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Sample records for vertebral entrapment syndrome

  1. Cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chinghsiung; Lin Shinnkuang E-mail: sk1943@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Chang Yeujhy

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe a patient with isolated involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve by a huge vascular loop from vertebral dolichoectasia. No other neurological deficit was found except for unilateral hearing loss. Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential study indicated a retrocochlear lesion. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally enhanced vascular lesion impinged on the left porus acusticus with a displacement of the brainstem to the right. There was no infarction in the brainstem. A cerebral angiography demonstrated a megadolichoectatic horizontal loop at the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery. There was no thrombus or atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. A mechanical compression by a vascular loop is the only possible pathogenesis for hearing loss. The authors diagnose this condition as cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome.

  2. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  3. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.) [de

  4. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

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    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay [Queensland X-Ray, Sunnybank, Queensland, 4109 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection.

  5. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection

  6. Computer tomographic demonstration of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, W.; Zwicker, H.

    1979-01-01

    The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be diagnosed by computer tomography with a greater degree of certainty than by angiography. The advantage of computer tomography depends on the simultaneous demonstration of the position of the vessel and of the surrounding muscles and their abnormal situation. (orig.) [de

  7. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome in a young girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Salwa; Thomas, Karen; Miller, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is well-described in adults, but is an uncommon cause of lower-limb pain in children. We present an 11.5-year-old girl with thrombosed aneurysm of the right popliteal artery, subsequently diagnosed with bilateral type I PAES. Multimodality illustration of the radiological findings is presented. (orig.)

  8. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome misdiagnosed as chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-year-old provincial rugby player complained of exercise- induced pain in both ... damage was present and after bilateral surgical release a few months apart he ... medial tibial stress syndrome, shin splints and stress fractures. Vascular ...

  9. MR imaging and MR angiography in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilla, S.; Akpek, S.; Yuecel, C.; Tali, E.T.; Isik, S.; Ilgit, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment (PAE) syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly seen in young adults causing ischemic symptoms in the lower extremities. It is the result of various types of anomalous relationships between the popliteal artery and the neighboring muscular structures. The purpose of this study was to define the role of MR imaging combined with MR angiography in the diagnosis of PAE cases. Four cases with segmental occlusion and medial displacement of popliteal artery in digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations were diagnosed as PAE syndrome by MR imaging and MR angiography. The DSA and MRA images are compared. All of the cases showed various degrees of abnormal intercondylar insertion of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The MR images showed detailed anatomy of the region revealing the cause of the arterial entrapment. Subclassification of the cases were done and fat tissue filling the normal localization of the muscle was evaluated. The DSA and MRA images demonstrated the length and localization of the occluded segment and collateral vascular developments equally. It is concluded that angiographic evaluation alone in PAE syndrome might result in overlooking the underlying cause of the arterial occlusion, which in turn leads to unsuccessful therapy procedures such as balloon angioplasty. Magnetic resonance imaging combined with MR angiography demonstrates both the vascular anatomy and the variations in the muscular structures in the popliteal fossa successfully, and this combination seems to be the most effective way of evaluating young adults with ischemic symptoms suggesting PAE syndrome. (orig.)

  10. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  11. Diagnosis of Popliteal Venous Entrapment Syndrome by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Blood-Pool Contrast Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitzke, Dietrich; Wolf, Florian; Juelg, Gregor; Lammer, Johannes; Loewe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome is caused by aberrations or hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius muscles, which compress the neurovascular structures of the popliteal fossa, leading to symptoms of vascular and degeneration as well as aneurysm formation. Imaging of popliteal vascular entrapment may be performed with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography angiography, and conventional angiography. The use of blood-pool contrast agents in MRI when popliteal vascular entrapment is suspected offers the possibility to perform vascular imaging with first-pass magnetic resonance angiographic, high-resolution, steady-state imaging and allows functional tests all within one examination with a single dose of contrast agent. We present imaging findings in a case of symptomatic popliteal vein entrapment diagnosed by the use of blood pool contrast-enhanced MRI.

  12. Chronic Localized Back Pain Due to Posterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (POCNES): A New Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Oliver B; Maatman, Robert C; Scheltinga, Marc R; van Laarhoven, Kees; Roumen, Rudi M

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process. Somatosensory testing using swab and alcohol gauze demonstrated the presence of skin hypo- and dysesthesia over the painful area. Local pressure on this painful spot elicited an extreme pain response that did not irradiate towards the periphery. These findings were highly suggestive of a posterior version of the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), a condition leading to a severe localized neuropathic pain in anterior portions of the abdominal wall. She demonstrated a beneficial albeit temporary response after lidocaine infiltration as dictated by an established diagnostic and treatment protocol for ACNES. She subsequently underwent a local neurectomy of the involved superficial branch of the intercostal nerve. This limited operation had a favorable outcome resulting in a pain-free return to normal activities up to this very day (follow-up of 24 months).We propose to name this novel syndrome "posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome" (POCNES). Each patient with chronic localized back pain should undergo simple somatosensory testing to detect the presence of overlying skin hypo- and dysesthesia possibly reflecting an entrapped posterior cutaneous nerve.Key words: Chronic pain, back pain, posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment, peripheral nerve entrapment, surgical treatment for pain, anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment.

  13. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome caused by a rare anomalous slip of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Patrick T.; Moyer, Adrian C.; Huettl, Eric A.; Fowl, Richard J.; Stone, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome can result in calf claudication, aneurysm formation, distal arterial emboli, or popliteal vessel thrombosis. The most commonly reported causes of this syndrome have been anomalies of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle as it relates to the course of the popliteal artery. We report two cases of rare anomalous slips of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle causing popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  16. Deep gluteal syndrome: anatomy, imaging, and management of sciatic nerve entrapments in the subgluteal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Moises Fernandez; Cerezal, Luis; Perez-Carro, Luis; Abascal, Faustino; Canga, Ana [Diagnostico Medico Cantabria (DMC), Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery Department Clinica Mompia (L.P.C.), Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Valdecilla University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-03-05

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is an underdiagnosed entity characterized by pain and/or dysesthesias in the buttock area, hip or posterior thigh and/or radicular pain due to a non-discogenic sciatic nerve entrapment in the subgluteal space. Multiple pathologies have been incorporated in this all-included ''piriformis syndrome,'' a term that has nothing to do with the presence of fibrous bands, obturator internus/gemellus syndrome, quadratus femoris/ischiofemoral pathology, hamstring conditions, gluteal disorders and orthopedic causes. The concept of fibrous bands playing a role in causing symptoms related to sciatic nerve mobility and entrapment represents a radical change in the current diagnosis of and therapeutic approach to DGS. The development of periarticular hip endoscopy has led to an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying piriformis syndrome, which has supported its further classification. A broad spectrum of known pathologies may be located nonspecifically in the subgluteal space and can therefore also trigger DGS. These can be classified as traumatic, iatrogenic, inflammatory/infectious, vascular, gynecologic and tumors/pseudo-tumors. Because of the ever-increasing use of advanced magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques and the excellent outcomes of the new endoscopic treatment, radiologists must be aware of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of this space. MR imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing DGS and may substantially influence the management of these patients. The infiltration test not only has a high diagnostic but also a therapeutic value. This article describes the subgluteal space anatomy, reviews known and new etiologies of DGS, and assesses the role of the radiologist in the diagnosis, treatment and postoperative evaluation of sciatic nerve entrapments, with emphasis on MR imaging and endoscopic correlation. (orig.)

  17. Early prenatal diagnosis of a lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristavu, Anda Ioana; Furnica, Cristina; Ifrim, Mona Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan Mihai

    2018-04-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of lumbar hernia with associated abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs, and trunk muscles. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, all of which were diagnosed after birth. We present a case of LCVS diagnosed early in the second trimester of pregnancy using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. In our case, the associated anomalies were: multiple costovertebral anomalies, lumbar hernia, anal imperforation, left hand supernumerary digit, and clubfoot.

  18. Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient Previously Diagnosed With Functional Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiusto, Matthew; Suleman, M-Irfan

    2018-03-23

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in children and adolescents but challenging to diagnose, because practitioners may be concerned about missing serious occult disease. Abdominal wall pain is an often ignored etiology for chronic abdominal pain. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome causes abdominal wall pain but is frequently overlooked. Correctly diagnosing patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is important because nerve block interventions are highly successful in the remittance of pain. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient who received a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain but experienced pain remittance after receiving a trigger-point injection and transverse abdominis plane block.

  19. Intravascular ultrasound as a novel tool for the diagnosis and targeted treatment of functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Boniakowski, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose, as the imaging modalities presently employed are designed to detect anatomic entrapment. We describe a novel imaging technique to aid in diagnosis in this cohort. A 22-year-old cyclist presented with exercise-limiting claudication. Magnetic resonance angiography with provocative maneuvers was nondiagnostic. Digital subtraction angiography revealed long-segment occlusion of the popliteal artery with plantar flexion; however, the specific site of compression remained unclear. Intravascular ultrasound allowed specific localization of compression and further confirmed the diagnosis. Thus, we report this as an adjunctive imaging modality to definitively diagnose functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and to assist in operative planning.

  20. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with congenital lumbar hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lucky; Mala, Tariq Ahmed; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical approach of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Gourgiotis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Stavros Gourgiotis1, John Aggelakas1, Nikolaos Salemis1, Charalabos Elias2, Charalabos Georgiou11Second Surgical Department, 401 General Army Hospital of Athens, Greece; 2Second Surgical Department, 417 NIMTS Veterans General Hospital of Athens, GreeceBackground: Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES is a rare but potentially limb threatening peripheral vascular disease occurring predominantly in young adults. This study is a retrospective review of 49 limbs in 38 patients with PAES treated surgically over an 8-year period.Patients and methods: From 1995 to 2002, 38 patients with a mean age of 21 years (range, 18–29 years underwent surgery for PAES at a single institution. The patients’ demographic data and clinical features are recorded. The preoperative diagnosis of PAES was made based on various combinations of investigations including positional stress test, duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography, computed tomographic angiography, and angiography. Results: Nine, 33, and 7 patients had Delaney’s type I, II, and III PAES respectively. The surgical procedures consisted of simple release of the popliteal artery in 33 limbs (67.3%, autogenous saphenous vein (ASV patch angioplasty with or without thromboendarterectomy (TEA in 5 limbs (10.2% and ASV graft interposition or bypass in 11 limbs (22.5%. At a median follow up of 34 months (range, 8–42 months, there were no postoperative complications and all the patients were cured of their symptoms.Conclusions: PAES is an unusual but important cause of peripheral vascular insufficiency especially in young patients. Early diagnosis through a combined approach is necessary for exact diagnosis. Popliteal artery release alone or with vein bypass is the treatment of choice when intervention is indicated for good operative outcome and to prevent limb loss.Keywords: popliteal artery, entrapment syndrome, diagnosis, surgery, treatment

  2. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome: MRI evaluation of vertebral and disk malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitling, Magnus; Rabin, Michael; Lemire, Edmond G.

    2006-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized primarily by vertebral malsegmentation, carpal/tarsal coalition, and a dysmorphic appearance. Differentiating SSS from other congenital scoliosis syndromes requires evaluation of the vertebrae, ribs, soft tissues, and spinal cord. The enhanced resolution over plain radiographs seen with MRI allows more detailed assessment of vertebral malformation and surrounding anatomy. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of congenital scoliosis might be enhanced using this technology. We report on a 12-year-old girl of unaffected parents with SSS who was evaluated with MRI sequences of the spine to show various types of malsegmentation. Additionally, there is the new finding of fusion of teeth, with developmental failure of a canine incisor. (orig.)

  3. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome: MRI evaluation of vertebral and disk malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitling, Magnus; Rabin, Michael [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lemire, Edmond G. [University of Saskatchewan, Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized primarily by vertebral malsegmentation, carpal/tarsal coalition, and a dysmorphic appearance. Differentiating SSS from other congenital scoliosis syndromes requires evaluation of the vertebrae, ribs, soft tissues, and spinal cord. The enhanced resolution over plain radiographs seen with MRI allows more detailed assessment of vertebral malformation and surrounding anatomy. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of congenital scoliosis might be enhanced using this technology. We report on a 12-year-old girl of unaffected parents with SSS who was evaluated with MRI sequences of the spine to show various types of malsegmentation. Additionally, there is the new finding of fusion of teeth, with developmental failure of a canine incisor. (orig.)

  4. Vertebral anomalies in children with Alagille syndrome: an analysis of 50 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Evelyn; Newman, Vanessa; Haigh, Susan F.; Sidhu, Paul S.; Baker, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Background: Vertebral anomalies may help differentiate Alagille syndrome from other causes of chronic cholestasis. We suspect significant under-reporting of vertebral anomalies in children with Alagille syndrome. Objective: To compare the vertebral anomalies in Alagille syndrome with those in patients with chronic cholestasis due to other causes. The accuracy of original radiographic reporting was evaluated. Materials and methods: Spinal radiographs of 50 patients with Alagille syndrome and 31 non-Alagille syndrome cholestatic patients were evaluated retrospectively by four trained radiologists. The number, site and type of vertebral anomaly were noted. The consensus evaluation was then compared to the original report. Results: Vertebral anomalies were found in 66% of patients with Alagille syndrome and 9.7% of cholestatic control subjects (P<0.0005). In the patients with Alagille syndrome, incomplete fusion of the anterior arch, most frequently at the D6-9 level, accounted for 123 of 126 anomalies. Multiple vertebral anomalies occurred in 48% of patients with Alagille syndrome (mean 2.5 anomalies). Vertebral anomalies were misreported in 54% of cases of Alagille syndrome. Conclusions: Vertebral anomalies are significantly more common in Alagille syndrome than in chronic cholestasis of other causes and are frequently overlooked. Reporting should be undertaken by a radiologist familiar with the appearance and location of these vertebral anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil) syndrome with consanguineous parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberg, R C; Gershanik, J J

    1976-06-01

    We describe a female infant with the cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil) syndrome whom we recognized at birth because of her short neck, restriction of cervical movement, and low posterior hairline. X-ray examination showed anomalies of C1, and between C2-3 and C3-4; thus, we classified her as type II, with variable cervical fusion. At 24 months she was small and manifested hearing deficiency. The mother and father were consanguineous with five common ancestors four generations ago, which resulted in a coefficient of inbreeding equivalent to a second cousin relationship. The parents and grandparents were phenotypically normal, and the parents were radiologically normal. This form of the syndrome has previously been said to be autosomal dominant. Our conclusion of determination by a single autosomal recessive gene is evidence of genetic heterogeneity.

  6. Acute Appendicitis, Somatosensory Disturbances ("Head Zones"), and the Differential Diagnosis of Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumen, Rudi M H; Vening, Wouter; Wouda, Rosanne; Scheltinga, Marc M

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy. Potential associations between altered skin sensations and various items including age, sex, history, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, and type of appendicopathy (normal, inflamed, necrotic, or perforated) were assessed. A total of 39 patients demonstrated at least one right lower abdominal quadrant skin somatosensory disturbance before the laparoscopic appendectomy. However, locoregional skin sensation normalized in all but 2 patients 2 weeks postoperatively. No differences were found concerning patient characteristics or type of appendicopathy between populations with or without altered lower abdominal skin sensations. A substantial portion of patients with acute appendicitis demonstrate right lower abdominal somatosensory disturbances that are similar as observed in acute ACNES. Both may be different sides of the same coin and are possibly expressions of segmental phenomena as described by Head. McBurney's point, a landmark area of maximum pain in acute appendicitis, is possibly a trigger point within a Head zone. Differentiating acute appendicitis from acute ACNES is extremely difficult, but imaging and observation may aid in the diagnostic process.

  7. High prevalence of vertebral artery tortuosity of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in comparison with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Higashi, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki; Akutsu, Koichi; Naito, Hiroaki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFBR). LDS is associated with aneurysms or dissections of the aorta similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS) as well as arterial tortuosity and aneurysms in the peripheral arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the arterial diseases of LDS to differentiate it from MFS. A total of 10 LDS patients with an identified mutation in TGFBR (6 male, 4 female; mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS patients with an identified mutation in fibrilin-1 who were age- and sex-matched to the LDS subjects (12 male, 8 female; mean age 37.1 years) were reviewed. The prevalence of vertebral arterial tortuosity (VAT) and peripheral aneurysm (PAN) was studied using computed tomography angiography. In all, 9 of the 10 LDS patients had VAT, and five PANs were observed in 3 patients. In contrast, 8 (40%) of the MFS patients had VAT, and 1 patient had a PAN. LDS had a higher prevalence of VAT (P=0.017) by Fisher's exact test. The VAT was highly prevalent among LDS patients. Thus, the presence of VAT has the potential to differentiate LDS from MFS. (author)

  8. Endoscopic treatment of sciatic nerve entrapment in deep gluteal syndrome: Clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Bohorquez, B; Cardozo, O; Brugiatti, M; Cantor, E; Valdivia, N

    2018-05-25

    Deep gluteal syndrome (DGS) is characterized by compression, at extra-pelvic level, of the sciatic nerve within any structure of the deep gluteal space. The objective was to evaluate the clinical results in patients with DGS treated with endoscopic technique. Retrospective study of patients with DGS treated with an endoscopic technique between 2012 and 2016 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The patients were evaluated before the procedure and during the first year of follow-up with the WOMAC and VAIL scale. Forty-four operations on 41 patients (36 women and 5 men) were included with an average age of 48.4±14.5. The most common cause of nerve compression was fibrovascular bands. There were two cases of anatomic variant at the exit of the nerve; compression of the sciatic nerve was associated with the use of biopolymers in the gluteal region in an isolated case. The results showed an improvement of functionality and pain measured with the WOMAC scale with a mean of 63 to 26 points after the procedure (Pnerve. Four cases required revision at 6 months following the procedure due to compression of the scarred tissue surrounding the sciatic nerve. Endoscopic release of the sciatic nerve offers an alternative in the management of DGS by improving functionality and reducing pain levels in appropriately selected patients. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome in Children: Experience With Four Cases of Acute Ischaemia and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settembre, N; Bouziane, Z; Bartoli, M A; Nabokov, V; Venermo, M; Feugier, P; Malikov, S

    2017-04-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an uncommon anatomical anomaly, frequently described in adults. The most common symptom is claudication. Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) in children is rare, but it may evolve and lead to limb loss or lifelong complications. Clinical and surgical experience of PAES in children is reported. Data from the literature are analysed in order to assess the severity of this disease and to identify the factors characterising the diagnosis and the outcome of treatment in paediatric patients. Four children (aged 7-16 years) were referred with ALI due to PAES. Among the 439 articles reporting cases of PAES, 55 patients under 18 years of age were the focus. The PAES cases were classified according to the Love and Whelan classification modified by Rich. Data from 79 children (106 limbs, 27 bilateral PAES) were collected and analysed. Type I PAES was present in 41 (39%), Type II in 23 (22%), Type III in 24 (23%), Type IV in 12 (11%), and Type V in two (2%) limbs. A functional PAES was present in one patient bilaterally. In two cases, the type of PAES was not reported. Claudication occurred in 68 cases (64%), and ALI in 19 (18%). In 60 cases (57%), revascularisation with or without myotomy was required; myotomy alone was performed in 41 cases (39%). Symptomatic PAES in children should be considered a severe condition requiring urgent investigation in order to avoid any delays in the treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications. The long-term outcomes of surgical treatment with the correction of the anatomical anomaly and vascular reconstruction are satisfactory with a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ulnar nerve entrapment by anconeus epitrochlearis ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2012-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is the second most common upper limb entrapment neuropathy other than carpal tunnel syndrome. There have been many causes identified ranging from chronic aging joint changes to inflammatory conditions or systemic disorders. Among them, uncommon anatomical variants accounts for a small number of cases. Here, we report our experience in managing ulnar nerve entrapment caused by a rare vestigial structure, anconeus epitrochlearis ligament, and provide a brief review of the literature of its management.

  11. Síndrome do aprisionamento da artéria poplítea: relato de caso Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bettega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do aprisionamento da artéria poplítea caracteriza-se pela compressão desta artéria sendo a principal causa de claudicação intermitente em jovens. Homem, 18 anos, branco, apresentava parestesia, frialdade e palidez do pé direito, iniciada 24 horas após exercício físico. Em membro inferior direito, ausência de pulsos tibial posterior e dorsal do pé. À flexão dorsal e flexão plantar forçadas, houve diminuição dos pulsos tibial posterior e dorsal do pé à esquerda. Tratado cirurgicamente, o paciente apresentou pulso em ambas as artérias. A síndrome é mais frequente em homens e a prevalência varia entre 0,16 e 3,5%. O aprisionamento da artéria poplítea tipo III é mais comum. A falta de tratamento pode levar à embolia, trombose e aneurismas pós-estenóticos. Esta síndrome deve ser lembrada como causa de dor na perna, especialmente em homens jovens e de prática esportiva intensa.Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is the compression of the popliteal artery and is the main cause of intermittent claudication in young patients. An 18-year-old man was admitted at our service complaining of right foot paresthesia, coldness, and pallor that appeared 24 hours after physical activity. Posterior tibial and dorsal artery of foot pulses were not present in right lower limb. Diminished posterior tibial and dorsal artery of the foot pulses were found in left lower limb at dorsal flexion and forced plantar flexion. After surgery, both pulses were present. This syndrome is more frequent in men and its prevalence varies between 0.16 and 3.5%. Popliteal artery entrapment type III is most common. Non-treated entrapment can lead to embolism, thrombosis and post-stenotic aneurysms. The syndrome must be considered as a cause of lower limb pain specially in young men with intense sport practice history.

  12. Brothers with hypospadias, vertebral segmentation defects, and intellectual disability: new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Shubha R; Ranganath, Prajnya; Boggula, Vijay Raju; Gupta, Divya; Phadke, Rajendra V; Sloman, Melissa; Turnpenny, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    We report on two brothers (born to nonconsanguineous parents) with short stature, hypospadias, scoliosis, vertebral segmentation defects of "spondylocostal dysostosis" type, and intellectual disability. Results of cytogenetic and molecular genetic tests performed, including routine karyotype, MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) for common microdeletions and subtelomeric copy number variants, microarray-CGH analysis, and sequencing of four Notch signaling pathway genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, and HES7), were all normal. We present a comparison of the condition in the two boys with known syndromes and suggest that they may represent a hitherto unreported syndrome, most likely following autosomal recessive inheritance, though X-linked inheritance is not excluded. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. COXA-VERTEBRAL SYNDROME AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN HIP ARTHROPLASTY (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Denisov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral spine and hip joints is a complex physiological functions of the co-operation of a large number of anatomical structures. Lesions of the links in the system can mutually afflict each other. Combined pathology of the hip and lumbosacral spine is called hip-spine syndrome, or coxa-vertebral syndrome. Symptoms of the joint and spine are very similar and only a careful examination and clinical examination may find the differences. As the disease progresses the hip increases the restriction of movement, there is a contracture of the limbs in a vicious position, which leads to an increase in tilt of the pelvis, increased lumbar lordosis and to functional shortening of limbs on the affected side. This gives rise to functional impairment, and then strain the joints of his spine and disease - osteochondrosis and scoliosis. After the successful operation of total hip replacement is often progressive clinical lesions of vertebral segment, which is manifested pain and is often offset by the results of arthroplasty as the restoration of movement in the hip joint, and the change in length limb after arthroplasty leads to rupture formed a functional stereotype change in the mobility of the lumbar spine, pelvis regression bias that causes the dynamic compression spinal nerve root. Depending on the duration of the existence, severity and nature of changes in the pelvic girdle is suitable correction of equipment replacement surgery, including, for example, in some cases, deliberate shortening or lengthening the preservation of the lower extremity, offset change, etc.

  14. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Elmadag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12–L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy.

  15. Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Muchhala, Nathan; Davis, Charles C

    2017-08-01

    Although specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators. This supports the existence of pollination syndromes in the centropogonids, an idea corroborated by ecological studies. We further demonstrate that hummingbird pollination is ancestral, and that bat pollination has evolved ∼13 times independently, with ∼11 reversals. This convergence is associated with correlated evolution of floral traits within selective regimes corresponding to pollination syndrome. Collectively, our results suggest that floral morphological diversity is extremely labile, likely resulting from selection imposed by pollinators. Finally, even though this clade's rapid diversification is partially attributed to their association with vertebrate pollinators, we detect no difference in diversification rates between hummingbird- and bat-pollinated lineages. Our study demonstrates the utility of pollination syndromes as a proxy for ecological relationships in macroevolutionary studies of certain species-rich clades. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Ultrasound assessment on selected peripheral nerve pathologies. Part I: Entrapment neuropathies of the upper limb – excluding carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US is one of the methods for imaging entrapment neuropathies, post-trau‑ matic changes to nerves, nerve tumors and postoperative complications to nerves. This type of examination is becoming more and more popular, not only for economic reasons, but also due to its value in making accurate diagnosis. It provides a very precise assess‑ ment of peripheral nerve trunk pathology – both in terms of morphology and localization. During examination there are several options available to the specialist: the making of a dynamic assessment, observation of pain radiation through the application of precise palpation and the comparison of resultant images with the contra lateral limb. Entrap‑ ment neuropathies of the upper limb are discussed in this study, with the omission of median nerve neuropathy at the level of the carpal canal, as extensive literature on this subject exists. The following pathologies are presented: pronator teres muscle syndrome, anterior interosseus nerve neuropathy, ulnar nerve groove syndrome and cubital tun‑ nel syndrome, Guyon’s canal syndrome, radial nerve neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve neuropathy, Wartenberg’s disease, suprascapular nerve neuropathy and thoracic outlet syndrome. Peripheral nerve examination technique has been presented in previous articles presenting information about peripheral nerve anatomy [Journal of Ultrasonog‑ raphy 2012; 12 (49: 120–163 – Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the exam‑ ple of the median nerve; Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb; Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb]. In this article potential compression sites of particular nerves are discussed, taking into account pathomechanisms of damage, including predisposing anatomical variants (accessory muscles. The parameters of ultrasound assessment have been established – echogenicity and

  17. Short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, sparse hair, and vertebral anomalies: a variant of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryns, J P; Moerman, P

    1993-01-01

    A male newborn with acromesomelic short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, and vertebral anomalies is reported. As the child had an important number of clinical and radiological symptoms seen in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, we raise the question of whether he may represent a variant example of this syndrome despite the absence of cardinal symptoms such as postaxial polydactyly and ectodermal changes (nail hypoplasia). Images PMID:8487282

  18. Short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, sparse hair, and vertebral anomalies: a variant of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Fryns, J P; Moerman, P

    1993-01-01

    A male newborn with acromesomelic short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, and vertebral anomalies is reported. As the child had an important number of clinical and radiological symptoms seen in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, we raise the question of whether he may represent a variant example of this syndrome despite the absence of cardinal symptoms such as postaxial polydactyly and ectodermal changes (nail hypoplasia).

  19. Assessment of vertebral microarchitecture in overt and mild Cushing's syndrome using trabecular bone score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinolas, Helene; Grouthier, Virginie; Mehsen-Cetre, Nadia; Boisson, Amandine; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Mesguich, Charles; Bordenave, Laurence; Tabarin, Antoine

    2018-05-21

    Osteoporotic fractures associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) may occur despite normal bone mineral density (BMD). Few studies have described alterations in vertebral microarchitecture in glucocorticoid-treated patients and during CS. Trabecular bone score (TBS) estimates trabecular microarchitecture from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry acquisitions. Our aim was to compare vertebral BMD and TBS in patients with overt CS and mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACE), and following cure of overt CS. University Hospital. Monocentric retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of consecutive patients. A total of 110 patients were studied: 53 patients had CS (35, 11 and 7 patients with Cushing's disease, bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic ACTH secretion respectively); 39 patients had MACE (10 patients with a late post-operative recurrence of Cushing's disease and 29 patients with adrenal incidentalomas); 18 patients with non-secreting adrenal incidentalomas. 14 patients with overt CS were followed for up to 2 years after cure. Vertebral osteoporosis at BMD and degraded microarchitecture at TBS were found in 24% and 43% of patients with CS, respectively (P < .03). As compared to patients with nonsecreting incidentalomas, patients with MACE had significantly decreased TBS (P < .04) but not BMD. Overt fragility fractures tended to be associated with low TBS (P = .07) but not with low BMD. TBS, but not BMD values, decreased with the intensity of hypercortisolism independently of its aetiology (P < .01). Following remission of CS, TBS improved more markedly and rapidly than BMD (10% vs 3%, respectively; P < .02). Trabecular bone score may be a promising, noninvasive, widely available and inexpensive complementary tool for the routine assessment of the impact of CS and MACE on bone in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Anatomic and hemodynamic evaluation of renal venous flow in varicocele formation using color Doppler sonography with emphasis on renal vein entrapment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Murat; Orguc, Sebnem; Serter, Selim; Pekindil, Gokhan; Pabuscu, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the anatomic and hemodynamic properties of testicular venous drainage and its effects on varicocele formation and reflux using color Doppler ultrasound (US) with emphasis on renal vein entrapment syndrome. Upper abdominal and scrotal US examinations of 35 varicocele patients and 35 healthy male subjects were performed in the supine position during rest, during a Valsalva maneuver and in the erect position. The aortomesenteric angle and distance (AMA and AMD, respectively), peak mean velocities (PVs) and diameters of different segments of renal veins, testicular vein diameters and duration of flow inversion were measured. In the varicocele group, the lateral segment of the left renal vein (LRV) had a larger diameter and slower PV, and the medial segment of the LRV had a smaller diameter and faster PV. The diameter of the dominant draining vein correlated with the PV of the medial and lateral segments of the LRV, whereas there was no correlation between the diameter of the dominant draining vein and the diameters of the right renal vein (RRV) and the lateral segment of the LRV or the PV of the RRV. The duration of flow inversion correlated with the diameter and PV of the medial segment of the LRV. No correlation between the diameters and PVs of the RRV and the lateral segment of the LRV was detected. The decreases in the AMA, AMD, diameter of the medial segment of the LRV and PV of the lateral segment of the LRV, and the increases in the PV of the medial segment of the LRV and the diameter of the lateral segment of the LRV in varicocele patients in all positions suggest the entrapment or impingement of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. This has been defined as the "nutcracker phenomenon", which is known to affect varicocele formation.

  1. C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Armstrong, Derek; Padfield, Nancy; Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Clarke, Howard [Hospital for Sick Children, Plastic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Hospital for Sick Children, Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability. To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS. (orig.)

  2. C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, Osnat; Armstrong, Derek; Padfield, Nancy; Blaser, Susan; Clarke, Howard; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability. To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS. (orig.)

  3. DRG Spinal Cord Stimulation as Solution for Patients With Severe Pain Due to Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Frédérique Mathilde Ulrike; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2018-04-01

    Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES) is a debilitating neuropathic pain condition. A small portion of patients do not respond to any currently available treatment modalities. These patients, often young women, might benefit from targeted spinal cord stimulation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This retrospective case series describes five ACNES patients who were referred from a Dutch dedicated tertiary referral center to collaborating sites with extensive experience in DRG stimulation to be implanted with a DRG Axium System (St. Jude/Abbott, IL, USA) in the period of 2013-2016. Numeric pain rating scores at routine 6- and 12-month follow-up visits were analyzed. Three patients experienced >50% pain reduction at 12 months follow-up. Four patients experienced device-related complications, such as lead dislocation, lead breakage, pain at the battery site, and overstimulation. This case series suggests DRG spinal cord stimulation can be safe and effective for some patients with persistent pain due to ACNES. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. [Ehlers Danlos type IV syndrome presenting with simultaneous dissection of both internal carotid and both vertebral arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondon, K; de Toffol, B; Georgesco, G; Cassarini, J-F; Machet, M-C; Cottier, J-P; Arbeille, B; Autret, A

    2004-04-01

    Dissection of cervical arteries is a frequent cause of stroke in young subjects. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient who experienced simultaneous dissection of both internal carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries leading to repeated motor deficit of the right half-body associated with persistent otalgia. Search for an etiology led to the diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Search for the cause of cervical artery dissection must consider connective tIssue disease, particularly vascular forms of Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Diagnostic, therapeutic as well as prognostic aspects are discussed.

  5. On the question of radiation exposure of the cervical vertebral column in the palliative X-ray irradiation in case of therapy-resistant scapulohumeral periarthritis with local cervical syndrome and/or cervicobrachial syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenle, R.

    1985-01-01

    An improvement is achieved by palliative X-ray irradiation in about 70% out of 47 patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis and local cervival syndrome and/or cervicobrachial syndrome which was hitherto resistant to medicomechanical treatment. Higher rates of success (84%) can be achieved if the patients present an identical symptomatology, but less severe alterations of the vertebral column, even if the vertebral column is not irradiated. In case of severe alterations of the vertebral column, the success of palliative irradiation is diminished, even if the cervical vertebral column is additionally irradiated. (orig.) [de

  6. Question of radiation exposure of the cervical vertebral column in the palliative X-ray irradiation in case of therapy-resistant scapulohumeral periarthritis with local cervical syndrome and/or cervicobrachial syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenle, R

    1985-08-01

    An improvement is achieved by palliative X-ray irradiation in about 70% out of 47 patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis and local cervival syndrome and/or cervicobrachial syndrome which was hitherto resistant to medicomechanical treatment. Higher rates of success (84%) can be achieved if the patients present an identical symptomatology, but less severe alterations of the vertebral column, even if the vertebral column is not irradiated. In case of severe alterations of the vertebral column, the success of palliative irradiation is diminished, even if the cervical vertebral column is additionally irradiated.

  7. Ulnar nerve entrapment in a French horn player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, R A

    1997-10-01

    Nerve entrapment syndromes are frequent among musicians. Because of the demands on the musculoskeletal system and the great agility needed to per-form, musicians often present with vague complaints early in the course of entrapment, which makes the diagnosis a challenge for the clinician. Presented here is such a case of ulnar nerve entrapment at the left elbow of a French horn player. This case points out some of the difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of nerve entrapment in musicians. It also supports the theory that prolonged elbow flexion and repetitive finger movement contribute to the development of ulnar entrapment at the elbow. Although surgery is not required for most of the musculoskeletal problems of musicians, release of an entrapped nerve refractory to conservative therapy may be career-saving for the musician.

  8. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  9. A case of anomalous origin and course of vertebral artery in a patient with klippel feil syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulusoy, Onur Levent; Barlas, Sezgi Burcin; Mutlu, Ayhan; Sasani, Hadi; Sasani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) have an increased incidence of vascular anomalies as well as vertebral artery (VA) anomalies. In this article, we presented imaging findings of a 15-year-old female patient with KFS with a rare association of extraforaminal cranially ascending right VA that originated from the ipsilateral carotid bulb. Trifurcation of the carotid bulb with VA is a very unusual variation and to the best of our knowledge, right-sided one has not been reported in the literature

  10. A case of anomalous origin and course of vertebral artery in a patient with klippel feil syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulusoy, Onur Levent; Barlas, Sezgi Burcin; Mutlu, Ayhan [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkmenistan); Sasani, Hadi [Dept. of Radiology, Near East University School of Medicine, Nicosia (Cyprus); Sasani, Mehdi [Dept. of Anatomy, Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2016-07-15

    Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) have an increased incidence of vascular anomalies as well as vertebral artery (VA) anomalies. In this article, we presented imaging findings of a 15-year-old female patient with KFS with a rare association of extraforaminal cranially ascending right VA that originated from the ipsilateral carotid bulb. Trifurcation of the carotid bulb with VA is a very unusual variation and to the best of our knowledge, right-sided one has not been reported in the literature.

  11. The Use of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in the Treatment of Wallenberg Syndrome Caused by Vertebral Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alexis; Cotter, Bradford V; Winters, Michael E

    2017-05-01

    Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a devastating cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Up to 10% of acute CVAs in young patients are caused by dissection of the vertebral or carotid artery. Wallenberg syndrome results from a CVA in the vertebral or posterior inferior artery of the cerebellum and manifests as various degrees of cerebellar dysfunction. The administration of a thrombolytic medication has been recommended in the treatment of patients with stroke caused by cervical artery dissection. Surprisingly, there is scant literature on the use of this medication in the treatment of this condition. We describe a 42-year-old man with the sudden onset of headache, left-sided neck pain, vomiting, nystagmus, and ataxia 1 h after completing a weightlifting routine. Computed tomography angiography revealed a grade IV left vertebral artery injury with a dissection flap extending distally and resulting in complete occlusion. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging and angiography demonstrated acute left cerebellar and lateral medullary infarcts, consistent with Wallenberg syndrome. The patient was treated with tissue plasminogen activator, which failed to resolve his symptoms. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians frequently manage patients with acute CVAs. For select patients, the administration of tissue plasminogen activator can improve outcomes. However, the risk of major hemorrhage with this medication is significant. Cervical artery dissection is an important cause of acute stroke in young patients and is often missed on initial presentation. It is imperative for the emergency physician to consider acute cervical artery dissection as a cause of stroke and to be knowledgeable regarding the efficacy of thrombolytic medications for this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  13. A novel pathogenic MYH3 mutation in a child with Sheldon-Hall syndrome and vertebral fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Marcello; Accogli, Andrea; De Grandis, Elisa; Allegri, Anna; Bagowski, Christoph P; Shoukier, Moneef; Maghnie, Mohamad; Capra, Valeria

    2018-03-01

    Sheldon-Hall syndrome (SHS) is the most common of the distal arthrogryposes (DAs), a group of disorders characterized by congenital non-progressive contractures. Patients with SHS present with contractures of the limbs and a distinctive triangular facies with prominent nasolabial folds. Calcaneovalgus deformity is frequent, as well as camptodactyly and ulnar deviation. Causative mutations in at least four different genes have been reported (MYH3, TNNI2, TPM2, and TNNT3). MYH3 plays a pivotal role in fetal muscle development and mutations in this gene are associated with Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, distal arthrogryposis 8 (DA8), and autosomal dominant spondylocarpotarsal synostosis. The last two disorders are characterized by skeletal abnormalities, in particular bony fusions. The observation that MYH3 may be mutated in these syndromes has suggested the involvement of this gene in bone development. We report the case of a boy with a novel pathogenic MYH3 mutation, presenting with the classical clinical features of SHS in association with unilateral carpal bone fusion and multiple vertebral fusions. This distinctive phenotype has never been reported in the literature so far and expands the phenotypic spectrum of SHS, endorsing the clinical variability of patients with MYH3-related disorders. Our findings also support a role for MYH3 in both muscle and bone development, suggesting a phenotypic continuum in MYH3-related disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F W; Gilday, D L; Ash, J M; Green, M D

    1980-01-01

    Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated.

  15. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.; Green, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Many patterns of injury have been described in the child abuse syndrome. Until recently, all the bone manifestations of this syndrome have been diagnosed radiologically. Four cases of multiple costovertebral fracture diagnosed by bone scan are described and their etiology discussed. The use of bone scanning in identifying fractures which previously would have been missed is advocated. (orig.) [de

  16. [Epidural pharmacotherapy in the treatment of the pain syndrome in osteochondrosis complicated by intervertebral discs protrusion of lumbar part of the vertebral column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhniak, M V; Priĭmak, E V

    2013-03-01

    Experience of application of intralaminar epidural pharmacotherapy for the treatment of the pain syndrome in the patients, suffering osteochondrosis of lumbar portion of vertebral column, complicated by intervertebral discs protrusion, was summarized. The method introduction permits to escape the operative intervention performance for complicated osteochondrosis.

  17. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Calder, Alistair Duncan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Muthialu, Nagarajan [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects (''rib gaps''). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  20. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Calder, Alistair Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects ("rib gaps"). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia.

  1. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Calder, Alistair Duncan; Muthialu, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects (''rib gaps''). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  2. Operative and endovascular management of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome:a clinical dilemma--case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2002-01-01

    The most prevalent lesion of the vertebral artery is an atheromatous plaque located at its origin from the subclavian artery. A case of successful management of a symptomatic vertebral artery aneurysm due to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is reported. The patient had asymptomatic posterior intracerebral artery dissection on the contralateral side. A common carotid artery to V-3 segment bypass using reversed saphenous vein graft was carried out. Avulsion of the V-2 segment occurred peroperatively and endovascular coil embolization of the vertebral artery aneurysm was performed. Endovascular equipment and training must be in the armamentarium of vascular surgeons as more complex cases are being treated, which demands new approaches for ultimate clinical success. This unique case outlines what might unexpectedly occur. Endovascular intervention as an adjuvant procedure provides a satisfactory outcome in what could have been a catastrophe.

  3. Thoracic meningocele in lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome in a child: possible enlargement with repeated motion by anchoring to the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataya, Takafumi; Horikawa, Kyohei; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tashiro, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by hemivertebrae, congenital absence of ribs, meningocele, and hypoplasia of the truncal and abdominal wall presenting as a congenital lumbar hernia. An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl was referred to the authors' hospital with soft swelling on her left middle back; scoliosis had been present since birth. Imaging revealed a thoracic meningocele, ectopia of the spleen suggesting lumbar hernia, multiple anomalies of the thoracic vertebral columns, and defects of the ribs; thus, LCVS was diagnosed. Surgical observation revealed that the meningocele was firmly anchored to part of the diaphragm, which created stretching tension in the meningocele continuously with exhalation. Once detached, the meningocele shrank spontaneously and never developed again after cauterization. In this case, continuous or pulsatile pressure in the presence of a vertebral defect was thus considered to be an important factor for formation of the thoracic meningocele.

  4. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  5. Abnormal course of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction in patients with Down syndrome visualized by three-dimensional CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Okawa, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Aiba, Atsuomi; Someya, Yukio; Koda, Masao

    2008-01-01

    We determined the incidence of vertebral artery (VA) anomalies at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in patients with Down syndrome, and characterized the VA anomalies. The course of the VA in 46 consecutive patients who were due to undergo posterior arthrodesis surgery at the CVJ were evaluated by three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA). Included were five patients with Down syndrome who suffered from myelopathy due to atlantoaxial subluxation. All five patients with Down syndrome also had a simultaneous congenital skeletal anomaly, either os odontoideum or ossiculum terminale. Of the five patients with Down syndrome, three had VA anomalies at the CVJ, two had fenestration and one had a persistent first intersegmental artery. Of the other 41 patients without Down syndrome, five had VA anomalies at the CVJ. The incidence of VA anomalies at the CVJ was much higher in patients with Down syndrome than in those without Down syndrome. In planning surgery in patients with Down syndrome with symptomatic atlantoaxial subluxation and a congenital skeletal anomaly at the CVJ, we should consider the possible presence of VA anomalies. Preoperative 3DCTA allows us to precisely identify an anomalous VA and evaluate the possible risk of intraoperative VA injury in advance. (orig.)

  6. Abnormal course of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction in patients with Down syndrome visualized by three-dimensional CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Okawa, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Aiba, Atsuomi; Someya, Yukio; Koda, Masao [Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Spine Section, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    We determined the incidence of vertebral artery (VA) anomalies at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) in patients with Down syndrome, and characterized the VA anomalies. The course of the VA in 46 consecutive patients who were due to undergo posterior arthrodesis surgery at the CVJ were evaluated by three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA). Included were five patients with Down syndrome who suffered from myelopathy due to atlantoaxial subluxation. All five patients with Down syndrome also had a simultaneous congenital skeletal anomaly, either os odontoideum or ossiculum terminale. Of the five patients with Down syndrome, three had VA anomalies at the CVJ, two had fenestration and one had a persistent first intersegmental artery. Of the other 41 patients without Down syndrome, five had VA anomalies at the CVJ. The incidence of VA anomalies at the CVJ was much higher in patients with Down syndrome than in those without Down syndrome. In planning surgery in patients with Down syndrome with symptomatic atlantoaxial subluxation and a congenital skeletal anomaly at the CVJ, we should consider the possible presence of VA anomalies. Preoperative 3DCTA allows us to precisely identify an anomalous VA and evaluate the possible risk of intraoperative VA injury in advance. (orig.)

  7. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  8. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  9. Results of conservative, surgical treatment and rehabilitation of entrapment neuropathies in elderly patients in geriatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Główczewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropahies of upper limbs can cause mainly nocturnal neuropathic pain and impaired manual dexterity. The most common entrapment neuropathy is carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar groove syndrome - ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow. Treatment of entrapment neuropathies is both analgetic therapy and physiotherapy. In the cases of conservative treatment inefficiencies surgical decompression of nerves is performed. Authors of this oublication present results of both conservative  and surgical of entrapment neuropathies in patients over 65 years old. Among the 17 patients with entraoment neuropathies 12 of them underwent surgical treatment. Achieved partial improvement in pain, mostly nocturnal and improving the quality of life and dexterity. In comparison, however, a group of younger patients who underwent surgery for the improvement was less spectacular, which may testify advancement and irreversibility of changes in older patients.

  10. Vertebral Column Resection for Kyphoscoliosis in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: An Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Al Eissa, Sami; Sayegh, Samir; Al Helal, Fahad; Al-Sharif, Shomoukh A; Annaim, Monerah M; Muhammad, Sheryar; Aziz, Tanweer

    2016-08-31

    A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes. The second stage was performed one week later. Baseline SSEP and TCeMEP responses were present in all extremities. The surgeon was informed of a sudden 70% amplitude drop in TCeMEP in the lower limbs with stable SSEP after ligating one of the left nerves/vessels fully stretching the spinal cord. The surgeon removed the ligation, and an improvement in motor responses followed. Surgery proceeded with the highest levels of caution. Later, there was a sudden loss of TCeMEP and SSEP in the lower limbs bilaterally. The correction was released, mean arterial pressure was increased, and intravenous dexamethasone was administered. The surgical correction was aborted, and the decision was made to close the site. Lower SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained absent until closing, while upper SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained stable. A wake-up test was done after closing. The patient moved his upper limbs but was unable to move his lower limbs bilaterally. The patient was sent for a magnetic resonance imaging scan while intubated and then sent to the intensive care unit. At 24 hours and 36 hours post-operation, the patient had no sensory and motor function below the T8 level. Forty-eight hours post-operation, the patient started to feel sensory stimuli at the T10 level. At one week post-operation, the

  11. Reproduction abnormalities and twin pregnancies in parents of sporadic patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum/Goldenhar syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, D.; Ludwig, M.; Boehringer, S.; Jongbloet, P.H.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Horsthemke, B.

    2007-01-01

    A great number of case reports on concordant and discordant twins with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) suggest that there might be an association between reproductive abnormalities, twinning and OAVS. The etiology of OAVS is unknown, but may involve epigenetic dysregulation of the oocyte or

  12. Arthroplasty-CervicalP001 - Double Crush Syndrome of the Vertebral Artery Loop and Foraminal Stenosis Causing Monoparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rho, Young Joon; Choi, Hoon; Kurpad, Shekar; Soliman, Hesham; Heo, Dong Hwa; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Jung Hwan; Benitez, Hugo Alberto Santos; Rivera, Miguel Angel Fuentes; Moga, Amado Gonzalez; Hernandez, Gabriel Huerta; Urbina, Mizraim Castillo; Ozkunt, Okan; Sariyilmaz, Kerim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To report a case of monoparesis caused by a vertebral artery (VA) anomaly and foraminal stenosis treated with microvascular decompression by the posterior approach. Material and Methods: A 51-year-old man was referred because of a 4-year history of progressive left shoulder pain refractory to other forms of treatment and a 7-month history of arm weakness. Clinical and radiologic evaluation showed an abnormally tortuous loop of left C5-6 cervical foramina with foraminal stenosis ...

  13. Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in co-occurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Herlin, Morten; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background: The vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are rare conditions. We aimed to present two cases with the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac...... defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser co-occurrence from our local surgical center and through a systematic literature search detect published cases. Furthermore, we aimed to collect existing knowledge...... in the embryopathogenesis and genetics in order to discuss a possible link between the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Case presentation: Our first case was a white girl...

  14. Entrapment Neuropathies in the Upper and Lower Limbs: Anatomy and MRI Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Q.; Jacobson, J.A.; Jamadar, D.A.; Gandikota, G.; Brandon, C.; Morag, Y.; Fessell, D.P.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and non compressive, involving the supra scapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb

  15. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Mark D; Phade, Sachin V; Naughton, Peter; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Escobar, Guillermo; Berguer, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are uncommon and are usually associated with trauma or dissection. Primary cervical vertebral aneurysms are even rarer and are not well described. The presentation and natural history are unknown and operative management can be difficult. Accessing aneurysms at the skull base can be difficult and, because the frail arteries are often afflicted with connective tissue abnormalities, direct repair can be particularly challenging. We describe the presentation and surgical management of patients with primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. In this study we performed a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients with primary aneurysms within the extracranial vertebral artery. Between January 2000 and January 2011, 7 patients, aged 12-56 years, were noted to have 9 primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. All had underlying connective tissue or another hereditary disorder, including Ehler-Danlos syndrome (n=3), Marfan's disease (n=2), neurofibromatosis (n=1), and an unspecified connective tissue abnormality (n=1). Eight of 9 aneurysms were managed operatively, including an attempted bypass that ultimately required vertebral ligation; the contralateral aneurysm on this patient has not been treated. Open interventions included vertebral bypass with vein, external carotid autograft, and vertebral transposition to the internal carotid artery. Special techniques were used for handling the anastomoses in patients with Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Although endovascular exclusion was not performed in isolation, 2 hybrid procedures were performed. There were no instances of perioperative stroke or death. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and occur in patients with hereditary disorders. Operative intervention is warranted in symptomatic patients. Exclusion and reconstruction may be performed with open and hybrid techniques with low morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. The Loss of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 11 (vps11) Causes Retinal Pathogenesis in a Vertebrate Model of Syndromic Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Vihtelic, Thomas S.; denDekker, Aaron D.; Willer, Gregory; Luo, Xixia; Murphy, Taylor R.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Hyde, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To establish the zebrafish platinum mutant as a model for studying vision defects caused by syndromic albinism diseases such as Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Griscelli syndrome, and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Methods. Bulked segregant analysis and candidate gene sequencing revealed that the zebrafish platinum mutation is a single-nucleotide insertion in the vps11 (vacuolar protein sorting 11) gene. Expression of vps11 was determined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Mutants were analyzed for pigmentation defects and retinal disease by histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Results. Phenocopy and rescue experiments determined that a loss of Vps11 results in the platinum phenotype. Expression of vps11 appeared ubiquitous during zebrafish development, with stronger expression in the developing retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Zebrafish platinum mutants exhibited reduced pigmentation in the body and RPE; however, melanophore development, migration, and dispersion occurred normally. RPE, photoreceptors, and inner retinal neurons formed normally in zebrafish platinum mutants. However, a gradual loss of RPE, an absence of mature melanosomes, and the subsequent degradation of RPE/photoreceptor interdigitation was observed. Conclusions. These data show that Vps11 is not necessary for normal retinal development or initiation of melanin biosynthesis, but is essential for melanosome maturation and healthy maintenance of the RPE and photoreceptors. PMID:21330665

  17. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral. Secondary

  18. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  19. Determination of soil-entrapped methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, M.C.R.; Neue, H.U.; Lantin, R.S.; Aduna, J.B. [Soil and Water Sciences Division, Manila (Philippines)

    1996-12-31

    A sampling method was developed and modified to sample soil from paddy fields for entrapped methane determination. A 25-cm long plexiglass tube (4.4-cm i.d.) fitted with gas bag was used to sample soil and entrapped gases to a depth of 15-cm. The sampling tube was shaken vigorously to release entrapped gases. Headspace gas in sampling tube and gas bag was analyzed for methane. The procedure was verified by doing field sampling weekly at an irrigated ricefield in the IRRI Research Farm on a Maahas clay soil. The modified sampling method gave higher methane concentration because it eliminated gas losses during sampling. The method gave 98% {+-} 5 recovery of soil-entrapped methane. Results of field sampling showed that the early growth stage of the rice plant, entrapped methane increased irrespective of treatment. This suggests that entrapped methane increased irrespective of treatment. This suggests that entrapped methane was primarily derived from fermentation of soil organic matter at the early growth stage. At the latter stage, the rice plant seems to be the major carbon source for methane production. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. [Marital status and place of living as social determinants of vertebral pain syndrome and disturbance of life quality in women of older age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlyk, T V; Grygorieva, N V

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the role of the marital status and place of residence, as the social determinants of the development of vertebral pain syndrome and related disorders of life activity, the results of a survey of 148 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years were analyzed. Respondents were divided into groups depending on their marital status (living in a family with husbands and other relatives, only with husbands or alone) and places of residence (in rural or urban areas). The results of this study suggest that family status and place of residence in women of older age groups do not directly influence on the back pain, however they contribute to impairment of vital functions associated with back pain, in particular, psychological state, general activity, working capacity, and also stipulate a higher frequency of requests for medical care and hospitalizations. In single women the level of disruption of daily activity is significantly higher, although the incidence of disability in doing household chores is significantly lower than in married women. Single women reliably seek medical help more often and are hospitalized throught back pain. It was also found the significant correlations between the place of residence and the frequency of health problems related to back pain, psychological and mood disorders, general activity, relationships with others, daily disability in work, impaired ability to move and the frequency of medical help seeking throught back pain. In conclusion, ite should be taken into account in planning of treatment and rehabilitation of women of older age groups with back pain.

  1. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  2. Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in co-occurrence: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Herlin, Morten; Qvist, Niels; Petersen, Michael B

    2016-12-21

    The vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are rare conditions. We aimed to present two cases with the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser co-occurrence from our local surgical center and through a systematic literature search detect published cases. Furthermore, we aimed to collect existing knowledge in the embryopathogenesis and genetics in order to discuss a possible link between the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Our first case was a white girl delivered by caesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation; our second case was a white girl born at a gestational age of 40 weeks. A co-occurrence of vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome was diagnosed in both cases. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed ((VACTERL) OR (VATER)) AND ((MRKH) OR (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser) OR (mullerian agenesis) OR (mullerian aplasia) OR (MURCS)) without limitations. A similar search was performed in Embase and the Cochrane library. We added two cases from our local center. All cases (n = 9) presented with anal atresia and renal defect. Vertebral defects were present in eight patients. Rectovestibular fistula was confirmed in seven patients. Along with the uterovaginal agenesis, fallopian tube aplasia appeared in five of nine cases and in two cases ovarian involvement also existed. The co-occurrence of the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal

  3. Ulnar nerve entrapment in Guyon's canal due to a lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O; Calisaneller, T; Gerilmez, A; Gulsen, S; Altinors, N

    2010-09-01

    Guyon's canal syndrome is an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or palm that can cause motor, sensory or combined motor and sensory loss due to various factors . In this report, we presented a 66-year-old man admitted to our clinic with a history of intermittent pain in the left palm and numbness in 4th and 5th finger for two years. His neurological examination revealed a sensory impairment in the right fifth finger. Also, physical examination displayed a subcutaneous mobile soft tissue in ulnar side of the wrist. Electromyographic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type-1 Guyon's canal syndrome. Under axillary blockage, a lipoma compressing the ulnar nerve was excised totally and ulnar nerve was decompressed. The symptoms were improved after the surgery and patient was symptom free on 3rd postoperative week.

  4. Central nervous system abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome Anormalidades do sistema nervoso central em pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (síndrome de Goldenhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the central nervous system (CNS alterations present in a sample of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS patients, trying to correlate them with other clinical features. METHOD: Seventeen patients with diagnosis of OAVS were evaluated. All presented radiological evaluation of the CNS, normal GTG-Banding karyotype and clinical features involving at least two from the four following areas: oro-cranio-facial, ocular, auricular and vertebral. RESULTS: CNS alterations were verified in eight from seventeen patients (47%. Diffuse cerebral hypoplasia, dilated lateral cerebral ventricles (asymptomatic hydrocephalus, corpus callosum dysgenesis and frontal hypodensities were the most frequent abnormalities. Presence of ophthalmologic abnormalities was the only clinical association observed, being significantly more frequent among patients with cerebral alterations (63% versus 11%. CONCLUSION: CNS abnormalities are frequent in patients with OAVS, especially in carriers of ophthalmologic alterations. However, the absence of detectable cerebral abnormalities did not exclude the possibility that these subjects will subsequently present neurological symptoms.OBJETIVO: Descrever as alterações do sistema nervoso central (SNC presentes em uma amostra de pacientes com espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV, tentando correlacioná-las com os demais achados clínicos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dezessete pacientes com diagnóstico de EOAV. Todos apresentavam avaliação radiológica do SNC, cariótipo por bandas GTG normal e achados clínicos em pelo menos duas das quatro das seguintes áreas: oro-crânio-facial, ocular, auricular e vertebral. RESULTADOS: Alterações do SNC foram verificadas em oito dos dezessete pacientes (47%. Hipoplasia cerebral difusa, dilatação dos ventrículos cerebrais laterais (hidrocefalia assintomática, disgenesia do corpo caloso e hipondesidades frontais foram as anormalidades mais frequentes. A presença de

  5. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T.G.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et

  6. Vascular entrapment of the sciatic plexus causing catamenial sciatica and urinary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Nucelio; Marques, Renato Moretti; Kamergorodsky, Gil; Ploger, Christine; Schor, Eduardo; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic congestion syndrome is a well-known cause of cyclic pelvic pain (Ganeshan et al., Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 30(6):1105-11, 2007). What is much less well known is that dilated or malformed branches of the internal or external iliac vessels can entrap the nerves of the sacral plexus against the pelvic sidewalls, producing symptoms that are not commonly seen in gynecological practice, such as sciatica, or refractory urinary and anorectal dysfunction (Possover et al., Fertil Steril 95(2):756-8. 2011). The objective of this video is to explain and describe the symptoms suggestive of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus, as well as the technique for the laparoscopic decompression of these nerves. Two anecdotal cases of intrapelvic vascular entrapment are used to review the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus and demonstrate the laparoscopic surgical technique for decompression at two different sites, one on the sciatic nerve and one on the sacral nerve roots. After surgery, the patient with the sciatic entrapment showed full recovery of the sciatica and partial recovery of the myofascial pain. The patient with sacral nerve root entrapment showed full recovery with resolution of symptoms. The symptoms suggestive of intrapelvic nerve entrapment are: perineal pain or pain irradiating to the lower limbs in the absence of a spinal disorder, and lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of prolapse of a bladder lesion. In the presence of such symptoms, the radiologist should provide specific MRI sequences of the intrapelvic portion of the sacral plexus and a team and equipment to expose and decompress the sacral nerves should be prepared.

  7. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  8. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  9. Suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Gülçin Kaymak; Göğüş, Feride

    2003-03-01

    To determine presence of suprascapular nerve entrapment in a group of newsreel cameramen. Thirty-six men working as newsreel cameramen participated in the study. In addition to musculoskeletal and neurologic examinations, bilateral suprascapular nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were performed. A group of 19 healthy, male volunteers were included in the study as normal controls for suprascapular nerve conduction studies. In newsreel cameramen, mean suprascapular nerve latency was 3.20 +/- 0.56 msec and 2.84 +/- 0.36 msec for right and left shoulders, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean latency difference between right and left suprascapular nerves was -0.05 +/- 0.19 msec in the control group and 0.36 +/- 0.58 msec in the cameramen group (P mobile camera on the shoulder might cause suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen. This could be considered an occupational disorder of the suprascapular nerve, like meat-packer's neuropathy.

  10. MR imaging evaluation of suprascapular nerve entrapment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludig, T.; Walter, F.; Roland, J.; Blum, A.; Chapuis, D.; Mole, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the significance of muscular edema, atrophy, and fatty changes in the diagnosis of suprascapular nerve entrapment (SSNE), and to confirm muscular edema as the most significant sign of neuropathy. A retrospective study of 18 patients with suprascapular nerve entrapment was performed. All patients underwent electromyographic studies and MR imaging with a 1.5-T Echo Speed system (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis.). The diagnosis of muscle edema was reached when muscles presented a high signal on T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) fat-suppressed images. Muscular trophicity and fatty changes were analyzed on a sagittal oblique cut using SE T1-weighted images. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility using kappa test, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed, together with negative and positive predictive value of each criterion. The topographic diagnosis was correct as edema affected the infraspinatus muscle alone when the suprascapular nerve was entrapped at the spinoglenoid notch. Both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were affected when nerve was compressed at the suprascapular notch. Sensitivity and specificity of muscular edema were, respectively, 94.5 and 100%. Muscular atrophy sensitivity and specificity were 81 and 80%, respectively. Fatty changes sensitivity and specificity were 25 and 96%, respectively. Muscular edema seems to be a more sensitive sign of SSNE than muscle atrophy and fatty changes when compared with EMG results. Magnetic resonance imaging can reach a positive, topographic, and etiologic diagnosis of SSNE. (orig.)

  11. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  12. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  13. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-04-29

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  14. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  15. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined

  16. Diclofenac sodium entrapment and release from halloysite nanotubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčová, Kateřina; Deasy, Patrick B; Rabišková, Miloslava

    2013-02-01

    Halloysite was found to have interesting nanotubular geometry viable for the entrapment of various active agents. In this experiment, the ability of hollow halloysite cylinders to entrap the anionic model drug diclofenac sodium and to retard drug dissolution rate was investigated. Drugs could be incorporated into layered tubules via three different mechanisms: adsorption, intercalation and tubular entrapment. Based on the adsorption studies, some diclofenac sodium was shown to be adsorbed to the polyionic mineral surface despite its permanent negative charge. The X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD) results did not prove any intercalation reaction to occur. The most important drug-loading mechanism involved the tubular entrapment with encapsulation efficiency 48.1%. The drug release from halloysite was prolonged in comparison with the dissolution of pure drug. Halloysite itself as well as halloysite loaded with the drug proved to be appropriate material to form pellets by extrusion /spheronization method. halloysite diclofenac sodium drug entrapment pellets prolonged drug release.

  17. Rare small intestinal volvulus from entrapment in hepato-diaphragmatic adhesions in a 45-year-old lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaoye, Iyiade Olatunde; Adesina, Micheal Dapo

    2016-12-20

    Small intestinal volvulus is rare in adults and rarely caused by string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Similar adhesions were described in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. We report a 45-year-old lady with small intestinal volvulus from entrapment of a loop in string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Her plain radiographs showed a significant shadow of the trapped loop. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  18. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  19. Drop impact splashing and air entrapment

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2013-03-01

    Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.

  20. Renal artery entrapment by the diaphragmatic crus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, F.; Baguet, J.-P.; Rodiere, M.; Sessa, C.; Janbon, B; Ferretti, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe renal artery entrapment (RAE) by the diaphragmatic crus and to elucidate the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this entity. From 1995 to 2002, 15 patients (mean age 65) were found to have a RAE. They were investigated by CT scan (n=14) and/or MRA (n=2) for hypertension (n=7), chronic renal insufficiency (n=4) or aneurysms (n=4). The right (n=11) or the left (n=4) renal artery (RA) was involved. The compression was ostial (n=8) or truncal (n=7), and was ≥50% in eight cases. The course of the RA along the aorta on angiographic views (n=8) or a concentric ostial stenosis in a patient free of atheromatous lesions (n=7) were two findings suggestive of an RAE. Seven RAEs were indicated for treatment but only three were treated, by mean of stenting. Among the latter, two stents were patent at 6-month follow-up and one evolved to restenosis because of a stent fracture. RAEs may be suspected on angiographic views and proved by cross-sectional imaging because of specific imaging features. It is of importance to detect this etiology of RA stenosis because angioplasty with stenting is probably not always advisable. (orig.)

  1. 中医手法整复并超激光脊神经根照射治疗胸椎关节综合征%The treatment of traditional Chinese medicine combined with ultra laser radiation on patients with disturbance syndrome of thoracic vertebral joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艾云; 王锦丽

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The disturbance syndrome of thoracic vertebral joint means theclinical syndrome mainly indicating backache caused because ofsecondary injury of spinal nerve root and/or sympathetic nervecaused by joint disturbance of intervertebral discs of thoracic ver-tebrac, zygapophyseal joints and proper joint of thoracic verte-brae. Because the symptoms and signs are complicated, it often ismisdiagnosed as diseases in respiratory system, cardiovascular sys-tem or alimentary system and can not achieve thorough treatment,which used to be cured with drugs, acupuncture and physiotherapybut the effect is not satisfying.

  2. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, XRD and PIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very heterogeneous.

  3. Evaluación de una nueva sistematización de estudios para el diagnóstico del síndrome de destrucción vertebral Avaliação de nova sistematização de exames para o diagnóstico da síndrome de destruição vertebral Evaluation of a new systematization of tests for the diagnosis of vertebral destruction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alpizar Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    ínicas e os resultados foram obtidos por estatística descritiva, média e desvio padrão para as variáveis quantitativas e porcentagens para as qualitativas. RESULTADOS: Média de idade de 53,3 ± 16,56 anos; 10 homens e 10 mulheres. Trinta vértebras afetadas nos 20 pacientes; 8 deles tinham afecção em duas ou mais vértebras. O nível mais afetado foi o lombar em 18 casos, seguido pelo torácico em 12. A tuberculose da coluna vertebral (doença de Pott foi diagnosticada em 7 casos (35%, a osteomielite, em 4 (20%, o mieloma múltiplo, em 2 (10% discite, metástase de adenocarcinoma, linfoma e osteoporose, cada um em um caso (5%. Em 3 casos (15% não se obteve diagnóstico específico. CONCLUSÕES: Esta proposta de sistematização foi útil para chegar ao diagnóstico etiológico definitivo da SDV em 85% dos casos, com redução da quantidade de exames realizados. É preciso estudar um número maior de pacientes para aumentar a evidência de sua utilidade.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of a systematic set of diagnostic tests in a protocol sheet for determination of vertebral destruction syndrome in patients treated in our service. METHODS: We analysed a proposal for systematization through a pilot study of 20 patients who underwent 10 different laboratory and imaging tests, as well as the histopathological study through percutaneous biopsy. We described the demographic and clinical characteristics and likewise the results obtained by means of descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables and percentage for qualitative variables. RESULTS: Average age of 53.3 ± 16.56 years; 10 men and 10 women. Thirty vertebrae affected in 20 patients; 8 patients had disease in two or more vertebrae. The most affected level was the lumbar in 18 cases, followed by thoracic in 12. The spinal tuberculosis (Pott's disease was detected in 7 cases (35%, osteomyelitis in 4 (20%, multiple myeloma, in 2 (10%, and discitis, metastasis of adenocarcinoma

  4. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  5. Malformação da transição crânio-vertebral como causa de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de dois casos Cerebello-pontine angle syndrome associated with cranio-vertebral malformation: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Batista da Silva

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar nos quais não havia neoplasia nessa região. Ambos os pacientes apresentavam uma associação de impressão basilar com síndrome de Arnold-Chiari. Após cirurgia descompressiva de fossa posterior os casos evoluiram favoravelmente com a diminuição progressiva dos sintomas neurológicos, restando apenas, no segundo paciente, certo grau de paralisia e de espasmo facial, à direita. São feitas considerações em tôrno das causas mais freqüentes da síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar, bem como acêrca dos quadros clínicos mais usualmente encontrados em doentes que apresentam malformações da transição crânio-vertebral. Finalmente, os autores tecem breves considerações a respeito do possível mecanismo lesionai do VIII, do V e do VII nervos cranianos nos dois casos relatados.Two cases of cerebelo-pontine angle syndrome associated with basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation are reported. In both cases neuroradiological studies and surgical exploration failled to demonstrate any space occupying lesion. After surgery the patients progressively recovered disapearing the neurological symptoms except for a slaight hemifacial spasm that remained in case 2. Clinical signs present in cerebello-pontine angle lesions and the occipito-cervical malformations are discussed. A possible mechanism to explain the association of both conditions is discussed.

  6. Imaging of vertebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This translation of the toolbook published in the 'US-ART' series, offers invaluable help to medical radiologists in the diagnostic imaging and evaluation of complex vertebral traumas which are on the rise, inter alia due to increasingly dangerous leisure sports. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Yannis DionyssiotisRhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature.Keywords: vertebral fracture...

  8. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly....... No gender-related differences were found in any of the relationships. Neither static histomorphometry nor biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies is a good predictor of vertebral bone strength.......The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...

  9. Changes in entrapped gas content and hydraulic conductivity with pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Maricris; Roy, James W; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    Water table fluctuations continuously introduce entrapped air bubbles into the otherwise saturated capillary fringe and groundwater zone, which reduces the effective (quasi-saturated) hydraulic conductivity, K(quasi), thus impacting groundwater flow, aquifer recharge and solute and contaminant transport. These entrapped gases will be susceptible to compression or expansion with changes in water pressure, as would be expected with water table (and barometric pressure) fluctuations. Here we undertake laboratory experiments using sand-packed columns to quantify the effect of water table changes of up to 250 cm on the entrapped gas content and the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity, and discuss our ability to account for these mechanisms in ground water models. Initial entrapped air contents ranged between 0.080 and 0.158, with a corresponding K(quasi) ranging between 2 and 6 times lower compared to the K(s) value. The application of 250 cm of water pressure caused an 18% to 26% reduction in the entrapped air content, resulting in an increase in K(quasi) by 1.16 to 1.57 times compared to its initial (0 cm water pressure) value. The change in entrapped air content measured at pressure step intervals of 50 cm, was essentially linear, and could be modeled according to the ideal gas law. Meanwhile, the changes in K(quasi) with compression-expansion of the bubbles because of pressure changes could be adequately captured with several current hydraulic conductivity models. © Ground Water 2012 and © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Short Bi-Iliac Distance in Prenatal Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Ulla B.; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Keeling, Jean W.

    2002-01-01

    prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography......prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography...

  11. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  12. Intractable Occipital Neuralgia Caused by an Entrapment in the Semispinalis Capitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

    2013-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a rare pain syndrome characterized by periodic lancinating pain involving the occipital nerve complex. We present a unique case of entrapment of the greater occipital nerve (GON) within the semispinalis capitis, which was thought to be the cause of occipital neuralgia. A 66-year-old woman with refractory left occipital neuralgia revealed an abnormally low-loop of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery on the magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting possible vascular compression of the upper cervical roots. During exploration, however, the GON was found to be entrapped at the perforation site of the semispinalis capitis. There was no other compression of the GON or of C1 and C2 dorsal roots in their intracranial course. Postoperatively, the patient experienced almost complete relief of typical neuralgic pain. Although occipital neuralgia has been reported to occur by stretching of the GON by inferior oblique muscle or C1-C2 arthrosis, peripheral compression in the transmuscular course of the GON in the semispinalis capitis as a cause of refractory occipital neuralgia has not been reported and this should be considered when assessing surgical options for refractory occipital neuralgia. PMID:24278663

  13. Thoracic Nerve Root Entrapment by Intrathecal Catheter Coiling: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing L; Loriaux, Daniel B; Tybout, Caroline; Kinon, Merritt D; Rahimpour, Shervin; Runyon, Scott L; Hopkins, Thomas J; Boortz-Marx, Richard L; Lad, Shivanand P

    2016-03-01

    Intrathecal catheter placement has long-term therapeutic benefits in the management of chronic, intractable pain. Despite the diverse clinical applicability and rising prevalence of implantable drug delivery systems in pain medicine, the spectrum of complications associated with intrathecal catheterization remains largely understudied and underreported in the literature. To report a case of thoracic nerve root entrapment resulting from intrathecal catheter migration. Case report. Inpatient hospital service. A 60-year-old man status post implanted intrathecal (IT) catheter for intractable low back pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome returned to the operating room for removal of IT pump trial catheter after experiencing relapse of preoperative pain and pump occlusion. Initial attempt at ambulatory removal of the catheter was aborted after the patient reported acute onset of lower extremity radiculopathic pain during the extraction. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) subsequently revealed that the catheter had ascended and coiled around the T10 nerve root. The patient was taken back to the operating room for removal of the catheter under fluoroscopic guidance, with possible laminectomy for direct visualization. Removal was ultimately achieved with slow continuous tension, with complete resolution of the patient's new radicular symptoms. This report describes a single case report. This case demonstrates that any existing loops in the intrathecal catheter during initial implantation should be immediately re-addressed, as they can precipitate nerve root entrapment and irritation. Reduction of the loop or extrication of the catheter should be attempted under continuous fluoroscopic guidance to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity.

  14. Air Entrapment and Drop Formation in Piezo Inkjet Printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Piezo drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printers are used in an increasing number of applications for their reliable deposition of droplets onto a substrate. Droplets of a few picoliters are ejected from an ink jet nozzle at a frequency of up to 50 kHz. However, entrapment of an air microbubble into the

  15. Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; de Bruin, G.J.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Reinten, Hans; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Wijshoff, H.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The stability of inkjet printers is a major requirement for high-quality-printing. However, in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, air entrapment can lead to malfunctioning of the jet formation. The piezoactuator is employed to actively monitor the channel acoustics and to identify distortions at an

  16. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  17. Debt rescheduling: the economics of entrapment under globalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being, by definition, the alteration of the terms of repayment of a loan with respect to the grace period permissible, the interest rates chargeable, and the overall maturity period, its adoption and application by Nigeria has not only proved dysfunctional, but also instrumental to debt perpetuation and entrapment. The paper is a ...

  18. 16 CFR 1211.7 - Inherent entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the full upmost position both with and without any external entrapment protection device... that represents the most severe operating condition. Any accessories having an effect on the intended... the requirement. The means supplied to comply with the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section...

  19. 16 CFR 1211.8 - Secondary entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary entrapment protection requirements. 1211.8 Section 1211.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112, Telephone (800) 854-7179 or Global...

  20. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  1. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  2. Nutcracker syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to highlight the symptoms of the Nutcracker Syndrome (NCS), the methods of clinical investigations and the importance of differential diagnosis. Introduction: The NCS refers to left renal vein entrapment caused by abnormal branching patterns of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. 1,2 Clinical case presentation: A 27 years old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal discomfort, bloating, loose bowel motions and irregular micro-haematuria. The radiologist's report indicated the findings from computed tomography examination to be consistent with anterior NCS. Discussion: In most of the NCS cases the clinical symptoms are non-specific. 3 The syndrome is caused by a vascular disorder, but its clinical manifestation can relate to a wide range of abdominal, urological, endovascular or gynaecological pathologies. 4 Conclusion: Nutcracker Syndrome is a relatively rare disease and underdiagnosed may lead to left renal vein thrombosis

  3. Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of degenerative vertebral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokarev, V.S.; Savchenko, A.P.; Ternovoj, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    CT and roentgenography were used for the investigation of 78 patients with the radicular syndrome. The state of the intervertebral disks, intervertebral joints and cerebrospinal canal in degenerative vertebral diseases was assessed. CT permits the detection of hernia, protrusion of the intervertebral disks, deformity of the intervertebral joints, and the narrowing of the cerebrospinal canal as a result of degenerative changes, as well as establishing the cause of the affection of neural structures in the cerebrospinal canal, radicular holes. CT possesses some advantages over roentgenography in the diagnosis of degenerative vertebral diseases

  4. Vertebral Artery Caught in the Fracture Gap after Traumatic C2/3 Spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Henkelmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. Patient with a C2 fracture and entrapment of the right vertebral artery in the fracture gap. Purpose. Presentation of a case with follow-up until end of treatment. Study Design. Case report. Methods. A 25-year-old woman was brought into our emergency room after falling while riding a horse. She complained of pain in the cervical spine. Clinical examinations showed local tenderness at the upper cervical spine and painful impairment of the mobility of the neck, with no signs of neurological impairment. Radiological diagnostics revealed a traumatic C2/3 spondylolisthesis. A computer tomography (CT angiographic scan showed a dislocation of the right vertebral artery into the fracture gap without injury to the artery. Open reduction and osteosynthesis were considered of too high risk. Therefore, we conducted fracture treatment with closed reduction and halo fixation. After removal of the halo fixator, the patient was given a soft cervical collar and was advised to rest for additional 6 weeks before beginning gradual activity. Results. Conventional follow-up revealed osseous consolidation and a CT angiographic scan showed consistent blood flow to the artery. Conclusion. Halo fixation was a safe and effective therapy strategy in the case of vertebral artery entrapment after traumatic C2 spondylolisthesis.

  5. Entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four...... in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women’s identities and agency are expressed in the context...... of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims’ apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants’ discursive accounts further suggest that stay/leave decisions of battered women in Ghana...

  6. Vertebral basilar artery dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Atlas, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients (ten male, one female; range, 2-56 years) presented with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms and were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) (eta=11), arteriography (eta=11), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (eta=6). Angiography showed dissection of a vertebral artery (eta=8), a basilar artery (eta=1), or a combination of both (eta=2). On CT and/or MR images, infarctions were demonstrated in ten of 11 cases. Most frequently involved were the thalmus (eta=7), cerebellum (eta=6), occipital lobes (eta=4), and pons (eta=3). The site of infarction did not correlate with the side or site of angiographic abnormality. In six cases evaluated by all modalities, MR imaging showed more extensive and widespread infarction than did CT and also showed whether or not the infarcts were hemorrhagic. MR imaging was able to demonstrate the presence of intramural dissecting hematoma prior to angiography and to indicate whether or not flow was reconstituted on follow-up examination

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, Gregory B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Physics Department (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.

  9. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  10. Formulation of resveratrol entrapped niosomes for topical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Daniel; Matos, María; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Pazos, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    A new approach to the formulation of resveratrol (RSV) entrapped niosomes for topical use is proposed in this work. Niosomes were formulated with Gelot 64 (G64) as surfactant, and two skin-compatible unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids), commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations, as penetration enhancers. Niosomes were prepared by two different methods: a thin film hydration method with minor modifications followed by a sonication stage (TFH-S), and an ethanol injection modified method (EIM). Niosomes prepared with the EIM method were in the range of 299-402 nm, while the TFH-S method produced larger niosomes in the range of 293-496 nm. Moreover, niosomes with higher RSV entrapment efficiency (EE) and better stability were generated by the EIM method. Ex vivo transdermal experiments, carried out in Franz diffusion cells on newborn pig skin, indicated that niosomes prepared by the EIM method were more effective for RSV penetration in epidermis and dermis (EDD), with values up to 21% for both penetration enhancers tested. The EIM method, which yielded the best RSV-entrapped niosomes, seems to be the most suitable for scaling up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  12. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies--mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Annina B; Nee, Robert J; Coppieters, Michel W

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies can be difficult because symptoms and signs often do not follow textbook descriptions and vary significantly between patients with the same diagnosis. Signs and symptoms which spread outside of the innervation territory of the affected nerve or nerve root are common. This Masterclass provides insight into relevant mechanisms that may account for this extraterritorial spread in patients with entrapment neuropathies, with an emphasis on neuroinflammation at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, as well as changes in subcortical and cortical regions. Furthermore, we describe how clinical tests and technical investigations may identify these mechanisms if interpreted in the context of gain or loss of function. The management of neuropathies also remains challenging. Common treatment strategies such as joint mobilisation, neurodynamic exercises, education, and medications are discussed in terms of their potential to influence certain mechanisms at the site of nerve injury or in the central nervous system. The mechanism-oriented approach for this Masterclass seems warranted given the limitations in the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of entrapment neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance tomography of the vertebral column and spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Brueckmann, H.; Bunke, J.; Giesecke, J.; Heinzerling, J.; Kunze, V.; Mirvis, S.E.; Weidner, A.; Wolf, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to all the aspects pertinent to diagnostic procedures in the vertebral column and spinal canal this pocket book provides complete coverage of congenital and acquired disorders in the fields of orthopedics, neurology and neurosurgery - including malformations of the spinal canal, degenerative vertebral diseases, tumours, inflammatory changes and vascular diseases, to mention only a few. The authors discuss the question of how image qualities can be influenced and the most information obtained from the different pulse sequences. They outline future development trends and give advice on the reduction of artefacts. The principles that must be adhered to in surgical intervention and nmr imaging for the post-operative assessment of vertebral disk syndromes and tumours are just as important an issue here as is the information the surgeon expects to obtain through diagnostic nmr imaging and the recommendations to be given by the radiologist. (orig.) With 265 figs [de

  14. Alternative diagnostic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Shibata, Kunio

    2002-01-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathies are common clinical syndromes characterized by neurologic deficits due to mechanical or dynamic compression of peripheral nerves. However, the definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is difficult in many cases, and the electrophysiological diagnostic method is solely used as a supplementary diagnostic method at present. As a new diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy, the present study investigated the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome. On enhanced MRI of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, contrast-enhancement in the median nerve was found in 30 of 34 hands (88.2%). Enhanced MRI allows to visualize intraneural edema in the nerve easily on the naked eye. Therefore, this technique supplied useful information for making definitive diagnosis and is promising as a non-invasive diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy. (author)

  15. Alternative diagnostic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Takashi [Aiko Orthopaedic Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeru; Shibata, Kunio [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathies are common clinical syndromes characterized by neurologic deficits due to mechanical or dynamic compression of peripheral nerves. However, the definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is difficult in many cases, and the electrophysiological diagnostic method is solely used as a supplementary diagnostic method at present. As a new diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy, the present study investigated the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome. On enhanced MRI of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, contrast-enhancement in the median nerve was found in 30 of 34 hands (88.2%). Enhanced MRI allows to visualize intraneural edema in the nerve easily on the naked eye. Therefore, this technique supplied useful information for making definitive diagnosis and is promising as a non-invasive diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy. (author)

  16. Rehabilitation in osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Pratelli, Elisa; Cinotti, Irene; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic patients due to an increased bone fragility. Vertebral fractures influence the quality of life, mobility and mortality. Preventive training exercises and proprioception reeducation can be utilised for improving posture, balance and level of daily function and for decreasing pain. Quality of life is improved even beyond the active training period. This mini review provides information based on the literature for the rehabilitation of osteo...

  17. Reversible entrapment of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid on different chromatographic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Boštjan; Černigoj, Urh; Barut, Miloš; Štrancar, Aleš

    2013-10-11

    HPLC based analytical assay is a powerful technique that can be used to efficiently monitor plasmid DNA (pDNA) purity and quantity throughout the entire purification process. Anion exchange monolithic and non-porous particle based stationary phases were used to study the recovery of the different pDNA isoforms from the analytical column. Three differently sized pDNA molecules of 3.0kbp, 5.2kbp and 14.0kbp were used. Plasmid DNA was injected onto columns under the binding conditions and the separation of the isoforms took place by increasing the ionic strength of the elution buffer. While there was no substantial decrease of the recovered supercoiled and linear isoforms of the pDNA with the increase of the plasmid size and with the increase of the flow rate (recoveries in all cases larger than 75%), a pronounced decrease of the oc isoform recovery was observed. The entrapment of the oc pDNA isoform occurred under non-binding conditions as well. The partial oc isoform elution from the column could be achieved by decreasing the flow rate of the elution mobile phase. The results suggested a reversible entrapment of the oc isoform in the restrictions within the pores of the monolithic material as well as within the intra-particle space of the non-porous particles. This phenomenon was observed on both types of the stationary phase morphologies and could only be connected to the size of a void space through which the pDNA needs to migrate. A prediction of reversible pDNA entrapment was successfully estimated with the calculation of Peclet numbers, Pe, which defines the ratio between a convective and diffusive mass transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of isochromosome 20q in a fetus with vertebral anomaly and rocker-bottom feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Receveur

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The data would allow establishing a phenotype–genotype correlation. Thus, we proposed to define a recognizable syndrome combining cranio-facial dysmorphism, vertebral bodies' anomalies, feet and cerebral malformations.

  19. Characterization of a sol-gel-entrapped artificial receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Richard A.; Narang, Upvan; Prasad, Paras N.; Bright, Frank V.

    1993-04-01

    We report on the development, characterization, and photophysics of a new fiber-optic-based sensor which uses a sol-gel entrapped recognition element. The recognition element is modified (beta) -cyclodextrin to which we have added a short tether (glycine) and a fluorophore (dansyl). This recognition element forms an intramolecular complex, and the dansyl group can include within the cyclodextrin cavity. Non-fluorescent analytes, that bind to the cyclodextrin cavity, can effectively displace the included dansyl group and result in a measurable change in signal. We report on the detection limits, dynamic range, and photophysics (i.e., transduction mechanism) of this new sensor.

  20. The role of diagnostic radiology in compressive and entrapment neuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, J.D.; Stanley, A.J.; Hide, I.G.; Campbell, R.S.D.; Grainger, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is increasingly being utilised to aid the diagnosis of compression and entrapment neuropathies. Cross-sectional imaging, primarily ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, can provide exquisite anatomical detail of peripheral nerves and the changes that may occur as a result of compression. Imaging can provide a useful diagnostic aid to clinicians, which may supplement clinical evaluation, and may eventually provide an alternative to other diagnostic techniques such as nerve conduction studies. This article describes the abnormalities that may be demonstrated by current imaging techniques, and critically analyses the impact of imaging in diagnosis of peripheral compressive neuropathy. (orig.)

  1. The role of diagnostic radiology in compressive and entrapment neuropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, J.D.; Stanley, A.J.; Hide, I.G.; Campbell, R.S.D. [Department of Radiology, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, TS4 3BW (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging is increasingly being utilised to aid the diagnosis of compression and entrapment neuropathies. Cross-sectional imaging, primarily ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, can provide exquisite anatomical detail of peripheral nerves and the changes that may occur as a result of compression. Imaging can provide a useful diagnostic aid to clinicians, which may supplement clinical evaluation, and may eventually provide an alternative to other diagnostic techniques such as nerve conduction studies. This article describes the abnormalities that may be demonstrated by current imaging techniques, and critically analyses the impact of imaging in diagnosis of peripheral compressive neuropathy. (orig.)

  2. Subsartorial Entrapment of the Saphenous Nerve of a Competitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, D; Windsor, R E

    1989-01-01

    In brief: A 40-year-old bodybuilder had a six- week history of progressively worsening pain of the medial part of her right knee that did not respond to rest and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Somatosensory evoked potential readings suggested that both branches of the right saphenous nerve were entrapped. Management consisting of two intramuscular injections of bupivacaine, administrations of two different NSAIDs, and application of knee wraps around the subsartorial region resolved the patient's symptoms within five weeks. She then resumed an intensive lower-extremity exercise regimen without discomfort, in preparation for a bodybuilding competition.

  3. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  4. Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.

  5. Silica Sol-Gel Entrapment of the Enzyme Chloro peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.; Chan, S.; Ebaid, B.; Sommerhalter, M.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme chloro peroxidase (CPO) was immobilized in silica sol-gel beads prepared from tetramethoxysilane. The average pore diameter of the silica host structure (∼3 nm) was smaller than the globular CPO diameter (∼6 nm) and the enzyme remained entrapped after sol-gel maturation. The catalytic performance of the entrapped enzyme was assessed via the pyrogallol peroxidation reaction. Sol-gel beads loaded with 4 μg CPO per mL sol solution reached 9-12% relative activity compared to free CPO in solution. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed a decrease in K_cat but no changes in K_M or K_I . Product release or enzyme damage might thus limit catalytic performance. Yet circular dichroism and visible absorption spectra of transparent CPO sol-gel sheets did not indicate enzyme damage. Activity decline due to methanol exposure was shown to be reversible in solution. To improve catalytic performance the sol-gel protocol was modified. The incorporation of 5, 20, or 40% methyltrimethoxysilane resulted in more brittle sol-gel beads but the catalytic performance increased to 14% relative to free CPO in solution. The use of more acidic casting buffers (ph 4.5 or 5.5 instead of 6.5) resulted in a more porous silica host reaching up to 18% relative activity

  6. Thermosensitive liposomes entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles for controllable drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, L-A; Wang, Y-C; Wang, Y-J; Yang, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Lo, L-W

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles can serve as a heating source upon alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be mixed with thermosensitive nanovehicles for hyperthermia-induced drug release, yet such a design and mechanism may not be suitable for controllable drug release applications in which the tissues are susceptible to environmental temperature change such as brain tissue. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles were entrapped inside of thermosensitive liposomes for AMF-induced drug release while the environmental temperature was maintained at a constant level. Carboxyfluorescein was co-entrapped with the iron oxide nanoparticles in the liposomes as a model compound for monitoring drug release and environmental temperature was maintained with a water circulator jacket. These experiments have been successfully performed in solution, in phantom and in anesthetized animals. Furthermore, the thermosensitive liposomes were administered into rat forearm skeletal muscle, and the release of carboxylfluorescein triggered by the external alternative magnetic field was monitored by an implanted microdialysis perfusion probe with an on-line laser-induced fluorescence detector. In the future such a device could be applied to simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and non-invasive drug release in temperature-sensitive applications.

  7. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  8. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  9. Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome with Left Renal Vein Duplication: A Rare Cause of Haematuria in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Preza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutcracker syndrome (NCS is a rare cause of haematuria. It embraces an extended nonpathognomonic spectrum of symptoms that imply a difficult diagnosis. Ultimately it may be associated with substantial morbidity and even life-threatening events. We report a rare cause if a 12-year-old boy who presented with a history of frequent intermittent episodes of painless constant haematuria. The cystoscopy showed a bloody urine ejaculate from the left ureter meatus. The Doppler ultrasonography showed turbulent pattern of venous blood flow of the posterior renal vein branch behind the aorta. The abdominopelvic computer tomography (apCT revealed left renal vein (LRV duplication with a dilated retroaortic branch, entrapped between the aorta and the vertebral column, promoting the renal nutcracker syndrome. The patient was initially hospitalized and managed with oral iron supplements and continuous saline bladder irrigation, not requiring additional treatment. The child is currently asymptomatic, with haemoglobin value returning to normal and therefore proposed to conservative management with close followup. The authors present a case report of episodic haematuria caused by a rare entity—posterior nutcracker syndrome with renal vein duplication.

  10. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  11. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  12. Entrapment and Enmeshment Schemes Used by Sex Traffickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A

    2016-09-01

    Emerging research suggests that sex traffickers/pimps control the majority of trafficked girls in the United States. The youthfulness of these victims and their lack of psychosocial maturity severely diminish their ability to detect exploitative motives or withstand manipulation of traffickers. A review of 43 cases of sexually exploited girls involving non-relative traffickers and 10 semi-structured interviews with social service providers revealed numerous scripts and schemes used by sex traffickers to entrap and entangle victims including boyfriend/lover scripts, ruses involving debt bondage, friendship or faux-family scripts, threats of forced abortion or to take away children, and coerced co-offending. These findings inform potential prevention efforts and highlight the need for multi-systemic, victim-centered approaches to intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. THE EXPERIENCE OF ‘ENTRAPPED GRIEF’ FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Finlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some abortions can result in prolonged, complex grief reactions where the effects endure in problematic ways. Research findings suggest that such women suffer a turbulent spiral of often contradictory emotions and, if insufficiently acknowledged at the time of the abortion by self or other, this emotional turmoil can become pushed down and disenfranchised. This paper discusses the nature of this entrapped grief by reviewing the literature and reporting on some phenomenological case study research. A final section discusses integrative psychotherapy approaches to working in this area. Better understanding of the experience of traumatic abortion may enable therapists to be more present to this phenomenon, in particular the voicelessness some clients may experience, rendering them unable to process their feelings about the event and associated loss.

  14. Entrapment of dye molecules within submicron silver particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yosef, Itzik; Avnir, David, E-mail: david@chem.ch.huji.ac.il [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Chemistry (Israel)

    2011-09-15

    We describe a method for the preparation of metal-organic composites submicron particles. Specifically, the preparation of silver particle-clusters 150-200 nm in size, doped with an organic dye Congo-red, is reported. The use of sodium citrate coupled with sodium hypophosphite facilitated the formation of these particle-clusters, which were fully characterized by TEM analysis, Zeta potential and size measurements, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The latter reveals a catalytic action of the metal on the thermal oxidative decomposition of the entrapped dye. The use of these particles to obtain dense thin metallic films was demonstrated by the coating of ITO glass.

  15. Entrapment of platelets in the penis during and after erection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.; Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Jacobs, D.J.; Maree, M.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the development of hypercoagulability and the deposition of fibrin in the penis during erection a study of the possible role of platelets in this process was undertaken. Platelets response was studied in 9 adult chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) using autologous in vitro indium-111-labelled platelets and sequential scintigraphy of the penis during erection. The blood pooling pattern was obtained using in vivo technetium-99m-labelled red cells in a similar investigation. A statistically significant retention of platelets occured during and after erection, wich could not be attributed to blood pooling (P < 0,05). Entrapment of platelets could lead to enhanced activation, and might play a significant role in hypercoagulability and fibrin deposition during erection. Therefore platelets could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of ageing impotence

  16. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Bo, Maolin [Yangtze Normal University, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing 408100 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O{sup 2−} lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta{sup +} electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta{sup +}; the sp{sup 3}-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent

  17. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yongling; Bo, Maolin; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yonghui; Sun, Chang Q.; Huang, Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O"2"− lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta"+ electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta"+; the sp"3-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent insight into the

  18. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  19. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  20. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  1. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality...... for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates....

  2. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  3. [Depression status of academic high school students in Seoul: mediating role of entrapment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joo; Shin, Nah-Mee; Han, Kuem-Sun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Cheon, Sook-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2011-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate the status of depression in academic high school students and path analysis model for exploring the mediating role of entrapment to depression in relation to academic stress and perceived social support. Measurements were four reliable questionnaires measuring academic stress, social support, entrapment, and depression. Data were collected from students in 17 high schools in Seoul. Students (n=5,346) completing the questionnaires indicated depression & entrapment from academic stress. Depression was more prevalent in girls, those whose parents' household income was less than two million won, who did not live with father or mother or both due to divorce, separation, or death, and those who smoked or used alcohol. Entrapment was more prevalent in students similar to cases of depression and in seniors. According to the proposed path model, 48.6% of depression was explained by academic stress, social support, and entrapment. The indirect effect of entrapment as a mediator between academic stress and depression was verified and larger than the direct effect of academic stress on depression. Considering levels of depression and entrapment demonstrated by these students, better mental health programs with diverse strategies should be developed for their psychological well-being.

  4. The infertility trap: how defeat and entrapment affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J

    2016-02-01

    Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in

  5. Fish entrapment of the seawater intake of a power plant at Karachi coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, M.; Niaz Risvi, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with the entrapment of fishes in the intake of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 62 species of marine fishes belonging to 43 genera were observed entrapped in the seawater intake. Therapon puta, Liza waigiensis, Abudefduf septemfasciatus, and Lagoceptalus inermis were the most common. Mass mortalities of the juveniles of Sardinella sindensis were recorded in September and October of 1974, 1975, and 1977. Commercially important fishes such as sardines, mullets and anchovies, were entrapped in the intake of the power plant in considerable numbers at various times of the year. The majority of fishes removed from the screen washes of the power plants were killed by impingement. (Auth.)

  6. Sorption of chrysoidine by row cork and cork entrapped in calcium alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria M. Nurchi

    2014-01-01

    The influence on the sorption of pH, initial dye concentration, and particle size, as well as the efficiency of the entrapment, have been investigated. The maximum sorption was found for cork samples of fine particle size (FC, in both row and entrapped forms, at pH 7; conversely, at pH 4 the difference is significant (0.12 mmol/g for row cork and 0.20 mmol/g for entrapped cork, evoking a cooperation of alginate in binding the positively charged chrysoidine molecule.

  7. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical Evaluation of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in a Patient with Paraplegia and Immobilization Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Masala, Salvatore; Calabria, Eros; Nezzo, Marco; De Vivo, Dominique; Neroni, Luca; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We will discuss a potential role of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the management of a patient with immobilization syndrome due to paraplegia and vertebral osteoporotic fractures. While PVP is commonly used for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures, its role in vertebral stabilization in patient with immobilization syndrome has not been reported in the literature. A 73-year-old woman affected by immobilization syndrome due to paraplegia and vertebra...

  9. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  10. Goldenhar Syndrome in Association with Duane Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U D Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome (GHS is also known as Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral (OAV syndrome or Branchial arch syndrome. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital disorder of ocular motility characterized by limited abduction, adduction or both. It is unilateral in 80% of cases. The important and interesting part of this eight months old child is presence of GHS with DRS. She has bilateral invol-vement, which is seen in only 5-8% of GHS, as compared to high incidence of unilateral involve-ment. This child also had refractive error of + 6.00/ - 1.5 * 180. At four year of age her vision with glass was 6/9. Children with GHS and DRS should have early eye examination done to treat the problem of refractive error. Keywords: Duane retraction syndrome; goldenhar syndrome, refractive error.

  11. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  12. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: Part 2. Upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-02-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  13. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: Part 2. Upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Kim, Seung Min; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  14. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. VINTILA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  15. A BOD monitoring disposable reactor with alginate-entrapped bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Patricio; Acevedo, Cristian A; Albornoz, Fernando; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Valdés, Erika; Galindo, Raúl; Young, Manuel E

    2010-10-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen that is required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds in 5 days. New biosensor-based methods have been conducted for a faster determination of BOD. In this study, a mathematical model to evaluate the feasibility of using a BOD sensor, based on disposable alginate-entrapped bacteria, for monitoring BOD in situ was applied. The model considers the influences of alginate bead size and bacterial concentration. The disposable biosensor can be adapted according to specific requirements depending on the organic load contained in the wastewater. Using Klein and Washausen parameter in a Lineweaver-Burk plot, the glucose diffusivity was calculated in 6.4 × 10(-10) (m2/s) for beads of 1 mm in diameter and slight diffusion restrictions were observed (n = 0.85). Experimental results showed a correlation (p < 0.05) between the respirometric peak and the standard BOD test. The biosensor response was representative of BOD.

  16. Uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in polyester foam beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.M.; Shemsi, A.M.; Akhtar, K.; Anwar, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanism of uranium biosorption by resting cells of Trichoderma harzianum was studied at pH 4.5. Time-dependent uptake of uranium by Trichoderma harzianum was also determined. Various cations (Na, K, Ca and Fe, etc.) were found to affect the adsorption capability of these cells. Different theoretical thermodynamic models governing the adsorption behavior of uranium were also tested and it was found to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The constants of Freundlich adsorption isotherm A and 1/n were found to be 1.5 x 10 -6 mole/g and 0.31 respectively. Dubinin Radushkevich equation was tested and the maximum adsorption capacity (X m ) of Trichoderma harzianum and sorption energy (E s ) for the ion exchange process computed. Data of uranium sorption were also examined using Weber Morris's equation. The upscaling of uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in commercial foam (polyesters) was carried out in glass columns. It was found to recover more than 85% of the total uranium present in bacterial leachate

  17. Intracellular fate of Ureaplasma parvum entrapped by host cellular autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiumi, Fumiko; Ogawa, Michinaga; Nakura, Yukiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitobe, Jiro; Hiraide, Atsushi; Sakai, Norio; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2017-06-01

    Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr. After 3 hr of infection, U. parvum induced the cytosolic accumulation of galectin-3 and was subsequently entrapped by the autophagy marker LC3. However, when using atg7 -/- MEF cells, autophagy was inadequate for the complete elimination of U. parvum in HeLa cells. U. parvum also colocalized with the recycling endosome marker Rab11. Furthermore, the exosomes purified from infected HeLa cell culture medium included U. parvum. In these purified exosomes ureaplasma lipoprotein multiple banded antigen, host cellular annexin A2, CD9, and CD63 were detected. This research has successfully shown that Ureaplasma spp. utilize the host cellular membrane compartments possibly to evade the host immune system. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  19. Improving the performance of electrochemical microsensors based on enzymes entrapped in a redox hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitala, J.J.; Michael, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Microsensors based on carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with enzyme-entrapping redox hydrogels facilitate the in vivo detection of substances of interest within the central nervous system, including hydrogen peroxide, glucose, choline and glutamate. The hydrogel, formed by cross-linking a redox polymer, entraps the enzymes and mediates electron transfer between the enzymes and the electrode. It is important that the enzymes are entrapped in their enzymatically active state. Should entrapment cause enzyme denaturation, the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor may be compromised. Synthesis of the redox polymer according to published procedures may yield a product that precipitates when added to aqueous enzyme solutions. Casting hydrogels from solutions that contain the precipitate produces microsensors with low sensitivity and selectivity, suggesting that the precipitation disrupts the structure of the enzymes. Herein, we show that a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), can prevent the precipitation and improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors

  20. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, E; Harling, S; Ludwig, F; Menzel, H; Schilling, M

    2008-05-21

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network.

  1. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, E; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Harling, S; Menzel, H [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: e.heim@tu-bs.de

    2008-05-21

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network.

  2. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, E; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M; Harling, S; Menzel, H

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network

  3. Medullar compression caused by vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Catling, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    This is case of a 41 years old feminine patient in whom a unique primary bone tumor injury was demonstrated, diagnosed as a bone hemangioma, located at T-7, with grew and compressed the spinal cord. These bone vascular and frequently observed in the radiological studies and autopsies, in a sporadic form are only symptomatic, growing and affecting the nervous roots and the spinal cord. The clinical history of the patient is described with the preoperative studies and magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery: The medical literature of these primary bony injuries is reviewed and as they are treated. Objectives: to present the clinical history of a patient who consults having medullar compression syndrome caused by an unusual extra-medullar tumor injury, of bony origin, primary and benign, with clinical controls 8 years after the operation and without evidence of tumor recurrences. The medical literature of this bone pathology is reviewed. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was treated surgically successfully, because spinal cord was decompressed without neurological sequels. Vertebral instability was not observed and nor diagnosed. The patient was periodically taken care of with last control of magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery and last medical control 8 years later. Medical publications are extensively reviewed

  4. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  5. Orbital Floor Fracture with Atypical Extraocular Muscle Entrapment Pattern and Intraoperative Asystole in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Farhan I.; Grant, Michael P.; Mahoney, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscle entrapment in a nondisplaced orbital fracture, although a well-known entity in pediatric trauma, is atypical in adults. It can present with a triad of bradycardia, nausea, and in rare cases, syncope, and result in severe fibrosis of damaged and incarcerated muscle. We present a case of muscle entrapment in a partially nondisplaced two-wall orbital fracture with accompanying preoperative bradycardia and intraoperative asystole in an adult PMID:26576246

  6. Medial collateral ligament tear entrapped within a proximal tibial physeal separation: imaging findings and operative reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAnally, James L.; Eberhardt, Steven C.; Mlady, Gary W. [University of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitzpatrick, Jennifer; Bosch, Patrick [University of New Mexico, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Entrapped soft tissues such as periosteum and tendons have been described within joints and physeal fractures in the literature and frequently result in irreducible fractures and posttraumatic growth disturbances. We believe this case represents a novel presentation of acute, preoperative, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging diagnosis of a torn medial collateral ligament entrapped within a proximal tibial physeal separation. This case is presented with MR imaging and operative correlation of the findings. (orig.)

  7. Medial collateral ligament tear entrapped within a proximal tibial physeal separation: imaging findings and operative reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAnally, James L.; Eberhardt, Steven C.; Mlady, Gary W.; Fitzpatrick, Jennifer; Bosch, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Entrapped soft tissues such as periosteum and tendons have been described within joints and physeal fractures in the literature and frequently result in irreducible fractures and posttraumatic growth disturbances. We believe this case represents a novel presentation of acute, preoperative, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging diagnosis of a torn medial collateral ligament entrapped within a proximal tibial physeal separation. This case is presented with MR imaging and operative correlation of the findings. (orig.)

  8. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizeau Sébastien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  9. Robinow syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Robinow syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive mesomelic dwarfism with just more than 100 cases reported in the literature so far. The lower extremity is spared with skeletal deformity usually confined to the forearm, hand, and the dorsal spine. Diagnosis is made easily in the early childhood by the typical "fetal facies" appearance, which disappears to a certain extent as the patient grows. The author reports two cases of this entity with vertebral segmentation defects, rib fusion, and typical severe brachymelia and facial features.

  10. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  11. Rare vertebral metastasis in a case of Hereditary Paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Manuel Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paragangliomas are rare tumours with a prevalence of 1/10000 to 1/30000. Tumors arising from the paraganglia are characteristically of low malignant potential. Vertebral metastases are exceedingly rare, and only isolated case reports have described them. The authors present the clinical course of a 47 years-old female patient with a familial paraganglioma [PGL] with vertebral metastastization, who underwent an intralesional tumor excision and corpectomy. Genetic screening demonstrated a new germinal frameshift mutation of the SDHB exon 6 [c.587-591DelC]. After surgery there was normalization of the analytical parameters and imagiologic screening. One year later she presented a new image in the the pedicle of T11 on the contralateral side of the surgical incision. She performed 2 treatments with MIBG and 1 cicle of radiotherapy that made the new lesion regress. Currently the patient does not present any clinical or analytical evidence of new metastasis. This case outlines the clinical course of a patient with a PGL syndrome for whom a rare vertebral metastasis was diagnosed. It highlights the importance of identifying patients with germline SDHB mutations, as these patients are at a high risk of developing malignant disease.

  12. Entrapped victims in motor vehicle collisions: characteristics and prehospital care in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rogério Navarro Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the severity of trauma in entrapped victims and to identify risk factors for mortality and morbidity. INTRODUCTION: Triage and rapid assessment of trauma severity is essential to provide the needed resources during prehospital and hospital phases and for outcome prediction. It is expected that entrapped victims will have greater severity of trauma and mortality than non-entrapped subjects. METHODS: A transverse, case-control, retrospective study of 1203 victims of motor vehicle collisions treated during 1 year by the prehospital service in São Paulo, Brazil was carried out. All patients were drivers, comprising 401 entrapped victims (33.3% and 802 non-entrapped consecutive controls (66.7%. Sex, age, mortality rates, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, corporal segments, timing of the prehospital care and resource use were compared between the groups. The results were analysed by χ2, Zres, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: Entrapped victims were predominantly men (84.8%, aged 32±13.1 years, with immediate mortality of 10.2% and overall mortality of 11.7%. They had a probability of death at the scene 8.2 times greater than that of non-entrapped victims. The main cause of death was hemorrhage for entrapped victims (45.2% and trauma for non-entrapped victims. Of the entrapped victims who survived, 18.7% had a severe GCS (OR = 10.62, 12% a severe RTS (OR = 9.78 and 23.7% were in shock (OR = 3.38. Entrapped victims were more commonly transported to advanced life support units and to tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSION: Entrapped victims had greater trauma severity, more blood loss and a greater mortality than respective, non-entrapped controls.

  13. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  14. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  15. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasa D; Schiopu M; Tunas A; Baz R; Hancu Anca

    2016-01-01

    An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification) at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10) the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2....

  16. Hemifacial spasm; The value of vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hak Seok; Kim, Myung Soon; Han, Yong Pyo

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of vertebral angiography in assesment of hemifacial spasm, We reviewed retrospectively the vertebral angiography of 28 patients (30 cases) with surgically proved hemifacial spasm but normal CT scans of posterior fossa. There were 9 males and 19 females. Angiography revealed vascular focus of hemifacial spasm located at anterior inferior cerebellar artery , posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and vertebral artery in 19, 9, and 2 cases respectively. Right side was involved in 20 cases. All involved vessels were elongated, tortuous, and dilated. In conclusion, vertebral angiography was valuable in evaluating hemifacial spasm of vascular origin in the posterior fossa

  17. Novel use of pleural ultrasound can identify malignant entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Matthew R; Lo, Ada K C; Ng, Arnold C T; Bashirzadeh, Farzad; Wang, William Y S; Fielding, David I K

    2014-11-01

    The presence of entrapped lung changes the appropriate management of malignant pleural effusion from pleurodesis to insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter. No methods currently exist to identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage. Our objectives were to develop a method to identify entrapped lung using tissue movement and deformation (strain) analysis with ultrasonography and compare it to the existing technique of pleural elastance (PEL). Prior to drainage, 81 patients with suspected malignant pleural effusion underwent thoracic ultrasound using an echocardiogram machine. Images of the atelectatic lower lobe were acquired during breath hold, allowing motion and strain related to the cardiac impulse to be analyzed using motion mode (M mode) and speckle-tracking imaging, respectively. PEL was measured during effusion drainage. The gold-standard diagnosis of entrapped lung was the consensus opinion of two interventional pulmonologists according to postdrainage imaging. Participants were randomly divided into development and validation sets. Both total movement and strain were significantly reduced in entrapped lung. Using data from the development set, the area under the receiver-operating curves for the diagnosis of entrapped lung was 0.86 (speckle tracking), 0.79 (M mode), and 0.69 (PEL). Using respective cutoffs of 6%, 1 mm, and 19 cm H2O on the validation set, the sensitivity/specificity was 71%/85% (speckle tracking), 50%/85% (M mode), and 40%/100% (PEL). This novel ultrasound technique can identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage, which could allow appropriate choice of definitive management (pleurodesis vs indwelling catheter), reducing the number of interventions required to treat malignant pleural effusion.

  18. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronze-Uhle ES

    2016-12-01

    chemical morphology characterization and in vitro release studies indicated the potential use of these NPs as drug carriers in biological systems requiring a fast release of SA. Keywords: albumin nanoparticles, drug delivery, salicylic acid entrapped, nano-carriers

  19. A case of piriformis syndrome presenting as radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammurthy Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis syndrome has always remained as a diagnostic dilemma because of its varied presentation. Piriformis syndrome is myofascial dysfunction syndrome which causes pain not only because of trigger points within the muscle but also due to peripheral neuritis of the sciatic nerve. The sciatic neuritis is due to compression of the nerve as it passes through the greater sciatic foramen. The symptoms of sciatic nerve entrapment caused by the piriformis syndrome can be easily mistaken for radiculopathy as the nerve entrapment causes pain which radiates down below the knee and can go up to the foot. Electromyography (EMG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV studies can help differentiating these two conditions and can eliminate the need for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this paper, we have reported a case of piriformis syndrome which mimicked S 1 radiculopathy, where diagnosis was confirmed by diagnostic piriformis injection.

  20. Origin and Distribution of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Alpine Proglacial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biqing; Schroth, Martin H.; Henneberger, Ruth; Kübler, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing in recent years, which is caused by imbalance between sources and sinks. Methane has been recently discovered to be entrapped in calcareous Swiss Alpine proglacial soil. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact and acidification. However, the amount, distribution and environmental fate of this entrapped CH4 in proglacial environment remain unknown. The entrapped CH4 in proglacial soil may be of modern or ancient origin. Modern origin includes ongoing or recent microbial CH4 production (methanogenesis) in subglacial or proglacial environments. An ancient origin mainly refers to CH4 produced thermogenically. This soil entrapped CH4 might be a common phenomenon along the entire glacial forefield, or it might only be present at few locations and depth. We present results of studies from two Swiss Alpine Glacier catchments, Wildstrubel Glacier (Canton Valais) and the Griessfirn Glacier (Canton Uri). Our main goals were 1) to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in various glacial environments (subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial, soil and bedrocks) using geochemical and microbiological evidence; 2) to assess the spatial distribution of entrapped CH4. We performed geochemical analysis (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkane ratio), CH4 stable 13C- and 2H-isotopes, TOC) on subglacial, proglacial, and supraglacial soil samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations. Geochemical analysis was also selectively conducted on pore-water samples and on rock samples collected from different geological formations along the catchments. We also performed batch incubations on soil samples collected from subglacial, proglacial water-logged and supraglacial zones. In addition, for the aforementioned three types of samples, we also performed molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase

  1. Entrapment of Probiotics in Water Extractable Arabinoxylan Gels: Rheological and Microstructural Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales-Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their porous structure, aqueous environment and dietary fiber nature arabinoxylan (AX gels could have potential applications for colon-specific therapeutic molecule delivery. In addition, prebiotic and health related effects of AX have been previously demonstrated. It has been also reported that cross-linked AX can be degraded by bacteria from the intestinal microbiota. However, AX gels have not been abundantly studied as carrier systems and there is no information available concerning their capability to entrap cells. In this regard, probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium longum have been the focus of intense research activity lately. The objective of this research was to investigate the entrapment of probiotic B. longum in AX gels. AX solution at 2% (w/v containing B. longum (1 × 107 CFU/cm formed gels induced by laccase as cross-linking agent. The entrapment of B. longum decreased gel elasticity from 31 to 23 Pa, probably by affecting the physical interactions taking place between WEAX chains. Images of AX gels containing B. longum viewed under a scanning electron microscope show the gel network with the bacterial cells entrapped inside. The microstructure of these gels resembles that of an imperfect honeycomb. The results suggest that AX gels can be potential candidates for the entrapment of probiotics.

  2. Light-Regulated Release of Entrapped Drugs from Photoresponsive Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniknun Sreejivungsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of a payload in a spatiotemporal fashion has a substantial impact on increasing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, a novel monolayer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs featuring light-responsive ligands was investigated as a potential drug carrier whose drug release can be triggered by UV light. Hydrophobic molecules were noncovalently entrapped in the compartments of its monolayers. Once irradiated with UV light, the dinitrobenzyl linker was cleaved, leading to release of the entrapped agent. AuNPs were characterized using UV spectrophotometry, TEM, and a zetasizer. A naturally occurring compound extracted from Goniothalamus elegans Ast was chosen as a hydrophobic model drug. Entrapment and release of dye were monitored using fluorimetry. The percent encapsulation of dye was of 13.53%. Entrapped dye can be released upon UV irradiation and can be regulated by changing irradiation time. Up to 83.95±2.2% entrapped dye can be released after irradiation for 20 minutes. In the absence of UV light, dye release was only 19.75%. For comparison purposes, AuNPs having no dinitrobenzyl groups showed a minimal release of 12.23% and 11.69% with and without UV light, respectively. This demonstrated an alternative strategy to encapsulate drugs using a noncovalent approach followed by their controlled release upon UV irradiation.

  3. No Way Out: Entrapment as a Moderator of Suicide Ideation Among Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Leah; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Fruchter, Eyal; Santo, Yoav; Dahan, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading and growing cause of death in the military during peacetime. This study sought to examine the psychological mechanisms relating to entrapment, stress, and psychological protective factors facilitating suicide ideation among military personnel. The study population comprised 168 soldiers (aged 18-21) divided into 3 groups: suicide attempters (n = 58), those receiving treatment by a mental health professional, reporting no suicidal behavior (n = 58), and controls (n = 50). In general, the suicidal group scored higher than the 2 other groups in stress levels and entrapment but lower than the other 2 groups in perceived problem-solving abilities and perceived social support. Moreover, the interaction of stress and entrapment predict suicide ideation beyond stress, protective factors, and entrapment alone. Entrapment is an important predictor of suicide ideation and can serve as a moderator, in that its presence may exacerbate the harsh situation of subjective stress within the military context and intensify it into a suicide risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  5. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Johnathan; Abel, Mark F.; Fox, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery. (orig.)

  6. Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Sato, Yuji; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Hsueh, Kesyin; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2011-03-01

    Bioactive compounds [ferulic acid (F), gamma-oryzanol (O) and phytic acid (P)] in rice bran have been widely used as antioxidants in skin care products. However, one of the major problems of antioxidants is the deterioration of their activities during long exposure to air and light. Niosomes have been used to entrap many degradable active agents not only for stability improvement, but also for increasing skin hydration. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes. Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively. This study has demonstrated the antioxidant activities and skin hydration enhancement of the rice bran bioactive compounds when entrapped in niosomes and incorporated in cream formulations.

  7. Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chong; Meng Qin; Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus

    2009-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 μM which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 μM. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to β-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

  8. Homenaje a la columna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Brodsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exiliado en Estados Unidos desde comienzos de la década del setenta, el poeta ruso Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996, adquiere en 1977 la nacionalidad norteamericana. Al año siguiente, una década antes de recibir el Premio Nobel, asiste como miembro de la delegación de Estados Unidos a una reunión internacional del PEN Club, en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, reunión a la que asiste también Mario Vargas Llosa. "Homenaje a la columna vertebral" es la crónica de esa experiencia y de su primera y probablemente única visita a Latinoamérica.

  9. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  10. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  11. Imaging of vertebral fracture in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Jozwiak, E.; Lewinski, A.; Bieganski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral collapses are the most frequent fractures in osteoporosis. They are often overlooked, although their presence is a strong risk factor for development of new fractures. Lateral radiographs of the spine are the accepted standard for assessment of fractures. Qualitative (visual), semiquantitative and quantitative (morphometric) techniques are useful in determining the compressive deformities of vertebral bodies. In the present paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of these methods are discussed. The improvement of scan quality allows to use DXA technique to diagnose the fractures, in both - the visual and the morphometric way. The vertebral morphologic assessment also seems to be an important diagnostic tool in pediatric osteoporosis. Application of multidetector CT and especially MR in vertebral imaging of osteoporosis, improves the sensitivity of fracture detection and enables the differentiation of benign from malignant vertebral body collapses. (author)

  12. Entrapment of Guide Wire in an Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A Technique for Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel; Saddekni, Souheil; Hamed, Maysoon Farouk; Fitzpatrick, Farley

    2013-01-01

    Entrapment of a central venous catheter (CVC) guide wire in an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a rare, but reported complication during CVC placement. With the increasing use of vena cava filters (VCFs), this number will most likely continue to grow. The consequences of this complication can be serious, as continued traction upon the guide wire may result in filter dislodgement and migration, filter fracture, or injury to the IVC. We describe a case in which a J-tipped guide wire introduced through a left subclavian access without fluoroscopic guidance during CVC placement was entrapped at the apex of an IVC filter. We describe a technique that we used successfully in removing the entrapped wire through the left subclavian access site. We also present simple useful recommendations to prevent this complication.

  13. Flexible, cathodoluminescent and free standing mesoporous silica films with entrapped quasi-2D perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakopoulou, Anastasia; Papadatos, Dionysios; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    The effective entrapment of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors (HOIS) into mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid matrices, formed as free standing flexible films, is presented for the first time. A blend of quasi-2D HOIS, simply synthesized by mixing two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) HOIS, exhibiting strong photoluminescence, is embedded into porous silica matrices during the sol-gel synthesis, using tetraethylorthosilicate as precursor and Pluronic F-127 triblock copolymer as structure directing agent, under acidic conditions. The final nanostructure hybrid forms flexible, free standing films, presenting high cathodoluminescence and long stable excitonic luminescence, indicating the protective character of the hybrid matrix towards the entrapped perovskite. A significant result is that the photoluminescence of the entrapped HOIS is not affected even after films' prolonged exposure to water.

  14. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I-Ching Kuan; Chia-Chi Lee; Bing-Hong Tsai; Shiow-Ling Lee; Wei-Ting Lee; Chi-Yang Yu [Department of Bioengineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil) and n-hexane content (w/w of oil) were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 deg C or room temperature.

  15. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss...... and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in the mucus...

  16. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  17. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun

    2013-01-01

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  18. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Infor...

  19. Relation between obesity and bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-11-01

    The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study design, we evaluated the associations between obesity or metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) or vertebral fracture. A total of 907 postmenopausal healthy female subjects, aged 60-79 years, were recruited from woman hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. BMD, vetebral fracture, bone markers, and body composition including body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and waist circumference were measured. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total calcium intake, and total energy intake, waist circumference was negatively related to BMD of all sites (lumbar BMD p = 0.037, all sites of femur BMD p related to BMD of all sites (p related to femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0366) and was lower in the control group than the fracture group (p = 0.011). In contrast to the effect favorable body weight on bone mineral density, high percentage body fat and waist circumference are related to low BMD and a vertebral fracture. Some components of metabolic syndrome were related to BMD and a vertebral fracture.

  20. Results from the hydrodynamic element of the 1994 entrapment zone study in Suisun Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, J.R.; Gartner, J.W.; Stacey, M.

    1998-01-01

    The entrapment zo as long been considered an important region of the San Francisco estuary. It has been the subject of several previous studies, and its location has been suggested as an index of condition of the estuarine ecosystem.A close correlate of this location, X2 1, is now used as a management objective on the basis that X2 is correlated with the abundance or survival of several estuarine-dependent species. X2 is a crude tool to use for this purpose, but it can be refined only through improved understanding of the various mechanisms underlying these correlations. These mechanisms probably differ among species, but for species resident in and near the entrapment zone, the correlation with X2 may be due to variations in intenSity oftrapping mechanisms with pOSition of the entrapment zone. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate these trapping mechanisms, the nature of the entrapment zone as habitat, and the responses of the entrapment zone to changes in X2 or outflow from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Studies ofthe entrapment zone ofthe San Francisco estuary have been conducted in springs of 1994, 1995, and 1996. These studies have been funded by the Interagency Ecological Program and conducted by scientists from IEP member agencies, the Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, Bodega Marine Laboratory, and the University of California at Santa Cruz. This report presents results from 1994, a low-flow year. Subsequent reports will describe results from 1995 and 1996 and highlight differences among years. This report is organized in chapters that comprise more-or-Iess independent papers, with an introductory chapter for the entire study. This Executive Summary presents highlights of the overall study plan and summarizes the major findings.

  1. Incidence of tendon entrapment and dislocation with calcaneus and pilon fractures on CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresley, Jonathan [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Subhawong, Ty K.; Singer, Adam D.; Clifford, Paul D. [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To examine the association between tibial pilon and calcaneal fracture classification and tendon entrapment or dislocation. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive CT scans with calcaneal or pilon fractures from 5 years at a level 1 trauma center. We categorized calcaneal fractures according to the Sanders classification, and pilon fractures according to the Ruedi and Allgower and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen-Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classifications. Ankle tendons were assessed for dislocation or entrapment. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. A total of 312 fractures (91 pilon only, 193 calcaneal only, and 14 ankles with ipsilateral pilon and calcaneal fractures) were identified in 273 patients. Twenty-two pilon, 42 calcaneal, and nine combination fractures were associated with 99 occurrences of tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Such findings were associated with multiple fractures (p = 0.002). Multifragmentary pilon fractures were associated with posterior tibial and flexor digitorum longus tendon entrapment (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 for Ruedi/Allgower and AO-OTA, respectively), and multifragmentary Sanders type 3 or 4 calcaneal fractures were associated with superior peroneal retinacular injury (p = 0.0473) compared to simple fracture patterns. Thirty-nine percent of tendon entrapments or retinacular injuries were prospectively identified, 85 % by musculoskeletal radiologists (p < 0.0001). Approximately 25 % of calcaneal and pilon fractures were retrospectively identified to contain posteromedial tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Radiologists should meticulously search for such injuries, particularly when analyzing multifragmentary and multiple fractures. (orig.)

  2. Incidence of tendon entrapment and dislocation with calcaneus and pilon fractures on CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresley, Jonathan; Subhawong, Ty K.; Singer, Adam D.; Clifford, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between tibial pilon and calcaneal fracture classification and tendon entrapment or dislocation. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive CT scans with calcaneal or pilon fractures from 5 years at a level 1 trauma center. We categorized calcaneal fractures according to the Sanders classification, and pilon fractures according to the Ruedi and Allgower and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen-Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classifications. Ankle tendons were assessed for dislocation or entrapment. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. A total of 312 fractures (91 pilon only, 193 calcaneal only, and 14 ankles with ipsilateral pilon and calcaneal fractures) were identified in 273 patients. Twenty-two pilon, 42 calcaneal, and nine combination fractures were associated with 99 occurrences of tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Such findings were associated with multiple fractures (p = 0.002). Multifragmentary pilon fractures were associated with posterior tibial and flexor digitorum longus tendon entrapment (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 for Ruedi/Allgower and AO-OTA, respectively), and multifragmentary Sanders type 3 or 4 calcaneal fractures were associated with superior peroneal retinacular injury (p = 0.0473) compared to simple fracture patterns. Thirty-nine percent of tendon entrapments or retinacular injuries were prospectively identified, 85 % by musculoskeletal radiologists (p < 0.0001). Approximately 25 % of calcaneal and pilon fractures were retrospectively identified to contain posteromedial tendon entrapment or superior peroneal retinacular injury. Radiologists should meticulously search for such injuries, particularly when analyzing multifragmentary and multiple fractures. (orig.)

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of gel containing novel elastic niosomes entrapped with diclofenac diethylammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, A; Jantrawut, P; Manosroi, J

    2008-08-06

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel elastic bilayer vesicle entrapped with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac diethylammonium (DCFD) for topical use. Eighteen bilayer vesicular formulations composing of DPPC or Tween 61 or Span 60 mixed with cholesterol (at 1:1, 3:7 and 1:1 molar ratios, respectively) and ethanol at 0-25% (v/v), by chloroform film method with sonication were developed. The elastic Tween 61 niosomes which gave no sedimentation, no layer separation, unchanged particle sizes (about 200 nm) were selected to entrap DCFD. The entrapment efficiency of the drug in the conventional and elastic Tween 61 niosomes was 65 and 93%, respectively. At least 87% of DCFD determined by HPLC remained in elastic Tween 61 niosomes when kept at 4, 27 and 45 degrees C for 3 months. The deformability index values of the elastic niosomes were 13.76 and 3.44 times higher than the conventional niosomes entrapped and not entrapped with the drug, respectively, indicating the higher flexibility of the elastic vesicle especially, when entrapped with the drug. Transdermal absorption through excised rat skin was performed by vertical Franz diffusion cell at 32+/-2 degrees C for 6h. Gel containing elastic niosomes exhibited fluxes of DCFD in the stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layer (viable epidermis and dermis, VED) and receiver chamber at 191.27+/-9.52, 16.97+/-2.77 and 3.76+/-0.54 microg/(cm2 h), whereas the commercial emulgel, containing an equivalent DCFD, gave 60.84+/-13.63, 7.33+/-1.70 and 0.14+/-0.01 microg/(cm2 h), respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced rat ear edema (n=3). DCFD entrapped in the developed elastic niosomes and incorporated in gel gave the same ear edema inhibition percentages of 23.81% at 30 min, but 2 and 9 times more inhibition percentages at 45 and 60 min than the commercial emulgel, respectively. This result has not only demonstrated the

  4. Stump entrapment of the anterior cruciate ligament in late childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Laor, Tal; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Displacement of a portion of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) into the intercondylar notch can cause a focal fibrotic reaction similar to that seen following ACL reconstruction. This displacement, which can result in locking or limitation of knee extension, is termed stump entrapment and is described in adult MR imaging literature. We present a pictorial essay of the etiology and appearance of stump entrapment on MR imaging of the knee in an older child and adolescents and review the significance of this finding. (orig.)

  5. Entrapment of the acetabular labrum following reduction of traumatic hip dislocation in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.A. [The Catholic University of Korea Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uijongbu, Kyunggi-Do 480-130 (Korea); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City (United States); Morcuende, J. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Iowa City (United States); El-Khoury, G.Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-12-01

    In traumatic hip dislocation, concentric reduction can be prevented by various causes. Soft-tissue interposition, such as entrapment of the acetabular labrum, is a rare but important cause of failed reduction of a hip. Early diagnosis of incomplete reduction due to interposition of soft tissue is important, because delayed treatment is associated with a greater incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and early onset of osteoarthritis. This report describes a case of acetabular labral entrapment following reduction of traumatic hip dislocation in a child. The importance of CT and MRI in arriving at an early diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  6. Extrinsic mechanism obstructing the opening of a prosthetic mitral valve: an unusual case of suture entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Mehmet; Astarcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Karakoyun, Suleyman; Balkanay, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    Obstruction to a prosthetic cardiac valve is a well-recognized complication of cardiac valve replacement. Malfunction of the mobile component of a prosthetic valve to open or close correctly may occur in consequence of intrinsic or extrinsic causes (thrombus, vegetation, entrapment of left ventricular myocardium, suture entanglement, and pannus formation) that may result prosthetic valve stenosis and/or insufficiency. In the case we report a 48-year-old female with valve dysfunction occurred early after surgery, as one valve leaflet was only able to partially open due to suture entrapment. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The synthesis and the electric-responsiveness of hydrogels entrapping natural polyelectrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutani, Kouichi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao

    2001-01-01

    A mixture of vinyl monomer, a natural polyelectrolyte--hyaluronic acid--and crosslinker was polymerized and crosslinked to entrap the natural polymer into the synthetic gel. The controlled release of the model drug from the obtained gel was studied under the on-off switching of electric field. It was proved that electric-responsive drug releases were possible using hyaluronic acid entrapping gel and the electro-responsiveness was greatly affected by various factors such as degree of swelling, crosslinking density, kind and composition of vinyl monomer and crosslinkers

  8. The synthesis and the electric-responsiveness of hydrogels entrapping natural polyelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutani, Kouichi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao

    2001-04-01

    A mixture of vinyl monomer, a natural polyelectrolyte—hyaluronic acid—and crosslinker was polymerized and crosslinked to entrap the natural polymer into the synthetic gel. The controlled release of the model drug from the obtained gel was studied under the on-off switching of electric field. It was proved that electric-responsive drug releases were possible using hyaluronic acid entrapping gel and the electro-responsiveness was greatly affected by various factors such as degree of swelling, crosslinking density, kind and composition of vinyl monomer and crosslinkers.

  9. Entrapment of the acetabular labrum following reduction of traumatic hip dislocation in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K.A.; Morcuende, J.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In traumatic hip dislocation, concentric reduction can be prevented by various causes. Soft-tissue interposition, such as entrapment of the acetabular labrum, is a rare but important cause of failed reduction of a hip. Early diagnosis of incomplete reduction due to interposition of soft tissue is important, because delayed treatment is associated with a greater incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and early onset of osteoarthritis. This report describes a case of acetabular labral entrapment following reduction of traumatic hip dislocation in a child. The importance of CT and MRI in arriving at an early diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  10. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  11. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  12. Imaging assessment of vertebral burst fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianlin; Liang Lihua; Wang Yujia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of radiography, CT and MRI in diagnosis of vertebral burst fracture. Methods: 51 patients with vertebral burst fracture were evaluated with X-ray, CT and MRI, including 3 cases in cervical vertebra, 18 cases in thoracic vertebra, and 30 cases in lumbar vertebra. The imaging features were comparatively studied. Results: Radiography showed decreased height of the vertebral body, increased antero-posterior diameter and the transverse diameter, and/or the widened interpedicle distance, the inter-spinous distance, as well as the bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal in 28 cases(54.90%). X-ray findings similar to the compression fracture were revealed in 20 cases(39.21%). And missed diagnosis was made in 3 cases (5.88%). CT clearly demon-strated the vertebral body vertically or transversely burst crack in 49 cases (96.07%); bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal and narrowed vertebral canal in 35 cases(68. 62% ); fracture of spinal appendix in 22 cases(43.14%). Meanwhile MRI showed abnormal signals within the spinal cord in 35 cases (68.62%),injured intervertebral disk in 29 cases(56.86% ), extradural hematoma in 12 cases(23.52% ) and torn posterior longitudinal ligament in 6 cases (11.76%). Conclusions: Radiography is the routine examination, while with limited diagnostic value in vertebral burst fracture. These patients who have nervous symptoms with simple compression fracture or unremarkable on X-ray should receive the CT or MRI examination. CT is better than MRI in demonstrating the fracture and the displaced bony fragment, while MRI is superior to CT in showing nervous injuries. CT and MRI will provide comprehensive information guiding clinical treatment of vertebral burst fracture. (authors)

  13. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  14. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  15. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  16. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  17. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... associated with traumatic injury, often a penetrating wound inflicted by dirty ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- .... back pains and swelling as in our patient.9 There are usually no ... The cervical and.

  19. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  20. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song; Shimai, Kotaro; Lu, Tsai-Ming; Li, Fang; Fujimoto, Satoko; Ishikawa, Masato; Liu, Shiping; Sasagawa, Yohei; Zhang, Guojie; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yu, Jr-Kai; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Khaitovich, Philipp; Irie, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages that pattern the bodyplan (the phylotype hypothesis); however, there has been no quantitative testing of this idea with a phylum-wide comparison of species. Here, based on data from early-to-late embryonic transcriptomes collected from eight chordates, we suggest that the phylotype hypothesis would be better applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates.

  1. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  2. Nanoparticles with entrapped α-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela; Astete, Carlos Ernesto; Sabliov, Cristina Mirela

    2008-01-01

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped α-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of α-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of α-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% α-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the α-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% α-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% α-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  3. Entrapped air bubbles in piezo-driven inkjet printing: their effect on the droplet velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Borel, H.; Berg, van den M.; Versluis, M.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.; Prosperetti, A.; Reinten, H.; Lohse, D.

    2006-01-01

    Air bubbles entrapped in the ink channel are a major problem in piezo-driven inkjet printing. They grow by rectified diffusion and eventually counteract the pressure buildup at the nozzle, leading to a breakdown of the jetting process. Experimental results on the droplet velocity udrop as a function

  4. Entrapped air bubbles in piezo-driven inkjet printing: Their effect on the droplet velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Borel, Huub; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Versluis, Michel; Wijshoff, H.; Reinten, Hans; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Air bubbles entrapped in the ink channel are a major problem in piezo-driven inkjet printing. They grow by rectified diffusion and eventually counteract the pressure buildup at the nozzle, leading to a breakdown of the jetting process. Experimental results on the droplet velocity udrop as a function

  5. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  6. Side-branch wire entrapment during bifurcation PCI: avoidance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Andrew T; Gutman, Jack; Whitbourn, Rob

    2010-02-15

    An LAD/D1 bifurcation intervention was complicated by side-branch wire entrapment and unravelling requiring goose-neck snare removal. Residual microfilaments were retrieved from the main branch after further balloon inflations with a satisfactory final angiographic result and one-year follow-up. Various methods are available to avoid and deal with this complication.

  7. Defeat and entrapment as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation versus hopelessness and helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 140 undergraduate students, measures of defeat and entrapment and of haplessness, helplessness, and hopelessness were similar in their ability to predict depression and suicidality. It was concluded that the two sets of measures may tap the same cognitive mind set.

  8. The Role of Defeat and Entrapment in Depression, Anxiety, and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia; Wood, Alex M.; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Defeat and entrapment are psychological constructs that have played a central role in evolutionary accounts of depression. These concepts have since been implicated in theoretical accounts of anxiety disorders and suicidality. The current article reports on a systematic review of the existing research investigating the links among defeat,…

  9. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  10. Prospective Predictors of Suicidality: Defeat and Entrapment Lead to Changes in Suicidal Ideation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia A.; Wood, Alex M.; Johnson, Judith; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives into suicidality have suggested that heightened perceptions of defeat and entrapment lead to suicidality. However, all previous empirical work has been cross-sectional. We provide the first longitudinal test of the theoretical predictions, in a sample of 79 students who reported suicidality. Participants completed…

  11. Hormonally active phytochemicals and vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R; Edwards, Thea M

    2017-06-01

    Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness. We lay out several hypotheses about HAPs and provide a path forward to test whether plant-derived chemicals influence vertebrate reproduction and evolution. Studies of phytochemicals with direct impacts on vertebrate reproduction provide an obvious and compelling system for studying evolutionary toxicology. Furthermore, an understanding of whether animal populations evolve in response to HAPs could provide insightful context for the study of rapid evolution and how animals cope with chemical agents in the environment.

  12. CT study of vertebral metastasis: re-realization of the diagnostic role of the vertebral pedicle sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Jiang Bo; Chen Yingming; Zhang Chaohui

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the essence of the vertebral pedicle sign of vertebral metastasis on plain film, and to explore the useful CT signs for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods: The CT scans of the spine obtained in 48 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients with vertebral tuberculosis, and 11 with vertebral myeloma, were analyzed. The CT findings were correlated with the abnormalities seen on plain films in 34 of the 48 patients (66 vertebrae involved) with vertebral metastasis. Results: 66 vertebrae were involved in the group of metastasis. Of the 28 vertebrae whose vertebral body were completely destroyed, 15 were seen bilateral pedicles destruction; Of the 22 vertebrae with lateral destruction of the body, 16 were noticed unilateral pedicle destruction which located posterior to the involved side of the body. Of the 62 micro-metastatic foci, 56 were scattered in the vertebral body. In the 19 para-spinal soft-tissue masses of vertebral tuberculosis, 5 were noticed calcifications and 12 with postcontrast rings enhancement. The rates of vertebral pedicle destruction of vertebral metastasis and myeloma were not statistically different (X 2 = 0.03, P > 0.50). The locations of destruction of vertebral body in vertebral metastasis and myeloma had no statistical difference (X 2 = 3.52, P > 0.10), but they differed from that in tuberculosis (X 2 = 39.32, P < 0.001). The distribution of lesions within the vertebrae of metastasis and tuberculosis was similar, but was quite different from myeloma. Conclusion: The vertebral metastasis initially occurs in the vertebral body. The vertebral pedicle sign on plain film of vertebral metastasis is the outcome of the posterior invasion of the tumor in the vertebral body, which is of no differential significance for vertebral metastasis and myeloma. Para-spinal soft tissue mass, location of destruction of vertebral body, and the distribution of lesions within the vertebrae may help

  13. Liposome Entrapment of Bacteriophages Improves Wound Healing in a Diabetic Mouse MRSA Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chhibber

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic populations are more prone to developing wound infections which results in poor and delayed wound healing. Infection with drug resistant organisms further worsen the situation, driving searches for alternative treatment approaches such as phage therapy. Major drawback of phage therapy, however, is low phage persistence in situ, suggesting further refinement of the approach. In the present work we address this issue by employing liposomes as delivery vehicles. A liposome entrapped phage cocktail was evaluated for its ability to resolve a Staphylococcus aureus-induced diabetic excission wound infection. Two characterized S. aureus specific lytic phages, MR-5 and MR-10 alone, in combination (cocktail, or entrapped in liposomes (versus as free phages were assesed for their therapeutic efficacy in resolving diabetic wound infection. Mice treated with free phage cocktail showed significant reduction in wound bioburden, greater wound contraction and faster tissue healing than with free monophage therapy. However, to further enhance the availability of viable phages the encapsulation of phage cocktail in the liposomes was done. Results of in vitro stability studies and in vivo phage titer determination, suggests that liposomal entrapment of phage cocktail can lead to better phage persistence at the wound site. A 2 log increase in phage titre, however, was observed at the wound site with liposome entrapped as compared to the free phage cocktail, and this was associaed with increased rates of infection resolution and wound healing. Entrapment of phage cocktails within liposomes thus could represent an attractive approach for treatment of bacterial infections, not responding to antibiotis as increased phage persistence in vitro and in vivo at the wound site was observed.

  14. Rett and ICF syndromes: methylation moves into medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two human genetic disorders, Rett and ICF syndromes, have recently been shown to be ... normally until 6–18 months of age, then gradually loose speech and ... (abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column), vacant stare, severe ...

  15. Oral Rehabilitation for Amniotic Band Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a congenital disorder caused by entrapment of fetal parts in fibrous amniotic bands while in utero. The syndrome is underdiagnosed and its presentation is variable. The syndrome has been well described in the pediatric, orthopedic and obstetric literature; however, despite the discernable craniomaxillofacial involvement, ABS has not been reported in the dental literature very often. The present report describes a case of a patient with ABS and concomitant dental findings. How to cite this article: Hotwani K, Sharma K. Oral Rehabilitation for Amniotic Band Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):55-57.

  16. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zhaohua; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin; Meng Bin; Chen Kangwu; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P 0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P 0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  17. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  18. Defeat and entrapment: more than meets the eye? Applying network analysis to estimate dimensions of highly correlated constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Teismann, Tobias; Stenzel, Jana-Sophie; Glaesmer, Heide; de Beurs, Derek

    2018-01-25

    Defeat and entrapment have been shown to be of central relevance to the development of different disorders. However, it remains unclear whether they represent two distinct constructs or one overall latent variable. One reason for the unclarity is that traditional factor analytic techniques have trouble estimating the right number of clusters in highly correlated data. In this study, we applied a novel approach based on network analysis that can deal with correlated data to establish whether defeat and entrapment are best thought of as one or multiple constructs. Explanatory graph analysis was used to estimate the number of dimensions within the 32 items that make up the defeat and entrapment scales in two samples: an online community sample of 480 participants, and a clinical sample of 147 inpatients admitted to a psychiatric hospital after a suicidal attempt or severe suicidal crisis. Confirmatory Factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the proposed structure fits the data. In both samples, bootstrapped exploratory graph analysis suggested that the defeat and entrapment items belonged to different dimensions. Within the entrapment items, two separate dimensions were detected, labelled internal and external entrapment. Defeat appeared to be multifaceted only in the online sample. When comparing the CFA outcomes of the one, two, three and four factor models, the one factor model was preferred. Defeat and entrapment can be viewed as distinct, yet, highly associated constructs. Thus, although replication is needed, results are in line with theories differentiating between these two constructs.

  19. Anatomical etiology of “pseudo-sciatica” from superior cluneal nerve entrapment: a laboratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Hiroshi Kuniya,1 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Spine & Spinal Cord Surgery, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The superior cluneal nerve (SCN may become entrapped where it pierces the thoracolumbar fascia over the iliac crest; this can cause low back pain (LBP and referred pain radiating into the posterior thigh, calf, and occasionally the foot, producing the condition known as “pseudo-sciatica.” Because the SCN was thought to be a cutaneous branch of the lumbar dorsal rami, originating from the dorsal roots of L1–L3, previous anatomical studies failed to explain why SCN causes “pseudo-sciatica”. The purpose of the present anatomical study was to better elucidate the anatomy and improve the understanding of “pseudo-sciatica” from SCN entrapment. Materials and methods: SCN branches were dissected from their origin to termination in subcutaneous tissue in 16 cadavers (5 male and 11 female with a mean death age of 88 years (range 81–101 years. Special attention was paid to identify SCNs from their emergence from nerve roots and passage through the fascial attachment to the iliac crest. Results: Eighty-one SCN branches were identified originating from T12 to L5 nerve roots with 13 branches passing through the osteofibrous tunnel. These 13 branches originated from L3 (two sides, L4 (six sides, and L5 (five sides. Ten of the 13 branches showed macroscopic entrapment in the tunnel. Conclusion: The majority of SCNs at risk of nerve entrapment originated from the lower lumbar nerve. These anatomical results may explain why patients with SCN entrapment often evince leg pain or tingling that mimics sciatica. Keywords: superior cluneal nerve, entrapment neuropathy, dorsal rami

  20. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael B.; Morgen, Nadine; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph; Drees, Philipp; Boehm, Bertram

    2008-01-01

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) 0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 ± 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 ± 1.9 vs +0.7 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 ± 4.2 vs -0.8 ± 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 ± 0.11 vs +0.01 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 ± 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 ± 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  1. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  2. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  3. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  4. Rapunzel syndrome: The unsuspected culprit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Ezzedien Rabie; Abdul Rahman Arishi; Ashraf Khan; Hussein Ageely; Gaffar Abbas Seif EI-Nasr; Mohammad Fagihi

    2008-01-01

    Trichobezoar is a rare intriguing disorder in which swallowed hairs accumulates in the stomach.Being indigestible and slippery,it could not be propulsed and becomes entrapped within the stomach.Large amounts can thus accumulate over the years forming a hair ball.Rapunzel syndrome is a variant where hair accumulation reaches the small gut and beyond in some cases.Although the syndrome has been known for many years,only 24 cases have been reported in the literature and the discovery of a new case is always surprising.In this report,we present two cases discovered within a period of three months.One of them was pregnant and had small bowel intussusception and perforation,a very rare combination.We hereby add two more cases to the literature.To our knowledge,this is the first report on two cases of Rapunzel syndrome,the diagnosis of which demands a high index of suspicion.

  5. Infarcts presenting with a combination of medial medullary and posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung; Baik, Seung Kug

    2004-09-15

    Cerebellar and medial medullary infarctions are well-known vertebrobasilar stroke syndromes. However, their development in a patient with distal vertebral artery occlusion has not been previously reported. A 49-year-old man with longstanding hypertension suddenly developed vertigo, right-sided Horner syndrome, and left-sided weakness. An MRI of the brain showed acute infarcts in the right inferior cerebellum (posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory) and the right upper medial medulla (direct penetrating branches of vertebral artery). Magnetic resonance angiogram showed occlusion of the distal vertebral artery on the right side. Atherothrombotic occlusion of the distal vertebral artery may cause this unusual combination of vertebrobasilar stroke.

  6. Vertebral Fractures After Discontinuation of Denosumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Steven R; Ferrari, Serge; Eastell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    . We analyzed the risk of new or worsening vertebral fractures, especially multiple vertebral fractures, in participants who discontinued denosumab during the FREEDOM study or its Extension. Participants received ≥2 doses of denosumab or placebo Q6M, discontinued treatment, and stayed in the study ≥7...... months after the last dose. Of 1001 participants who discontinued denosumab during FREEDOM or Extension, the vertebral fracture rate increased from 1.2 per 100 participant-years during the on-treatment period to 7.1, similar to participants who received and then discontinued placebo (n = 470; 8.5 per 100....... Therefore, patients who discontinue denosumab should rapidly transition to an alternative antiresorptive treatment. Clinicaltrails.gov: NCT00089791 (FREEDOM) and NCT00523341 (Extension). © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  7. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  8. Vertebroplasty as treatment of aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: up to 4 years of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarnieri, G.; Ambrosanio, G.; Vassallo, P.; Galasso, R.; Lavanga, A.; Izzo, R.; Muto, M. [AORNA Cardarelli, Neuroradiology Service, Naples (Italy); Pezzullo, M.G. [Seconda Universita degli studi di Napoli - SUN, Radiology Service, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    This study aimed to illustrate the validity of the treatment with vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with aggressive or symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (VH) with or without epidural extension. From January 2003 to December 2007, 24 consecutive patients have been treated with VP, for a total of 36 vertebral bodies affected by VH: two cervical, ten dorsal, 24 lumbar. All the patients complained of a pain syndrome resistant to continuous medical medication; four of 24 patients also presented aggressive magnetic resonance features of the vertebral lesion and two patients showed also epidural extension. A unipedicular approach has been performed in 16 patients; a bipedicular approach has been performed in six, while for the cervical spine an anterior-lateral approach with manual dislocation of the carotid axis has always been performed. Bone biopsy was never done. All procedures have been carried out with local anesthesia, except for the treatment of the cervical hemangiomas which has always been performed under general anesthesia. Four vertebral bodies in the same session have been treated in one case. Results have been evaluated with the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index methods. In all the patients, in the following 24-72 h, a successful outcome has been observed with a complete resolution of pain symptom. Extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage has been observed in four patients, without any onset of clinical radicular syndrome due to epidural diffusion. Clinical and radiological follow-up until 4 years has been performed in 12 patients and it showed stability of the treatment and absence of pain. Percutaneous treatment with VP for aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas even with epidural extension is a valuable, mini-invasive, and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of the painful vertebral symptoms without findings of fracture of a vertebral body adjacent or distant to the one treated. (orig.)

  9. Vertebroplasty as treatment of aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: up to 4 years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, G.; Ambrosanio, G.; Vassallo, P.; Galasso, R.; Lavanga, A.; Izzo, R.; Muto, M.; Pezzullo, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to illustrate the validity of the treatment with vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with aggressive or symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (VH) with or without epidural extension. From January 2003 to December 2007, 24 consecutive patients have been treated with VP, for a total of 36 vertebral bodies affected by VH: two cervical, ten dorsal, 24 lumbar. All the patients complained of a pain syndrome resistant to continuous medical medication; four of 24 patients also presented aggressive magnetic resonance features of the vertebral lesion and two patients showed also epidural extension. A unipedicular approach has been performed in 16 patients; a bipedicular approach has been performed in six, while for the cervical spine an anterior-lateral approach with manual dislocation of the carotid axis has always been performed. Bone biopsy was never done. All procedures have been carried out with local anesthesia, except for the treatment of the cervical hemangiomas which has always been performed under general anesthesia. Four vertebral bodies in the same session have been treated in one case. Results have been evaluated with the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index methods. In all the patients, in the following 24-72 h, a successful outcome has been observed with a complete resolution of pain symptom. Extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage has been observed in four patients, without any onset of clinical radicular syndrome due to epidural diffusion. Clinical and radiological follow-up until 4 years has been performed in 12 patients and it showed stability of the treatment and absence of pain. Percutaneous treatment with VP for aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas even with epidural extension is a valuable, mini-invasive, and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of the painful vertebral symptoms without findings of fracture of a vertebral body adjacent or distant to the one treated. (orig.)

  10. A trap for the unwary: jury decision making in cases involving the entrapment defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher S; Lampinen, James Michael; Malesky, L Alvin

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the opinions of jury-eligible participants regarding entrapment-related issues in online sex offender sting operations. Participants provided lower guilt ratings when the undercover officer initiated the online sexual solicitation than when the defendant initiated the online sexual solicitation. This effect was mediated by the causal attributions (situational vs. dispositional) made by mock jurors for the defendant's actions. The results also suggested that the entrapment defense was less successful for participants with a crime control orientation than for participants with a due process orientation. Based on the results, it is implied that law enforcement should exercise caution when performing these types of sting operations. Furthermore, defense and prosecuting attorneys should take into account the originators of the sexual solicitation when deciding whether to plea bargain or take a case to trial.

  11. Entrapment of peptidoglycans and adamantyltripeptides into liposomes: an HPLC assay for determination of encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Ruza; Travas, Dijana; Krstanović, Marina; Spoljar, Beata Halassy; Ljevaković, Durdica; Vranesić, Branka; Frkanec, Leo; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-11-01

    The encapsulation of different immunomodulating peptides, the peptidoglycan monomer, its semisynthetic derivatives (Adamant-1-yl)-acetyl-peptidoglycan monomer and Boc-Tyr-peptidoglycan monomer, respectively, and of two diastereoisomers of adamantyltripeptides into the large negatively charged multilamellar liposomes was investigated. The reproducible quantitative method using HPLC was established for the determination of the entrapped compounds. It was shown that the tested compounds could be efficiently incorporated into liposomes using either the film or modified film method. The results confirmed that the peptidoglycans with lipophilic substituents and particularly the adamantyltripeptides were incorporated into liposomes with higher efficiency than the peptidoglycan monomer using either of the described methods. Liposome preparations were stable at 4 degrees C up to seven days as shown by minimal leaking of the entrapped material.

  12. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sasselov, D., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  13. A simple approach to the prediction of waterhammer transients in a pipe line with entrapped air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The pressure histories within entrapped air bubbles in a pipe line during a waterhammer transient are treated theoretically. A convenient integral method is introduced, which takes full account of air/water interface movement and liquid compressibility. The significance of the method is that it provides a simple equation set for approximating, with good accuracy and with a small degree of conservatism, the solution to a problem that otherwise involves coupled partial differential equations on time dependent domains with non-linear boundary conditions. The accuracy of the method is defined by its comparison with available numerical-solution-predictions and measurements of the pressure within an entrapped-air-bubble at a dead end in a pipe. The method is shown to be a computationally simple and efficient way of assessing the impact of liquid compressibility on pressure rise when multiple water columns and air pockets are present in a pipe line

  14. Inhibitory effect of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Lin, L

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5.0mg/mL) presented the optimal polydispersity index (0.246), zeta-potential (-58.9mV) and entrapment efficiency (25.7%). The liposomes displayed satisfactory antibiotic activity against L. monocytogenes in cheese over the storage period at 4°C. We observed no effects on the physical and sensory properties of the cheese after the liposome treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. United States v. Levin: entrapment by estoppel doctrine applied in Medicare reimbursement context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P W; Griffith, R A

    1993-01-01

    The decision in Levin reaffirms that health care providers should be entitled to rely in good faith on official interpretations and representations by authorized government officials as to the propriety of their conduct under the Medicare program. Although the doctrine of entrapment by estoppel was developed as a due process defense to a criminal prosecution, the fundamental notions of fairness underlying the doctrine should be applicable as well as in a civil action. Thus, the defense of entrapment by estoppel should be available, for example, in the context of civil health care reimbursement recoupment audits, where a provider has acted in reliance on the interpretation of a statute or regulation by the appropriate administrative agency charged with its enforcement.

  16. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  17. Entrapment of the Temporal Horn as a Cause of Pure Wernicke Aphasia: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Aldo; Belvisi, Daniele; Marsili, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Entrapment of the temporal horn is an extremely rare pathologic condition occurring as a result of surgery for tumors, intraventricular infections, hemorrhage, or traumatic events involving the peritrigonal area. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with pure Wernicke aphasia (never described before in the albeit rare cases of isolated temporal horn dilatation) that regressed completely following successful ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The relevant literature is also briefly reviewed.

  18. Development of liposomes entrapped in alginate beads for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Divya; Gulbake, Arvind; Tiwari, Jyoti; Jain, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Folic Acid conjugated liposomes encapsulating Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) were entrapped in alginate beads and further coated with Eudragit-S-100 for effective delivery to colon tumors. Liposomes were prepared by cast film method and folic acid was coupled on the surface of liposomes. They were further entrapped in alginate beads which were Eudragit coated for degradation in the colonic region. The prepared beads were characterized for shape and surface morphology, percentage entrapment efficiency and drug release studies. The in vitro drug release was investigated using a USP dissolution paddle type apparatus in different simulated gastrointestinal fluids. In vivo studies of the beads containing free drug, folic acid coupled and uncoupled liposomes bearing L-OHP was administered orally at the dose of 10mg L-OHP/kg body weight to tumor bearing NUDE/SCID mice. γ-Scintigraphic study showed that Eudragit coated alginate beads entered into the colon of Balb/c mice between 4.20 and 4.50h after oral administration. In vivo data showed that folic acid coupled liposomes entrapped in alginate beads delivered 2.82 ± 0.58 and 21.52 ± 2.76 μg L-OHP/g tissues in the colon and tumor after 12h, reflecting its targeting potential to colon and tumor. The results clearly demonstrate that Eudragit coated calcium alginate beads bearing folic acid coupled liposome can be used as a prospective carrier for drug delivery to colon specific tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioprotective effect of cysteamine entrapped in liposomes oraly administered to the Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Vincent; Bocquier, Francois; Leterrier, Francois; Fatome, Marc

    1982-01-01

    Cysteamine entrapped in liposomes was oraly delivered to Mice and its radioprotective effect observed as a function of the time elapsed between its administration and 60 Co gamma irradiation. A protection is manifest up to 3 hrs after administration. This result contrasts with the absence of protection afforded by cysteamine when oraly given as an aqueous solutions, and with the short lasting activity of its parenteral administration [fr

  20. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  2. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shownkeen, Harish; Chenelle, Andrew G.; Origitano, Thomas C.; Bova, Davide

    2003-01-01

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  3. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Karla A. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Lopes, Flavio Marques [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Unidade Universitária de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Yamashita, Fabio [Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos e Medicamentos, Laboratório de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fernandes, Kátia Flávia, E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film.

  4. Successful retrieval of an entrapped Rotablator burr using 5 Fr guiding catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masayoshi; Shiraishi, Jun; Kohno, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Although burr entrapment is a rare complication of the Rotablator, it is extremely difficult to retrieve a fixedly entrapped burr without surgical procedure. An 84-year-old male with effort angina had heavily calcified coronary trees as well as severe stenosis in the mid LCx, and moderate stenosis in the proximal LCx, and in the LMT. We planned to perform rotational atherectomy in the LCx lesions. Using 7 Fr Q-curve guiding catheter and Rotawire floppy, we began to ablate using 1.5-mm burr at 200,000 rpm. Because the burr could not pass the proximal stenosis, we exchanged the wire for Rotawire extrasupport and the burr for 1.25-mm burr, and restarted the ablation at 220,000 rpm. Although the burr could manage to pass the proximal stenosis, it had become trapped in the mid LCx lesion. Simple pull on the Rotablator, rotation of the burr, and crossing the Conquest (Confianza) wire could not retrieve it. Thus, we cut off the drive shaft and sheath of the Rotablator, inserted 5 Fr 120-cm straight guiding catheter (Heartrail ST01; Terumo) through the remaining Rotablator system, pushed the catheter tip to the lesion around the burr as well as simultaneously pulled the Rotablator, and finally could retrieve it. Then we implanted stents in the LCx and in the LMT without difficulty. The 5 Fr straight guiding catheter might be useful for retrieving an entrapped burr (1.25-mm burr). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Microbiological and chemical properties of kefir manufactured by entrapped microorganisms isolated from kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T-H; Wang, S-Y; Chen, K-N; Liu, J-R; Chen, M-J

    2009-07-01

    In this study, various yeasts (Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces turicensis, Pichia fermentans) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were entrapped in 2 different microspheres using an entrapment ratio for the strains that was based on the distribution ratio of these organisms in kefir grains. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique to produce kefir using immobilized starter cultures isolated from kefir grains. An increase in cell counts with fermentation cycles was observed for both the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, whereas the cell counts of kefir grains were very stable during cultivation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the short-chain lactobacilli and lactococci occupied the surface of the LAB microspheres, whereas the long-chain lactobacilli were inside the microspheres. When the yeasts were analyzed, cells at a high density were entrapped in cracks on the surface and within the microspheres, where they were surrounded by the short-chain lactobacilli. The distribution of the LAB and yeast species in kefir produced from grains and microspheres showed that there was no significant difference between the kefirs produced by the 2 methods; moreover, Leu. mesenteroides and K. marxianus were the predominating microflora in both types of kefir. There was no significant difference in the ethanol and exopolysaccharide contents between the 2 kefirs, although the acidity was different.

  6. Efficient Calculation of Dewatered and Entrapped Areas Using Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2009-01-01

    River waters downstream of a hydroelectric project are often subject to rapidly changing discharge. Abrupt decreases in discharge can quickly dewater and expose some areas and isolate other areas from the main river channel, potentially stranding or entrapping fish, which often results in mortality. A methodology is described to estimate the areas dewatered or entrapped by a specific reduction in upstream discharge. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to simulate steady flows. Using flow simulation results from the model and a geographic information system (GIS), estimates of dewatered and entrapped areas were made for a wide discharge range. The methodology was applied to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in central Washington State. Results showed that a 280 m 3 /s discharge reduction affected the most area at discharges less than 3400 m 3 /s. At flows above 3400 m 3 /s, the affected area by a 280 m 3 /s discharge reduction (about 25 ha) was relatively constant. A 280 m 3 /s discharge reduction at lower flows affected about twice as much area. The methodology and resulting area estimates were, at the time of writing, being used to identify discharge regimes, and associated water surface elevations, that might be expected to minimize adverse impacts on juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that rear in the shallow near-shore areas in the Hanford Reach

  7. Wettability transition induced transformation and entrapment of polymer nanostructures in cylindrical nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xunda; Mei, Shilin; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2011-12-06

    We apply the concept of wettability transition to manipulate the morphology and entrapment of polymer nanostructures inside cylindrical nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. When AAO/polystyrene (PS) hybrids, i.e., AAO/PS nanorods or AAO/PS nanotubes, are immersed into a polyethylene glycol (PEG) reservoir above the glass transition temperature of PS, a wettability transition from wetting to nonwetting of PS can be triggered due to the invasion of the more wettable PEG melt. The wettability transition enables us to develop a nondestructive method to entrap hemispherically capped nanorods inside nanopores. Moreover, we can obtain single nanorods with the desired aspect ratio by further dissolving the AAO template, in contrast to the drawbacks of nonuniformity or destructiveness from the conventional ultrasonication method. In the case of AAO/PS nanotubes, the wettability transition induced dewetting of PS nanotube walls results in the disconnection and entrapment of nonwetting PS domains (i.e., nanospheres, nanocapsules, or capped nanorods). Moreover, PEG is then washed to recover the pristine wettability of PS on the alumina surface; further annealing of the PS nanospheres inside AAO nanopores under vacuum can generate some unique nanostructures, particularly semicylindrical nanorods. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil and n-hexane content (w/w of oil were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 °C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 °C or room temperature.

  9. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Karla A.; Lopes, Flavio Marques; Yamashita, Fabio; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film

  10. Entrapment of cultured pancreas islets in three-dimensional collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, S H; Peshwa, M V; Sutherland, D E; Hu, W S

    1992-01-01

    In vitro culture of islets of Langerhans decreases their immunogenicity, presumably by eliminating passenger leukocytes and other Ia+ presenting cells within the islets. Islets cultivated in petri dishes either at 37 degrees C or at 25 degrees C gradually disintegrate during culture in a time-dependent manner which is related to the free-floating condition of the islets. Also, a fraction of the islets disperse as single cells and beta-cell aggregates or adhere to the bottom of the culture dishes. Thus, the retrieval rate of transplantable islets is dampened due to their disintegration and spontaneous dispersion in conventional petri dish cultures. Entrapment of freshly harvested islets of Langerhans in a three-dimensional collagen matrix was studied as an alternative method for islet cultivation. The contraction of collagen fibrils during in vitro culture counteracts the dispersion of islets and helps in maintaining their integrity while in culture. It was observed that the entrapped islets maintain satisfactory morphology, viability, and capability of glucose-dependent insulin secretion for over 2 wk. The oxygen consumption rate and glucose metabolism of these islets was not deranged when entrapped in collagen. Also, the retrieval of islets is easier and more efficient than that observed in conventional culture systems. Our results indicate that culture of islets in three-dimensional collagen gels can potentially develop into an ideal system applicable to clinical transplantation of cultured islets or beta-cell aggregates.

  11. Entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater: Performances, fouling, and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntawang, Chaipon; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory scale study on treatment performances and fouling of entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (E-AnMBR) in comparison with suspended cells-based-bioreactor (S-AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was conducted. The difference between E-AnMBR and S-AnMBR was the uses of cells entrapped in phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol versus planktonic cells. Bulk organic removal efficiencies by the two AnMBRs were comparable. Lower concentrations of suspended biomass, bound extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in E-AnMBR resulted in less fouling compared to S-AnMBR. S-AnMBR provided 7 days of operation time versus 11 days for E-AnMBR before chemical cleaning was required. The less frequent chemical cleaning potentially leads to a longer membrane life-span for E-AnMBR compared to S-AnMBR. Phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant in cake sludge from both AnMBRs but their abundances were different between the two AnMBRs, suggesting influence of cell entrapment on the bacteria community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Image findings and follow-up of lung echinococcosis after chemotherapy with liposome-entrapped albendazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhebaiti Mahesuti; Liu Wenyan; Ma Wenli; Wen Hao; Taxipulati

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the image features of lung echinococcosis under chemotherapy with liposome-entrapped albendazole. Methods: Sixteen patients with lung echinococcosis who took orally liposome-entrapped albendazole (10 mg/kg, Bid, 3 to 10 months) were examined by X-ray film, CT or MR before therapy and followed-up by those imaging studies after therapy. The morphological changes of the lesions as reflected on imaging findings were reviewed, with correlation of the clinic check-ups and laboratory tests, to judge effectiveness of the treatment. Results: Five cases were completely cured. The treatment was effective in 6 cases, partially effective in 4 and invalid in 1 case. The imaging findings included: cavity formation in 7 cases due to hydatid cyst degeneration and absorption of cyst liquid; reduction in lesion size in 6 cases; disappearance of lesion or decrease in lesion numbers in 2 cases; increase in lesion density and blurring of cyst wall in 6 cases duo to cyst consolidation; rupture, shrinkage, collapse of cyst inner membrane in 3 cases; calcification of the cyst wall or contents in 6 cases. Conclusions: It is shown that liposome-entrapped albendazole chemotherapy has curative effect for lung echinococcosis. Imaging examinations are effective for monitoring the evolution of the disease by depicting the morphologic-pathologic changes of the lesions. (authors)

  13. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in posttraumatic stress disorder: their association with suicidal behavior and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown an increased frequency of suicidal behaviors in those with PTSD, but few studies have investigated the factors that underlie the emergence of suicidal behavior in PTSD. Two theories of suicide, the Cry of Pain and the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide, propose that feelings of hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment are core components of suicidality. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal behavior and hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in trauma victims with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The results demonstrated that hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment were significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in those with PTSD. Hopelessness and defeat were also significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in trauma victims without PTSD. In those with PTSD, the relationship between suicidal behavior and hopelessness and entrapment remained significant after controlling for comorbid depression. The findings provide support for the contemporary theories of suicidality and have important clinical implications.

  15. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  16. Intra-Articular Entrapment of the Medial Epicondyle following a Traumatic Fracture Dislocation of the Elbow in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Youssef G.; Joukhadar, Nabih I.

    2018-01-01

    Medial epicondyle entrapment after an acute fracture dislocation of the elbow is a common finding in the pediatric population, but a rare finding in adults. We present a case of an adult patient diagnosed with a traumatic fracture dislocation of the elbow joint with intra-articular entrapment of the medial epicondyle. After initial evaluation, closed reduction was done. Stability testing after reduction showed an unstable joint; thus, open reduction and internal fixation was decided. PMID:29666736

  17. Entrapment of 137Cs vapour generated during vitrification and casting of cesium borosilicate glass by inorganic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Gandhi, Shyamala; Dash, A.; Varma, R.N.

    2003-01-01

    Efficiency of different inorganic materials like zirconium antimonate (ZrA), ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), synthetic zeolites, activated charcoal, glass wool etc, towards the entrapment of 137 Cs vapour escaping during vitrification and casting of cesium borosilicate glass required for the preparation of 137 Cs sources for medical and industrial applications have been determined. The recovery of entrapped cesium using dilute acids for subsequent recycling has also been explored. (author)

  18. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Moran; Miriam, Altstein

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes development of a sol-gel based immunoaffinity method for the steroid hormone levonorgestrel (LNG) and the effects of changes in the sol-gel matrix format on the activity of the entrapped antibodies (Abs) and on matrix structure. The best sol-gel format for Ab entrapment was found to be a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) based matrix at a TMOS:water ratio of 1:8, containing 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) of MW 0.4 kDa. Addition of higher percentages of PEG or a higher MW PEG did not improve activity. No activity was obtained with a TMOS:water ratio of 1:12, most likely because of the very dense polymer that resulted from these polymerization conditions. Only minor differences in the non-specific binding were obtained with the various formats. TMOS was found to be more effective than tetrakis (2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (THEOS) for entrapment of anti-levonorgestrel (LNG) Abs. However, aging the THEOS-based sol-gel for a few weeks at 4 °C stabilized the entrapped Abs and increased its binding capacity. Confocal fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled immunoglobulines (IgGs) entrapped in the sol-gel matrix showed that the entrapped Abs were distributed homogenously within the gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown the diverse structures of the various sol-gel formats and precursors. PMID:28880001

  19. A mechanical perspective on vertebral segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truskinovsky, L.; Vitale, G.; Smit, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a characteristic feature of the vertebrate body plan. The prevailing paradigm explaining its origin is the 'clock and wave-front' model, which assumes that the interaction of a molecular oscillator (clock) with a traveling gradient of morphogens (wave) pre-defines spatial

  20. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  1. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  2. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical or biophysical principles can be applied to study biological structures in their modern or fossil form. Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its microstructures such as lacuna and canaliculi to ...

  3. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  4. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  5. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R; Oguiza, José A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  7. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  8. Vertebral Hemangiomas - Aggressive Forms | Allali | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...

  9. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  10. Methods to score vertebral deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Raymakers, J. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to compare four different scoring methods for vertebral deformities: the semiquantitative Kleerekoper score and three quantitative scores (according to Minne, Melton and Raymakers) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral

  11. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  12. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-01-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components. (orig.) [de

  13. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  14. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (Pcement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are independent risk factors associated with bone cement leakage.

  15. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  16. MR imaging of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouliamos, A.D.; Kehagias, D.T.; Lahanis, S.; Moulopoulou, E.S.; Kalovidouris, A.A.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.j. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece); Athanassopoulou, A.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Asklipiion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is one of the most common manifestations of tuberculosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the main imaging modality for the diagnosis, the demonstration of the extent of the disease, and follow-up studies. Vertebral destruction involving two consecutive levels with sparing of the intervertebral disc, disc herniation into the vertebral body, epidural involvement, and paraspinal abscess are the most common MRI findings suggestive of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  17. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal

    OpenAIRE

    Zarzur,Edmundo

    1996-01-01

    Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of t...

  18. Metamerism in cephalochordates and the problem of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically exhibits a complex pattern with sense organs, brain, paired eyes and jaw muscles, and the brain case is not found in other chordates. How the extant vertebrate head has evolved remains enigmatic. Historically, there have been two conflicting views on the origin of the vertebrate head, segmental and non-segmental views. According to the segmentalists, the vertebrate head is organized as a metameric structure composed of segments equivalent to those in the trunk; a metamere in the vertebrate head was assumed to consist of a somite, a branchial arch and a set of cranial nerves, considering that the head evolved from rostral segments of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrates. Non-segmentalists, however, considered that the vertebrate head was not segmental. In that case, the ancestral state of the vertebrate head may be non-segmented, and rostral segments in amphioxus might have been secondarily gained, or extant vertebrates might have evolved through radical modifications of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrate head. Comparative studies of mesodermal development in amphioxus and vertebrate gastrula embryos have revealed that mesodermal gene expressions become segregated into two domains anteroposteriorly to specify the head mesoderm and trunk mesoderm only in vertebrates; in this segregation, key genes such as delta and hairy, involved in segment formation, are expressed in the trunk mesoderm, but not in the head mesoderm, strongly suggesting that the head mesoderm of extant vertebrates is not segmented. Taken together, the above finding possibly adds a new insight into the origin of the vertebrate head; the vertebrate head mesoderm would have evolved through an anteroposterior polarization of the paraxial mesoderm if the ancestral vertebrate had been amphioxus-like.

  19. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  20. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  1. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate, with or without laminectomy, for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability caused by congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Takeshi; Kanazono, Shinichi; Yoshigae, Yuki; Sharp, Nicholas J H; Muñana, Karen R

    2007-07-01

    To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in dogs with thoracic spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomalies. Retrospective clinical study. Dogs (n=9) with thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Medical records (1995-1996; 2000-2006) of 9 dogs with a myelographic diagnosis of spinal canal stenosis and/or vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomaly that were surgically managed by vertebral stabilization with or without laminectomy were reviewed. Data on pre- and postoperative neurologic status, diagnostic findings, surgical techniques, and outcomes were retrieved. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1, 2, and 6 months. Long-term outcome was assessed by means of clinical examination or owner telephone interviews. Spinal cord compression was confirmed by myelography, and in 2 dogs, dynamic compression by stress myelography. Eight dogs regained the ability to ambulate postoperatively. One dog with a partial recovery regained voluntary movement but did not become ambulatory. Spinal cord injury secondary to congenital vertebral anomaly may have a good outcome when treated by vertebral stabilization with or without laminectomy. Adequate stabilization of the vertebrae and improved neurologic outcome were achieved in most dogs. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate with or without laminectomy is an effective treatment for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

  2. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  3. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  4. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide

    2001-01-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  5. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  6. Calcifying discopathy in infancy in the cervical spine: Evaluation of vertebral alterations over a period of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, S; Colajacomo, M; Migliorini, A; Fassari, F M

    1987-07-01

    CDI in the cervical spine has already been observed and described by many authors, as a well-defined clinico-radiological syndrome with a benign course. The clinical picture is composed of: pain and functional limitation, sometimes with a stiff neck, more rarely slight fever, increase of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate or leukocytosis. The radiographic picture consists of the association of morphological and structural alterations of vertebral bodies adjacent to one or more disc calcifications usually centrally sited, sometimes associated with anterior or posterior herniations. On the basis of the observation of 7 patients, in the 15-year-old range, the authors propose to evaluate the changes of both the vertebral bodies and the discs involved in the disease over a period of time. The repetition of even modest alterations, that persist in time, testify to the involvement of the vertebral growth perhaps, more than the discal alterations connected with the calcification.

  7. The Nutcracker Syndrome as a Rare Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pournasiri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Renal vein entrapment, named nutcracker phenomenon, is a contraction of renal vein between abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery. Patients can be asymptomatic or clinically manifested, called nutcracker syndrome. Proteinuria, hematuria, flank pain, varicocele in males and pelvic congestion in females are reported in such patients. Case Presentation The current report presented an eight-year-old girl with micr...

  8. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. The base case considered each of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

  9. Mastication Steal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliska, Charles Miles; Blebea, John; Taubman, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with episodic vertigo, dizziness, and diplopia during meals and prolonged verbal presentations at work. Subsequent work-up included an eventual catheter-based angiogram revealing an ostial left external carotid artery (ECA) occlusion with reconstituted retrograde flow via a variant collateral branch from the dominant left vertebral artery. The findings demonstrate that repetitive activities involving craniofacial muscular systems supplied by the ECA result in a symptomatic arterial steal syndrome via the enhanced diverted flow from the collateral vertebral-basilar arterial system. A left ECA endarterectomy with reimplantation of the vessel was performed, and the patient has been episode free thereafter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Pranab

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Duane′s retraction syndrome is a well known congenital musculo-facial anomaly. Various explanations have been given for the aetiology of this syndrome. Inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome is a condition with reverse clinical features. Abduction of the affected eye is possible to some extent and is accompanied by retraction of the eyeball, narrowing of the palpebral fissure and pseudoptosis. There may be some restriction of movement on adduction. The primary lesion is suspected to be in the medial rectus muscle. Frequently the muscle is found to be entrapped following trauma to the medial wall of the orbit. A case of bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome and convergent squint along with left-sided perceptive deafness is reported. As is usually the case there was no structural abnormality or entrapment of the muscle from trauma.

  11. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V.; Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A.; Prudchenko, Igor A.; Shtilman, Mikhail I.; Markvicheva, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable

  12. Co-contamination of Cu and Cd in paddy fields: Using periphyton to entrap heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiali [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Cilai [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wang, Fengwu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); School of Civil Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, 808 Shuang Gang East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Wu, Yonghong, E-mail: yhwu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Periphyton was capable of simultaneously entrapping Cu and Cd from paddy fields. • Cu and Cd bioavailability decreased with time after exposure to periphyton. • Periodic adsorption–desorption was the main mechanism used to remove Cd and Cu. • Periphyton was able to adapt to steady accumulation of Cu and Cd. • The inclusion of periphyton will help entrap heavy metals in paddy fields. - Abstract: The ubiquitous native periphyton was used to entrap Cu and Cd from paddy fields. Results showed that Cu- and Cd-hydrate species such as CuOH{sup +}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+}, CdOH{sup +}, and Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2+} decreased with time in the presence of periphyton. When the initial concentrations of Cu and Cd were 10 mg/L, the heavy metal content in the periphyton fluctuated from 145.20 mg/kg to 342.42 mg/kg for Cu and from 101.75 mg/kg to 236.29 mg/kg for Cd after 2 h exposure. The concentration of Cd in periphytic cells varied from 42.93 mg/kg to 174 mg/kg after 2 h. The dominant periphyton microorganism species shifted from photoautotrophs to heterotrophs during the exposure of periphyton to Cu and Cd co-contamination. Although Cu and Cd could inhibit periphyton photosynthesis and carbon utilization, the periphyton was able to adapt to the test conditions. Cu and Cd accumulation in rice markedly decreased in the presence of periphyton while the number of rice seeds germinating was higher in the periphyton treatments. These results suggest that the inclusion of native periphyton in paddy fields provides a promising buffer to minimize the effects of Cu and Cd pollution on rice growth and food safety.

  13. Minimally invasive percutaneous management of large bladder stones with a laparoscopic entrapment bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung K; Gupta, Dilan M; Weinberg, Aaron; Matteis, August J; Kotwal, Sunny; Gupta, Mantu

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of large volume bladder stones is a management conundrum. Transurethral methods are plagued by long operative times, trauma to the bladder mucosa, and the need for a postoperative urethral catheter. Open cystolithotomy has higher morbidity. We present the percutaneous management of bladder stones with the novel use of a laparoscopic entrapment bag. Twenty-five patients (mean age 65.7), including 22 men and 3 women, 4 with a neurogenic bladder and 21 with a prior diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia, underwent our novel technique. The mean number of stones was 6.8±8.0 (range, 1 to 30) and total stone burden 10.4±10.5 cm (range, 3.0 to 50.0 cm). Using regional or general anesthesia and flexible cystoscopic guidance, percutaneous bladder access was achieved. The tract was balloon dilated to 30F and stones captured in a laparoscopic entrapment bag. The bag's opening was exteriorized and stone fragmentation and comminution were achieved using a nephroscope and pneumatic or ultrasonic lithotripters. The bag was extracted and a 22F suprapubic catheter was inserted into the bladder; the patient was discharged the next day after a voiding trial. The procedure was done without fluoroscopy. No foley catheter was necessary. All patients were rendered stone free. The mean estimated blood loss was 11.1±3.93 mL (range, 10 to 25 mL). The mean operative time was 102.3 minutes. There was minimal trauma to the bladder mucosa and no complications of fluid extravasation, hematuria, or urethral trauma were noted. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of the operation. Percutaneous cystolithotomy with the use of an entrapment bag is an efficient, safe technique for treating large volume bladder calculi. We recommend this technique as an alternative to open surgery for patients with too large a stone burden to remove transurethrally.

  14. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: sukhanovat@mail.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Cell Interactions, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Prudchenko, Igor A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Peptide Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtilman, Mikhail I. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory Polymers for Biology, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable.

  15. Partitioning and interfacial tracers for differentiating NAPL entrapment configuration: column-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Barranco, F T; Illangasekare, T H

    2001-12-15

    Research on the use of partitioning and interfacial tracers has led to the development of techniques for estimating subsurface NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area. Although these techniques have been utilized with some success at field sites, current application is limited largely to NAPL at residual saturation, such as for the case of post-remediation settings where mobile NAPL has been removed through product recovery. The goal of this study was to fundamentally evaluate partitioning and interfacial tracer behavior in controlled column-scale test cells for a range of entrapment configurations varying in NAPL saturation, with the results serving as a determinant of technique efficacy (and design protocol) for use with complexly distributed NAPLs, possibly at high saturation, in heterogeneous aquifers. Representative end members of the range of entrapment configurations observed under conditions of natural heterogeneity (an occurrence with residual NAPL saturation [discontinuous blobs] and an occurrence with high NAPL saturation [continuous free-phase LNAPL lens]) were evaluated. Study results indicated accurate prediction (using measured tracer retardation and equilibrium-based computational techniques) of NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area for the case of residual NAPL saturation. For the high-saturation LNAPL lens, results indicated that NAPL-water interfacial area, but not NAPL amount (underpredicted by 35%), can be reasonably determined using conventional computation techniques. Underprediction of NAPL amount lead to an erroneous prediction of NAPL distribution, as indicated by the NAPL morphology index. In light of these results, careful consideration should be given to technique design and critical assumptions before applying equilibrium-based partitioning tracer methodology to settings where NAPLs are complexly entrapped, such as in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations.

  16. Can hydrocarbons entrapped in seep carbonates serve as gas geochemistry recorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Schlömer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The geochemistry of seep gases is useful for an understanding of the local petroleum system. Here it was tested whether individual light hydrocarbons in seep gases are representatively entrapped in authigenic carbonates that formed near active seep sites. If applicable, it would be possible to extract geochemical information not only on the origin but also on the thermal maturity of the hydrocarbon source rocks from the gases entrapped in carbonates in the past. Respective data could be used for a better understanding of paleoenvironments and might directly serve as calibration point for, amongst others, petroleum system modeling. For this approach, (sub)-recent seep carbonates from the Black Sea (Paleodnjepr region and Batumi seep area), two sites of the Campeche Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Venere mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea) were selected. These seep carbonates derive from sites for which geochemical data on the currently seeping gases exist. During treatment with phosphoric acid, methane and higher hydrocarbons were released from all carbonates, but in low concentrations. Compositional studies demonstrate that the ratio of methane to the sum of higher hydrocarbons (C1/(C2+C3)) is (partly strongly) positively biased in the entrapped gas fraction. δ13C values of C1 were determined for all samples and, for the samples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, also of C2 and C3. The present dataset from six seep sites indicates that information on the seeped methane can be—although with a scatter of several permil—recorded in seep carbonate matrices, but other valuable information like the composition and δ13C of ethane and propane appears to be modified or lost during, for example, enclosure or at an early stage of diagenesis.

  17. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  18. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  19. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shamit S., E-mail: shamit.desai@northwestern.edu [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Konanur, Meghana [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (United States); Foltz, Gretchen [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University, Interventional Radiology (United States); Malaisrie, S. Chris [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Resnick, Scott, E-mail: sresnick@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital (United States)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.

  20. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shamit S.; Konanur, Meghana; Foltz, Gretchen; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Resnick, Scott

    2016-01-01

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period

  1. Vascular Entrapment of Both the Sciatic and Pudendal Nerves Causing Persistent Sciatica and Pudendal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Ahmet; Basol, Gulfem; Usta, Taner; Cam, Isa

    2018-04-24

    To demonstrate the laparoscopic approach to malformed branches of the vessels entrapping the nerves of the sacral plexus. A step-by-step explanation of the surgery using video (educative video) (Canadian Task force classification II). The university's Ethics Committee ruled that approval was not required for this video. Kocaeli Derince Education and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey. A 26-year-old patient who had failed medical therapy and presented with complaints of numbness and burning pain on the right side of her vagina and pain radiating to her lower limbs for a period of approximately 36 months. The peritoneum was incised along the external iliac vessels, and these vessels were separated from the iliopsoas muscle on the right side of the pelvis. The laparoscopic decompression of intrapelvic vascular entrapment was performed at 3 sites: the lumbosacral trunk, sciatic nerve, and pudendal nerve. The aberrant dilated veins were gently dissected from nerves, and then coagulated and cut with the LigaSure sealing device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn). The operation was completed successfully with no complications, and the patient was discharged from the hospital 24 hours after the operation. At a 6-month follow-up, she reported complete resolution of dyspareunia and sciatica (visual analog scale score 1 of 10). A less well-known cause of chronic pelvic pain is compression of the sacral plexus by dilated or malformed branches of the internal iliac vessels. Laparoscopic management of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus has been described by Possover et al [1,2] and Lemos et al [3]. This procedure appears to be feasible and effective, but requires significant experience and familiarity with laparoscopy techniques and pelvic nerve anatomy. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  3. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  4. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CT and MRI of vertebral haemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braitinger, S.; Weigert, F.; Held, P.; Obletter, N.; Breit, A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective comparative study of CT and MRI was carried out involving 38 vertebral haemangiomas; this revealed a typical signal pattern on MRI from benign lesions. It consists of a hyper-intense signal from the bone marrow affecting the T 1 /T 2 sequences; this may be focal or involve the entire vertebral body. These characteristic signals were compared with CT images of the spine. The areas of bone that produce the high intensity signals on MRI appear on CT as spongey patterns with hypertrophic trabeculae surrounding mostly areas with negative absorption values. An analysis of the changes in the spongiosa has revealed three clearly defined types. The signals derived from haemangiomas extending beyond the bone have an intensity of normal spongiosa; this corresponds with an absence of fat, as demonstrated by CT. Extra-osseous components have low intensity T 1 signals that increase in T 2 sequences. (orig.) [de

  6. Endovascular Retrieval of Entrapped Elephant Trunk Graft During Complex Hybrid Aortic Arch Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodharan, Karthikeyan, E-mail: drdkarthik@hotmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chao, Victor T. T., E-mail: victor.chao.t.t@singhealth.com.sg [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Entrapment of the elephant trunk graft within the false lumen is a rare complication of surgical repair of an aortic dissection. This is normally retrieved by emergent open surgery. We describe a technique of endovascular retrieval of the dislodged graft, during hybrid aortic arch repair. The elephant trunk was cannulated through and through from a femoral access and the free end of the wire was snared and retrieved from a brachial access. The wire was externalised from both accesses and was used to reposition the graft into the true lumen using a body flossing technique.

  7. A study on entrapment: splashing of liquid UO2 over small sodium volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Klein, K.; Jorzik, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were done in which each time more than 1 kg of liqid UO 2 was splashed over a plate in which different stainless steel cups full of sodium were contained. No whatsoever indication of entrapment of sodium could be found. The pressure tests indicate up to 1,8 atm and they relax in some second time. These pressure diagrams have been satisfactorily analysed as indicating a sodium vapor formation. In the third experiment e.g. the quenching of 800 g UO 2 in 720 g of sodium in a closed volume of argon of 225 l will provide the requested maximum pressure

  8. Entrapment of the Martin-Gruber branch of median nerve in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Vinod Ranade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a dual neuro-vascular variation, which was observed in the right extremity of male cadaver. About an inch inferior to the elbow joint, three branches arose from the median nerve. These were the anterior interosseous branch, a Martin-Gruber branch (MGB and a muscular branch. The MGB coursed infero-medially to join with the ulnar nerve by running posterior to the ulnar artery. It was surprising to observe that the MGB passed between the ulnar artery and its venae comitantes. There was an acute angulation of the MGB here, suggesting entrapment at this site.

  9. Neuropatia Periférica Familiar por Susceptibilidade ao Entrapment (Neuropatia Tomaculosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Viana, J; Coimbra, J; Goulart, Z; Bigotte de Almeida, L; Cabral Beirão, J

    1991-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de neuropatia periférica familiar por susceptibilidade ao entrapment e comparam-no com os descritos na literatura. As principais características desta neuropatia são: hereditariedade autossómica dominante, mononeuropatias recorrentes de localização variável (cubital, mediano, ciático poplíteo, externo, plexo braquial) e aspectos morfológicos característicos na biópsia do nervo. O nervo sensitivo revela alterações predominantes desmielinizantes, com espessamentos ...

  10. Segmental jejunal entrapment, volvulus, and strangulation secondary to intra-abdominal adhesions in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cicco, Michael F; Bennett, R Avery; Ragetly, Chantal; Sippel, Kate M

    2011-01-01

    A 4 yr old, castrated male dachshund was presented for lethargy, restlessness, a "hunched" posture, and a painful abdomen. A gastric foreign body had been surgically removed 24 mo previously. Exploratory celiotomy revealed a devitalized segment of jejunum with twisted mesentery. Several adhesions and fibrous bands were present within the abdomen, presumptively from the previous gastric foreign body surgery. Histopathology determined that a fibrous tissue band caused entrapment of the segment of intestine and its mesentery resulting in volvulus and ischemic necrosis of the intestine. This case is unique because it involved a focal area of the jejunum that was incarcerated in fibrous adhesions.

  11. Post coital penile ring entrapment: A report of a non-surgical extrication method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agu Thaddeus Chika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report shows how a simple but painstaking method of milking and levering in a slippery field was used to remove a thick metallic ring entrapped at the root of the penis after sexual intercourse. A ring can be removed easily from an organ if the inter-phase is made slippery. However this must be weighed against the handling difficulties posed by a wet slippery surface. With perseverance and the use of unconventional instrument, the ring was successfully extricated as a day case and without a surgical incision.

  12. Vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    October and November 1980 vertebrate ecology study accomplishments are outlined in this report. The report provides a listing of food items found in the crops of Mourning Doves collected at the WIPP Site during 1979 and a listing of small mammal digestive tracts and reproductive tracts that have been removed, labeled and preserved. Scaled Quail collection results are also reported. Each specimen was weighed and sexed and the crop contents of each specimen was removed for analysis

  13. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  14. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brenes

    Full Text Available Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis, and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans. We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively, but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  15. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  16. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  17. Orientation-Selective Retinal Circuits in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Visual information is already processed in the retina before it is transmitted to higher visual centers in the brain. This includes the extraction of salient features from visual scenes, such as motion directionality or contrast, through neurons belonging to distinct neural circuits. Some retinal neurons are tuned to the orientation of elongated visual stimuli. Such 'orientation-selective' neurons are present in the retinae of most, if not all, vertebrate species analyzed to date, with species-specific differences in frequency and degree of tuning. In some cases, orientation-selective neurons have very stereotyped functional and morphological properties suggesting that they represent distinct cell types. In this review, we describe the retinal cell types underlying orientation selectivity found in various vertebrate species, and highlight their commonalities and differences. In addition, we discuss recent studies that revealed the cellular, synaptic and circuit mechanisms at the basis of retinal orientation selectivity. Finally, we outline the significance of these findings in shaping our current understanding of how this fundamental neural computation is implemented in the visual systems of vertebrates.

  18. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  20. [Peculiarities of clinico-neurological signs of the intervertebral discs protrusions in lumbar portion of vertebral column in patients of various age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzniak, M V; Pryĭmak, E V

    2013-11-01

    Clinico-neurological signs of the discogenic pain syndromes, caused by intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion in a lumbar portion of vertebral column, were analyzed. The strict indications were substantiated for application of the puncture treatment methods for the discogenic pain syndromes in patients of various ages. Clinico-neurological signs of the IVD protrusions constitute the important criterion while the treatment method selection. Differentiated application of the puncture methods permits to improve the treatment results in the patients of various age.

  1. Vertebrate scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2: comparative studies of a major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stephen Holmes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2 (also LIMP-2, CD36L2 or LGP85 is a major lysosomal membrane glycoprotein involved in endosomal and lysosomal biogenesis and maintenance. SCARB2 acts as a receptor for the lysosomal mannose-6-phosphate independent targeting of β-glucuronidase and enterovirus 71 and influences Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. Genetic deficiency of this protein causes deafness and peripheral neuropathy in mice as well as myoclonic epilepsy and nephrotic syndrome in humans. Comparative SCARB2 amino acid sequences and structures and SCARB2 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate SCARB2 sequences shared 43-100% identity as compared with 30-36% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and CD36. At least 10 N-glycosylation sites were conserved among most vertebrate SCARB2 proteins examined. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and conserved predicted secondary structures were examined, including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and external lysosomal membrane sequences: cysteine disulfide residues, thrombospondin (THP1 binding sites and 16 proline and 20 glycine conserved residues, which may contribute to short loop formation within the exomembrane SCARB2 sequences. Vertebrate SCARB2 genes contained 12 coding exons. The human SCARB2 gene contained a CpG island (CpG100, ten microRNA-binding sites and several transcription factor binding sites (including PPARA which may contribute to a higher level (2.4 times average of gene expression. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate SCARB2 gene with vertebrate SCARB1 and CD36 genes. These suggested that SCARB2 originated from duplications of the CD36 gene in an ancestral genome forming three vertebrate CD36 gene family members: SCARB1, SCARB2 and CD36.

  2. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-07-01

    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A meta-analysis of perceptions of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety problems, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaway, Andy P; Taylor, Peter J; Wood, Alex M; Schulz, Joerg

    2015-09-15

    There is a burgeoning literature examining perceptions of being defeated or trapped in different psychiatric disorders. The disorders most frequently examined to date are depression, anxiety problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality. To quantify the size and consistency of perceptions of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety problems, PTSD and suicidality, test for differences across psychiatric disorders, and examine potential moderators and publication bias. Random-effects meta-analyses based on Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Forty studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 10,072). Perceptions of defeat and entrapment were strong (around r = 0.60) and similar in size across all four psychiatric disorders. Perceptions of defeat were particularly strong in depression (r = 0.73). There was no between-study heterogeneity; therefore moderator analyses were conducted in an exploratory fashion. There was no evidence of publication bias. Analyses were cross-sectional, which precludes establishing temporal precedence or causality. Some of the meta-analyses were based on relatively small numbers of effect sizes, which may limit their generalisability. Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are clinically important in depression, anxiety problems, PTSD, and suicidality. Similar-sized, strong relationships across four different psychiatric disorders could suggest that perceptions of defeat and entrapment are transdiagnostic constructs. The results suggest that clinicians and researchers need to become more aware of perceptions of defeat and entrapment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  5. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  6. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  7. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Radiologie 2, Strasbourg (France); Doray, Berenice; Fradin, Melanie [CHU de Strasbourg, Hopital de Hautepierre, Laboratoire de Genetique Medicale, Strasbourg (France); Astruc, Dominique [CHU de Strasbourg Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Neonatologie, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-03-15

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology. (orig.)

  8. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koob, Meriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Doray, Berenice; Fradin, Melanie; Astruc, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology. (orig.)

  9. Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomaly in the dog: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomalies have for some time been suggested as a possible cause of cauda equina syndrome (especially in the German shepherd dog [GSD]), a condition recently thought to be inherited. The frequency of this condition within a large clinical population and the radiographic features used in its detection are reported. In a group of 143 patients, the sexes were similarly represented and the GSD was greatly over represented. The anomaly is characterised by separation of the first sacral segment that was identified on the lateral view by the presence of a radiolucent disc space between what are normally the first and second sacral segments. On the ventrodorsal view, the anomaly was characterised by separation of the spinous processes between what are normally the first and second sacral segments. In the presence of the transitional segment, the nature of the sacroiliac joint at the level of the anomalous segment varies from a strong ilial attachment, with the presence of a wing-like lateral process, to a weakened ilial attachment because of the presence of a lateral process, shaped as that seen on a lumbar segment. These patterns were present unilaterally or bilaterally and result in symmetrical or asymmetrical patterns. The effect of the weakening of the sacroiliac attachment was thought to result in premature disc degeneration, which, together with spinal canal stenosis, resulted in potential compression of the overlying spinal nerves and creation of a cauda equina syndrome. The condition is thought to have clinical significance and should be selected against in breeding, especially in the GSD

  10. Anterior dural ectasia mimicking a lytic lesion in the posterior vertebral body in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Keerthiraj; Pendharkar, Hima Shriniwas; Venkat, Easwer; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Anterior dural ectasia is an extremely rare finding in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The authors describe a unique case of AS in which the patient presented with cauda equina syndrome as well as an unusual imaging finding of erosion of the posterior aspect of the L-1 (predominantly) and L-2 vertebral bodies due to anterior dural ectasia. Symptomatic patients with long-standing AS should be monitored for the presence of dural ectasia, which can be anterior in location, as is demonstrated in the present case.

  11. A spin labelling study of immunomodulating peptidoglycan monomer and adamantyltripeptides entrapped into liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Ruza; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna; Vranesić, Branka; Mirosavljević, Krunoslav; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-04-01

    The interaction of immunostimulating compounds, the peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) and structurally related adamantyltripeptides (AdTP1 and AdTP2), respectively, with phospholipids in liposomal bilayers were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. (1). The fatty acids bearing the nitroxide spin label at different positions along the acyl chain were used to investigate the interaction of tested compounds with negatively charged multilamellar liposomes. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were studied at 290 and 310 K. The entrapment of the adamantyltripeptides affected the motional properties of all spin labelled lipids, while the entrapment of PGM had no effect. (2). Spin labelled PGM was prepared and the novel compound bearing the spin label attached via the amino group of diaminopimelic acid was chromatographically purified and chemically characterized. The rotational correlation time of the spin labelled molecule dissolved in buffer at pH 7.4 was studied as a function of temperature. The conformational change was observed above 300 K. The same effect was observed with the spin labelled PGM incorporated into liposomes. Such effect was not observed when the spin labelled PGM was studied at alkaline pH, probably due to the hydrolysis of PGM molecule. The study of possible interaction with liposomal membrane is relevant to the use of tested compounds incorporated into liposomes, as adjuvants in vivo.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis to determine entrapment efficiency of a nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with piroxicam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Otarola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast capillary electrophoresis method has been developed to determine the amount of piroxicam loaded in a drug delivery system based on nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs. The entrapment efficiency of the nanostructured lipid carrier was estimated by measuring the concentration of drug not entrapped in a suspension of NLC. The influence of different parameters on migration times, peak symmetry, efficiency and resolution was studied; these parameters included the pH of the electrophoretic buffer solution and the applied voltage. The piroxicam peak was obtained with a satisfactory resolution. The separation was carried out using a running buffer composed of 50 mM ammonium acetate and 13.75 mM ammonia at pH 9. The optimal voltage was 20 kV and the cartridge temperature was 20 °C. The corresponding calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.7–5.4 µg/mL of NLC suspension. The reproducibility of migration time and peak area were investigated, and the obtained RSD% values (n=5 were 0.99 and 2.13, respectively. Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Drug delivery system, Nanostructured lipid carrier, Piroxicam

  13. Lactose hydrolysis by free and fibre-entrapped β-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhennai Yang

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available To study lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase, this enzyme was produced from Streptococcus thermophilus strain 11F and partially purified by acetone and ammonium sulphate fractionation, and ion exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column. Lactose hydrolysis by the enzyme was affected by lactose concentrations, sugars and milk proteins. The maximum extent of lactose hydrolysis in buffer was obtained with a 15% lactose concentration. Addition of 2% of lactose, glucose, galactose or sucrose in milk inhibited the enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzyme was activated by bovine serum albumin and a combination of αs-casein and β-casein. Of the casein fractions, the principal fraction, αs-casein, was less effective than β-casein and κ-casein. The fibre entrapped enzyme had a temperature optimum of 57°C, and a pH optimum from 7.5 to at least 9.0 with O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. By recycling with whey and skim milk through a jacketed glass column (1.6 cm x 30 cm loaded with fibre-entrapped enzyme at 55°C, a lactose hydrolysis of 49.5% and 47.9% was achieved in 11 h and 7 h respectively.

  14. Inhibitory effect of Lentinan entrapped in liposomes on hepatic metastasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, I.; Masuyama, K.; Yoshida, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Kasagi, T.; Tazawa, K.; Fujimaki, M.; Kawagoshi, T.; Maeda, M.; Honda, T.; Ochiai, H.

    1988-01-01

    Using the technique of Drug Delivery System, we experimentally attempted to examine whether the preventive i.v. administration of BRM entrapped in liposomes is useful or not for the cancer metastasis to the liver. As a BRM, we used Lentinan. The liposome used as a carrier in our study showed high stability both in vivo and in vitro with the mol ratio of phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol of 1. Also, high accumulation to reticuloendothelial system was evidenced. NK cell activity in the spleen and the liver on the day of the administration of AH60C hepatoma cells (2x10 6 cells) was higher by 1.3-2.3 times than those of the other groups. The survival ratio of tumor cells in the liver 8 h of tumor cells administration was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in the other groups. Rats with cancer metastasis to the liver on 30th day after the tumor cells administration were significantly decreased (P<0.01). These results suggested the usefulness of the i.v. administration of Lentinan entrapped in liposomes. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Air Gap Entrapped in Firefighter Protective Clothing on Thermal Resistance and Evaporative Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Hualing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and water vapor transfer behavior of thermal protective clothing is greatly influenced by the air gap entrapped in multilayer fabric system. In this study, a sweating hot plate method was used to investigate the effect of air gap position and size on thermal resistance and evaporative resistance of firefighter clothing under a range of ambient temperature and humidity. Results indicated that the presence of air gap in multilayer fabric system decreased heat and water vapor transfer abilities under normal wear. Moreover, the air gap position slightly influenced the thermal and evaporative performances of the firefighter clothing. In this study, the multilayer fabric system obtained the highest thermal resistance, when the air space was located at position B. Furthermore, the effect of ambient temperature on heat and water vapor transfer properties of the multilayer fabric system was also investigated in the presence of a specific air gap. It was indicated that ambient temperature did not influence the evaporative resistance of thermal protective clothing. A thermographic image was used to test the surface temperature of multilayer fabric system when an air gap was incorporated. These results suggested that a certain air gap entrapped in thermal protective clothing system could affect wear comfort.

  16. Comparison of the internalization of targeted dendrimers and dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles into cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Su He; Lee, Inhan; Shen, Mingwu; Baker, James R

    2009-11-01

    Dendrimer-based nanotechnology significantly advances the area of targeted cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, we compared the difference of surface acetylated fluorescein isocyanate (FI) and folic acid (FA) modified generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5.NHAc-FI-FA), and dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles with similar modifications ([(Au(0))(51.2)-G5.NHAc-FI-FA]) in terms of their specific internalization to FA receptor (FAR)-overexpressing cancer cells. Confocal microscopic studies show that both G5.NHAc-FI-FA and [(Au(0))(51.2-)G5.NHAc-FI-FA] exhibit similar internalization kinetics regardless of the existence of Au nanoparticles (NPs). Molecular dynamics simulation of the two different nanostructures reveals that the surface area and the FA moiety distribution from the center of the geometry are slightly different. This slight difference may not be recognized by the FARs on the cell membrane, consequently leading to similar internalization kinetics. This study underlines the fact that metal or inorganic NPs entrapped within dendrimers interact with cells in a similar way to that of dendrimers lacking host NPs. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Grain Entrapment Pressure on the Torso: Can You Breathe while Buried in Grain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin G; Jones, Carol L

    2017-04-26

    The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim. However, other factors, such as the victim's age, gender, and body position in the grain, may influence respiration. The aspiration of grain appears to be the most likely asphyxiation risk during grain bin entrapment. Entering a grain storage bin is inherently dangerous, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines for permit-required confined spaces and grain handling facilities must be followed. Due to the risk of grain aspiration during engulfment, the development of safety equipment that could help protect the airway of a victim should be investigated. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  18. Effects of cell entrapment in Ca-alginate on the metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galazzo, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in suspension have been immobilized in calcium-alginate beads. Fermentation rates and intracellular composition have been determined under nongrowing conditions in these Ca-alginate entrapped cells and for identical cells in suspension. Glucose uptake and ethanol and glycerol production are approximately two times faster in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. Intermediate metabolite levels such as fructose-1,6-diphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate have been determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy under glucose fermenting conditions. Carbon-13 NMR shows an increase in polysaccharide production in immobilized cells. S. cerevisiae cells grown within a Ca-alginate matrix have a specific growth rate 40% lower than the growth rate of similar cells cultivated in suspension. Alginate-grown cells have been used to compare glucose fermentation under nongrowing conditions in suspended and Ca-entrapped cells. Fermentation rate is higher in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. The observed differences in intracellular components between suspended and immobilized cells are qualitatively similar to the differences observed for cells grown in suspension. Ethanol production rate is 2.7 times faster in immobilized alginate-grown cells than in suspended suspension-grown cells

  19. Anatomy of pudendal nerve at urogenital diaphragm--new critical site for nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Stephan; Ebmer, Johannes; Dellon, A Lee; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the relations of the pudendal nerve in this complex anatomic region and determine possible entrapment sites that are accessible for surgical decompression. Entrapment neuropathies of the pudendal nerve are an uncommon and, therefore, often overlooked or misdiagnosed clinical entity. The detailed relations of this nerve as it exits the pelvis through the urogenital diaphragm and enters the mobile part of the penis have not yet been studied. Detailed anatomic dissections were performed in 10 formalin preserved hemipelves under 3.5x loupe magnification. The pudendal nerve was dissected from the entrance into the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. The branching pattern of the nerve and its topographic relationship were recorded and photographs taken. The anatomic dissections revealed that the pudendal nerve passes through a tight osteofibrotic canal just distal to the urogenital diaphragm at the entrance to the base of the penis. This canal is, in part, formed by the inferior ramus of the pubic bone, the suspensory ligament of the penis, and the ischiocavernous body. In two specimens, a fusiform pseudoneuromatous thickening was found. The pudendal nerve is susceptible to compression at the passage from the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. Individuals exposed to repetitive mechanical irritation in this region are especially endangered. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy can have additional compression neuropathy with decreased penile sensibility and will benefit from decompression of the pudendal nerve.

  20. Solution-mediated growth of NBA-ZSM-5 crystals retarded by gel entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson; Akhtar, Farid; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of flat tablet-shaped ZSM-5 crystals from a gel using metakaolin as aluminosilicate source and n-butyl amine as structure directing agent was investigated. The evolution inside the solid phase was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. A kinetic study indicated that the nucleation of the majority crystals occurred concurrently with the formation of the gel upon heating the starting liquid suspension. Microstructural evidences undeniably showed that the gel precipitated on ZSM-5 crystals and mineral impurities originating from kaolin. As a result, crystal growth was retarded by gel entrapment, as indicated by the configuration and morphology of the embedded crystals. The results presented herein are harmonized with a solution-mediated nucleation and growth mechanism. Our observations differ from the autocatalytic model that suggests that the nuclei rest inside the gel until released when the gel is consumed. Our results show instead that it is crystals that formed in an early stage before entrapment inside the gel that rest inside the gel until exposed at the gel surface. These results illustrate the limitation of the classical method used in the field to determine nucleation profiles when the crystals become trapped inside the gel.

  1. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  2. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis presenting severe vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Cihat; Atamaz, Funda Calis; Akkurt, Halil; Akkoc, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The syndrome of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare disorder which occurs either in late pregnancy or early post-partum period leading to fragility fracture(s), most commonly in the vertebral bodies. We presented two cases with PAO who had compression fractures at multiple levels involving five vertebrae in one case and 10 vertebrae in the other. Their spinal bone mineral density values were below -2.5 standard deviations. Anti-osteoporotic treatments with nasal calcitonin 400 IU/day, vitamin D 300.000 IU single dose, calcium 1000 mg/day, vitamin D 880 IU/day were initiated. In one case, kyphoplasty was performed by a spinal surgeon. In addition to a thoracolumbosacral orthosis, a rehabilitation program including muscle strengthening, range of motion, relaxation and weight-bearing exercises was started for both cases. These cases emphasize that all pregnant women with complaints of back/lumbar pain should be carefully evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Anthropometric measurements and vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnell, O; O'Neill, T; Felsenberg, D; Kanis, J; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    1997-08-15

    To investigate the association between anthropometric indices and morphometrically determined vertebral deformity, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study using data from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), a population-based study of vertebral osteoporosis in 36 European centers from 19 countries. A total of 16,047 EVOS subjects were included in this analysis, of whom 1,973 subjects (915 males, 1,058 females) (12.3%) aged 50 years or over had one or more vertebral deformities ("cases"). The cases were compared with the 14,074 subjects (6,539 males, 7,535 females) with morphometrically normal spines ("controls"). Data were collected on self-reported height at age 25 years and minimum weight after age 25 years, as well as on current measured height and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and height and weight change were calculated from these data. The relations between these variables and vertebral deformity were examined separately by sex with logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. In females, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing quintile of current weight, current BMI, and weight gain since age 25 years. In males, subjects in the lightest quintile for these measures were at increased risk but there was no evidence of a trend. An ecologic analysis by country revealed a negative correlation between mean BMI and the prevalence of deformity in females but not in males. The authors conclude that low body weight is associated with presence of vertebral deformity.

  4. Osteogenesis imperfecta with joint contractures: Bruck syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacksin, M.F. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 150 Bergen St., Rm. C320, Newark, NJ 07103-2426 (United States); Pletcher, B.A. [Center for Human and Molecular Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey (United States); David, M. [Department of Radiology, Newark-Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    1998-02-01

    We describe an Egyptian boy with osteogenesis imperfecta who was born with thumb contractures and bilateral antecubital pterygia. He was seen at 16 months of age with femur and tibial fractures, thoracic vertebral compression fractures, scoliosis and Wormian bones. The findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Bruck syndrome. (orig.) With 1 fig., 5 refs.

  5. Osteogenesis imperfecta with joint contractures: Bruck syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacksin, M.F.; Pletcher, B.A.; David, M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an Egyptian boy with osteogenesis imperfecta who was born with thumb contractures and bilateral antecubital pterygia. He was seen at 16 months of age with femur and tibial fractures, thoracic vertebral compression fractures, scoliosis and Wormian bones. The findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Bruck syndrome. (orig.)

  6. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Marcia, S.; Guarnieri, G.; Pereira, V.

    2015-01-01

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications

  7. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  8. Evaluation on vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures by MRI and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yu; Shen Huiliang; Fang Xiutong; Zhang Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with acute or sub-acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVC-F) by MRI, and to provide basis for diagnosis of OVCF. Methods: The clinical data of a total of 66 patients with OVCF underwent vertebroplasty (76 fracture of vertebral bodies) were selected. The vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of OVCF patients were detected by MRI. Results: There were 57 vertebral endplate injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (75% ). There were only 27 vertebral bodies with vertebral endplate injury in 57 fracture vertebral bodies with endplate injury (47% ), and 22 vertebral with superior and inferior vertebral endplate injury (39% ), and 8 vertebral bodies with inferior vertebral endplate injury (14% ). There were 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (63% ). There were 22 intervertebral disc injury located above the fracture of the lumbar spine in 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury (45% ), and 19 fracture vertebral bodies with upper and lower intervertebral disc injury (40% ), and 7 intervertebral injuries located below the fracture of the lumbar spine (15% ). Conclusion: Vertebral endplate injury is frequently associated with the adjacent intervertebral disk injury. The clinical diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized in the fracture vertebral endplate damage and adjacent intervertebral disc injury. (authors)

  9. Modulación del crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación hemicircunferencial vertebral asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero García, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro trabajo está basado en la posibilidad de controlar el desarrollo asimétrico de los cartílagos de crecimiento vertebral, mediante la realización de una fisiodesis hemivertebral, con electrocoagulación, videoasistida por toracoscópica. Se realizará en cinco niveles torácicos, con un abordaje anterior mínimamente invasivo. Por lo tanto, planteamos como hipótesis de trabajo que La destrucción de las fisis de crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación, videoasistida por vía toracosc...

  10. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lethal Progressive Thoracic Insufficiency in a Neonate Due to Jarcho Levin Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Euden; Maria, Arti; Verma, Arushi; Sethi, Sidharth Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A rare case of Jarcho Levin syndrome (JLS) presenting as a lethal progressive respiratory insufficiency in early neonatal period is reported. The neonate had classical features of this syndrome including vertebral segmentation defects, typical costo-vertebral fusion defects and scoliosis resulting in small thoracic volume and limited chest expansion; all consistent with a clinical diagnosis of JLS with thoracic insufficiency. In addition, our case had a rare association of dextrocardia and acyanotic congenital heart disease. PMID:24741543

  12. Robinow Syndrome: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Soman, Cristalle; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Robinow syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder. Short-limbed dwarfism, abnormalities in the head, face, and external genitalia, as well as vertebral defects comprise its distinct features. This disorder exists in dominant and recessive patterns. Patients with the dominant pattern exhibit moderate symptoms. More physical characteristics and skeletal abnormalities characterize the recessive group. The syndrome is also known as Robinow-Silverman-Smith syndrome, Robinow dwarfism,...

  13. Proximal balloon deflation technique: a novel method to retrieve retained or entrapped equipment from the coronary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikaga, Takashi; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2012-01-01

    Complications of retained or entrapped equipment in the coronary system are still encountered during angioplasty procedures. Although these complications are rare, it is extremely difficult to retrieve such equipments. We report on two cases that a retained IVUS catheter or an entrapped filter wire were retrieved from the coronary system using more simplified technique that does not involve in the usage of snare or any other retrieval tool. After placing an additional guidewire and balloon alongside an equipment, it was easily retrieved from the coronary system just after the proximal balloon deflation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Extra Luminal Entrapment of Guide Wire; A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Placement in Right Internal Jugular Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Md Abu Masud; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Shailesh; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Central venous Catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure for venous access. It is associated with several complications. We report a rare case of extra luminal entrapment of guide wire during CVC placement in right jugular vein. We report a case of 28 years old female patient presented in our emergency with history of entrapped guide wire in right side of neck during CVC. X-ray showed coiling of guide wire in neck. CT Angiography showed guide wire coursing in between common caro...

  15. Cerebro-costo-mandibular Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, B.; Egan-Mitchell, B.; Murray, J. P.; Doyle, J. F.; Kennedy, J. D.; Crome, L.

    1970-01-01

    Three sibs with a hitherto unreported syndrome are described, the main features being mental handicap, palatal defects, micrognathia, and severe costovertebral defects, involving segmentation of most ribs and fusion of their dorsal ends to the vertebral bodies. In addition one infant had hypoplasia of an elbow together with defects of sacrum and coccyx; she and one other sib had minor dental defects. The syndrome is potentially lethal in the neonatal period; one of the sibs has survived. The inheritance is probably autosomal recessive. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:5427859

  16. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data

  17. [Development and application of artificial vertebral body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Zheng-Chao; Niu, Bin-Bin; Li, Yu-Huan; He, Xi-Jing

    2017-12-25

    Artificial vertebral body has achieved good results in treating spinal tumors, tuberculosis, fracture and other diseases. Currently, artificial vertebral body with variety of kinds and pros and cons, is generally divided into two types: fusion type and movable type. The former according to whether the height could be adjusted and strength of self-stability is divided into three types: support-fixed type, adjust-fixed type and self-fixed type. Whether the height of self-fixed type could be adjusted is dependent on structure of collar thread rotation. The latter is due to mobile device of ball-and-socket joints or hollow structures instead of the disc which retains the activity of the spine to some extent. Materials of artificial vertebral body include metals, ceramics, biomaterials, polymer composites and other materials. Titanium with a dominant role in the metal has developed to the third generation, but there are still defects such as poor surface bioactivity; ceramics with the representative of hydroxyapatite composite, magnetic bioceramics, polycrystalline alumina ceramics and so on, which have the defects of processing complex and uneven mechanical properties; biological material is mainly dominated by xenogeneic bone, which is closest to human bone in structure and properties, but has defects of low toughness and complex production; polymer composites according to biological characteristics in general consists of biodegradable type and non-biodegradable type which are respectively represented by poly-lactide and polyethylene, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although the design and materials of prosthesis have made great progress, it is difficult to fully meet requirements of spinal implants and they need be further optimized. 3D printing technology makes process of the complex structure of prosthesis and individual customization possible and has broad development prospects. However, long production cycles and high cost of defect should be overcome

  18. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  19. Homology in vertebrates bone mineral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdehmbehrehl, G.; Chultehm, D.; Sangaa, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using the neutron diffraction method a domination of low crystal syngonic (sp. gr. P63/m) phase Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (OH, F, Cl) in bull and sheep bones as well as in the fossil dinosaur bone has been established and crystal phases in all the bones have identical structure (homology). The result becomes to be an important contribution to fundamental science such as biological evolution and to be useful in medical practice and solution of radiobiological problems connected with vertebrates and man. (author)

  20. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  1. Vertebral morphometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a key feature of overt osteoporosis. Different X-ray morphometric techniques have been developed for quantification of changes in vertebral body shape. In recent years, a new method was implemented based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry, MXA, is a source of lower radiation and there is no image distortion. Several aspects of its application are under heavy discussion: image quality, accuracy and precision, reference databases, age changes in vertebral shape. The differential diagnosis of vertebral fracture/deformity is difficult. MXA has prove its value in large epidemiological studies on prevalence of vertebral deformities, as well in assessing the effects of different diseases and medications on vertebral body architecture. MXA is a promising method for future research and clinical work. (author)

  2. CT and MRI characteristics of vertebral tuberculosis (34 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenbing; Liao Qinghou; Wu Shiqiang; Huang Tao; Deng Yufang; Liu Jianming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore CT and MRI characteristics of vertebral tuberculosis. Methods: 34 patients with vertebral tuberculosis proved by clinic or pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Of these patients, 20 were performed with CT examination and 24 with MRI, 10 with both CT and MRI. The results were compared mutually. Results: The CT features of vertebral tuberculosis were bone destruction, paraspinal abscess, spinal canal involvement. The MRI features of vertebral tuberculosis were bone destruction, intervertebral disc destruction, paraspinal abscess, spinal canal involvement, sub-ligamental spread. Conclusion: Vertebral tuberculosis showed multiple characteristics on CT and MRI. CT is useful in showing sequester and calcification, and MRI is useful in showing sub-ligamental spread, epidural and spinal cord involvement. Combining CT with and MRI is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vertebral tuberculosis. (authors)

  3. Anesthetic management in a pediatric patient with Noonan syndrome, hypopituitarism and hypothyroidism: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Yektaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome is a genetically transmitted autosomaldominant disorder characterized by various anatomicanomalies and pathophysiologic derangements. Associatedanomalies include hyperthelorism, ptosis, micrognathia,downward sloping palpebral fissures, low-set ears,abnormal helix of ear, deeply grooved philtrum, short and/or webbed neck, low hairline and cervical vertebral anomalies.Patients with Noonan syndrome are known to presentwith challenging airways. Tracheal intubation can bedifficult because of airway and cervical vertebral anomaliesand bag mask ventilation may be difficult because ofasymmetrical face. We present a case of anesthetic managementfor Noonan syndrome. J Clin Exp Invest 2013;4 (2: 238-241Key words: Anesthesia, general, noonan syndrome, airwaymanagement

  4. The effect of air entrapment on the performance of squeeze film dampers: Experiments and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Briceno, Sergio Enrique

    Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are an effective means to introduce the required damping in rotor-bearing systems. They are a standard application in jet engines and are commonly used in industrial compressors. Yet, lack of understanding of their operation has confined the design of SFDs to a costly trial and error process based on prior experience. The main factor deterring the success of analytical models for the prediction of SFDs' performance lays on the modeling of the dynamic film rupture. Usually, the cavitation models developed for journal bearings are applied to SFDs. Yet, the characteristic motion of the SFD results in the entrapment of air into the oil film, thus producing a bubbly mixture that can not be represented by these models. In this work, an extensive experimental study establishes qualitatively and---for the first time---quantitatively the differences between operation with vapor cavitation and with air entrainment. The experiments show that most operating conditions lead to air entrainment and demonstrate the paramount effect it has on the performance of SFDs, evidencing the limitation of currently available models. Further experiments address the operation of SFDs with controlled bubbly mixtures. These experiments bolster the possibility of modeling air entrapment by representing the lubricant as a homogeneous mixture of air and oil and provide a reliable data base for benchmarking such a model. An analytical model is developed based on a homogeneous mixture assumption and where the bubbles are described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Good agreement is obtained between this model and the measurements performed in the SFD operating with controlled mixtures. A complementary analytical model is devised to estimate the amount of air entrained from the balance of axial flows in the film. A combination of the analytical models for prediction of the air volume fraction and of the hydrodynamic pressures renders promising results for prediction of the

  5. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kevin J.; Ross, E. Raymond S.; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N.

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had e...

  6. Facet joint syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigrai, M.; Zakovic, J.; Brezinova, M.; Pavlovicova, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to demonstrate the clinical relevance of degenerative changes in the facet joint of patients with low back pain irradiating to the lower extremities, and discuss some problems relating to diagnosis and different diagnosis. 119 patients presenting the listed bellow syndromes are covered by the study: scoliosis, polytopic pain vertebral syndrome, paresis and history of trauma. all patients undergo comprehensive neurological examination with special attention focused on the spine: CT and plain x-rays are taken of the lumbosacral segment to assess the condition of the facet joints. The neurological examination demonstrates in all cases pain syndrome in the lumbar spine referred to one or both lower extremities. In 56% it is a matter of persisting pain, and in 44% - recurrent. More than half of the patients complain of sacroiliac (SI) dislocation and palpatory pain. Unilateral or bilateral degenerative changes are documented by imaging studies in all patients, including: subchondral thickening, osteopathy narrowing the lateral or central part of the spinal canal with ensuing nerve root compression. The lumbosacral zygoapophyseal joints are source of pseudoradicular pain. A correlation between clinical picture and GT changes is noted in all patients with facet joint syndrome. CT is an indispensable method in diagnosing facet joint syndrome. (authors)

  7. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  8. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  9. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vertebral metastases: characteristic MRI findings due to epidural carcinomatous inflitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzelmann, A.; Palmie, S.; Freund, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In cases of lumbar vertebral metastasis associated with anterior epidural carcinomatous infiltration, we have observed that infiltrations tend to respect the midline. This study led to the systematic recognition of these phenomena in vertebral metastases. Materials and Methods: 11 Patients with 17 vertebral metastases and adjacent anterior epidural infiltration were reviewed retrospectively. All cases were studied by MRI. The routinely used imaging technique included spin echo (SE) T 1 and T 2 weighted sequences in the sagittal plane native and T 1 -SE without and with Gd-DTPA in the axial planes. The radiological findings of these phenomena and the anatomy were studied. Results: We observed these phenomena to be uni- or bilateral in 88.3% of all cases with intraspinal anterior epidural carcinomatous infiltration, especially in that part of the vertebral body where the basal vertebral venous plexus was located. Conclusion: We conclude that vertebral metastases respect the midline. We interpret this fact as being due the anatomy of the vertebral body and especially its stabilization by the posterior longitudinal ligament. These findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of vertebral body metastases with epidural infiltration in contrast to intraspinal processes which proceed with the destruction of the vertebral body. (orig.) [de

  11. Use of cervical vertebral dimensions for assessment of children growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal maturation using cephalometric radiographs could be used in a Brazilian population. The study population was selected from the files of the Oral Radiological Clinic of the Dental School of Piracicaba, Brazil and consisted of 128 girls and 110 boys (7.0 to 15.9 years old) who had cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs taken on the same day. Cervical vertebral bone age was evaluated using the method described by Mito and colleagues in 2002. Bone age was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW3) method and was used as a gold standard to determine the reliability of cervical vertebral bone age. An analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, bone age and chronological age at 5% significance level. The analysis of the Brazilian female children data showed that there was a statistically significant difference (pcervical vertebral bone age and chronological age and between bone age and chronological age. However no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age. Differently, the analysis of the male children data revealed a statistically significant difference (pcervical vertebral bone age and bone age and between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (pmaturation on cephalometric radiographs by determination of vertebral bone age can be applied to Brazilian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical vertebral bone age in males is needed.

  12. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  13. [A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  15. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  16. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  17. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  18. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  19. Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Billie-Jean; Burnside, Girvan; Harrison, Jayne E

    2016-07-01

    Growth and its prediction are important for the success of many orthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. A group of 20 orthodontic clinicians, inexperienced in CVM staging, was trained to use the improved version of the CVM method for the assessment of mandibular growth with a teaching program. They independently assessed 72 consecutive lateral cephalograms, taken at Liverpool University Dental Hospital, on 2 occasions. The cephalograms were presented in 2 different random orders and interspersed with 11 additional images for standardization. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were evaluated using the weighted kappa statistic. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were substantial (weighted kappa, 0.6-0.8). The overall intraobserver agreement was 0.70 (SE, 0.01), with average agreement of 89%. The interobserver agreement values were 0.68 (SE, 0.03) for phase 1 and 0.66 (SE, 0.03) for phase 2, with average interobserver agreement of 88%. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values of classifying the vertebral stages with the CVM method were substantial. These findings demonstrate that this method of CVM classification is reproducible and reliable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplast after entrapment within reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Dubey, R.S. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Biochemistry; Pandey, K.D. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    1999-08-01

    Reverse micelles were used for the enhanced rate of photoproduction of hydrogen using the coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplasts organelles. Different combinations of organic solvents and surfactants were used for generating reverse micelles. A several fold enhancement in the rate of H{sub 2} production was observed when the coupled system was entrapped within reverse micelles as compared to the aqueous suspension where no detectable H{sub 2} was produced. The coupled system immobilized in reverse micelles formed by sodium lauryl sulfate and carbon tetrachloride yielded maximum rate of H{sub 2} evolution. The optimum temperature for such hydrogen production was 40{sup o}C using light of 520-570 nm wavelength and 100 lux intensity. (author)

  1. Enzyme entrapment in polyaniline films observed via fluorescence anisotropy and antiquenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis R.; McCaffrey, Marisa; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    The facile entrapment of oxidoreductase enzymes within polyaniline polymer films by inducing hydrophobic collapse using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) has been shown to be a cost-effective method for fabricating organic biosensors. Here, we use fluorescence anisotropy measurements to verify enzyme immobilization and subsequent electron donation to the polymer matrix, both prerequisites for an effective biosensor. Specifically, we measure a three order of magnitude decrease in the ratio of the fluorescence to rotational lifetimes. In addition, the observed fluorescence antiquenching supports the previously proposed model that the polymer chain assumes a severely coiled conformation when exposed to PBS. These results help to empirically reinforce the theoretical basis previously laid out for this biosensing platform.

  2. Optimisation of entrapped activated carbon conditions to remove coloured compounds from winery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa-Rey, R; Bustos, G; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the entrapped conditions of activated carbon in calcium-alginate beads for the clarification of winery wastewaters. An incomplete 3(3) factorial design was carried out to study the efficiency of activated carbon (0.5-2%); sodium alginate (1-5%); and calcium chloride (0.050-0.900 M), on the following dependent variables: colour reduction at 280, 465, 530 and 665 nm. The activated carbon and calcium chloride were the most influential variables in the colour reduction. Nearly 100% colour reductions were found for the wavelengths assayed when employing 2% of activated carbon, 5% of sodium alginate and intermediate concentrations of calcium chloride (0.475 M). Instead, other conditions like, 2% of activated carbon, 4% of sodium alginate and 0.580 M of calcium chloride can also give absorbance reductions close to 100%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MAGNOLOL ENTRAPPED ULTRA-FINE FIBROUS MATS ELECTROSPUN FROM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-b-POLY(L-LACTIDE) AND IN VITRO RELEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Hong-rui Song; Yong Cui; Ying-jie Deng; Xue-si Chen

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-fine fibrous mats with magnolol entrapped have been prepared by electrospinning biodegradable copolymer poly(ethylene glycol) blocked poly(L-lactide). Drug entrapment was perfect which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. According to in vitro drug release investigation by high performance liquid chromatography, it was found that fibers with 10%, 20% and 30% drug entrapped respect to polymer (mass ratio) presented dramatically different drug release behavior and degradation behavior under the effect of proteinase K. The reason may be that fibers with 10% drug entrapped was more easily affected by enzyme while, to some degree, magnolol in fibers with 20% and 30% entrapped prevented polymer from being degraded by enzyme.

  4. Comparative Study between topical applications liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes and thymidine dinucleotide as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The delivery of active agents to the skin by liposome carriers received great interest during the last three decades. This is based on their potential to enclose various types of biological materials and to deliver them to diverse cell types. Recent work suggests that liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery may be superior to conventional preparations. Also, topical application of DNA repair enzymes to irradiated skin increases the rate of repair of DNA potentially damaged cells. Moreover, thymidine dinucleotide is a new skin photo-protective agent against non-ionizing radiation through induction of DNA repair. Gamma irradiation can produce DNA damage in human skin. DNA mutations have an important role in the development of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions. Albino rats were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation with different doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 Gy), and were treated by either thymidine dinucleotide or liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes topically 24 hours before irradiation. Evaluation was done histopathologically by H and E stain. Computerized image analyzer using Masson's trichrome stain was also done. Gamma radiation produced epidermal thinning and dermal inflammatory cells together with collagen fragmentation and clumping in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing between both thymidine dinucleotide and liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes pretreated and irradiated rats. Low dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) together with previous drugs showed preservation of epidermis with no inflammatory cells and also it maintained the normal architecture of collagen bundles. However, they were ineffective with higher doses. In conclusion our results may suggest that the effects of gamma radiation on the skin at low dose could be minimized by the use of these drugs before exposure

  5. Preferential localization of Lactococcus lactis cells entrapped in a caseinate/alginate phase separated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Lucie; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ouaali, Fahima; Degraeve, Pascal; Waché, Yves; Saurel, Rémi; Oulahal, Nadia

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to entrap bioprotective lactic acid bacteria in a sodium caseinate/sodium alginate aqueous two-phase system. Phase diagram at pH=7 showed that sodium alginate and sodium caseinate were not miscible when their concentrations exceeded 1% (w/w) and 6% (w/w), respectively. The stability of the caseinate/alginate two-phase system was also checked at pH values of 6.0 and 5.5. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LAB3 cells were added in a 4% (w/w) caseinate/1.5% (w/w) alginate two-phase system at pH=7. Fluorescence microscopy allowed to observe that the caseinate-rich phase formed droplets dispersed in a continuous alginate-rich phase. The distribution of bacteria in such a system was observed by epifluorescence microscopy: Lc. lactis LAB3 cells stained with Live/Dead(®) Baclight kit™ were located exclusively in the protein phase. Since zeta-potential measurements indicated that alginate, caseinate and bacterial cells all had an overall negative charge at pH 7, the preferential adhesion of LAB cells was assumed to be driven by hydrophobic effect or by depletion phenomena in such biopolymeric systems. Moreover, LAB cells viability was significantly higher in the ternary mixture obtained in the presence of both caseinate and alginate than in single alginate solution. Caseinate/alginate phase separated systems appeared thus well suited for Lc. lactis LAB3 cells entrapment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida [Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Faculty of Science and Technology (Thailand); Sabliov, Cristina M., E-mail: CSabliov@agcenter.lsu.edu [Louisiana State University and LSU AgCenter, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  7. Single molecule studies of solvent-dependent diffusion and entrapment in poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jeffrey J; Culbertson, Christopher T; Higgins, Daniel A

    2008-12-15

    Single molecule microscopic and spectroscopic methods are employed to probe the mobility and physical entrapment of dye molecules in dry and solvent-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films. PDMS films of approximately 220 nm thickness are prepared by spin casting dilute solutions of Sylgard 184 onto glass coverslips, followed by low temperature curing. A perylene diimide dye (BPPDI) is used to probe diffusion and molecule-matrix interactions. Two classes of dye-loaded samples are investigated: (i) those incorporating dye dispersed throughout the films ("in film" samples) and (ii) those in which the dye is restricted primarily to the PDMS surface ("on film" samples). Experiments are performed under dry nitrogen and at various levels of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) loading from the vapor phase. A PDMS-coated quartz-crystal microbalance is employed to monitor solvent loading and drying of the PDMS and to ensure equilibrium conditions are achieved. Single molecules are shown to be predominantly immobile under dry conditions and mostly mobile under IPA-saturated conditions. Quantitative methods for counting the fluorescent spots produced by immobile single molecules in optical images of the samples demonstrate that the population of mobile molecules increases nonlinearly with IPA loading. Even under IPA saturated conditions, the population of fixed molecules is found to be greater than zero and is greatest for "in film" samples. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient for the mobile molecules, yielding a mean value of D = 1.4(+/-0.4) x 10(-8) cm(2)/s that is virtually independent of IPA loading and sample class. It is concluded that a nonzero population of dye molecules is physically entrapped within the PDMS matrix under all conditions. The increase in the population of mobile molecules under high IPA conditions is attributed to the filling of film micropores with solvent, rather than by incorporation of molecularly

  8. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-02-01

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  9. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ("1H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  10. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  11. Modelling lateral entrapment of suspended sediment in estuaries : The role of spatial lags in settling and M4 tidal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhongyong; de Swart, Huib E.; Cheng, Heqin; Jiang, Chenjuan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the joint action of M2 and M4 tidal flow, residual flow and spatial settling lag on the lateral entrapment of sediment is examined in tidally dominated estuaries with an idealized model that assumes along-estuary uniform conditions. Approximate solutions are obtained for arbitrary

  12. CT evaluation of extensor tendon entrapment as a complication of a distal radial fracture in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frawley, Kieran J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Cornwall, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extensor indicis proprius (EIP) entrapment is a rare complication of a distal radial fracture. We report an 11-year-old with limited flexion of her index finger 1 year after a distal radial fracture. The utility of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis and preoperative planning of this complication is presented. (orig.)

  13. Defeat and entrapment: more than meets the eye? Applying network analysis to estimate dimensions of highly correlated constructs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forkmann, T.; Teismann, T.; Stenzel, J.S.; Glaesmer, H.; Beurs, D. de

    2018-01-01

    Background: Defeat and entrapment have been shown to be of central relevance to the development of different disorders. However, it remains unclear whether they represent two distinct constructs or one overall latent variable. One reason for the unclarity is that traditional factor analytic

  14. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean ± standard error cement volume was 5.1 ± 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of o vs. -1.0 ± 2.7 o , P o , P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 ± 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  15. Fanconi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  16. Duane Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...

  17. Light adaptation and the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-07-15

    Lamprey are cyclostomes, a group of vertebrates that diverged from lines leading to jawed vertebrates (including mammals) in the late Cambrian, 500 million years ago. It may therefore be possible to infer properties of photoreceptors in early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We show that lamprey rods and cones respond to light much like rods and cones in amphibians and mammals. They operate over a similar range of light intensities and adapt to backgrounds and bleaches nearly identically. These correspondences are pervasive and detailed; they argue for the presence of rods and cones very early in the evolution of vertebrates with properties much like those of rods and cones in existing vertebrate species. The earliest vertebrates were agnathans - fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We have previously shown that rods and cones in lamprey respond to light much like photoreceptors in other vertebrates and have a similar sensitivity. We now show that these affinities are even closer. Both rods and cones adapt to background light and to bleaches in a manner almost identical to other vertebrate photoreceptors. The operating range in darkness is nearly the same in lamprey and in amphibian or mammalian rods and cones; moreover background light shifts response-intensity curves downward and to the right over a similar range of ambient intensities. Rods show increment saturation at about the same intensity as mammalian rods, and cones never saturate. Bleaches decrease

  18. Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more

  19. Partial subclavian steal syndrome in a congenitally anomalous subclavian artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnic, A.; Sucic, Z.; Vucic, N.; Krolo, I.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A subclavian steal syndrome results from the abnormal flow of blood due to the occlusion in the subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. A case of a male patient with a partial subclavian steal syndrome is presented. Case report. The syndrome was caused by a stenotic lesion of an aberrant right subclavian artery (the so called lusorian artery). The partial subclavian steal was recognized using the duplex ultrasound which showed the to and fro pattern in the right vertebral artery. Angiography of the aortic arch revealed the arterial anomaly. In our case, duplex ultrasound was a crucial method in diagnosing the partial subclavian steal syndrome. However, in order to show the arterial anomaly, the final evaluation had to be performed using arteriography. Conclusions. The early recognized partial subclavian steal syndrome provides good understanding of patient's symptoms, successful follow up, and a variety of treatment options. (author)

  20. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  1. Poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol for antimicrobial delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde are natural compounds known to be highly effective antimicrobials; however, both are hydrophobic molecules, a limitation to their use within the food industry. The goal of this study was to synthesize spherical poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde for future antimicrobial delivery applications. The emulsion evaporation method was used to form the nanoparticles in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a surfactant. The inclusion of antimicrobial compounds into the PLGA nanoparticles was accomplished in the organic phase. Synthesis was followed by ultrafiltration (performed to eliminate the excess of PVA and antimicrobial compound) and freeze-drying. The nanoparticles were characterized by their shape, size, entrapment efficiency, and antimicrobial efficiency. The entrapment efficiency for eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde was approximately 98% and 92%, respectively. Controlled release experiments conducted in vitro at 37 °C and 100 rpm for 72 h showed an initial burst followed by a slower rate of release of the antimicrobial entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. All loaded nanoparticles formulations proved to be efficient in inhibiting growth of Salmonella spp. (Gram-negative bacterium) and Listeria spp. (Gram-positive bacterium) with concentrations ranging from 20 to 10 mg/mL. Results suggest that the application of these antimicrobial nanoparticles in food systems may be effective at inhibiting specific pathogens. Nanoencapsulation of lipophilic antimicrobial compounds has great potential for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of delivery in food systems. This study consisted of synthesizing PLGA nanoparticles with entrapped eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde. By characterizing these new delivery systems, one can understand the controlled-release mechanism and antimicrobial efficiency that provides a foundation that will enable food manufacturers to design

  2. Entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein in high-performance affinity columns for drug-protein binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cong; Jackson, Abby; Vargas-Badilla, John; Li, Rong; Rada, Giana; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Hage, David S

    2016-05-15

    A slurry-based method was developed for the entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for use in high-performance affinity chromatography to study drug interactions with this serum protein. Entrapment was achieved based on the physical containment of AGP in hydrazide-activated porous silica supports and by using mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. The conditions needed for this process were examined and optimized. When this type of AGP column was used in binding studies, the association equilibrium constant (Ka) measured by frontal analysis at pH 7.4 and 37°C for carbamazepine with AGP was found to be 1.0 (±0.5)×10(5)M(-1), which agreed with a previously reported value of 1.0 (±0.1)×10(5)M(-1). Binding studies based on zonal elution were conducted for several other drugs with such columns, giving equilibrium constants that were consistent with literature values. An entrapped AGP column was also used in combination with a column containing entrapped HSA in a screening assay format to compare the binding of various drugs to AGP and HSA. These results also agreed with previous data that have been reported in literature for both of these proteins. The same entrapment method could be extended to other proteins and to the investigation of additional types of drug-protein interactions. Potential applications include the rapid quantitative analysis of biological interactions and the high-throughput screening of drug candidates for their binding to a given protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  4. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  5. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...... organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.......The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most...

  6. Reconstruction techniques in the treatment of vertebral neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Boriani, S; Casadei, R; Bandiera, S; De Iure, F; Campanacci, L; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Di Fiore, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a new system for the topographical description of vertebral neoplasms. The general criteria of reconstruction after curettage or vertebral resection are evaluated. The literature is reviewed in terms of the use of prostheses, bone grafts, cement and stabilization systems in the treatment of tumors of the spine. Indications for the different methods are discussed.

  7. Vertebral fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the relationship between roentgenological deformities of the vertebral column and clinical manifestations of vertebral fractures in patients with RA, treated with glucocorticosteroids (Cs). In all outpatients of Utrecht University Hospital with RA, who were currently using Cs (n = 52),

  8. Preoperative MRI evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Wu Chungen; Li Minghua; Li Yuehua; Gu Yifeng; Cheng Yongde

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging examination in guiding the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: A total of 286 patients with vertebral hemangiomas detected on spine MRI in authors' Department were enrolled in this study. The patient's age, the lesion's size and location, the clinical symptoms, MRI findings, etc. were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 336 vertebral bodies were affected in 286 patients. The lesions were mainly located at the lumbar spine (43.15%) and the thoracic spine (37.80%). The highest incidence of disease was seen in 50-59 years old patients (34.62%). The mean diameter of the lesions was 14.56 mm. Solitary lesion was seen in 85.66% of patients, while two vertebral bodies involved were seen in 10.14% of patients. Twelve cases (4.20%) simply presented as back pain at the related vertebral bodies. Two patients showed signs due to spinal cord compression. All aggressive vertebral hemangiomas were manifested as iso-lower signal on T1-weighted images and higher signal on T2-weighted images. Simple PVP was performed in 4 cases, and subtotal tumor excision together with PVP was carried out in two patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Conclusion: Evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas with MRI performed prior to percutaneous vertebroplasty is very helpful in guiding the selection of therapeutic scheme. (authors)

  9. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  10. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  11. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....84 Special rules—vertebrates. (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). (1) The...

  12. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  13. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertebral artery injury in all patients who have fractures involving the transverse foraminae of the cervical spine, those with facet joint dislocations, and those with fractures involving the first to the third cervical vertebrae. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury using CTA in ...

  15. Correlation between cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rahimi, Hoda

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the skeletal maturation is extremely important in clinical orthodontics. Cervical vertebral maturation is an effective diagnostic tool for determining the adolescent growth spurt. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages.

  16. Median sternotomy and ventral stabilisation using pins and polymethylmethacrylate for a comminuted T5 vertebral fracture in a Miniature Schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, L P; Allman, D A

    2011-01-01

    A 2.9 kg Miniature Schnauzer was referred to our clinic, the Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Service at the Michigan State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, following a dog fight. Physical examination findings upon admission included multiple thoracic wounds, absence of hindlimb deep pain, and marked Schiff-Sherrington syndrome. Computed tomography imaging revealed thoracic wall penetration and a comminuted T5 vertebral fracture. Thoracic exploration and thoracic wall repair were performed through a median sternotomy. The vertebral fracture was exposed and stabilised intra-thoracically through the same approach using pins and polymethylmethacrylate. The pins were placed percutaneously into the vertebral bodies of the adjacent vertebrae. Recovery was uncomplicated and fracture healing was documented eight weeks postoperatively. Spinal trauma secondary to dog fights is relatively common. The presence of concurrent penetrating thoracic injury negatively affects prognosis and necessitates thoracic exploration as soon as feasible. The approach should allow complete thoracic exploration to repair parietal and visceral damage, thus indicating the need for median sternotomy rather than an intercostal approach. The present case report suggested that median sternotomy can be used to safely apply stabilisation devices for the treatment of concurrent spinal trauma. Direct visualisation of the vertebral bodies permitted optimal implant anchorage as compared to potentially more hazardous techniques such as dorsal pinning.

  17. The relationship between low bone mass and metabolic syndrome in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D-K; Choi, H-J

    2010-03-01

    We examined the relationship between low bond mass and metabolic syndrome in 2,475 Korean women. After adjustment for all covariates, mean vertebral BMD was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, age and weight adjusted vertebral BMD was significantly decreased with additional components of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. It has been suggested that proinflammatory cytokines and low-grade systemic inflammation activate bone resorption and may lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between low bone mass and metabolic syndrome in Korean women. This is a cross-sectional study of 2,548 women aged 18 years and over who had visited the Health Promotion Center. Physical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Vertebral BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Among 2,475 women, 511 (21.0%) women had metabolic syndrome. Women with abdominal obesity or hypertriglyceridemia had significantly lower vertebral BMD than women without respective components after adjustment for age, weight, and height. After adjustment for all covariates, mean vertebral BMD was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.031). Moreover, age- and weight-adjusted vertebral BMD were significantly decreased with additional components of the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.004). These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome might be another risk factor for osteoporosis and related fractures.

  18. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  19. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...

  20. [Correlation analysis of cement leakage with volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and vertebral body wall incompetence in percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Huang, Weiquan; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Yongchao; Zhang, Shuncong; Jin, Daxiang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors of cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Between March 2011 and March 2012, 98 patients with single level OVCF were treated by PVP, and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 77.2 years (range, 54-95 years). The mean disease duration was 43 days (range, 15-120 days), and the mean T score of bone mineral density (BMD) was -3.8 (range, -6.7- -2.5). Bilateral transpedicular approach was used in all the patients. The patients were divided into cement leakage group and no cement leakage group by occurrence of cement leakage based on postoperative CT. Single factor analysis was used to analyze the difference between 2 groups in T score of BMD, operative level, preoperative anterior compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative middle compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative sagittal Cobb angle of operative vertebrae, preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence, cement volume, and volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body. All relevant factors were introduced to logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors of cement leakage. All procedures were performed successfully. The mean operation time was 40 minutes (range, 30-50 minutes), and the mean volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body was 24.88% (range, 7.84%-38.99%). Back pain was alleviated significantly in all the patients postoperatively. All patients were followed up with a mean time of 8 months (range, 6-12 months). Cement leakage occurred in 49 patients. Single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence between 2 groups (P 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body (P

  1. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  2. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc

  4. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X G; Sun, Y; Boonen, S; Nicholson, P H.F.; Dequeker, J [Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, U.Z. Pellenberg, Division of Rheumatology, Pellenberg (Belgium); Brys, P [Radiology Department, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Felsenberg, D [Radiology Department, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine radiographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  5. Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.G.; Sun, Y.; Boonen, S.; Nicholson, P.H.F.; Dequeker, J.; Brys, P.; Felsenberg, D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

  6. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şereflican, Betül; Tuman, Bengü; Şereflican, Murat; Halıcıoğlu, Sıddıka; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Bayrak, Seval

    2017-09-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by numerous basal cell carcinoma of the skin, jaw cysts, and skeletal anomalies such as frontal bossing, vertebral anomalies, palmoplantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. There is a tendency to tumors including medullablastoma, fibroma, rabdomyoma, leiomyosarcoma etc.. The diagnosis is based on major and minor clinical and radiologic criteria. Early diagnosis and treatment are of utmost importance in reducing the severity of long-term sequelae of this syndrome. In this article, we present a 15-year-old boy who was admitted to our clinic with brown-black papules and plaques on his scalp and was thought to have Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. He had a history of medulloblastoma that was treated with surgical resection followed by cranial radiotherapy and unilateral retinoblastoma. We present this case, because association of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and retinoblastoma has not been described previously in the literature and we aimed to draw attention to radiation-induced basal cell carcinomas.

  8. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  9. In vivo modulation of foreign body response on polyurethane by surface entrapment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandwekar, Anand P; Patil, Deepak P; Hardikar, Anand A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Doble, Mukesh

    2010-11-01

    Implanted polymeric materials, such as medical devices, provoke the body to initiate an inflammatory reaction, known as the foreign body response (FBR), which causes several complications. In this study, polyurethane (Tecoflex®, PU) surface modified with the nonionic surfactant Tween80® (PU/T80) and the cell adhesive PLL-RGD peptide (PU/PLL-RGD) by a previously described entrapment technique were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of Wistar rats for 30 days. Implants were retrieved and examined for tissue reactivity and cellular adherence by various microscopic and analytical techniques. Surface-induced inflammatory response was assessed by real-time PCR based quantification of proinflammatory cytokine transcripts, namely, TNF-α and IL-1β, normalized to housekeeping gene GAPDH. Cellular adherence and their distribution profile were assessed by microscopic examination of H&E stained implant sections. It was observed that PU/PLL-RGD followed by the bare PU surface exhibited severe inflammatory and fibrotic response with an average mean thickness of 19 and 12 μm, respectively, in 30 days. In contrast, PU/T80 surface showed only a cellular monolayer of 2-3 μm in thickness, with a mild inflammatory response and no fibrotic encapsulation. The PU/PLL-RGD peptide-modified substrate promoted an enhanced rate of macrophage cell fusion to form foreign body giant cell (FBGCs), whereas FBGCs were rarely observed on Tween80®-modified substrate. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were upregulated on PU/PLL-RGD surface followed by bare PU, whereas the cytokine expressions were significantly suppressed on PU/T80 surface. Thus, our study highlights modulation of foreign body response on polyurethane surfaces through surface entrapment technique in the form of differential responses observed on PLL-RGD and Tween80® modified surfaces with the former effective in triggering tissue cell adhesion thereby fibrous encapsulation, while the later

  10. Development of a glucose oxidase-based biocatalyst adopting both physical entrapment and crosslinking, and its use in biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yongjin; Ahn, Yeonjoo; Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kim, Hansung; Kwon, Yongchai

    2016-04-01

    New enzymatic catalysts prepared using physical entrapment and chemical bonding were used as anodic catalysts to enhance the performance of enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs). For estimating the physical entrapment effect, the best glucose oxidase (GOx) concentration immobilized on polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) (GOx/PEI/CNT) was determined, while for inspecting the chemical bonding effect, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinkers were employed. According to the enzyme activity and XPS measurements, when the GOx concentration is 4 mg mL-1, they are most effectively immobilized (via the physical entrapment effect) and TPA-crosslinked GOx/PEI/CNT(TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT]) forms π conjugated bonds via chemical bonding, inducing the promotion of electron transfer by delocalization of electrons. Due to the optimized GOx concentration and π conjugated bonds, TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT], including 4 mg mL-1 GOx displays a high electron transfer rate, followed by excellent catalytic activity and EBC performance.New enzymatic catalysts prepared using physical entrapment and chemical bonding were used as anodic catalysts to enhance the performance of enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs). For estimating the physical entrapment effect, the best glucose oxidase (GOx) concentration immobilized on polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) (GOx/PEI/CNT) was determined, while for inspecting the chemical bonding effect, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinkers were employed. According to the enzyme activity and XPS measurements, when the GOx concentration is 4 mg mL-1, they are most effectively immobilized (via the physical entrapment effect) and TPA-crosslinked GOx/PEI/CNT(TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT]) forms π conjugated bonds via chemical bonding, inducing the promotion of electron transfer by delocalization of electrons. Due to the optimized GOx concentration and π conjugated bonds, TPA/[GOx/PEI/CNT], including 4 mg mL-1 GOx displays a high

  11. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  12. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  13. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  14. The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D

    2018-07-01

    The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  16. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  17. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Diffusion on Discoloration of Congo Red by Alginate Entrapped Turnip (Brassica rapa Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic discoloration of the diazo dye, Congo red (CR, by immobilized plant peroxidase from turnip “Brassica rapa” is investigated. Partially purified turnip peroxidase (TP was immobilized by entrapment in spherical particles of calcium alginate and was assayed for the discoloration of aqueous CR solution. Experimental data revealed that pH, reaction time, temperature, colorant, and H2O2 concentration play a significant role in dye degradation. Maximum CR removal was found at pH 2.0, constant temperature of 40°C in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, and 180 mg/L of CR. More than 94% of CR was removed by alginate immobilized TP after 1 h of incubation in a batch process under optimal conditions. About 74% removal efficiency was retained after four recycles. Diffusional limitations in alginate beads such as effectiveness factor η, Thiele modulus Φ, and effective diffusion coefficients (De of Congo red were predicted assuming a first-order biodegradation kinetic. Results showed that intraparticle diffusion resistance has a significant effect on the CR biodegradation rate.

  20. Pudendal nerve entrapment leading to avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Karen; Singh, Deepan; Pinkhasov, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a diagnosis in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 (DSM-5) manifested by persistent failure to meet nutritional and/or energy needs. Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) often causes pelvic discomfort in addition to constipation and painful bowel movements. Current literature on ARFID is sparse and focuses on the pediatric and adolescent population. No association between PNE and ARFID has been described. We present a case of ARFID in an adult male with PNE resulting from subsequent scarring from testicular cancer surgery. The patient's gastrointestinal symptoms due to PNE caused significant food avoidance and restriction subsequently leading to severe malnourishment. Clinicians should be aware that distressing gastrointestinal symptoms arising from a secondary disease process such as PNE might lead to dietary restriction and food aversion. More research is needed for proper screening, detection, and treatment of ARFID. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:84-87). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of colloidal silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye using micelle entrapment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Atiqah; Zakaria, Nor Dyana; Lockman, Zainovia; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul

    2018-05-01

    The advancement of nanoparticle-based approaches such as quantum dots (QDs), metallic (Au and Ag) NPs, silica NPs and other types of nanomaterial have led to a large variety of biomolecular imaging and labelling reagents with controlled size and shaped to overcome the limitation of conventional organic dye. In this study, the yellowish green color of fluorescein dye was encapsulated into colloidal silica nanoparticles by using micelle entrapment approach. Two different size of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye (27.7 ± 5.6 and 46.73 ± 4.3 nm) with spherical and monodispered of nanoparticles were synthesised by varying the volume of co-solvent during the synthesis process. The particles size, particles morphology, absorption spectrum and the photostability of fluorescein dye was measured by using dynamic light scaterring (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrometer. Furthermore, the effect of photostability of of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was measured under radiation of 200 W of Halogen lamp for 60 minutes. The silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was more stable compared to bare fluorescein dye after the exposure. In conclusion, the photostability of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was improved compared to bare fluorescein dye, thus silica nanoparticles encapsulation successfully provides protection from the photobleaching and photodegradation of fluorescein dye.

  2. Letter: Entrapment and interaction of an air bubble with an oscillating cavitation bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Y. S.; Karri, Badarinath; Sahu, Kirti Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of the formation of an air bubble due to an oscillating cavitation bubble in its vicinity is reported from an experimental study using high-speed imaging. The cavitation bubble is created close to the free surface of water using a low-voltage spark circuit comprising two copper electrodes in contact with each other. Before the bubble is created, a third copper wire is positioned in contact with the free surface of water close to the two crossing electrodes. Due to the surface tension at the triple point (wire-water-air) interface, a small dip is observed in the free surface at the point where the wire is immersed. When the cavitation bubble is created, the bubble pushes at the dip while expanding and pulls at it while collapsing. The collapse phase leads to the entrapment of an air bubble at the wire immersion point. During this phase, the air bubble undergoes a "catapult" effect, i.e., it expands to a maximum size and then collapses with a microjet at the free surface. To the best of our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported so far. A parametric study is also conducted to understand the effects of wire orientation and bubble distance from the free surface.

  3. An electrochemical and high-speed imaging study of micropore decontamination by acoustic bubble entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offin, Douglas G; Birkin, Peter R; Leighton, Timothy G

    2014-03-14

    Electrochemical and high-speed imaging techniques are used to study the abilities of ultrasonically-activated bubbles to clean out micropores. Cylindrical pores with dimensions (diameter × depth) of 500 μm × 400 μm (aspect ratio 0.8), 125 μm × 350 μm (aspect ratio 2.8) and 50 μm × 200 μm (aspect ratio 4.0) are fabricated in glass substrates. Each pore is contaminated by filling it with an electrochemically inactive blocking organic material (thickened methyl salicylate) before the substrate is placed in a solution containing an electroactive species (Fe(CN)6(3-)). An electrode is fabricated at the base of each pore and the Faradaic current is used to monitor the decontamination as a function of time. For the largest pore, decontamination driven by ultrasound (generated by a horn type transducer) and bulk fluid flow are compared. It is shown that ultrasound is much more effective than flow alone, and that bulk fluid flow at the rates used cannot decontaminate the pore completely, but that ultrasound can. In the case of the 125 μm pore, high-speed imaging is used to elucidate the cleaning mechanisms involved in ultrasonic decontamination and reveals that acoustic bubble entrapment is a key feature. The smallest pore is used to explore the limits of decontamination and it is found that ultrasound is still effective at this size under the conditions employed.

  4. Entrapment of active ion-permeable cyanobacteria (Anacystis nidulans) in calcium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, G.C.; Kalosaka, K.; Sotiropoulou, G.; Barbotin, J.N.; Thomasset, B.; Thomas, T.

    1988-12-01

    Cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans were made permeable to ions by treating them with lysozyme and EDTA in a way that leaves the photosynthetic water-splitting function, the photoreduction of exogenous oxidants and the peptidoglycan exoskeleton of the cell virtually intact. The permeabilized cells (permeaplasts) were subsequently immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized preparation exhibits remarkable stability both on storage and in action. On prolonged storage at room temperature in darkness, its photosynthetic activity deteriorates one-third as fast as the activity of immobilized intact cells. Illumination accelerates deactivation. Tested in prolonged runs, however, performed in an illuminated open reactor, alginate-immobilized Anacystis permeaplasts were capable of photoreducing ionic oxidants (ferricyanide) and of exporting ionic reductants (ferrocyanide) to the suspension medium continuously for more than 5 h before being totally inactivated. It is also shown that the major impediment to the photoreduction performance of immobilized permeaplasts arises from diffusion limitations, while the photonic limitation due to light reflection and scattering is approx. 7%.

  5. “Suicide Heights”: Council Estates As Sites Of Entrapment And Resistance In Hello Mum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Toplu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Council estates have been contestable social spaces of contemporary urban life in metropolitan cities like London and the marginalizing spatial experience they provide for the “working class” has been a problematic topic for many disciplines like architecture, sociology, psychology and literature. Considering the significance of space for the body in literary works, this essay analyses the black British woman writer Bernardine Evaristo’s fifth work, Hello Mum, a short-fiction, which revolves primarily around a fourteen-year-old black teenager Jerome’s tragic experience in a council estate in London. In this essay, scrutinizing Bernardine Evaristo’s novella Hello Mum and inhabiting a council estate as a challenging spatial experience, I suggest the teenager victim Jerome’s narrative reveals a kind of physical and psychological entrapment and resistance to the dominant ideology of the council estates, offers an alternative perception for the black people who are obliged to live in such marginalized places.

  6. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Buckley, Stephen; Collins, Matthew J.; Estalrrich, Almudena; Brothwell, Don; Copeland, Les; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Bastir, Markus; Santamaría, David; Madella, Marco; Wilson, Julie; Cortés, Ángel Fernández; Rosas, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Neanderthals disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. Until recently, Neanderthals were understood to have been predominantly meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests their diet also included plants. We present the results of a study, in which sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were combined with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods. We also offer the first evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a Neanderthal individual. The varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the Neanderthal occupants of El Sidrón had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants.

  7. Continuous ethanol production using immobilized yeast cells entrapped in loofa-reinforced alginate carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoowit Bangrak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae M30 entrapped in loofa-reinforced alginate was used for continuous ethanol fermentation in a packed-bed reactor with initial sugar concentrations of 200-248 g/L. Maximum ethanol productivity of 11.5 g/(L·h was obtained at an ethanol concentration of 57.4 g/L, an initial sugar concentration of 220 g/L and a dilution rate (D of 0.2 h-1. However, a maximum ethanol concentration of 82.1 g/L (productivity of 9.0 g/(L·h was obtained at a D of 0.11 h-1. Ethanol productivity in the continuous culture was 6-8-fold higher than that in the batch culture. Due to the developed carrier's high biocompatibility, high porosity, and good mechanical strength, advantages such as cell regeneration, reusability, altered mechanical strength, and high capacity to trap active cells in the reactor were achieved in this study. The immobilized cell reactor was successfully operated for 30 days without any loss in ethanol productivity. The average conversion yield was 0.43-0.45 throughout the entire operation, with an immobilization yield of 47.5%. The final total cell concentration in the reactor was 37.3 g/L (17.7 g/L immobilized cells and 19.6 g/L suspended cells. The concentration of suspended cells in the effluent was 0.8 g/L.

  8. Amphotericin-B entrapped lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged ocular application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhonker, Yashpal S; Prasad, Yarra Durga; Chandasana, Hardik; Vishvkarma, Akhilesh; Mitra, Kalyan; Shukla, Praveen K; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is the major cause of vision loss worldwide. Amphotericin-B is considered as the drug of choice for fungal infections. However, its use in ophthalmic drug delivery is limited by the low precorneal residence at ocular surface as a result of blinking reflex, tear turnover and nasopharyngeal drainage. We report Amphotericin-B loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles for prolonged ocular application. The prepared nanoparticles were in the size range of 161.9-230.5 nm, entrapment efficiency of 70-75%, theoretical drug loading of 5.71% with positive zeta potential of 26.6-38.3 mV. As demonstrated by antifungal susceptibility against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, nanoparticles were more effective than marketed formulation. They exhibited pronounced mucoadhesive properties. In-vivo pharmacokinetic studies in New Zealand albino rabbit eyes indicated improved bioavailablity (∼ 2.04 fold) and precorneal residence time (∼ 3.36 fold) by nanoparticles prepared from low molecular weight chitosan as compared with marketed formulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. CONDITIONS OF PASSAGE AND ENTRAPMENT OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN SPIN-ORBIT RESONANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using comprehensive harmonic expansions of the tidal torque taking into account the frequency-dependent quality factors and Love numbers. The torque equations are integrated numerically with a small step in time, including the oscillating triaxial torque components but neglecting the layered structure of the planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury-like planet with a current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in 3:2 resonance. The probability of capture in the higher 2:1 resonance is approximately 0.23. These results are confirmed by a semi-analytical estimation of capture probabilities as functions of eccentricity for both prograde and retrograde evolutions of spin rate. As follows from analysis of equilibrium torques, entrapment in 3:2 resonance is inevitable at eccentricities between 0.2 and 0.41. Considering the phase space parameters at the times of periastron, the range of spin rates and phase angles for which an immediate resonance passage is triggered is very narrow, and yet a planet like Mercury rarely fails to align itself into this state of unstable equilibrium before it traverses 2:1 resonance.

  10. Entrapped Sediments as a Source of Phosphorus in Epilithic Cyanobacterial Proliferations in Low Nutrient Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susanna A.; Depree, Craig; Brown, Logan; McAllister, Tara; Hawes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Proliferations of the benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria Phormidium have been reported in rivers worldwide. Phormidium commonly produces natural toxins which pose a health risk to animal and humans. Recent field studies in New Zealand identified that sites with Phormidium proliferations consistently have low concentrations of water column dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP). Unlike other river periphyton, Phormidium mats are thick and cohesive, with water and fine sediment trapped in a mucilaginous matrix. We hypothesized that daytime photosynthetic activity would elevate pH inside the mats, and/or night time respiration would reduce dissolved oxygen. Either condition could be sufficient to facilitate desorption of phosphates from sediment incorporated within mats, thus allowing Phormidium to utilize it for growth. Using microelectrodes, optodes and pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry we demonstrated that photosynthetic activity results in elevated pH (>9) during daytime, and that night-time respiration causes oxygen depletion (river water and this, together with elevated concentrations of elements, including iron, suggest phosphorus release from entrapped sediment. Sequential extraction of phosphorus from trapped sediment was used to investigate the role of sediment at sites on the Mangatainoka River (New Zealand) with and without Phormidium proliferations. Deposition of fine sediment (sediment can provide a source of phosphorus to support Phormidium growth and proliferation. PMID:26479491

  11. Mechanical Entrapment Is Insufficient and Intercellular Adhesion Is Essential for Metastatic Cell Arrest in Distant Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Glinskii

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we challenge a common perception that tumor embolism is a size-limited event of mechanical arrest, occurring in the first capillary bed encountered by blood-borne metastatic cells. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical entrapment alone, in the absence of tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel walls, is not sufficient for metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvasculature. The in vivo metastatic deposit formation assay was used to assess the number and location of fluorescently labeled tumor cells lodged in selected organs and tissues following intravenous inoculation. We report that a significant fraction of breast and prostate cancer cells escapes arrest in a lung capillary bed and lodges successfully in other organs and tissues. Monoclonal antibodies and carbohydrate-based compounds (anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen antibody, anti-galectin-3 antibody, modified citrus pectin, and lactulosyl-L-leucine, targeting specifically β-galactoside-mediated tumor-endothelial cell adhesive interactions, inhibited by >90% the in vivo formation of breast and prostate carcinoma metastatic deposits in mouse lung and bones. Our results indicate that metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvessels is not a consequence of mechanical trapping, but is supported predominantly by intercellular adhesive interactions mediated by cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen and β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3. Efficient blocking of β-galactoside-mediated adhesion precludes malignant cell lodging in target organs.

  12. High performance electrophoresis system for site-specific entrapment of nanoparticles in a nanoarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Kim, Hee-Joo; Hass, Elizabeth A.; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian

    2010-02-01

    A nanoarray, integrated with an electrophoretic system, was developed to trap nanoparticles into their corresponding nanowells. This nanoarray overcomes the complications of losing the function and activity of the protein binding to the surface in conventional microarrays by using minimum amounts of sample. The nanoarray is also superior to other biosensors that use immunoassays in terms of lowering the limit of detection to the femto- or atto-molar level. In addition, our electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) is able to effectively trap the nanoparticles using a low trapping force for a short duration. Therefore, good conditions for biological samples conjugated with particles can be maintained. The channels were patterned onto a bi-layer consisting of a PMMA and LOL coating on conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspensions of 170 nm-nanoparticles then were added to the chip that was connected to a positive voltage. On top of the droplet, another ITO-coated-glass slide was covered and connected to a ground terminal. Negatively charged fluorescent nanoparticles (blue emission) were selectively trapped onto the ITO surface at the bottom of the wells by following electric field lines. Numerical modeling was performed by using commercially available software, COMSOL Multiphysics to provide better understanding about the phenomenon of electrophoresis in a nanoarray. Simulation results are also useful for optimally designing a nanoarray for practical applications.

  13. Small bowel entrapment and ureteropelvic junction disruption associated with L3 Chance fracture-dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, Sebastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Faure, Alice; Peltier, Emilie; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric Chance fracture are rare lesions but often associated with abdominal injuries. We herein present the case of a seven years old patient who sustained an entrapment of small bowel and an ureteropelvic disruption associated with a Chance fracture and spine dislocation following a traffic accident. Initial X-rays and computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a Chance fracture with dislocation of L3 vertebra, with an incarceration of a small bowel loop in the spinal canal and a complete section of the left lumbar ureter. Paraplegia was noticed on the initial neurological examination. A posterior L2-L4 osteosynthesis was performed firstly. In a second time she underwent a sus umbilical laparotomy to release the incarcerated jejunum loop in the spinal canal. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed on a JJ probe to suture the left injured ureter. One month after the traumatism, she started to complain of severe headaches related to a leakage of cerebrospinalis fluid. Three months after the traumatism there was a clear regression of the leakage. One year after the trauma, an anterior intervertebral fusion was done. At final follow-up, no neurologic recovery was noticed. In case of Chance fracture, all physicians should think about abdominal injuries even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial abdominal CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging provide in such case crucial info for management of the spine and the associated lesions. PMID:27672641

  14. Removal of a broken guide wire entrapped in a fractured femoral neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Qing-hua

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Guide wire plays an important role in the fixation of femoral neck fracture with dynamic hip screw (DHS. Breakage of a guide wire during operation is a very rare condition. We met such a dilemma in DHS fixation of a 54-year-old male patient who sustained Garden type IV frac-ture of the right femoral neck. The distal end of the guide wire broke and was entrapped in the fractured femoral neck. We tried to get the broken part out by a cannulated drill. Reaming was started with the cannulated drill slowly rotat-ing around the guide K-wire until the reamer fully contained the target under fluoroscope. A bone curette was used to get the broken wire out but failed, so we had to use the cannuated drill to dredge this bone tunnel. Finally the bro-ken wire end was taken out, mixed with blood and bone fragments. Through the existing drilling channel, DHS fixa-tion was easily finished. The patient had an uneventful re-covery without avascular necrosis of femoral head or non-union of the fracture at one year’s follow-up. A few methods can be adopted to deal with the broken guide wire. The way used in our case is less invasive but technically challenging. When the guide wire is properly positioned, this method is very practical and useful. Key words: Femoral neck fractures; Bones wires; Complications

  15. Fenugreek hydrogel–agarose composite entrapped gold nanoparticles for acetylcholinesterase based biosensor for carbamates detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang, E-mail: bhchiang@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-07-30

    A biosensor was fabricated to detect pesticides in food samples. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized in a novel fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles. Transparent thin films with superior mechanical strength and stability were obtained with 2% fenugreek hydrogel and 2% agarose. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on the membrane resulted in high enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and a significantly prolonged shelf life of the enzyme (half-life, 55 days). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, gold nanoparticles (10–20 nm in diameter) were uniformly dispersed in the fenugreek hydrogel–agarose–acetylcholinesterase membrane. This immobilized enzyme-gold nanoparticle dip-strip system detected various carbamates, including carbofuran, oxamyl, methomyl, and carbaryl, with limits of detection of 2, 21, 113, and 236 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor exhibited good testing capabilities when used to detect carbamates added to various fruit and vegetable samples. - Highlights: • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dip-strip biosensor fabricated to detect carbamates. • AChE entrapped in fenugreek hydrogel–agarose matrix with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). • High enzyme retention efficiency (92%) and shelf life (half-life, 55 days). • Detection limits of carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl: 2, 21 and 113 nM. • The biosensor had good testing capabilities to detect carbamates in food samples.

  16. Aicardi's syndrome: (agenesis of the corpus callosum, infantile spasms, and ocular anomalies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, S; Jancar, J

    1984-06-01

    A case of Aicardi's syndrome is reported. A 12-year-old mentally handicapped female has all the characteristics of the syndrome: agenesis of the Corpus callosum; female infant with mental handicap, epilepsy, characteristic eye lesions, vertebral anomalies and abnormal EEG pattern. The results of supporting examination and investigations are noted.

  17. Coordination-resolved local bond contraction and electron binding-energy entrapment of Si atomic clusters and solid skins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Maolin; Huang, Yongli; Zhang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: ywang8@hnust.edu.cn, E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Zhang, Xi [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ywang8@hnust.edu.cn, E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Consistency between x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and density-function theory calculations confirms our bond order-length-strength notation-incorporated tight-binding theory predictions on the quantum entrapment of Si solid skin and atomic clusters. It has been revealed that bond-order deficiency shortens and strengthens the Si-Si bond, which results in the local densification and quantum entrapment of the core and valence electrons. Unifying Si clusters and Si(001) and (111) skins, this mechanism has led to quantification of the 2p binding energy of 96.089 eV for an isolated Si atom, and their bulk shifts of 2.461 eV. Findings evidence the significance of atomic undercoordination that is of great importance to device performance.

  18. [Determination of content and entrapment efficiency of 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol in pharmacosomes by RP-HPLC method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meihua; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shilin; Wang, Xiangtao

    2009-05-01

    To establish a RP-HPLC method for content and entrapment efficiency of 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol in pharmacosomes. The separation was performed with a COSMOSIL 5 C18-MS-II column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 mmicrom) using methanol-water (95:5) as the mobile phase and detected at 203 nm. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) and 50 microL sample solution was injected for each time. The calibration curve was linear within the range 0.1-0.5 mg x mL(-1) (r = 0. 9999) , the intra-day RSD and inter-day RSD were less than 2% and the average recovery was between 101.44%-103.11% (n = 3). The method is simple, accurate, sensitive and applicable for determination of content and entrapment efficiency of 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol pharmacosomes.

  19. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Galaktionov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  20. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Sabedotti, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)