrapped in improving the specificity and efficiency of an error-prone two-round PCR system. With the increase of the molar ratio between Au atom and G5.NH(2) dendrimer in the Au DENPs, the optimum concentration of Au DENPs used to improve the PCR specificity and efficiency is decreased and can be as low as 0.37 nM when the Au atom/G5.NH(2) dendrimer molar ratio reaches 100:1. Our PCR results along with the dynamic light scattering data suggest that unlike the flexible soft dendrimers without NPs entrapped that may display a non-spherical shape when interacting with the PCR components, the Au DENPs with increasing Au atom/dendrimer molar ratio are able to reserve the spherical shape of dendrimers, enabling much more efficient interaction with the PCR components. Therefore, as a NP-based PCR enhancer, both the surface charge and the shape of the particles should be responsible for effective interaction with the PCR components for improving the PCR specificity and efficiency. Furthermore, the used Au DENPs were proved to be stable after the PCR process, enabling them to be potentially used for enhancing different PCR systems. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. Preparation and characterization of membranes with entrapped TIO{sub 2} and preliminary photocatalytic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artale, M. A.; Agugliaro, V.; Loddo, V.; Palmisano, L.; Schiavello, M. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Processes and Materials; Drioli, E.; Golemme, G.; Grande, C.; Molinari, R. [Rende Univ. of the Calabria, Rende (Italy). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of entrapping polycrystalline TiO{sub 2} in a polymeric support, in order to couple the two unit operations, i. e., ultrafiltration and photodegradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions, was investigated. To this aim, polymeric membranes for ultrafiltration with entrapped TiO{sub 2} were prepared, characterised and tested. The polymeric support chosen was commercial polysulfone (PSf). The membrane preparation was carried out with the technique referred to as phase inversion. A three-component system, with a polymer, a solvent and a non-solvent was used. The best operative conditions were determined in order to obtain the desired membrane morphology. Permeability measurements and photo stability tests were also carried out by using a system under pressure. Finally, a preliminary investigation was performed in order to evaluate the photo catalytic activity of the membranes with entrapped TiO{sub 2} for the oxidation of 4-nitrophenol as a model molecule in aqueous solutions. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di intrappolare TiO{sub 2} policristallino all'interno di una matrice polimerica, al fine di realizzare l'accoppiamento di due operazioni unitarie, ultrafiltrazione e fotodegradazione di inquinanti organici in soluzione acquosa. Sono state realizzate membrane da ultrfiltrazione con polisolfone commerciale (PSf), usando la tecnica dell'inversione di fase ed impiegando un sistema a tre componenti: polimero, solvente e non solvente. Lo studio ha condotto alla realizzazione di una morfologia di membrana ottimale. Sono state inoltre effettuate analisi atte a valutare la permeabilita', la resistenza all'irradiazione UV e l'attivita' fotocatalitica delle membrane, mediante uno studio preliminare con soluzioni acquose di 4-nitrofenolo come molecola modello.

  11. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  12. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  13. Endovascular Retrieval of Entrapped Elephant Trunk Graft During Complex Hybrid Aortic Arch Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodharan, Karthikeyan, E-mail: drdkarthik@hotmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chao, Victor T. T., E-mail: victor.chao.t.t@singhealth.com.sg [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Entrapment of the elephant trunk graft within the false lumen is a rare complication of surgical repair of an aortic dissection. This is normally retrieved by emergent open surgery. We describe a technique of endovascular retrieval of the dislodged graft, during hybrid aortic arch repair. The elephant trunk was cannulated through and through from a femoral access and the free end of the wire was snared and retrieved from a brachial access. The wire was externalised from both accesses and was used to reposition the graft into the true lumen using a body flossing technique.

  14. Neuropatia Periférica Familiar por Susceptibilidade ao Entrapment (Neuropatia Tomaculosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Viana, J; Coimbra, J.; Goulart, Z; Bigotte de Almeida, L; Cabral Beirão, J

    1991-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de neuropatia periférica familiar por susceptibilidade ao entrapment e comparam-no com os descritos na literatura. As principais características desta neuropatia são: hereditariedade autossómica dominante, mononeuropatias recorrentes de localização variável (cubital, mediano, ciático poplíteo, externo, plexo braquial) e aspectos morfológicos característicos na biópsia do nervo. O nervo sensitivo revela alterações predominantes desmielinizantes, com espessamentos ...

  15. Sector computed tomographic spine scanning in the diagnosis of lumbar nerve root entrapment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risius, B.; Modic, M.T.; Hardy, R.W. Jr.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Weinstein, M.A.

    1982-04-01

    The diagnosis of lumbar nerve root entrapment was made by sector computed tomography (CT) scanning in 25 patients whose myelograms were normal at the site of the CT scan abnormalities. Sector CT scanning demonstrates preoperatively which neural foramina are narrow. This information, correlated with the patient's history and physical examination, indicates which foramina should be operated on and prevents unnecessary exploration of normal neutral foramina. CT findings were confirmed surgically in 14 patients. Eleven of these 14 patients had excellent postoperative results and remain pain free.

  16. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  17. Functions of Antimicrobial Peptides in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Eva Edilia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the multiple activities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in vertebrates. The largest AMP families are the cathelicidins and defensins, but several peptides derived from bigger proteins have also been reported. Cathelicidins are characterized by a conserved Nterminal pro-region and a variable region that encodes the C-terminal mature peptide. The β-defensins comprise a large family of AMPs that have diversified their functions, apparently without losing their antimicrobial activity. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are present in all vertebrates studied so far; α- defensins are present in mammals, while θ-defensins are only present in some non-human primates. The AMPs are regulated by posttranslational modifications that mainly include proteolysis, amidation, ADP-ribosylation, glycosylation and phosphorylation. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs show activity against viral particles and interfere in different steps of virus replication. Moreover, AMPs may both promote and inhibit cancer growth: several vertebrate AMPs kill cancer cells, and some tumors grow in an environment wherein the expression of β-defensins is reduced; however, human cathelicidin and some β-defensins are overexpressed in several types of cancer and are correlated with tumor growth. AMPs are part of the complex network of cells and molecules that forms the vertebrate innate defense system and they induce adaptive responses. In addition, they participate in sperm maturation and male reproduction. AMPs are multifunctional peptides that participate in immune responses, wound healing, angiogenesis, toxin neutralization, iron metabolism, male reproduction, among other functions. However, AMPs may also contribute to excessive inflammation and tumorigenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Luis G.; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Andrew C. Oates

    2008-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock’s collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A th...

  19. Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  1. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

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    Damien Cazaméa-Catalan

    Full Text Available All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish. We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish. We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish. Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  2. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

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    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  3. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

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    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

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    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  5. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

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    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  6. Evolution of sound localisation in land vertebrates.

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    Köppl, Christine

    2009-08-11

    The story of the evolution of hearing in land vertebrates is fascinating but complex. The water-to-land transition changed the physical environment in which hearing happens so dramatically that both the peripheral receptor structures and the central auditory circuits underwent a revolution, leading to the sensitive hearing of higher-frequency airborne sound. This (r)evolution took a very long time indeed. Most of it happened after the early divergence of the major clades of land vertebrates. Hearing, at least hearing as we commonly understand it today, is the youngest of the major senses and much of its evolutionary history is not shared between amphibians, lepidosauromorphs (lizards and snakes), archosauromorphs (birds and crocodilians) and mammals. There was no linear evolution of complexity from 'lower' to 'higher' vertebrates. We are only just beginning to appreciate the implications of this for central auditory processing. There is no consensus, yet, on the evolution of sound localisation. The multitude of physical cues involved in sound localisation means that different selective pressures interact and need to be considered. The use and neural processing of interaural time differences is just one example. It has taught us that long-standing assumptions, such as the homology of the mammalian medial superior olive and the avian nucleus laminaris, need to be questioned and that important insights may arise from unexpected directions, such as the paleontology of middle-ear ossicles. There is still much to discover.

  7. Vertebral osteomyelitis in adults: an update.

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    Nickerson, Emma K; Sinha, Rohitashwa

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing, attributed to an ageing population with inherent co-morbidities and improved case ascertainment. References were retrieved from the PubMed database using the terms 'vertebral osteomyelitis' and 'spondylodiscitis' between January 1, 2009 and April 30, 2014 published in English as checked in May 2014 (>1000 abstracts checked). Blood cultures and whole spine imaging with magnetic resonance imaging are essential investigations. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of surgical management, although placing metalwork in active infection is becoming increasingly common. The extent of pursuing spinal biopsies to determine aetiology, antimicrobial choices and duration, monitoring the response to treatment, and surgical techniques and timing all vary widely in clinical practice with heterogeneous studies limiting comparisons. Surgery, rather than conservative approaches, is being proposed as the default management choice, because it can, in carefully selected patients, offer faster reduction in pain scores and improved quality of life. Further studies are needed to define the most effective technique for spinal biopsies to maximize determining aetiology. High-quality trials are required to provide an evidence base for both the medical and surgical management of vertebral osteomyelitis, including challenging medical management as the default option. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree.

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    Irisarri, Iker; Baurain, Denis; Brinkmann, Henner; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sire, Jean-Yves; Kupfer, Alexander; Petersen, Jörn; Jarek, Michael; Meyer, Axel; Vences, Miguel; Philippe, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on "standards" for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find this phylotranscriptomic approach successful and highly cost-effective. Increased sequencing effort up to ca. 10Gbp allows recovering more genes, but shallower sequencing (1.5Gbp) is sufficient to obtain thousands of full-length orthologous transcripts. We reconstruct a robust and strongly supported timetree of jawed vertebrates using 7,189 nuclear genes from 100 taxa, including 23 new transcriptomes from previously unsampled key species. Gene jackknifing of genomic data corroborates the robustness of our tree and allows calculating genome-wide divergence times by overcoming gene sampling bias. Mitochondrial genomes prove insufficient to resolve the deepest relationships because of limited signal and among-lineage rate heterogeneity. Our analyses emphasize the importance of large curated nuclear datasets to increase the accuracy of phylogenomics and provide a reference framework for the evolutionary history of jawed vertebrates.

  9. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Balloon Kyphoplasty for Managing Intractable Pain in Pediatric Pathologic Vertebral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Jane S; Thomas, Stefanie M; Goodwin, Ryan C; Gurd, David P; Hanna, Rabi; Kuivila, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are a common result of osteoporosis and osteopenia secondary to steroid use and chemotherapy treatment. Balloon kyphoplasty is a treatment option with good to excellent results well described in adults. Although a few recent studies have been published regarding the use of kyphoplasty in children, no formal indication exists for the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of 3 chronically ill children with intractable pain from vertebral compression fractures, managed with kyphoplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 3 pediatric patients who underwent balloon kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures secondary to chronic illness. Patient variables included age, sex, primary diagnosis and treatments, levels of vertebral fracture, and time elapsed from initial therapy to fracture. A numeric rating scale of 0 to 10 was used for patient-reported pain, before and after kyphoplasty. Preoperative and postoperative analgesic use and physical function were also described. Surgical variables included levels of kyphoplasty, operative time, and procedure-related complications. The primary diagnoses were relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma, abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and IPEX-like (immune dysregulation, polyendrocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome. All 3 patients were males, aged 12, 12, and 13, respectively, at the time of kyphoplasty. Pain scores were 8 to 9 preoperatively in 2 patients, severely affecting their physical function including independent walking. Excruciating back pain was a contributing factor to the respiratory distress of the third patient, who required elective intubation. All of the patients reported significant pain relief (range, 0 to 2) and improved physical function with kyphoplasty. The third patient was successfully extubated 1 week postoperatively and eventually returned to baseline activity. There were no complications related to kyphoplasty. Balloon kyphoplasty

  11. Colistin-entrapped liposomes driven by the electrostatic interaction: Mechanism of drug loading and in vivo characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Enbo; Yang, Li

    2016-12-30

    The potential in vivo application of liposome for polycationic colistin has been hindered by the poor entrapment efficiency (EE) due to their phospholipid membrane permeability. The objective of this study is to investigate the loading mechanism and validity of applying electrostatic attraction for the colistin entrapment and delivery in liposomes. Anionic lipids with various structures were used for colistin entrapment, and the properties of resulting liposomes (i.e. zeta-potential, EE and release rate) were highly dependent on the structure of anionic lipids. Based on consideration of intermolecular interactions, the retention of electrostatically entrapped colistin is essentially determined by the balance of interfacial hydrophobic attraction and electrostatic repulsion. The liposomal colistin showed the reduced bacterial killing rate, but did not compromise the in vitro antibacterial activity. Specially, the PEGylated liposomal colistin of sodium cholesteryl sulfate (Chol-SO4(-)) showed the best drug retention, resulting in the significantly increased maximum-tolerated dose, prolonged blood circulation and decreased colistin distribution in kidney after intravenous administration in mice. These results highlight the potential utility of electrostatically entrapped liposome for polycationic colistin delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-07-01

    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in invasive vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  14. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

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    Anselmetti GC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni C Anselmetti1, Sean M Tutton2, Francis R Facchini3, Larry E Miller4,5, Jon E Block51Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Turin, Italy; 2Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Interventional Radiology, Interventional Oncology, VIR Chicago, Hinsdale, IL, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system.Case presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No

  15. Acute Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Secondary to Anconeus Epitrochlearis Muscle

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    Ying-Kan Law

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubital tunnel syndrome is the most common type of ulnar nerve entrapment that usually associates with chronic sensory and motor symptoms. Having anconeus epitrochlearis muscle is an uncommon cause of cubital tunnel syndrome. In this paper, the author introduces a case of cubital tunnel syndrome due to anconeus epitrochlearis muscle presenting with acute sensory, motor, and sympathetic symptoms. For such cases, there has been much controversy over the choices of surgical treatment, which can be excision of the muscle alone or together with ulnar nerve anterior transposition.

  16. Evolution of vertebrate GnRH receptors from the perspective of a basal vertebrate

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    Stacia A Sower

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian, type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that 2 whole rounds of genome duplication (2R occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.

  17. Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Suspected Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Andreas; Shepherd, Sheila; Mason, Avril; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2016-12-01

    To explore the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures in disease groups investigated for primary and secondary osteoporosis, using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). VFA was performed independently by 2 nonradiologists, in 165 children (77 males, 88 females) as part of their investigation for osteoporosis. Vertebral bodies from T6 to L4 were assessed for vertebral fractures using the Genant scoring system. The common readings for the presence of vertebral fractures were used for evaluating the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures. The median age of the subjects was 13.4 years (range, 3.6, 18). Of the 165 children, 24 (15%) were being investigated for primary bone disease, and the remainder had a range of chronic diseases known to affect bone health. Vertebral fractures were identified in 38 (23%) children. The distribution of the vertebral fractures was bimodal, with vertebral fractures peaks centered at T9 and L4. Conditions associated with increased odds for vertebral fractures were inflammatory bowel disease (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4, 8.0; P = .018) and osteogenesis imperfecta (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04, 5.8; P = .022). Among children with vertebral fractures, those with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (P = .015) and osteogenesis imperfecta (P = .023) demonstrated higher number of vertebral fractures than the other disease groups. VFA identified the presence of vertebral fractures, in a bimodal distribution, in both primary bone disease and chronic disease groups. VFA is a practical screening tool for identification of vertebral fractures in children and adolescents at risk of fragility fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of domperidone loaded mineral oil entrapped emulsion gel (MOEG) buoyant beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderbir; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Harinderjit; Goyal, Malvika; Rana, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Alginate based mineral oil entrapped emulsion gel (MOEG) buoyant beads of domperidone were prepared by emulsion gelation technique. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content and entrapment efficiency. Effect of different oils (castor oil, olive oil and linseed oil) and oil concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%, w/w) on uniformity, homogeneity and integrity of the beads was also studied. Density of the formulated beads was found to be ranging between 0.101 and 0.182 g/cm3. The results of the in vitro drug release indicated that linseed oil showed to be good release retardant compared to castor oil and olive oil. Moreover, the beads formulated using 15%, w/w linseed oil were more uniform in shape, exhibited maximum buoyancy and minimal oil leakage. Diffusion exponent (n) value varied from 0.4855 to 0.7710 indicating anomalous drug release behavior involving swelling, diffusion and/or erosion of the polymer matrix.

  19. Animal Bones Char Solubilization by Gel-Entrapped Yarrowia lipolytica on Glycerol-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vassileva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid was produced with free and k-carrageenan-entrapped cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in single and repeated batch-shake-flask fermentations on glycerol-based media. Simultaneous solubilization of hydroxyapatite of animal bone origin (HABO was tested in all experiments. The highest citric acid production by free yeast cells of 20.4 g/L and 18.7 g/L was reached after 96 h of fermentation in the absence and presence of 3 g/L HABO, respectively. The maximum values for the same parameter achieved by gel-entrapped cells in conditions of single batch and repeated-batch fermentation processes were 18.7 g/L and 28.1 g/L registered after 96 h and the 3d batch cycle, respectively. The highest citric acid productivity of 0.58 g L−1 h−1 was obtained with immobilized cells in repeated batch mode of fermentation when the added hydroxyapatite of 3 g/L was solubilized to 399 mg/L whereas the maximum efficiency of 89.0% was obtained with 1 g/L of HABO.

  20. Micro- and macroscopic hematuria caused by renal vein entrapment: systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Federica A; Mazzoni, Marta B M; Peeters, Gabriëlla G A M; Fossali, Emilio F; Camozzi, Pietro; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    Hematuria secondary to renal vein entrapment is mentioned only passing in textbooks and reviews. We performed a search of the National Library of Medicine database for peer-reviewed publications using the terms "renal vein" or "nutcracker" and "hematuria". We identified 187 published reports/studies that covered 736 patients, of whom 288 had microscopic hematuria and 448 had macroscopic hematuria. The patient cohort comprised 159 patients aged ≤17 years. Abdominal pain was absent in  approximately 65% of all patients, and a clinically relevant left-sided varicocele was observed in 29% of the male patients. A normal pre-aortic left renal vein and an anomalous anatomy were noted in 680 and 56 patients, respectively. The body mass index (BMI) was lower in patients with renal vein entrapment than in the controls, with a regression of hematuria correlating with an increase in BMI. A surgical procedure was attempted in 34% of the patients, of which the most common were endovascular stenting and transposition of the renal vein distally into the vena cava. In cases of unexplained hematuria with or without abdominal pain, clinicians should consider the diagnosis of renal vein congestion, especially in males with varicocele. Ultrasonic Doppler flow scanning is the recommended initial diagnostic modality in these patients. Expectation management is advised in the great majority of cases.

  1. Induction of neutralizing antibodies in mice immunized with scorpion toxins detoxified by liposomal entrapment

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    Fonseca S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of producing neutralizing antibodies against the lethal effects of scorpion toxins was evaluated in the mouse model by immunization with an immunogen devoid of toxicity. A toxic fraction (5 mg from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus was entrapped in sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes. The liposomes were treated for 1 h at 37oC with a 1% (w/w trypsin solution in 0.2 M sodium carbonate buffer, pH 8.3. This treatment led to a strong reduction in venom toxicity. Immunization was performed as follows: mice were injected sc with 20 µg of the liposome-entrapped toxic fraction on days 1 and 21 and a final injection (20 µg was administered ip on day 36. After injection of the immunogen, all mice developed an IgG response which was shown to be specific for the toxic antigen. The antibodies were measured 10 days after the end of the immunization protocol. In an in vitro neutralization assay we observed that pre-incubation of a lethal dose of the toxic fraction with immune serum strongly reduced its toxicity. In vivo protection assays showed that mice with anti-toxin antibodies could resist the challenge with the toxic fraction, which killed, 30 min after injection, all non-immune control mice

  2. Properties of hydrogel materials used for entrapment of microbial cells in production of fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Marián; Gemeiner, Peter; Klein, Jaroslav; Sturdík, Ernest; Malovíková, Anna; Nahálka, Jozef; Vikartovská, Alica; Dömény, Zoltán; Smogrovicová, Daniela

    2002-05-01

    Approaches using immobilized biological materials are very promising for application in different branches of the food industry, especially in the production of fermented beverages. Materials tested by our team for the process of entrapment belong to the family of charged polysaccharides able to form beaded hydrogels by ionotropic gelation (e.g. alginate, pectate, kappa-carrageenan) and synthetic polymers (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol) forming bead- and lens-shaped hydrogels by thermal sol/gel transition. Concentration of a gel, conditions and instrumentation of gelation process, bead and size distribution, porosity, diffusion properties, mechanical, storage and operational stability, and many other parameters were followed and optimized. Our work has been oriented especially to practical applications of immobilized cells. Brewing yeast cells were successfully immobilized by entrapment materials and used in a process of batch and continual production of beer, including primary and secondary fermentation of wort. Other applications include continual production of ethanol by fermentation of different saccharide substrates (molasses, glucose syrup, wheat hydrolysate), mead and non-alcoholic beverages production.

  3. Microparticle entrapment for drug release from porous-surfaced bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongwei; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Dongqin; Guo, Tailin; Ma, Yunqing; Duan, Ke; Wang, Jianxin; Lu, Xiong; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Metallic bone implants face interfacial concerns, such as infection and insufficient bone formation. Combination of drug-loaded microparticles with the implant surface is a promising approach to reducing the concerns. The present study reports a simple method for this purpose. Drug-loaded chitosan and alginate microparticles were separately prepared by emulsion methods. Dry microparticles were introduced into porous titanium (Ti) coatings on Ti discs, and induced to agglomerate in pores by wetting with water. Agglomerates were stably entrapped in the pores: 77-82% retained in the coating after immersion in a water bath for 7 d. Discs carrying drug-loaded microparticles showed a rapid release within 6 h and a subsequent slow release up to 1 d. After coculture with Staphylococcus epidermidis for 24 h, the discs formed inhibition zones, confirming antibacterial properties. These suggest that the microparticle entrapment-based method is a promising method for reducing some of the bone-implant interfacial concerns.

  4. Animal Bones Char Solubilization by Gel-Entrapped Yarrowia lipolytica on Glycerol-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Maria; Eichler-Lobermann, Bettina; Reyes, Antonia; Vassilev, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid was produced with free and k-carrageenan-entrapped cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in single and repeated batch-shake-flask fermentations on glycerol-based media. Simultaneous solubilization of hydroxyapatite of animal bone origin (HABO) was tested in all experiments. The highest citric acid production by free yeast cells of 20.4 g/L and 18.7 g/L was reached after 96 h of fermentation in the absence and presence of 3 g/L HABO, respectively. The maximum values for the same parameter achieved by gel-entrapped cells in conditions of single batch and repeated-batch fermentation processes were 18.7 g/L and 28.1 g/L registered after 96 h and the 3d batch cycle, respectively. The highest citric acid productivity of 0.58 g L−1 h−1 was obtained with immobilized cells in repeated batch mode of fermentation when the added hydroxyapatite of 3 g/L was solubilized to 399 mg/L whereas the maximum efficiency of 89.0% was obtained with 1 g/L of HABO. PMID:22645462

  5. Probing insulin's secondary structure after entrapment into alginate/chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, B; Ferreira, D C; Jorgensen, L; van de Weert, M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to probe the structural integrity of insulin after being entrapped into chitosan/alginate nanoparticles produced by ionotropic polyelectrolyte pre-gelation. By manipulating the alginate:chitosan mass ratio and the pH during nanoparticle production, desired nanoparticles with a mean size of 850 (+/-88)nm and insulin association efficiency of 81 (+/-2)% were obtained. Insulin secondary structure was assessed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) after entrapment into nanoparticles and after release from the particles under gastrointestinal simulated conditions. FTIR second-derivative spectra and area-overlap compared to an insulin standard confirmed that no significant conformational changes of insulin occurred in terms of alpha-helix and beta-sheet content. Far-UV-CD spectra corroborated the preservation of insulin structure during the nanoparticle production procedure. The presented nanoparticulate system is a promising carrier for insulin oral delivery since it preserves insulin structure and therefore also, potentially, its bioactivity.

  6. Clinical and neuroimaging features vertebral radiculopathy in the combination with vertebral hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-honatskaya M.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to study the clinical and neuroimaging features of radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas in conjunction with the vertebrae. Materials and methods. A total of 56 patients with radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas combined with the vertebrae. Results. The patients in addition to pain, and focal neurological symptoms were observed violation of urination, and chronic venous insuffciency of lower extremities. MRI identifed three types of vertebral hem-angiomas, depending on the structural characteristics. Conclusion. The aim of the study is realized.Most hemangiomas are asymptomatic yourself. Pain and neurological symptoms caused by musculo-tonic component, the presence of disc herniation, changes in the intervertebral joints, ligaments violation. Type III meets the criteria for hemangiomas and requires aggressive surgical treatment.

  7. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  8. Bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome-A case report

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    Chatterjee Pranab

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Duane′s retraction syndrome is a well known congenital musculo-facial anomaly. Various explanations have been given for the aetiology of this syndrome. Inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome is a condition with reverse clinical features. Abduction of the affected eye is possible to some extent and is accompanied by retraction of the eyeball, narrowing of the palpebral fissure and pseudoptosis. There may be some restriction of movement on adduction. The primary lesion is suspected to be in the medial rectus muscle. Frequently the muscle is found to be entrapped following trauma to the medial wall of the orbit. A case of bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome and convergent squint along with left-sided perceptive deafness is reported. As is usually the case there was no structural abnormality or entrapment of the muscle from trauma.

  9. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  10. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments (ERA) has even been banned, and in other situations the numbers of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced, or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is not just based on ethical considerations but also to reduce the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases to provide better information aimed at improving ERAs. The present focus paper provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made towards alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades. The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organi

  11. Juxta-vertebral lesions in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Campochiaro, Corrado; Bozzolo, Enrica; Berti, Alvise; Praderio, Luisa; Dagna, Lorenzo; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical, pathological, serological, and radiological characteristics of juxta-vertebral masses occurring in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We analyzed the clinical records of patients with juxta-vertebral lesions from our GPA study cohort and reviewed the English literature for other cases of GPA with juxta-vertebral localization. Out of 74 patients in our GPA study cohort, six (8%) had juxta-vertebral lesions. We found 10 cases of juxta-vertebral GPA described in the English literature. Overall, juxta-vertebral lesions were detected at GPA onset in 11/16 (69%) patients, and preferentially occurred on the right side of the spine (12/15 patients, 80%). Fifteen patients (94%) with juxta-vertebral lesions had systemic GPA. Juxta-vertebral lesions were associated with back pain at GPA onset in 8/16 (50%) patients. In all of them juxta-vertebral lesions resolved or improved after treatment. Preference for the right-anterior side of the spine, increased 18 FDG uptake on PET scan, low or absent invasiveness of the surrounding tissues, and occurrence in the context of systemic disease were the main features of juxta-vertebral GPA. Symptomatic lesions showed a better response to immunosuppressive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  13. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Micelles entrapped Cresyl Violet can selectively detect copper and mercury ions in solution: A fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmal Kumar; Ghosh, Subhadip; Jaiswal, Sunidhi; Tewary, Anu; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2017-08-01

    The dynamic interaction of Cresyl Violet (CV) in different micellar systems has been demonstrated in single molecular level by FCS studies. The SDS micelle entrapped CV efficiently detected Cu2+ ions in solution with a limit of detection (LOD) of 70 nM, which is further substantiated with the gradual enhancement of the translational motion. The CV entrapped in the DTAB micelles could selectively detect Hg2+ ions in solution with a LOD of 35 nM. The micelle encapsulated CV was effective in detecting these metal ions in real water samples from different sources.

  15. Entrapping of fullerenes, nanotubes, and inorganic nanoparticles by a DNA-chitosan complex: a method for nanomaterials removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Anatoly A; Maeda, Noriko; Pu, Shengyan; Murata, Shizuaki

    2013-05-07

    We report a protocol for entrapping of various water-dispersed nanomaterials: fullerenes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, quantum dots (semiconductor nanoparticles), and gold nanorods, into a DNA-chitosan complex. In contrast to small-size nanomaterial particles, the bulky DNA-chitosan interpolyelectrolyte complex incorporating the dispersed nanomaterials can be easily separated from aqueous media by centrifugation, filtration, or decantation. While the removal of nanoparticles by centrifugation is equally efficient for every type of nanoparticles and reaches 100%, the higher efficiency of the nanomaterials removal by other two methods is favored by larger size of nanoparticles. The application of this entrapping protocol for removal of nanomaterials from water is discussed.

  16. 1H-detected solid-state NMR of proteins entrapped in bioinspired silica: a new tool for biomaterials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Enrico; Cerofolini, Linda; Martelli, Tommaso; Louka, Alexandra; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Proton-detection in solid-state NMR, enabled by high magnetic fields (>18 T) and fast magic angle spinning (>50 kHz), allows for the acquisition of traditional 1H-15N experiments on systems that are too big to be observed in solution. Among those, proteins entrapped in a bioinspired silica matrix are an attractive target that is receiving a large share of attention. We demonstrate that 1H-detected SSNMR provides a novel approach to the rapid assessment of structural integrity in proteins entrapped in bioinspired silica.

  17. PHACE(S syndrome: Report of a case with new ocular and systemic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assari

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report was the first report of a pattern like Brown’s syndrome (may be called apparent Brown’s syndrome and the second report of the congenital glaucoma in a case of PHACE(S syndrome. In addition, the anomalous origin of the vertebral artery from the aortic arch has not been reported in the PHACE(S syndrome. Thus, the clinicians should perform the glaucoma work-up for each patient with this syndrome.

  18. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

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    Marta Magariños

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  19. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Marta; Pulido, Sara; Aburto, María R; de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  20. Practical approach to electrodiagnosis of the carpal tunnel syndrome: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Keivan; Katirji, Bashar

    2015-01-01

    Despite being the most common entrapment neuropathy and the most common reason for referral to the electromyography (EMG) laboratory, the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) continues to be challenging due to a large number of electrodiagnostic (EDX) tests available. We present a flowchart and propose a practical approach to the diagnosis of CTS using the available literature and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) guidelines and the Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. PMID:25802819

  1. Practical approach to electrodiagnosis of the carpal tunnel syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Basiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being the most common entrapment neuropathy and the most common reason for referral to the electromyography (EMG laboratory, the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS continues to be challenging due to a large number of electrodiagnostic (EDX tests available. We present a flowchart and propose a practical approach to the diagnosis of CTS using the available literature and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM guidelines and the Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

  2. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair in a child with lumbocostovertebral syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah L; Thomas, Iona; Hamill, James

    2010-02-01

    Lumbocostovertebral syndrome is the association of a congenital lumbar hernia with rib and vertebral anomalies. We report the first case of a laparoscopic repair of a lumbar hernia in a child with lumbocostovertebral syndrome. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair appears to be safe and feasible in children.

  3. Anaesthesia for infant with Jarcho Levin syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukran Geze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTJarcho Levin syndrome is a rare disorder. There are various vertebral and costal anomalies. Severe deformities and abnormal fusion of ribs and vertebrae cause respiratory insufficiency and pneumonia. We present anaesthesia in a patient with Jarcho Levin syndrome for vesicoureteral reflux.

  4. Metastatic spinal cord syndromes: imaging appearances and treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: shahramabdi@hotmail.com; Adams, C.I. [Centre for Spinal Studies and Surgery, Queen' s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foweraker, K.L. [Department of Oncology, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); O' Connor, A. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Metastatic spinal cord syndromes usually result from neural compression by adjacent vertebral disease but are occasionally caused by intradural or intramedullary disease. MRI is the most accurate method for evaluation of such syndromes. Knowledge of the relevant imaging appearances and therapeutic options enables the radiologist to make an accurate assessment of the extent of disease and contribute information relevant to treatment planning.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    Among the five senses, taste and olfaction play crucial roles in the detection of chemical substances in the environment and are referred to as chemical senses. In the past decade, much progress has been made in studies on molecular mechanisms of the gustatory system by methods such as those based on molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  6. Mastication Steal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliska, Charles Miles; Blebea, John; Taubman, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with episodic vertigo, dizziness, and diplopia during meals and prolonged verbal presentations at work. Subsequent work-up included an eventual catheter-based angiogram revealing an ostial left external carotid artery (ECA) occlusion with reconstituted retrograde flow via a variant collateral branch from the dominant left vertebral artery. The findings demonstrate that repetitive activities involving craniofacial muscular systems supplied by the ECA result in a symptomatic arterial steal syndrome via the enhanced diverted flow from the collateral vertebral-basilar arterial system. A left ECA endarterectomy with reimplantation of the vessel was performed, and the patient has been episode free thereafter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of air entrapment on the performance of squeeze film dampers: Experiments and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Briceno, Sergio Enrique

    Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are an effective means to introduce the required damping in rotor-bearing systems. They are a standard application in jet engines and are commonly used in industrial compressors. Yet, lack of understanding of their operation has confined the design of SFDs to a costly trial and error process based on prior experience. The main factor deterring the success of analytical models for the prediction of SFDs' performance lays on the modeling of the dynamic film rupture. Usually, the cavitation models developed for journal bearings are applied to SFDs. Yet, the characteristic motion of the SFD results in the entrapment of air into the oil film, thus producing a bubbly mixture that can not be represented by these models. In this work, an extensive experimental study establishes qualitatively and---for the first time---quantitatively the differences between operation with vapor cavitation and with air entrainment. The experiments show that most operating conditions lead to air entrainment and demonstrate the paramount effect it has on the performance of SFDs, evidencing the limitation of currently available models. Further experiments address the operation of SFDs with controlled bubbly mixtures. These experiments bolster the possibility of modeling air entrapment by representing the lubricant as a homogeneous mixture of air and oil and provide a reliable data base for benchmarking such a model. An analytical model is developed based on a homogeneous mixture assumption and where the bubbles are described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Good agreement is obtained between this model and the measurements performed in the SFD operating with controlled mixtures. A complementary analytical model is devised to estimate the amount of air entrained from the balance of axial flows in the film. A combination of the analytical models for prediction of the air volume fraction and of the hydrodynamic pressures renders promising results for prediction of the

  8. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  9. PA01.49.Carpal tunnel syndrome: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Rahul S; Manoj Kumar, A K

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Carpal tunnel syndrome is an entrapment neuropathy of median nerve causing paraesthesia, pain, numbness and other symptoms in the distribution of median nerve due to its compression at wrist in carpal tunnel. Modern medicine prescribes surgery for its treatment. We report a case that was treated completely without any recurrence. Method: Case presentation: A female patient aged 23 years presented with numbness in the middle finger of left hand associated with paraesthesia, morning st...

  10. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

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    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  11. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in Vertebral Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparisi, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive treatments and indispensable tools in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures. This method of treatment is performed using fluoroscopy or a scanner control an access via the pedicle or the posterolateral angle of the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty requires a smaller caliber needle than kyphoplasty, so it is technically easier. Vertebroplasty uses high-pressure injection, whereas in kyphoplasty the injection is held at low pressure, which together with the effect of compression on the bone that the balloon produces reduces the risk and rate of cement leakage. Vertebroplasty is effective in managing osteoporotic compression vertebral fractures, with improvement in pain and quality of life in the immediate postoperative period and over the medium term.Both techniques have a very low complication rate. There is no consensus on whether the emergence of new fractures in the cases treated by vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are related to mechanical variations that were introduced or is a complication related to the age and evolution of the patient's osteoporosis. Even with this risk of new fractures, the improvement in quality of life obtained after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty treatment is worthwhile. The benefits outweigh the risks. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  13. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  14. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  15. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  16. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  17. The vertebrate heart: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andrea; Adams, Justin W; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2017-09-14

    Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia). Subsequent tetrapods, including crocodiles and alligators (Order Crocodylia, Subclass Crocodylomorpha, Class Reptilia), birds (Subclass Aves, Class Reptilia) and mammals (Class Mammalia) evolved a four-chambered heart. The structure and function of the circulatory system of each individual holds a vital role which benefits each species specifically. The special characteristics of the four-chamber mammalian heart are highlighted by the peculiar structure of the myocardial muscle. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  18. "Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

    2012-11-01

    Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-04-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems.

  20. Appearance of Myelin proteins during vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehneldt, T V; Matthieu, J M; Jeserich, G

    1986-01-01

    Myelin, defined as an arrangement of spirally fused unit membranes, is an acquisition of vertebrates and first appeared during evolution in Gnathostomata. In all species studied PNS and CNS myelins contain the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the myelin basic protein (MBP). Throughout phylogeny PNS myelin is characterized by the major P(0) glycoprotein which is called IP in fishes. The PNS myelin proteins did not evolve further except for the addition of P(2) protein from reptiles onward. In Elasmobranchii and Chondrostei, PNS and CNS myelin proteins are similar. CNS myelin of actinopterygian fishes possesses a 36,000 Da protein (36K) in addition to P(0)-like IP glycoproteins. In tetrapod CNS myelin, P(0) is replaced by the proteolipid protein (PLP) and the Wolfgram protein (WP). Of particular interest in a transitional phylogenetic sense are the lungfish Protopterus, carrying glycosylated PLP (g-PLP) but no P(0), 36K or WP, and the bichir Polypterus, showing simultaneous presence of P(0), 36K and PLP. These results indicate that myelin proteins could be valuable molecular markers in establishing vertebrate phylogenetic relationships and in reconstructing the fish-tetrapod transition.

  1. Vertebral Compression Fractures after Lumbar Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Michelle; Berti, Aldo; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-09-29

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is primarily found in an older population. This is a similar demographic group that develops both osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures (VCF). This report reviewed a series of patients treated for VCF that had previous lumbar surgery for symptomatic spinal stenosis. Patients that only underwent laminectomy or fusion without instrumentation had a similar distribution of VCF as the non-surgical population in the mid-thoracic, or lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine. However, in the patients that had previous short-segment spinal instrumentation, fractures were found to be located more commonly in the mid-lumbar spine or sacrum adjacent to or within one or two spinal segments of the spinal instrumentation. Adjacent-level fractures that occur due to vertebral osteoporosis after long spinal segment instrumentation has been discussed in the literature. The purpose of this report is to highlight the previously unreported finding of frequent lumbar and sacral osteoporotic fractures in post-lumbar instrumentation surgery patients. Important additional factors found were lack of preventative medical treatment for osteoporosis, and secondary effects related to inactivity, especially during the first year after surgery.

  2. Evolution of Adaptive Immune Recognition in Jawless Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the “jawless” vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is beco...

  3. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Galaktionov; A. V. Dubovoy; K. S. Ovsyannikov

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship....

  4. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of oil entrapped gastroretentive floating gel beads of loratadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shashi Kiran; Pathak, Kamla

    2008-06-01

    A gastro retentive controlled release system of loratadine was formulated to increase the residence time in stomach and to modulate the release behaviour of the drug. Oil entrapped floating microbeads prepared by the emulsion gelation method were optimized by 23 factorial design and a polymer ratio of 2.5:1.5 (pectin/sodium alginate) by mass, 15% (m/V) of oil (mineral oil or castor oil) and 0.45 mol L(-1) calcium chloride solution as the optimized processing conditions for the desired buoyancy and physical stability. In vitro drug release in the fed state conditions demonstrated sustained release of loratadine for 8 h, which best fitted the Peppas model with n<0.45. The ethyl cellulose coating on microbeads optimized by 22 factorial design resulted in a controlled release formulation of loratadine that provided zero-order release for 8 h.

  6. Thermal Neutron Detection by Entrapping 6LiF Nanodiamonds in Siloxane Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerlier, M.; Carturan, S.; Marchi, T.; Dalla Palma, M.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Cinausero, M.; Quaranta, A.

    Exploiting the long experience in design and production of scintillating mixtures based on siloxane matrices with combinations of primary dye and waveshifter, a first set of 6LiF loaded scintillator disks have been produced and the involved steps for their preparation are herein described. Preliminary results as for their light response towards thermal neutrons are reported as well. The preservation of transparency and mechanical integrity of the scintillator material is challenging when introducing the inorganic salt LiF, which is a "foreign body" to the organic polysiloxane host matrix. Different strategies such as synthesis of nanoparticles and surface functionalization have been pursued to succeed in the entrapment of the neutron converter whilst maintaining moderate light output, optical clarity and flexibility of the base scintillator.

  7. Thermal neutron detection by entrapping 6LiF nanocrystals in siloxane scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carturan, S. M.; Marchi, T.; Maggioni, G.; Gramegna, F.; Degerlier, M.; Cinausero, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Quaranta, A.

    2015-06-01

    Exploiting the long experience in design and production of scintillating mixtures based on siloxane matrices with combinations of primary dye and waveshifter, a first set of 6LiF loaded scintillator disks has been produced. The synthesis is herein described and reported, as well as preliminary results on their light response towards thermal neutrons. The preservation of transparency and mechanical integrity of the scintillator material is challenging when introducing the inorganic salt LiF which is a "foreign body" to the organic polysiloxane host matrix Different strategies such as synthesis of nanoparticles and surface functionalization have been pursued to succeed in the entrapment of the neutron converter whilst maintaining moderate light output, optical transparency and flexibility of the base scintillator.

  8. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  9. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L

    2004-05-25

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.

  10. Measurement and correlation of conditions for entrapment and mobilization of residual oil. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, N.R.

    1982-09-01

    Substantial progress has been made in four major task areas. The first task is to establish the limits of reliability of laboratory waterflooding as an evaluation tool. Wettability is identified as a key variable. Work is being extended to wetting properties of crude oils and core flooding. The second task concerns the effects of high capillary number flows on trapping phenomena and residual oil saturation. Correlations of capillary number and relative permeability behavior at reduced residual saturations have been developed for displacement in sandstones. The third task deals with mechanisms of mobilization and entrapment of residual oil. Detailed accounts have recently been presented of work on relative permeability at reduced residual oil saturations and for factors which affect the magnitude and distribution of residual oil. Work on the fourth task concerns the detailed structure of residual oil. The size distribution of residual oil blobs, obtained under various displacement conditions, is being measured by various size-analysis methods.

  11. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures are a frequent entity, mainly in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. In some circumstances the differential diagnosis of vertebral injuries can confuse the physician, since the difference between an osteoporotic vertebral fracture and a fracture secondary to a tumor is not clear. We report the case of a patient with osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor, handled by our department of neurosurgery as illustrative experience to guide the approach in those cases, in which the definitive diagnosis is crucial for therapeutic decision making

  13. Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

    1992-05-29

    From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago).

  14. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida [Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Faculty of Science and Technology (Thailand); Sabliov, Cristina M., E-mail: CSabliov@agcenter.lsu.edu [Louisiana State University and LSU AgCenter, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  15. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-02-01

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  16. Microfluidics based manufacture of liposomes simultaneously entrapping hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sameer; Hussain, Maryam T; Roces, Carla B; Anderluzzi, Giulia; Kastner, Elisabeth; Salmaso, Stefano; Kirby, Daniel J; Perrie, Yvonne

    2016-11-30

    Despite the substantial body of research investigating the use of liposomes, niosomes and other bilayer vesicles for drug delivery, the translation of these systems into licensed products remains limited. Indeed, recent shortages in the supply of liposomal products demonstrate the need for new scalable production methods for liposomes. Therefore, the aim of our research has been to consider the application of microfluidics in the manufacture of liposomes containing either or both a water soluble and a lipid soluble drug to promote co-delivery of drugs. For the first time, we demonstrate the entrapment of a hydrophilic and a lipophilic drug (metformin and glipizide respectively) both individually, and in combination, using a scalable microfluidics manufacturing system. In terms of the operating parameters, the choice of solvents, lipid concentration and aqueous:solvent ratio all impact on liposome size with vesicle diameter ranging from ∼90 to 300nm. In terms of drug loading, microfluidics production promoted high loading within ∼100nm vesicles for both the water soluble drug (20-25% of initial amount added) and the bilayer embedded drug (40-42% of initial amount added) with co-loading of the drugs making no impact on entrapment efficacy. However, co-loading of glipizide and metformin within the same liposome formulation did impact on the drug release profiles; in both instances the presence of both drugs in the one formulation promoted faster (up to 2 fold) release compared to liposomes containing a single drug alone. Overall, these results demonstrate the application of microfluidics to prepare liposomal systems incorporating either or both an aqueous soluble drug and a bilayer loaded drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prechannel Entrapment of the Ulnary Nerve by an Intermuscular Arcade: The Importance of Ultrasonographic Neurography in the Demonstrating of Compression Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Cokluk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ultrasonographic neurography is a described method in the cases with peripheral nerve injury and entrapment. The usual entrapment of the peripheral nerves had been described previously.  Material and Method: In this report it was presented the unusual entrapment of the ulnar nerve and the neurographic findings in an illustrative case. The case was admitted to our neurosurgery department with the symptoms of ulnar nerve entrapment. Results:  Electrophisiologic examination revealed that ulnary nerve entrapment before entering ulnary nerve canal. We examined the patient by using ultrasound assisted neurographic examination before operation. Ultrasonographic neurography demonstrated ulnary nerve compression 5 cm proximal portion from its entrance into the ulnary nerve canal. The patient was operated. Operative findings were similar with those of ultrasonographic neurography. Discussion: In this report we present clinical and operative findings of this case including the role of ultrasonographic neurography in the demonstrating these type of pathologies in the clinical practice.

  18. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Radiologie 2, Strasbourg (France); Doray, Berenice; Fradin, Melanie [CHU de Strasbourg, Hopital de Hautepierre, Laboratoire de Genetique Medicale, Strasbourg (France); Astruc, Dominique [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Neonatologie, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-03-15

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology. (orig.)

  19. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  20. A Play of Three Suitors: A Neglected Middle Dutch Version of the "Entrapped Suitors" Story (ATU 1730)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Parsons; Bas Jongenelen

    2008-01-01

    The wide diffusion of the "Entrapped Suitors" story-type has often been observed: examples are found in a remarkable number of literatures, ranging from English, French and Greek in the West, to Persian, Arabic and Kashmiri in the East. However, a text of this type that is often overlooked is the

  1. Modelling lateral entrapment of suspended sediment in estuaries : The role of spatial lags in settling and M4 tidal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhongyong; de Swart, Huib E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Cheng, Heqin; Jiang, Chenjuan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the joint action of M2 and M4 tidal flow, residual flow and spatial settling lag on the lateral entrapment of sediment is examined in tidally dominated estuaries with an idealized model that assumes along-estuary uniform conditions. Approximate solutions are obtained for arbitrary

  2. Remediation of waters contaminated with MCPA by the yeasts Lipomyces starkeyi entrapped in a sol-gel zirconia matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Filomena; Pirozzi, Domenico; Aronne, Antonio; Fanelli, Esther; Spaccini, Riccardo; Yousuf, Abu; Pernice, Pasquale

    2010-12-15

    A single-stage sol-gel route was set to entrap yeast cells of Lipomyces starkeyi in a zirconia (ZrO(2)) matrix, and the remediation ability of the resulting catalyst toward a phenoxy acid herbicide, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), was studied. It was found that the experimental procedure allowed a high dispersion of the microorganisms into the zirconia gel matrix; the ZrO(2) matrix exhibited a significant sorption capacity of the herbicide, and the entrapped cells showed a degradative activity toward MCPA. The combination of these effects leads to a nearly total removal efficiency (>97%) of the herbicide at 30 °C within 1 h incubation time from a solution containing a very high concentration of MCPA (200 mg L(-1)). On the basis of the experimental evidence, a removal mechanism was proposed involving in the first step the sorption of the herbicide molecules on the ZrO(2) matrix, followed by the microbial degradation operated by the entrapped yeasts, the metabolic activity of which appear enhanced under the microenvironmental conditions established within the zirconia matrix. Repeated batch tests of sorption/degradation of entrapped Lipomyces showed that the removal efficiency retained almost the same value of 97.3% after 3 batch tests, with only a subsequent slight decrease, probably due to the progressive saturation of the zirconia matrix.

  3. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  4. Goldenhar syndrome - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanabbi, M; Rahman, M A; Mamun, A A; Helal, M A; Billah, M B; Islam, K A

    2014-07-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental abnormality of 1st & 2nd branchial arch involving the craniofacial microsomia with ocular & vertebral abnormality. Though most of the cases are sporadic, some familial association is also found in autosomal dominant or recessive manner. Teratogenic effect of some toxic substances may lead to the condition. Ocular abnormalities are epibulbar dermoid, lipodermoid & coloboma. Otic defects are preauricular tags, microtia, anotia & conductive hearing loss. Cardio-pulmonary & genitourinary abnormalities are common associations. Here we have described the case of a 10 years old girl had ocular, auricular & vertebral changes consistent with Goldenhar syndrome, she was managed with multidisciplinary approach and she was symptomatically improved but corrective surgery was planned as schedule of respective department.

  5. Development of a finite element model of the ligamentous cervical vertebral column of a Great Dane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Shah, Anoli; Goel, Vijay; Costa, Fabiano Séllos; da Costa, Ronaldo Casimiro

    2018-01-29

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies. To our knowledge, no specific ligamentous spine models have been developed to investigate naturally occurring canine myelopathies and possible surgical treatments. The goal of this study was to develop a finite element model (FEM) of the C 2 -C 7 segment of the ligamentous cervical vertebral column of a neurologically normal Great Dane without imaging changes. The FEM of the intact C 2 -C 7 cervical vertebral column had a total of 188,906 elements (175,715 tetra elements and 12,740 hexa elements). The range of motion (in degrees) for the FEM subjected to a moment of 2Nm was approximately 27.94 in flexion, 25.86 in extension, 24.14 in left lateral bending, 25.27 in right lateral bending, 17.44 in left axial rotation, and 16.72 in right axial rotation. We constructed a ligamentous FEM of the C 2 -C 7 vertebral column of a Great Dane dog, which can serve as a platform to be modified and adapted for studies related to biomechanics of the cervical vertebral column and to further improve studies on osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteogenesis imperfecta with joint contractures: Bruck syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacksin, M.F. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 150 Bergen St., Rm. C320, Newark, NJ 07103-2426 (United States); Pletcher, B.A. [Center for Human and Molecular Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey (United States); David, M. [Department of Radiology, Newark-Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    1998-02-01

    We describe an Egyptian boy with osteogenesis imperfecta who was born with thumb contractures and bilateral antecubital pterygia. He was seen at 16 months of age with femur and tibial fractures, thoracic vertebral compression fractures, scoliosis and Wormian bones. The findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Bruck syndrome. (orig.) With 1 fig., 5 refs.

  7. Entrapment of Alpha1-Acid Glycoprotein in High-Performance Affinity Columns for Drug-Protein Binding Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cong; Jackson, Abby; Vargas-Badilla, John; Li, Rong; Rada, Giana; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Hage, David S.

    2015-01-01

    A slurry-based method was developed for the entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for use in high-performance affinity chromatography to study drug interactions with this serum protein. Entrapment was achieved based on the physical containment of AGP in hydrazide-activated porous silica supports and by using mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. The conditions needed for this process were examined and optimized. When this type of AGP column was used in binding studies, the association equilibrium constant (Ka) measured by frontal analysis at pH 7.4 and 37°C for carbamazepine with AGP was found to be 1.0 (± 0.5) × 105 M−1, which agreed with a previously reported value of 1.0 (± 0.1) × 105 M−1. Binding studies based on zonal elution were conducted for several other drugs with such columns, giving equilibrium constants that were consistent with literature values. An entrapped AGP column was also used in combination with a column containing entrapped HSA in a screening assay format to compare the binding of various drugs to AGP and HSA. These results also agreed with previous data that have been reported in literature for both of these proteins. The same entrapment method could be extended to other proteins and to the investigation of additional types of drug-protein interactions. Potential applications include the rapid quantitative analysis of biological interactions and the high-throughput screening of drug candidates for their binding to a given protein. PMID:26627938

  8. Quantifying the clean-up of LNAPL lens and LNAPL entrapped in an aquifer composed of fractured permeable formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H.; Koengeter, J.

    2006-12-01

    This study has originated and motivated by a case history of a comparatively wide scale of kerosene (LNAPL) contamination in an aquifer composed of a fractured permeable formation. Presently, parts of the LNAPL are entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, and other parts are incorporated with LNAPL lens on top of the flowing groundwater. The study develops conceptual, mathematical and numerical models for simulating the aquifer and LNAPL lens clean-up by a pump-and-treat procedure. The numerical simulations identify the importance of mechanisms of dissolution of the entrapped LNAPL ganglia and the LNAPL lens by films of contact. Clean-up of the LNAPL lens is also affected by mixing in fracture intersections located at the interface LNAPL-groundwater. Dimensionless parameters governing all involved processes are identified and their effects in different ranges are quantified. The clean-up of the LNAPL lens is mainly affected by the mobility number and the fracture segment orientation. These parameters also determine the depth of penetration of the organic solutes into the aquifer. Clean-up of the entrapped LNAPL is mainly affected by the dimensionless interphase mass transfer coefficient. The simulations indicate that at low mobility numbers rates of LNAPL lens clean-up may be faster or slower than clean-up of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, depending on the value of the interphase mass transfer coefficient. At high mobility numbers the clean- up rates of the LNAPL lens are always slower than those of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer.

  9. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology.

  10. Current and emerging treatment strategies for vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacein-Bey L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lotfi Hacein-BeyRadiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group Inc, Sacramento, CA, USABackground: Vertebral compression fractures are most commonly related to osteoporosis or cancer, both of which are on the rise throughout the world. Once a vertebra is fractured, gradual deterioration of quality of life due to crippling pain and spinal instability usually follows. Although a number of traditional management options have been available to promote pain relief and to allow for increased activities, such as bed rest, bracing, pain medications, and light exercise programs, these have limited effectiveness in the majority of patients. Over 20 years ago, percutaneous vertebroplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure consisting of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate directly into the fractured vertebra, emerged as an effective treatment. Various vertebral augmentation procedures were subsequently designed, all of which aim at eliminating pain, limiting or reversing vertebral collapse, and providing stability to the affected segment of the spine.Objective: This article discusses clinical aspects of vertebral compression fractures, current indications and contraindications and summarizes technical aspects of vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, lordoplasty, and device-implanting vertebral augmentation procedures. Treatment effectiveness, which is significant despite recent criticism of vertebroplasty and other vertebral augmentation procedures, is also discussed. As economic pressures on health care systems are increasing in all countries, it is expected that the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of vertebral augmentation procedures will be increasingly established by outcome analyses.Conclusion: It is important that physicians are familiar with vertebroplasty and other procedures designed to treat vertebral fractures in patients with advanced osteoporosis or cancer. These fractures, which are common and often

  11. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-12-01

    In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks. The entire motor repertoire can be spanned by applying a well-defined set of operations and transformations to these primitives and by combining them in many different ways according to well-defined syntactic rules. Motor and movement primitives and modules might exist at the neural, dynamic and kinematic levels with complicated mapping among the elementary building blocks subserving these different levels of representation. Hence, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in unravelling the nature of these primitives, new experimental, computational and conceptual approaches are needed to further advance our understanding of motor compositionality.

  12. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  13. High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

  14. Giant cell tumor of dorsal vertebral body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Redhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10 vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT. Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.

  15. Goldenhar syndrome with unusual association of pre-axial polydactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Sinha, Bibhuti P; Kumar, Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a multiorgan involvement affecting mainly the eyes, auricle, and oral cavity. METHOD. Case report. A 7-month-old boy presenting with features of Goldenhar syndrome had ocular and auricular manifestations. There were no vertebral anomalies, but he had the unusual association of pre-axial polydactyly, which is not reported in the literature. Pre-axial polydactyly should also be considered as an association of Goldenhar syndrome.

  16. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is ''typical'' (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an ''atypical'' appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots (''aggressive'' VHs). These ''atypical'' and ''aggressive'' VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. (orig.)

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. 52 SAJR June 2013 Vol. 17 No. 2. Vertebral artery injuries are rare, with an incidence of 0.1 - 1.0%, if all patients admitted with blunt head trauma are considered.[1] It is not unusual for vertebral artery injury to occur when there are fractures through the transverse foraminae of the first to the sixth ...

  18. Vertebrate pests of cassava in Africa and their control | Cudjoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much attention bas been given to almost all agents that cause losses to crops with the possible exception of vertebrate pests of which comparatively little is known in relation to farming activities. Due to the paucity of information on vertebrate pests there is very little or no indication of what damage is caused by which pest, ...

  19. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepel, Adam; Bejerano, Gill; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three spe...... for RNA secondary structure....

  20. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  1. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  2. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  3. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  4. Can vertebral density changes be explained by intervertebral disc degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homminga, J.J.; Aquarius, R.J.; Bulsink, V.E.; Jansen, C.T.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major problems facing the elderly spine is the occurrence of vertebral fractures due to low bone mass. Although typically attributed to osteoporosis, disc degeneration has also been suggested to play a role in vertebral fractures. Existing bone adaptation theories and simulations may

  5. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, P; Patterson, J D; Wintman, B I; Ozuna, R M; Brick, G W

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  6. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  7. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Poliakov

    Full Text Available In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT, which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma, but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa (previously annotated as an RPE65 has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65, coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates

  8. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. A Lebanese family with autosomal recessive oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV spectrum and review of the literature: is OAV a genetically heterogeneous disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farra C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Chantal Farra1,2, Khaled Yunis1, Nadine Yazbeck1, Marianne Majdalani1, Lama Charafeddine1, Rima Wakim1, Johnny Awwad31Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, LebanonAbstract: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV spectrum summarizes a continuum of ocular, auricular, and vertebral anomalies. Goldenhar syndrome is a variant of this spectrum and is characterized by pre-auricular skin tags, microtia, facial asymmetry, ocular abnormalities, and vertebral anomalies of different sizes and shapes. Most cases are thought to be sporadic. However, a few families were reported to have an autosomal recessive inheritance and other families' presentation of the syndrome strongly supported an autosomal dominant inheritance. We report OAV in a female infant presenting with tracheomalacia, diaphragmatic hernia, encephalomeningocele, sacral neural tube defect, and cardiac defect and her brother having no more than dysmorphic features. The mode of inheritance in this family supports an autosomal recessive inheritance where the transmission was from normal first-degree consanguineous parents to one of the sons and to the daughter. This report further broadens the clinical presentation and symptoms of OAV and supports the hypothesis advancing OAV as a genetically heterogeneous disorder.Keywords: oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, Goldenhar syndrome, diaphragmatic hernia, neural tube defect

  10. Craniofacial abnormalities in goldenhar syndrome: a case report with review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumaresan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum is a rare congenital anomaly of unclear etiology and characterized by craniofacial anomalies such as hemifacial microsomia, auricular, ocular and vertebral anomalies. In many cases, this syndrome goes unnoticed due to a lack of knowledge about its features and because of its associated wide range of overlapping anomalies. Herewith, we present a case of Goldenhar syndrome in a 21-year-old male, who presented all the classical signs of this rare condition. This article also summarizes the characteristic features of patients with Goldenhar syndrome

  11. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R.; Zilliacus, Kelly M.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth’s terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:29075662

  12. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  13. Carpal tunnel syndrome - anatomical and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Tomasz; Mizia, Ewa; Musial, Agata; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common and widely known of the entrapment neuropathies in which the body's peripheral nerves are compressed. Common symptoms of CTS involve the hand and result from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. In general, CTS develops when the tissues around the median nerve irritate or compress on the nerve along its course through the carpal tunnel, however often it is very difficult to determine cause of CTS. Proper treatment (conservative or surgical) usually can relieve the symptoms and restore normal use of the wrist and hand.

  14. On-column entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein for studies of drug-protein binding by high-performance affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Bi, Cong; Koke, Michelle; Jackson, Abby; Hage, David S

    2016-08-01

    An on-column approach for protein entrapment was developed to immobilize alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for drug-protein binding studies based on high-performance affinity chromatography. Soluble AGP was physically entrapped by using microcolumns that contained hydrazide-activated porous silica and by employing mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. Three on-column entrapment methods were evaluated and compared to a previous slurry-based entrapment method. The final selected method was used to prepare 1.0 cm × 2.1 mm I.D. affinity microcolumns that contained up to 21 (±4) μg AGP and that could be used over the course of more than 150 sample applications. Frontal analysis and zonal elution studies were performed on these affinity microcolumns to examine the binding of various drugs with the entrapped AGP. Site-selective competition studies were also conducted for these drugs. The results showed good agreement with previous observations for these drug-protein systems and with binding constants that have been reported in the literature. The entrapment method developed in this study should be useful for future work in the area of personalized medicine and in the high-throughput screening of drug interactions with AGP or other proteins. Graphical abstract On-column protein entrapment using a hydrazide-activated support and oxidized glycogen as a capping agent.

  15. Hyperkyphosis predicts mortality independent of vertebral osteoporosis in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Deborah M; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Fink, Howard A; Karlamangla, Arun S; Cummings, Steven R

    2009-05-19

    Excessive kyphosis may be associated with earlier mortality, but previous studies have not controlled for clinically silent vertebral fractures, which are a known mortality risk factor. To determine whether hyperkyphosis predicts increased mortality independent of vertebral fractures. Prospective cohort study. Four clinical centers in Baltimore County, Maryland; Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania. 610 women, age 67 to 93 years, from a cohort of 9704 women recruited from community-based listings between 1986 and 1988. Kyphosis was measured by using a flexicurve. Prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures at baseline were defined by morphometry, and mortality was assessed during an average follow-up of 13.5 years. In age-adjusted models, each SD increase in kyphosis carried a 1.14-fold increased risk for death (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P = 0.023). After adjustment for age and other predictors of mortality, including such osteoporosis-related factors as low bone density, moderate and severe prevalent vertebral fractures, and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, women with greater kyphosis were at increased risk for earlier death (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.15 [CI, 1.01 to 1.30]; P = 0.029). On stratification by prevalent vertebral fracture status, only women with prevalent fractures were at increased mortality risk from hyperkyphosis, independent of age, self-reported health, smoking, spine bone mineral density, number of vertebral fractures, and severe vertebral fractures (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.58 [CI, 1.06 to 2.35]; P = 0.024). The study population included only white women. In older women with vertebral fractures, hyperkyphosis predicts an increased risk for death, independent of underlying spinal osteoporosis and the extent and severity of vertebral fractures. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and National Institute on Aging.

  16. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  17. In vitro assessment of pharmaceutical potential of ethosomes entrapped with terbinafine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizhar, Syed Ahmed; Syed, Ismail Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigates the entrapment of terbinafine hydrochloride (TH) in ethosomal vesicles via unsonicated and sonication method. Carbopol 934P was incorporated in the best formulation, F6, obtained by sonication method. The formulated ethosomal gel obtained as such i.e. F6(∗) was exploited to achieve a zero order release profile of TH. The composition includes phospholipid, ethanol and propylene glycol. Drug entrapment efficiency (DEE), in-vitro and ex-vivo drug diffusion studies, FT-IR and stability studies of the prepared ethosomes were investigated. The size and shape of F6 ethosomes vesicles were characterized by SEM. In-vitro drug release studies were performed using sigma dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 for 12 h while drug content was determined by HPLC. DEE was ranked from 55.33 ± 1.32% to 69.11 ± 2.11%. Highest DEE was seen with F6 ethosomal formulation with a vesicle size of 248 ± 1.02 nm. FT-IR studies confirmed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the formulation. Ex-vivo result suggested that drug diffusion observed after 12 h from F6(∗) and marketed cream (MR) formulations was 74.01 ± 0.62% and 61.45 ± 0.86%, respectively. The results of similarity factor (f 2 values) for MR and F6(∗) ethosomal gel were 85.14 and 42.63, respectively. It revealed that F6(∗) showed dissimilar dissolution profiles. Transdermal flux value for F6(∗) and MR was found to be 144.61 ± 1.28 μg/cm(2)/h and 121.6 ± 1.16 μg/cm(2)/h, respectively. This study disclosed that F6(∗) resides at targeted site for a relatively longer period of time thereby signifying the improved patient compliance.

  18. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... called exogenous Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, ...

  19. Development of a glucose oxidase-based biocatalyst adopting both physical entrapment and crosslinking, and its use in biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yongjin; Ahn, Yeonjoo; Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kim, Hansung; Kwon, Yongchai

    2016-04-01

    New enzymatic catalysts prepared using physical entrapment and chemical bonding were used as anodic catalysts to enhance the performance of enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs). For estimating the physical entrapment effect, the best glucose oxidase (GOx) concentration immobilized on polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) (GOx/PEI/CNT) was determined, while for inspecting the chemical bonding effect, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinkers were employed. According to the enzyme activity and XPS measurements, when the GOx concentration is 4 mg mL-1, they are most effectively immobilized (via the physical entrapment effect) and TPA-crosslinked GOx/PEI/CNT(TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT]) forms π conjugated bonds via chemical bonding, inducing the promotion of electron transfer by delocalization of electrons. Due to the optimized GOx concentration and π conjugated bonds, TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT], including 4 mg mL-1 GOx displays a high electron transfer rate, followed by excellent catalytic activity and EBC performance.New enzymatic catalysts prepared using physical entrapment and chemical bonding were used as anodic catalysts to enhance the performance of enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs). For estimating the physical entrapment effect, the best glucose oxidase (GOx) concentration immobilized on polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) (GOx/PEI/CNT) was determined, while for inspecting the chemical bonding effect, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinkers were employed. According to the enzyme activity and XPS measurements, when the GOx concentration is 4 mg mL-1, they are most effectively immobilized (via the physical entrapment effect) and TPA-crosslinked GOx/PEI/CNT(TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT]) forms π conjugated bonds via chemical bonding, inducing the promotion of electron transfer by delocalization of electrons. Due to the optimized GOx concentration and π conjugated bonds, TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT], including 4 mg mL-1 GOx displays a high

  20. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  1. [The Efficacy of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection due to Cervical Vertebral Fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Misato; Nii, Kouhei; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Kawahara, Kanae; Inoue, Ritsurou; Hiraoka, Fumihiro; Morinaga, Yusuke; Mitsutake, Takafumi; Hanada, Hayatsura; Tsutsumi, Masanori

    2018-02-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted at another hospital after a traffic accident. The diagnosis was cervical vertebral fracture. Despite conservative treatment, 5 days later he manifested dysarthria due to cerebellar infarction and was transferred to our hospital. Imaging studies revealed right vertebral arterial dissection at the level of the axial fracture. We performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting to address his subacute vertebral artery dissection prior to treating the cervical vertebral fracture using external fixation. His clinical course was good;ischemia did not recur after stenting and his dysarthria disappeared upon rehabilitation. Cerebral angiograms obtained 6 months later revealed no significant in-stent restenosis. While medical management tends to be the first-line treatment of traumatic vertebral artery dissection, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting is necessary before treating other traumatic lesions to prevent neurologic events.

  2. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  3. Goldenhar syndrome: Cardiac anesthesiologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati Choudhury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome or oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia was defined by Goldenhar in 1952 and redefined by Grolin et al. later. As the name denotes, children with this syndrome present with craniofacial and vertebral anomalies which increase the risk of airway compromise. Neonates and infants with this syndrome often have premature internal organs, low birth weight, and airway disorders. For this reason, safe anesthesia in such infants requires a complete knowledge regarding metabolism and side effects of the drugs. The association of cardiovascular abnormalities is not uncommon and possesses additional challenge for anesthetic management. The aim of this review is to draw attention to the various perioperative problems that can be faced in these infants when they undergo surgery or the correction of the underlying cardiac problem.

  4. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  5. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  6. Amphotericin-B entrapped lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged ocular application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhonker, Yashpal S; Prasad, Yarra Durga; Chandasana, Hardik; Vishvkarma, Akhilesh; Mitra, Kalyan; Shukla, Praveen K; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is the major cause of vision loss worldwide. Amphotericin-B is considered as the drug of choice for fungal infections. However, its use in ophthalmic drug delivery is limited by the low precorneal residence at ocular surface as a result of blinking reflex, tear turnover and nasopharyngeal drainage. We report Amphotericin-B loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged ocular application. The prepared nanoparticles were in the size range of 161.9-230.5 nm, entrapment efficiency of 70-75%, theoretical drug loading of 5.71% with positive zeta potential of 26.6-38.3 mV. As demonstrated by antifungal susceptibility against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, nanoparticles were more effective than marketed formulation. They exhibited pronounced mucoadhesive properties. In-vivo pharmacokinetic studies in New Zealand albino rabbit eyes indicated improved bioavailablity (∼ 2.04 fold) and precorneal residence time (∼ 3.36 fold) by nanoparticles prepared from low molecular weight chitosan as compared with marketed formulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Buckley, Stephen; Collins, Matthew J.; Estalrrich, Almudena; Brothwell, Don; Copeland, Les; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Bastir, Markus; Santamaría, David; Madella, Marco; Wilson, Julie; Cortés, Ángel Fernández; Rosas, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Neanderthals disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. Until recently, Neanderthals were understood to have been predominantly meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests their diet also included plants. We present the results of a study, in which sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were combined with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods. We also offer the first evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a Neanderthal individual. The varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the Neanderthal occupants of El Sidrón had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants.

  8. Improvement of starch digestion using α-amylase entrapped in pectin-polyvinyl alcohol blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maurício; Fernandes, Kátia; Cysneiros, Cristine; Nassar, Reginaldo; Caramori, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and pectin blends were used to entrap α-amylase (Termamyl) using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The effect of glutaraldehyde concentration (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25%) on the activity of the immobilized enzyme and rate of enzyme released was tested during a 24 h period. Characteristics of the material, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile strength (TS), elongation, and rate of dissolution in water (pH 5.7), ruminal buffering solution (pH 7.0), and reactor containing 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), were also analyzed. SEM results showed that the surfaces of the pectin/PVA/amylase films were highly irregular and rough. TS values increased as a function of glutaraldehyde concentration, whereas percentage of elongation (%E) decreased. Pectin/PVA/amylase films presented similar values of solubility in the tested solvents. The material obtained with 0.25% glutaraldehyde performed best with repeated use (active for 24 h), in a phosphate buffer reactor. By contrast, the material obtained with 1.25% glutaraldehyde presented higher performance during in vitro testing using an artificial rumen. The results suggest that pectin/PVA/amylase is a highly promising material for biotechnological applications.

  9. Improvement of Starch Digestion Using α-Amylase Entrapped in Pectin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and pectin blends were used to entrap α-amylase (Termamyl using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The effect of glutaraldehyde concentration (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% on the activity of the immobilized enzyme and rate of enzyme released was tested during a 24 h period. Characteristics of the material, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, tensile strength (TS, elongation, and rate of dissolution in water (pH 5.7, ruminal buffering solution (pH 7.0, and reactor containing 0.1 mol L−1 sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5, were also analyzed. SEM results showed that the surfaces of the pectin/PVA/amylase films were highly irregular and rough. TS values increased as a function of glutaraldehyde concentration, whereas percentage of elongation (%E decreased. Pectin/PVA/amylase films presented similar values of solubility in the tested solvents. The material obtained with 0.25% glutaraldehyde performed best with repeated use (active for 24 h, in a phosphate buffer reactor. By contrast, the material obtained with 1.25% glutaraldehyde presented higher performance during in vitro testing using an artificial rumen. The results suggest that pectin/PVA/amylase is a highly promising material for biotechnological applications.

  10. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang, E-mail: bhchiang@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples.

  11. Assessing Atmospheric CO2 Entrapped in Clay Nanotubes using Residual Gas Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sankar; Maity, Abhijit; Pradhan, Manik; Jana, Subhra

    2016-02-16

    A residual gas analyzer (RGA) coupled with a high-vacuum chamber has been explored to measure atmospheric CO2 entrapped in aminosilane-modified clay nanotubes. Ambient CO2 uptake efficacy together with stability of these novel adsorbents composed of both primary and/or secondary amine sites has been demonstrated at standard ambient temperature and pressure. The unprecedented sensitivity and accuracy of the RGA-based mass spectrometry technique toward atmospheric CO2 measurement has been substantiated with a laser-based optical cavity-enhanced integrated cavity output spectroscopy. The adsorption kinetics of atmospheric CO2 on amine-functionalized clay nanotubes followed the fractional-order kinetic model compared to that of the pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order rate equations. The efficiency along with stability of these novel adsorbents has also been demonstrated by their repetitive use for CO2 capture in the oxidative environment. Our findings thus point to a fundamental study on the atmospheric CO2 adsorption by amine-loaded adsorbents using an easy handling and low-cost benchtop RGA-based mass spectrometer, opening a new strategy for CO2 capture and sequestering study.

  12. New β-Cyclodextrin Entrapped in Polyethyleneimine Film-Modified Electrodes for Pharmaceutical Compounds Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminţa Fritea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of ascorbic acid and uric acid on glassy carbon bare electrodes and ones modified with β-cyclodextrin entrapped in polyethyleneimine film has been investigated using square wave voltammetry. The electrode modification was achieved in order to separate the voltammetric peaks of ascorbic acid and uric acid when present in the same solution. On the modified electrodes the potential of the oxidation peak of the ascorbic acid was shifted to more negative values by over 0.3 V, while in the case of uric acid, the negative potential shift was about 0.15 V compared to the bare glassy carbon electrode. When the two compounds were found together in the solution, on the bare electrode only a single broad signal was observed, while on the modified electrode the peak potentials of these two compounds were separated by 0.4 V. When the uric acid concentration remained constant, the peak intensity of the ascorbic acid is increased linearly with the concentration (r2 = 0.996 and when the ascorbic acid concentration remains constant, the peak intensity of the uric acid increased linearly with the concentration (r2 = 0.992. FTIR measurements supported the formation of inclusion complexes. In order to characterize the modification of the electrodes microscopic studies were performed. The modified electrodes were successfully employed for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations with a detection limit of 0.22 µM.

  13. Effect of Diffusion on Discoloration of Congo Red by Alginate Entrapped Turnip (Brassica rapa Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic discoloration of the diazo dye, Congo red (CR, by immobilized plant peroxidase from turnip “Brassica rapa” is investigated. Partially purified turnip peroxidase (TP was immobilized by entrapment in spherical particles of calcium alginate and was assayed for the discoloration of aqueous CR solution. Experimental data revealed that pH, reaction time, temperature, colorant, and H2O2 concentration play a significant role in dye degradation. Maximum CR removal was found at pH 2.0, constant temperature of 40°C in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, and 180 mg/L of CR. More than 94% of CR was removed by alginate immobilized TP after 1 h of incubation in a batch process under optimal conditions. About 74% removal efficiency was retained after four recycles. Diffusional limitations in alginate beads such as effectiveness factor η, Thiele modulus Φ, and effective diffusion coefficients (De of Congo red were predicted assuming a first-order biodegradation kinetic. Results showed that intraparticle diffusion resistance has a significant effect on the CR biodegradation rate.

  14. Thrombus-in-Transit Entrapped in a Partially Ligated Left Atrial Appendage

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    Farideh Roshanali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old man referred to our center with Barlow’s disease and severe mitral regurgitation. He had atrial fibrillation (AF rhythm, with a mildly enlarged left atrium (LA. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE showed no clot in the LA and LA appendage; there was only mild spontaneous echo contrast in the LA appendage. The patient underwent mitral valve repair and the Maze operation, during which the LA appendage was ligated with the double suture technique. He was discharged from the hospital in good condition and in sinus rhythm. He was recommended Warfarin and PT control.One month later, he returned with the complaint of vision loss twice in the left eye each time for a few seconds. The AF rhythm had returned.TEE demonstrated a fresh and mobile thrombus entrapped in the LA appendage with a small portion in the LA (Figures 1 and 2. Laboratory tests showed therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR. The patient refused re- operation.  Plavix was added to his medication, and he was discharged.

  15. Natural Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine: Direct Determination of Detergents Entrapped in Decellularized Heart Valves

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    Monica Dettin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing urgency for replacement of pathological heart valves is a major stimulus for research on alternatives to glutaraldehyde-treated grafts. New xenogeneic acellular heart valve substitutes that can be repopulated by host cells are currently under investigation. Anionic surfactants, including bile acids, have been widely used to eliminate the resident cell components chiefly responsible for the immunogenicity of the tissue, even if detergent toxicity might present limitations to the survival and/or functional expression of the repopulating cells. To date, the determination of residual detergent has been carried out almost exclusively on the washings following cell removal procedures. Here, a novel HPLC-based procedure is proposed for the direct quantification of detergent (cholate, deoxycholate, and taurodeoxycholate residues entrapped in the scaffold of decellularized porcine aortic and pulmonary valves. The method was demonstrated to be sensitive, reproducible, and extendable to different types of detergent. This assessment also revealed that cell-depleted heart valve scaffolds prepared according to procedures currently considered for clinical use might contain significant amount of surfactant.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of supramolecular biovector (SMBV) specifically designed for the entrapment of ionic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, I; Ioualalen, K; Bonnefous, M; Peyrot, M; Nguyen, F; Cervilla, M; Soulet, N; Dirson, R; Rieumajou, V; Imbertie, L

    1995-07-06

    Supramolecular biovectors (SMBV) are nanoparticular drug carriers composed of an internal crosslinked solid core externally grafted with fatty acids and surrounded with a phospholipid layer. We show in this paper that the internal core can be derivatized with anionic ligands such as phosphate in order to allow the efficient entrapment of cationic molecules through a process akin to ion exchange. Synthesis of SMBV involved first a cross linking and derivatization step of polysaccharides followed by a homogenization, a drying and a regioselective acylation step. Acylated polysaccharide cores are thus obtained which can be loaded with drugs and wrapped with a phospholipid layer. The SMBVs obtained are characterized through their size, 20 nm, and their ability to filter through 0.22 microns pore size membrane. Gel permeation chromatography experiments performed with various phospholipid/acylated cores ratios indicate that SMBVs form entities distinct from liposomes and that the optimum phospholipid/acylated cores ratio for this specific type of SMBVs is close to 100%. The supramolecular structure of SMBVs and in particular the spatial proximity between acylated cores and phospholipids is demonstrated through resonance energy transfer experiments. The drug loading capability of SMBVs is illustrated by the preparation of gentamicin and doxorubicin loaded SMBV. The therapeutic potential of SMBVs is then discussed notably in the light of a possible biomimetism with low density lipoproteins (LDL).

  17. Irreducible traumatic posterior hip dislocation with entrapment and a buttonhole effect

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    Uzel Andre Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】The authors reported the case of a 27-year-old man who sustained an irreducible postero-lateral traumatic dislocation of the hip with capsular and labral entrapment. Initial X-rays showed only a small acetabular fragment. After two attempts to reduce the hip with muscle paralysis under general anaesthesia failed, the patient was treated by immediate open reduction through a postero-lateral approach. Surgical exploration of the hip revealed a small osteochondral fragment attached to a large piece of labrum and capsule, clogging the acetabulum. The femoral head crossed over the torn capsule with a buttonhole effect. These elements were relieved, the bone fragment was fixed with a 2 mm screw and the capsule was repaired. At the 10-year follow-up, the functional outcome was excellent with a Harris score of 100 points and no signs of necrosis or osteoarthritis. The authors propose a literature review of this uncommon lesion. Key words: Hip dislocation; Tears; Acetabulum; Necrosis

  18. Atomic configuration of hydrogenated and clean tantalum(111) surfaces: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment and electron polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Maolin; Li, Lei; Guo, Yongling; Yao, Chuang; Peng, Cheng; Sun, Chang Q.

    2018-01-01

    By studying the tantalum (Ta)(111) surface with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, we determined binding energy values for the clean Ta(111) (+3.068 eV) and hydrogenated Ta(111) (+3.421 eV) surfaces with an isolated atom level of 18.977 eV. Using the bond-band barrier and zone-selective electron spectroscopy correlation, we investigated the mechanism of hydrogenation adsorption on the Ta(111) surface. We found the local densities of states of the first layer of Ta atoms in the reconstructed structure, which formed on the adsorbent hydrogen of the surface chemical bond contracts and dipole polarization. Moreover, we showed that on the Ta(111) surface, the hydrogen-induced surface core level shifts are dominated by quantum entrapment and are proportional to the calculated hybridized orbitals of the valence band. The latter is therefore correlated to the local surface chemical reactivity and is useful for other adsorbate systems on transition metals.

  19. “Suicide Heights”: Council Estates As Sites Of Entrapment And Resistance In Hello Mum

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    Sebnem Toplu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Council estates have been contestable social spaces of contemporary urban life in metropolitan cities like London and the marginalizing spatial experience they provide for the “working class” has been a problematic topic for many disciplines like architecture, sociology, psychology and literature. Considering the significance of space for the body in literary works, this essay analyses the black British woman writer Bernardine Evaristo’s fifth work, Hello Mum, a short-fiction, which revolves primarily around a fourteen-year-old black teenager Jerome’s tragic experience in a council estate in London. In this essay, scrutinizing Bernardine Evaristo’s novella Hello Mum and inhabiting a council estate as a challenging spatial experience, I suggest the teenager victim Jerome’s narrative reveals a kind of physical and psychological entrapment and resistance to the dominant ideology of the council estates, offers an alternative perception for the black people who are obliged to live in such marginalized places.

  20. Patient-Reported Outcome of Surgical Treatment of Nerve Entrapments in the Proximal Forearm

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    Birgitta Svernlöv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of decompression for long-standing symptoms of nerve entrapments in the proximal forearm was investigated in a retrospective study of 205 patients using a self-assessment questionnaire, 45 months after the operation. The questionnaire consisted of visual analogue scale recordings of pre- and postoperative pain during rest and activity, questions about remaining symptoms and appreciation of the result and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand form (DASH. Altogether, 59% of the patients were satisfied, 58% considered themselves improved, and 3% as being entirely relieved of all symptoms. Pain decreased significantly (=0.001. There was a significant correlation between preoperative duration and patient perceived post-operative pain. Preoperative pain was a chief complaint, and pain reduction appears to be the principal gain of the operation. Although the majority of the patients benefited from the operation, a substantial proportion was not satisfied. There is apparently room for improvement of the diagnostic and surgical methods applied in this study.