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Sample records for vertebral column resection

  1. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  2. Early outcomes and complications of posterior vertebral column resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Elias C; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Hess, W Fred; Sanchez Perez-Grueso, Francisco J; Pellisé, Ferran; Gupta, Munish; Lonner, Baron; Paonessa, Kenneth; Faloon, Michael; Cunningham, Matthew E; Kim, Han Jo; Mendelow, Michael; Sacramento, Christina; Yazici, Muharrem

    2015-05-01

    Hyperkyphosis confers a significant risk for neurologic deterioration as well as compromised cardiopulmonary function. Posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) is a challenging but effective technique for spinal cord decompression and deformity correction that even under the setting of limited resources can be performed to reduce the technical difficulties, the operating time, and possibly the complications of the traditional two-staged vertebral column resection (VCR). To report on the results of VCR performed through a single posterior approach (PVCR) in the treatment of severe rigid kyphosis in a series of patients treated and followed at a Scoliosis Research Society Global Outreach Program site in West Africa. Retrospective case series. Forty-five consecutive patients treated with PVCR for correction of severe rigid kyphosis. Clinical and radiographic outcomes and complications; Scoliosis Research Society outcome instrument (SRS-22). From 2002 to 2009, 45 patients (20 male and 25 female) underwent PVCR for kyphosis from congenital deformity (nine) or secondary to tuberculosis of the spine (36). Preoperative demographics, preop and postop neurologic status, SRS-22 scores and complications were recorded; upright full spine X-rays were available in all patients. Mean age was 14 years (6-47 years); mean follow-up 27 months (2-79 months). Mean preoperative kyphosis measured 108°. The deformity apex was resected via a costotransverse (thoracic) or posterolateral (lumbar) approach; neurosurveillance with sensory (somatosensory-evoked potentials) and motor (motor-evoked potentials) potential was used in all cases. Posterior instrumentation was used in all patients, and anterior structural cage was used in 32 patients. Intraoperative monitoring changes occurred in 10 patients (22%), and one patient progressed to complete spinal cord injury. Average preoperative local kyphosis was 108° and corrected to 600 postoperatively. Postoperatively, no additional patient

  3. Vertebral column resection in children with neuromuscular spine deformity.

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    Sponseller, Paul D; Jain, Amit; Lenke, Lawrence G; Shah, Suken A; Sucato, Daniel J; Emans, John B; Newton, Peter O

    2012-05-15

    Retrospective analysis. To determine, in pediatric patients with neuromuscular deformity undergoing vertebral column resection (VCR), the (1) characteristics of the surgery performed; (2) amount of pelvic obliquity restoration, and coronal and sagittal correction achieved; (3) associated blood loss and complications; and (4) extent to which curve type and VCR approach influenced correction, blood loss, and complications. VCR allows for correction of severe, rigid spinal deformity. This technique has not been previously reported in children with neuromuscular disorders. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 23 children with neuromuscular disorders (mean age, 15 years) and spinal deformities (severe scoliosis, 9; global kyphosis or angular kyphosis, 4; kyphoscoliosis, 10) who underwent VCR. The Student t test was used to compare correction differences (statistical significance, P deformity. However, this challenging procedure involves the potential for major complications.

  4. Modified posterior vertebral column resection for Kümmell disease: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Huo, Li-Shuang; Liu, Sen; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Kümmell's disease is defined as delayed traumatic vertebral collapse disease in which patients develop a kyphosis after asymptomatic minor spinal trauma. Both anterior approach and posterior approach have been reported, however, there is no standard treatment for Kümmell's disease. We described a successful modified posterior vertebral column resection in a patient with Kümmell's disease. A 65-year-old woman reported persistent back pain for almost three months. Kümmell's disease was diagnosed based on computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Modified posterior vertebral column resection combined with short-segment fixation was designed to treat this disease. The procedure was successful without any complications. Patient reported that symptoms were obviously improved in one week after operation. Modified posterior vertebral column resection combined with short-segment fixation is an effective treatment option for Kümmell's disease.

  5. A single Posterior Approach for Vertebral Column Resection in Adults with Severe Rigid Kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Ahmadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of severe kyphosis is a challenging operation in spinal surgery. A two stage operation has been commonly used: anterior release and decompression followed by posterior correction and fusion. We describe the posterior vertebral osteotomy technique for correction of severe and rigid kyphosis through posterior-only approach. Methods: Twelve patients (six male and six female with severe and rigid kyphotic deformity of the thoracic spine were treated by posterior vertebral column resection using a single posterior approach. The apex level of kyphosis was at the upper thoracic in five patients, the lower thoracic in four patients and mid thoracic in three patients. There was old fracture in one patient, congenital deformity in six, tumor in three and neurofibromatosis in two patients. After posterior vertebral column resection, segmental posterior instrumentation was used for  correction of the kyphotic deformity. Complications and radiographic findings were analyzed to evaluate clinical outcomes and radiologic changes of posterior vertebral column resection in patients with angulated kyphotic deformity. Results: The major curve correction was averaged 31.66 ° (SD=15.69 (45%. The resection was performed at the involve level in every patient. Posterior segmental fusion was achieved in average 8.9 (SD=1.7 segments. Anterior reconstruction was with titanium mesh cage in two and with cancellous chip packing in other patients. There were no neurologic complications after six month. Bony fusion achieved in all patients, and there was no correction loss. Conclusion: Satisfactory correction is safely performed by posterior vertebral column resection with a direct visualization of the circumferentially decompressed spinal cord. Although the performance is technically laborious, it offers good correction without jeopardizing the integrity of the spinal cord.

  6. [Neurological complications of posterior vertebral column resection for severe rigid congenital spinal deformities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tao, Huiren; Huang, Jinghui; Li, Tao; Shen, Chao; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiangbo; Yang, Weizhou; Liu, Ming; Luo, Zhuojing

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the risk factors of neurological complications of posterior vertebral column resection in the treatment of severe rigid congenital spinal deformities. The clinical data of 88 patients with severe rigid congenital spinal deformities who underwent PVCR in Department Of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University from June 2007 to November 2012 were collected. There were 39 males and 49 females at the average age of 16.9 years (range 6-46 years). To measure the Cobb angle and balance at preoperative, postoperative and follow up, and to record the operation report, neurological complications and at follow up. The relevant factors of neurological complications were analyzed by one-way analysis, including: age, Cobb angle, operation time, body mass index, pulmonary function, blood volume loss, resection level, number of vertebrae fixed, number of vertebrae resected, usage of cage or titanium mesh, preoperative neurologic function, the type of deformity and combination of spinal canal deformity, and further analyzed by multiariable Logistic regression analysis. The average follow up was 42 months (range 19 to 83 months). The number of resected vertebrae average 1.3 (range 1 to 3), operative time average 502.4 min (range 165.0 to 880.0 min), estimate blood loss average 2,238 ml (range 100 to 11,500 ml) for an average 69.3% blood volume loss (range 9% to 299%). The average preoperative major coronal curve of 93.6° corrected to 22.2°, at the final follow-up, the coronal curve was 22.2° with a correction of 76.8%. The average preoperative coronal imbalance (absolute value) was 2.5 cm decreasing to 1.3 cm at the final follow-up. The average preoperative major sagittal curve of 88.2° corrected to 28.7°, at the final follow-up, the sagittal curve was 29.2°, average decrease in kyphosis of 59.0°. The average preoperative sagittal imbalance (absolute value) was 3.1 cm decreasing to 1.2 cm at the final follow-up. There were 12 patients (13

  7. Complications after 147 consecutive vertebral column resections for severe pediatric spinal deformity: a multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Lawrence G; Newton, Peter O; Sucato, Daniel J; Shufflebarger, Harry L; Emans, John B; Sponseller, Paul D; Shah, Suken A; Sides, Brenda A; Blanke, Kathy M

    2013-01-15

    Retrospective multicenter review. Determine the definition, indications, results, and outcomes, focusing on complications of vertebral column resection (VCR) for severe pediatric spinal deformity. The strict definition of the VCR procedure, indications, results, outcomes, and the numerous, potentially serious complications are unknown or controversial, and a large multicenter review has never been performed. A total of 147 patients treated by 7 pediatric spinal deformity surgeons were reviewed-seventy-four females and 73 males, with an average age of 13.7 years, an average of 1.6 (range, 1-5) vertebrae resected, and an average follow-up of 17 months (range, 0.5-64 mo). The strict definition of VCR used was a "3-column circumferential vertebral osteotomy creating a segmental defect with sufficient instability to require provisional instrumentation." Indications for a VCR were divided into 5 diagnostic categories: kyphoscoliosis (n = 52), severe scoliosis (n = 37), congenital deformity (n = 28), global kyphosis (n = 17), and angular kyphosis (n = 13). Eighty-four primary and 63 revision patients with 174 operative procedures, 127 posterior-only (17 staged), and 20 patients combined anterior-posterior (10 staged) were reviewed. Average preoperative upright, flexibility, and postoperative Cobb measures (% correction or average kyphosis decrease) were kyphoscoliosis: 91°, 65°, 44° (51% coronal), 104°, 81°, and 47° (decrease, 57° sagittal); severe scoliosis: 104°, 78°, and 33° (67%); congenital deformity: 47°, 38°, 22° (46% coronal), 56°, 48°, and 32° (decrease, 24° sagittal); global kyphosis: 101°, 79°, and 47° (decrease, 54°); and angular kyphosis: 88°, 90°, and 38° (decrease, 50°), respectively. Operative time averaged 545 minutes (range, 204-1355 min) and estimated blood loss averaged 1610 mL (range, 50-8244 mL) for an average 65% blood volume loss (range, 6%-316%). Eighty-six patients (59%) developed a complication, 39 patients (27%) having

  8. Preoperative short-term traction prior to posterior vertebral column resection: procedure and role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsong; Xie, Jingming; Zhao, Zhi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yin; Bi, Ni; Shi, Zhiyue; Cai, Yunhua; Zhang, Yuhao

    2016-03-01

    Severe rigid spine deformity with sharp curve can be effectively corrected by posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR). Meanwhile, high risk of this procedure also has been recognized generally. The aim of this study is to review and evaluate the role of preoperative skull-femoral traction prior to PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp angular curve >150°. Twelve cases with extremely severe rigid deformities and sharp curves were treated by skull-femoral traction before operation. For them, the mean preoperative major scoliotic curve and kyphosis were 153° (110°-168°) and 109° (61°-180°). Continuous skull-femoral traction in supine position was started 4 weeks before operation. In the process of traction, tolerance, neurologic status, deformity changes, etc., were reviewed and documented for analysis. PVCR were performed in all these patients for final and main correction. The final traction force in the 12 cases was 63% of body weight. After 4-week traction, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 34 and 31%. In 1 week, main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 19 and 15%. In 2 weeks, the major scoliosis curve was decreased by 11%, but kyphosis was unexpectedly increased by 4%. Deformity in the last 2 weeks was less significant than the first 2 weeks. After PVCR, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were improved 69 and 66%. No permanent neurological damage occurred. Preoperative skull-femoral traction effectively mitigates the neurological risks of PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp curve. During traction, scoliosis can be improved more significantly and easily than kyphosis.

  9. Frequent neuromonitoring loss during the completion of vertebral column resections in severe spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujie; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jianguo; Tian, Ye; Shen, Jianxiong; Wang, Shengru

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is an essential method for preventing postoperative spinal deficits during posterior vertebral column resection (VCR) surgery for treatment of severe spine deformities, but the IOM features directing at VCR procedures are rarely reported and need to be further clarified. To evaluate an important surgical point that will lead to the IOM loss frequently, and then remind the surgeons to pay close attention to impending monitoring changes during posterior VCR surgery. Retrospective study. A total of 77 patients with severe spine deformities who underwent posterior VCR and deformity correction surgeries from January 2012 to May 2015 are retrospectively analyzed in our spine center. IOM (motor-evoked potentials [MEP] and somatosensory-evoked potentials) was used for intraoperative spinal function assessment. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their preoperative spinal function, including 27 patients with preoperative spinal deficits and 50 patients with spinal normal. And the IOM data during surgery, especially among VCR procedures, were mainly analyzed in the present study. With the VCR procedure almost complete, most patients showed varying degrees of IOM loss that included 37 cases showing obvious IOM degenerations and 21 cases showing significant IOM loss with alerts immediately. Moreover, the patients with preoperative spinal deficits have more significant decreasing percentage in MEP amplitude (81% vs. 68%, p<.05) than those patients without. With the VCR procedure almost complete, surgeons must pay closely attention to the IOM signals and should be ready to take corresponding surgical measures to deal with the impeding monitoring loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term X-ray results of posterior vertebral column resection in severe congenital kyphosis, scoliosis, and kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Cagatay; Alanay, Ahmet; Ganiyusufoglu, Kursat; Karadereler, Selhan; Ulusoy, Levent; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2012-05-20

    Retrospective case series. To analyze the efficacy and safety of posterior vertebral column resection performed on a consecutive series of patients with severe congenital spinal deformity. The treatment of severe congenital spinal deformities is a demanding and difficult surgical challenge. Conventional procedures, such as posterior and anterior instrumentation or combined anteroposterior instrumentation provide limited correction in rigid neglected or maltreated (fused) deformities. Forty-four patients with severe deformity and managed by posterior vertebral column resection between years 1997 and 2007 having more than 2 years of follow-up were included. Mean age was 8 (range, 2-28) years at the time of operation. The hospital charts were reviewed for demographic data and etiology of deformity. Measurements of curve magnitude and balance were made on 36-in. standing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs obtained before surgery and at most recent follow-up to assess deformity correction, spinal balance, complications related to the instrumentation, and any evidence of pseudarthrosis. Preoperative coronal plane major curve of 106° (range, 90°-132°) with flexibility of less than 30% was corrected to 41.4° (range, 20°-72°), showing a 61% scoliosis correction at the final follow-up. Coronal imbalance was improved by 79% at the most recent follow-up assessment. Preoperative thoracic kyphosis of 87° (range, 67°-103°) in patients with kyphosis was corrected to 36° (range, 25°-48°) at the most recent follow-up evaluation. Lumbar lordosis of 27° (range, 8°-35°) in patients with hypolordotic deformity was corrected to 45°. Complications included postoperative infection in 2 patients, dural laceration in 2 patients, and hemopneumothorax in 1 patient. Posterior vertebral column resection is an effective technique providing a successful correction of stiff complex congenital deformities. However, it is a technically demanding procedure, with possible risks for

  11. Posterior-only vertebral column resection for revision surgery in post-laminectomy rotokyphoscoliosis associated with late-onset paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Youping; Wu, Jigong; Ma, Huasong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Severe post-laminectomy spinal deformity associated with late-onset paraplegia is a complex and rare disorder. Little is known about revision surgery in post-laminectomy rotokyphoscoliosis associated with late-onset paraplegia treated by the single stage posterior-only vertebral column resection (VCR) procedure. Patient concerns and diagnoses: The patient was a 14-year-old male diagnosed as post-laminectomy rotokyphoscoliosis associated with late-onset paraplegia. He underwent posterior total laminectomy through the thoracic spine for intramedullary spinal cord tumors at the age of 3 years in another hospital. He then developed kyphosis deformity 1 year after laminectomy, and underwent posterior spinal fusion without instrumentation at 9 years of age. However, the deformity gradually progressed over the years. Seven months before admission to our hospital, he developed a significant progression of neurological deficits, including weakness of strength and sensation in lower extremities bilaterally, with no bladder or bowel dysfunction. There was no improvement of spinal cord function with conservative measures, and he required a wheelchair for movement. Interventions: The patient underwent posterior-only VCR by single stage with the purposes of spinal cord decompression and spinal deformity correction. Outcomes: Postoperatively, he was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) and required positive pressure ventilation support to improve his respiratory condition. The child experienced cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF) which resulted in an unplanned return to the operating room. The neurological function improved from preoperative Frankel C to Frankel D within 12 months of surgery, and recovered completely to Frankel E by 18 months. At the 24 month follow-up, the good neurological function was maintained; pulmonary function tests (PFTs) revealed improved forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1). The patient

  12. Simultaneous anterior vertebral column resection-distraction and posterior rod contouring for restoration of sagittal balance: report of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Shaishav; Durst, Alexander Z E; Rai, Am S

    2016-09-01

    With an increasingly aging population, adult spinal deformity is becoming more common. This can be associated with increased morbidity. Results from multicentre studies of deformity surgery correction confirm complication rates as high as 40 percent. Most often a bad result is associated with inadequate restoration of the sagittal balance. Posterior vertebral body resection has been described as a method to correct significant deformity, but this is a complicated procedure. It is possible to do this in the thoracic spine where nerve roots can be sacrificed, but it is difficult in the lumbar spine due to the significant role of the lumbar nerve roots. We describe a safer technique for correction of deformity using a three stage process. This appears to be a good technique for revision surgery.

  13. The risk factors of neurologic deficits of one-stage posterior vertebral column resection for patients with severe and rigid spinal deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying-Song; Bi, Ni; Zhao, Zhi; Li, Tao; Yang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk factors of neurologic deficits during PVCR correction, so as to help improve safety during and after surgery. A consecutive series of 76 patients with severe and rigid spinal deformities who were treated with PVCR at a single institution between October 2004 and July 2011 were included in our study. Of the 76 patients, 37 were male and 39 female, with an average age of 17.5 years (range 10-48 years). There were 52 adolescent patients (with an age hyperkyphosis (X 5), level of vertebral column resected (X 6), number of segmental vessels ligated (X 7), preexisting neurologic dysfunction (X 8), and associated with intraspinal and brain stem anomalies (X 9). The multi-factor unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that X 8 (OR = 49.322), X 9 (OR = 18.423), X 5 (OR = 11.883), and X 6 (OR = 8.769) were independent and positively correlated with the neurologic deficit. Preexisting neurologic dysfunction, associated with intraspinal and brain stem anomalies, scoliosis associated with thoracic hyperkyphosis and level of vertebral column resected are independent risk factors for neurologic deficits during PVCR procedure.

  14. Reducing kyphotic deformity by posterior vertebral column resection with 360° osteosynthesis in metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreimann, Marc; Hoffmann, Michael; Viezens, Lennart; Weiser, Lukas; Czorlich, Patrick; Eicker, Sven Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) often requires anterior-posterior decompression and stabilization. To reduce approach-related complications, single-stage posterolateral vertebrectomy and 360° fusion is often performed. However, a sufficient reduction of kyphotic deformity through this approach has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of kyphotic deformity reduction by this approach in MESCC. A retrospective analysis and chart review was performed for 14 consecutive patients who underwent a vertebrectomy and decompression from a posterolateral approach. Anterior mesh stabilization of the ventral column is used as hypomochlion for the posterior compression manoeuvre, which leads to reduction of the kyphotic deformity. Pre-operative back pain was 7.2 on a visual analogue scale. Back pain was reduced to 4.4 at discharge and 2.0 at the latest follow-up with a mean follow-up of 12 months (p < 0.001). The Frankel score remains constant or improved from D to E. Radiological segmental kyphosis was corrected from a mean of 16° to 4° (p < 0.001) post-operatively with a loss of 3° at the final follow-up, but still with significant corrections compared with the pre-operative measurements (p < 0.003). Single-stage posterolateral vertebrectomy and reconstruction is a safe and less invasive approach that allows a sufficient reduction of hyperkyphosis and preservation of neurological function in patients with MESCC. This approach is an efficient alternative to anterior-posterior fusion with good pain reduction and improved sagittal profile.

  15. [Causal analysis and management strategies of 30-day unplanned revision surgery following single-stage posterior vertebral column resection for severe spinal deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y P; Wu, J G; Ma, H S; Shao, S L; Zhang, L L; Gao, B; Li, H X

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes of 30-day unplanned revision surgery following one-stage posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) for severe spinal deformity and the methods of prevention and management. Methods: A total of 112 severe deformity patients underwent one-stage PVCR for surgical treatment in the 306(th) Hospital of People's Liberation Army from May 2010 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Six patients required reoperation within 30 days after PVCR, including 2 males and 4 females with average age of 21 years (ranging from 12 to 38 years). Four cases were congenital kyphoscoliosis, 1 was post-laminectomy kyphoscoliosis and 1 was post-tuberculous angular kyphosis. Three cases associated with preoperative neurologic deficit (Frankel C in 1 patient and D in 2 patients). The causes, management and outcomes of unplanned revision surgery within 30 days after PVCR were recorded. Results: The total incidence of unplanned revision surgery within 30 days following PVCR was 5.4% (6/112). There was 1 case due to cerebrospinal fluid leak, 5 cases with varying degrees of new neurologic deficits, the causes were as followed: dural buckling in 1 case, residual bone compression in 1 case, epidural hematoma compression in 2 cases, spinal subdural hematoma in 1 case. All the 6 cases underwent surgical exploration again, including further dural repair, decompression and hematoma clearance. After unplanned reoperation, 6 cases recovered completely. The average follow-up time after surgery was 30.8 months (ranging from 10 to 60 months). The major curve at coronal plane was improved from preoperative 87.7° to 34.2°, with a mean correction of 61.0% at final follow-up; the sagittal kyphosis curve was improved from preoperative 119.5° to 45.5°, with a mean correction of 61.9% at final follow-up. Two patients' neurological status improved from Frankel D to Frankel E, one patient's neurological status improved from Frankel C to Frankel E. Conclusions: One

  16. Posterior-only vertebral column resection for revision surgery in post-laminectomy rotokyphoscoliosis associated with late-onset paraplegia: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Youping; Wu, Jigong; Ma, Huasong

    2017-01-01

    Severe post-laminectomy spinal deformity associated with late-onset paraplegia is a complex and rare disorder. Little is known about revision surgery in post-laminectomy rotokyphoscoliosis associated with late-onset paraplegia treated by the single stage posterior-only vertebral column resection (VCR) procedure. The patient was a 14-year-old male diagnosed as post-laminectomy rotokyphoscoliosis associated with late-onset paraplegia. He underwent posterior total laminectomy through the thoracic spine for intramedullary spinal cord tumors at the age of 3 years in another hospital. He then developed kyphosis deformity 1 year after laminectomy, and underwent posterior spinal fusion without instrumentation at 9 years of age. However, the deformity gradually progressed over the years. Seven months before admission to our hospital, he developed a significant progression of neurological deficits, including weakness of strength and sensation in lower extremities bilaterally, with no bladder or bowel dysfunction. There was no improvement of spinal cord function with conservative measures, and he required a wheelchair for movement. The patient underwent posterior-only VCR by single stage with the purposes of spinal cord decompression and spinal deformity correction. Postoperatively, he was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) and required positive pressure ventilation support to improve his respiratory condition. The child experienced cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF) which resulted in an unplanned return to the operating room. The neurological function improved from preoperative Frankel C to Frankel D within 12 months of surgery, and recovered completely to Frankel E by 18 months. At the 24 month follow-up, the good neurological function was maintained; pulmonary function tests (PFTs) revealed improved forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1). The patient's coronal major curve and sagittal kyphosis were corrected from 70° to 21

  17. [Spondylosis: diseases of the vertebral column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Amador Schüller

    2008-01-01

    Frequent and transcendent diseases for the difficulties of his diagnosis and treatment. The components of the vertebral column, vertebral bodies, discs and unvertebral joints, spondylosis ligaments must be considered to be a functional Unit. The Patology of each one of their parts concerns or reverberates in others.

  18. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  19. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  20. Vertebral column decortication for the management of sharp angular spinal deformity in Pott disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Feng-Yu; Yu, Jin-He; Ren, Liang; Gu, Zhen-Fang; Sun, Xian-Ze

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Extremely sharp angular spinal deformity of healed tuberculosis can be corrected by vertebral column resection (VCR). However, the VCR techniques have many limitations including spinal column instability, greater blood loss, and greater risk of neurologic deficit. Patient concerns: We described a new spinal osteotomy technique to collect sharp angular spinal deformity in Pott disease. A 52-year-old woman presented with back pain and gait imbalance. Diagnosis: The kyphosis ...

  1. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  2. Radiological examination of the vertebral column of healthy French bulldogs

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In this study latero-lateral x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral column of 106 French bulldogs were examined. Occurrence of vertebral anomalies (wedge-shaped vertebrae, block vertebrae, transitional vertebrae), deviance from the normal number of vertebrae, variations of the spinous process and appearance of spondylosis were assessed. For evaluation of wedge-shaped vertebrae a graduation from degree 0 to degree 4 was developed using the percental deviation between the dorsal and ...

  3. Vertebral column decortication for the management of sharp angular spinal deformity in Pott disease: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Tao; Liu, Feng-Yu; Yu, Jin-He; Ren, Liang; Gu, Zhen-Fang; Sun, Xian-Ze

    2017-11-01

    Extremely sharp angular spinal deformity of healed tuberculosis can be corrected by vertebral column resection (VCR). However, the VCR techniques have many limitations including spinal column instability, greater blood loss, and greater risk of neurologic deficit. We described a new spinal osteotomy technique to collect sharp angular spinal deformity in Pott disease. A 52-year-old woman presented with back pain and gait imbalance. The kyphosis of healed tuberculosis was diagnosed based on history and imaging examinations. A new posterior VCR was designed to treat this disease. The neurological function improved from Japanese Orthopedic Association scale 3 to 7. The back pain and neurological function were significantly improved. The Oswestry Disability Index decreased from 92 to 34. There was also a significant decrease in back pain visual analog scale from 9 to 2. For cases with extremely severe Pott kyphotic deformity, the technology of modified VCR offers excellent clinical and radiographic results.

  4. Biomechanics of metastatic disease in the vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyne, Cari M

    2014-06-01

    Metastatic disease in the vertebral column compromises the structural stability of the spine leading to increased risk of fracture. The complex patterns of osteolytic and osteoblastic disease within the bony spine have motivated a multimodal approach to better characterize the biomechanics of tumor-involved bone. This review presents our current understanding of the biomechanical behavior of metastatically involved vertebrae, and experimental and computational image-based approaches that have been employed to quantify structural integrity in preclinical models with translation to clinical data sets.

  5. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Ch2-290 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, 55905, MN (United States); Unni, K.Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Dekutoski, Mark B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-09-01

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0

  6. The vertebral column of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Madelaine, Stéphane; Maureille, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    The Regourdou 1 partial skeleton was found in 1957 in level IV of the eponymous site located in Montignac-sur-Vézère (Dordogne, France) and until now it has been only partially published. The ongoing revision of the faunal remains from the site has yielded additional fossils that pertain to this skeleton. Here we study the vertebral column of this individual, providing for the first time detailed descriptions for all of the fossils and reassessing the anatomical position of all of the fragments. The vertebral column of Regourdou 1 is one of the most complete in the Neandertal fossil record with at least 20 pre-sacral vertebrae (seven cervicals, nine thoracic and four lumbars), a partial sacrum and a fragmentary first coccygeal vertebra. When compared with modern humans, the vertebrae of Regourdou 1 display significant metric differences, and fit well within the range of Neandertal variability. A preliminary analysis of the most complete thoracic vertebrae of this individual indicates that Neandertals displayed significant differences from modern humans in the thoracic spine, which adds to the differences already observed in the cervical and lumbar regions. Finally, we have also observed mild signs of osteoarthrosis, albeit to a lower degree of that present in other Neandertals such as La Chapelle-aux-Saints, La Ferrassie 1 or Shanidar 3. This is consistent with the younger adult age for Regourdou 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  8. RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND SPINAL CORD LESIONS IN DOGS: 266 Cases (1993-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    DEVECİOĞLU, Yalçın; Altunatmaz, Kemal; AKSOY, Özgür; ACAR, Suphi Erdem

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe aim of ihis study has been to determine the breed and age distribution and location of lesions occurring in the vertebral column and spinal cord in dogs. To achieve this, radiographics belonging to a total of 266 dogs with vertebral column and spinal cord lesions were evaluated. Of these eases, intervertebral disc disease was observed in 95, spondylosis deformans in 83, fracture in 70. luxation in 10, subluxation in 7, discospondylitis in 3, spondylitis in 1 and firearm injury in ...

  9. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-09

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern.

  10. The biomechanical interaction between vertebral column and limbs in the horse: a kinematical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Álvarez, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, horses have to train and perform in high-level sportive and leisure activities. Injuries of the locomotor system with a decreased functionality or pain of the back are often seen in equine hospitals. In general, the relationship between limb and vertebral column function in mammals is

  11. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were di...

  12. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.comBoric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  13. Surgical resection of neoplastic cervical spine lesions in relation to the vertebral artery V2 segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Al Barbarawi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic cervical spine lesions are seen infrequently by the spinal surgeon. The surgical management of these tumors, particularly with associated neurovascular compromise, is challenging in terms of achieving proper resection and spinal stabilization and ensuring no subsequent recurrence or failure of fixation. In this report we highlight some of the problems encountered in the surgical management of tumors involving the cervical spine with techniques applied for gross total resection of the tumor without compromising the vertebral arteries. Ten patients with neoplastic cervical spine lesions were managed in our study. The common cardinal presentation was neck and arm pain with progressive cervical radiculo-myelopathy. All patients had plain X-rays, computer tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiograms were performed on both vertebral arteries when the pathology was found to be in proximity to the vertebral artery. When a tumor blush with feeders was evident, endovascular embolization to minimize intraoperative bleeding was also considered. A single approach or a combined anterior cervical approach for corpectomy and cage-with-plate fixation and posterior decompression for resection of the rest of the tumor with spinal fixation was then accomplished as indicated. All cases made a good neurological recovery and had no neural or vascular complications. On the long-term follow-up of the survivors there was no local recurrence or surgical failure. Only three patients died: two from the primary malignancy and one from pulmonary embolism. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with neoplastic cervical spine lesions in proximity to vertebral arteries with preservation of both arteries.

  14. Computer aided diagnosis for osteoporosis based on vertebral column structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Harada, Masafumi; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-03-01

    Patients of osteoporosis are comprised of about 11 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems that have gained society. For preventing the osteoporosis, obtaining early detection and treatment are necessary. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving for three dimensional (3D) image analysis, higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. 3D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used for supporting diagnosis of osteoporosis. Simultaneously, this analysis can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. An effective result was provided for the case including an insufficient complicated vertebral body bone fracture by the conventional method.

  15. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Kirsten O.; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; B?verfjord, Grete; Mona E Pedersen

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400?d? was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were add...

  16. Development of a finite element model of the ligamentous cervical vertebral column of a Great Dane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Shah, Anoli; Goel, Vijay; Costa, Fabiano Séllos; da Costa, Ronaldo Casimiro

    2018-01-29

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies. To our knowledge, no specific ligamentous spine models have been developed to investigate naturally occurring canine myelopathies and possible surgical treatments. The goal of this study was to develop a finite element model (FEM) of the C 2 -C 7 segment of the ligamentous cervical vertebral column of a neurologically normal Great Dane without imaging changes. The FEM of the intact C 2 -C 7 cervical vertebral column had a total of 188,906 elements (175,715 tetra elements and 12,740 hexa elements). The range of motion (in degrees) for the FEM subjected to a moment of 2Nm was approximately 27.94 in flexion, 25.86 in extension, 24.14 in left lateral bending, 25.27 in right lateral bending, 17.44 in left axial rotation, and 16.72 in right axial rotation. We constructed a ligamentous FEM of the C 2 -C 7 vertebral column of a Great Dane dog, which can serve as a platform to be modified and adapted for studies related to biomechanics of the cervical vertebral column and to further improve studies on osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Postural Evaluation of Vertebral Column in Children and Teenagers with Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscano, Carla Fabiana da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Posture is determined by the performance of the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Children with hearing loss can present problems in their posture or postural control, enabling postural deviations and alterations to appear in their vertebral column, possibly provoked by a hypoactivity of the vestibular system as a result of deafness. Objective: To evaluate the posture of the vertebral column in children and teenagers with hearing loss at school age, taking into consideration the sample gender and age. Method: A descriptive and prospective study was performed at both Duque de Caxias School and Rotary Rehabilitation and Special Education Center in Caruaru - Pernambuco. 44 students aged between 7-17 years old, out of whom 22 were female and 22 were male, with hearing loss were evaluated. The study was developed by way of a postural evaluation, using a symmetrograph, marking specific anatomical points with stickers placed over polystyrene balls and fixed with double-sided adhesive tape. Results:The results showed that all of the individuals evaluated in this study presented some kind of postural alteration in their vertebral column. Scoliosis was the most observed alteration among the students (84.1%, followed by thoracic hyperkyphosis (68.2%. Conclusion: It has been concluded that children and teenagers with hearing loss are exposed to postural alteration in their vertebral column. Such a condition can be associated with a number of factors comprising unfavorable ergonomics of the school environment, bad postural habits and impairment of the vestibular system by virtue of the hearing loss.

  18. Vertebral column deformities in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulli, Chiara G; Galatius, Anders; Kinze, Carl C; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Deaville, Rob; Jepson, Paul; Vedder, Elisabeth J; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Sabin, Richard C; Watson, Alastair

    2015-09-17

    Five white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris with outwardly vertebral kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis or lordosis were identified during a photo-identification survey of over 400 individuals (2002-2013) in Faxaflói and Skjálfandi Bays, Iceland. In addition, 3 stranding reports from Denmark, The Netherlands and the UK were analysed, providing both external observation and post mortem details of axial deviations of the vertebral column in this species. Two of the free-ranging cases and 2 of the stranded specimens appeared to have an acquired disease, either as a direct result of trauma, or indirectly from trauma/wound and subsequent infection and bony proliferation, although we were unable to specifically identify the causes. Our data represent a starting point to understand vertebral column deformations and their implications in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern North Atlantic. We recommend for future necropsy cases to conduct macro- and microscopic evaluation of muscle from both sides of the deformed region, in order to assess chronic or acute conditions related to the vertebral deformations and cause of death.

  19. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  20. Large interarcuate spaces in the cervical vertebral column of the tyrolean mountain sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkof, E; Jurasch, N; Grassberger, M; Schwendenwein, S; Habib, D; Knolle, E; Losert, U

    2003-02-01

    Large interarcual spaces have been described between the arcus vertebrae C5/C6 and C6/C7 in the cervical vertebral column of Nubian goats. This aperture enables direct access to spinal cord and rootlets without the need to perform a hemilaminectomy. The present study was performed in order to determine whether these large interarcual spaces can also be found in the vertebral column of the Tyrolean mountain sheep, as this small ruminant, which is anatomically very similar to the Nubian goat, is frequently used for experimental purposes at the Surgical University Clinic in Austria. The carcasses of 10 sheep (six females, four males; range of age: 2.5-6 years, range of weight: 52-89 kg) were dissected and the vertebral column was exposed. All 10 sheep showed elliptic openings between the fourth cervical and the first thoracal vertebrae. Three sheep had additional openings between the first and the second thoracal vertebrae. All openings were covered solitarily by the ligamentum flavum and under this ligamentum lay the spinal cord without any further osseous or ligamentous protection. These findings are not mentioned in the common textbooks of veterinary anatomy and deserve attention, as they can be a step forward towards non-traumatic experimental surgery on the spinal cord.

  1. Ossification of the vertebral column in human foetuses: histological and computed tomography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzewska, A; Grzymisławska, M; Bruska, M; Lupicka, J; Woźniak, W

    2013-08-01

    There is no agreement in the literature as to the time of the onset and progress of the vertebral column ossification. The aim of the present study was to determine the precise sequence of ossification of the neural arches and vertebral centra.Histological and radiographic studies were performed on 27 human foetuses aged from 9 to 21 weeks. It was found that the ossification of vertebrae commences in foetuses aged 10 and 11 weeks. Ossification centres appear first for neuralarches in the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae and by the end of 11th week they are present in all thoracic and lumbar neural arches. In the vertebral centrain foetus of 10 weeks ossification was found in the lower 7 thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. By the end of 11th week ossification is present in the lower 4 cervical, all thoracic, all lumbar and 4 sacral vertebral centra. The study indicates that ossification of the neural arches proceeds in the craniocaudal direction,whereas in the vertebral centra it progresses from the lower thoracic vertebrae into both directions. Different shapes of ossification centres were also described.

  2. Initial experience with the use of an expandable titanium cage as a vertebral body replacement in patients with tumors of the spinal column: a report of 95 patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viswanathan, Ashwin; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Doppenberg, Egon; Suki, Dima; Gokaslan, Ziya; Mendel, Ehud; Rao, Ganesh; Rhines, Laurence D

    ...) for reconstruction after vertebral body resection for primary or metastatic spine tumors. We report the functional outcome, assess the durability of reconstruction, and describe complications associated...

  3. The Vertebral Column, Ribs, and Sternum of the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ayokunle Olude

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examined bones were obtained from eight adult African giant rats, Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse. Animals used had an average body mass of 730.00±41.91 gm and body length of 67.20±0.05 cm. The vertebral formula was found to be C7, T13, L6, S4, Ca31–36. The lowest and highest points of the cervicothoracic curvature were at C5 and T2, respectively. The spinous process of the axis was the largest in the cervical group while others were sharp and pointed. The greatest diameter of the vertebral canal was at the atlas (0.8 cm and the lowest at the caudal sacral bones (2 mm. The diameter of the vertebral foramen was the largest at C1 and the smallest at the S4; the foramina were negligibly indistinct caudal to the sacral vertebrae. There were 13 pairs of ribs. The first seven pairs were sternal, and six pairs were asternal of which the last 2-3 pairs were floating ribs. The sternum was composed of deltoid-shaped manubrium sterni, four sternebrae, and a slender processus xiphoideus. No sex-related differences were observed. The vertebral column is adapted for strong muscular attachment and actions helping the rodent suited for speed, agility, dexterity, and strength which might enable it to overpower prey and escape predation.

  4. The Vertebral Column, Ribs, and Sternum of the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olude, Matthew Ayokunle; Mustapha, Oluwaseun Ahmed; Ogunbunmi, Temitope Kehinde; Olopade, James Olukayode

    2013-01-01

    Examined bones were obtained from eight adult African giant rats, Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse. Animals used had an average body mass of 730.00 ± 41.91 gm and body length of 67.20 ± 0.05 cm. The vertebral formula was found to be C7, T13, L6, S4, Ca31–36. The lowest and highest points of the cervicothoracic curvature were at C5 and T2, respectively. The spinous process of the axis was the largest in the cervical group while others were sharp and pointed. The greatest diameter of the vertebral canal was at the atlas (0.8 cm) and the lowest at the caudal sacral bones (2 mm). The diameter of the vertebral foramen was the largest at C1 and the smallest at the S4; the foramina were negligibly indistinct caudal to the sacral vertebrae. There were 13 pairs of ribs. The first seven pairs were sternal, and six pairs were asternal of which the last 2-3 pairs were floating ribs. The sternum was composed of deltoid-shaped manubrium sterni, four sternebrae, and a slender processus xiphoideus. No sex-related differences were observed. The vertebral column is adapted for strong muscular attachment and actions helping the rodent suited for speed, agility, dexterity, and strength which might enable it to overpower prey and escape predation. PMID:24288518

  5. Lucy's back: Reassessment of fossils associated with the A.L. 288-1 vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc R; Williams, Scott A; Smith, Michael P; Sawyer, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    The Australopithecus afarensis partial skeleton A.L. 288-1, popularly known as "Lucy" is associated with nine vertebrae. The vertebrae were given provisional level assignments to locations within the vertebral column by their discoverers and later workers. The continuity of the thoracic series differs in these assessments, which has implications for functional interpretations and comparative studies with other fossil hominins. Johanson and colleagues described one vertebral element (A.L. 288-1am) as uniquely worn amongst the A.L. 288-1 fossil assemblage, a condition unobservable on casts of the fossils. Here, we reassess the species attribution and serial position of this vertebral fragment and other vertebrae in the A.L. 288-1 series. When compared to the other vertebrae, A.L. 288-1am falls well below the expected size within a given spinal column. Furthermore, we demonstrate this vertebra exhibits non-metric characters absent in hominoids but common in large-bodied papionins. Quantitative analyses situate this vertebra within the genus Theropithecus, which today is solely represented by the gelada baboon but was the most abundant cercopithecoid in the KH-1s deposit at Hadar where Lucy was discovered. Our additional analyses confirm that the remainder of the A.L. 288-1 vertebral material belongs to A. afarensis, and we provide new level assignments for some of the other vertebrae, resulting in a continuous articular series of thoracic vertebrae, from T6 to T11. This work does not refute previous work on Lucy or its importance for human evolution, but rather highlights the importance of studying original fossils, as well as the efficacy of the scientific method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of stature from the vertebral column in physical and forensic anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stature is one of the most important parameters in personal identification for physical and forensic anthropologists. Stature can be extimated from decomposed and fully or partially akeletonized human remains. Many Authors developed anatomical methods based on measurements of the whole skeleton or mathematical methods based on measurements of single bones, from which they obtained regression formulae for calculating the stature. In this review, we focused on the vertebral column and compared the corresponding regression formulae according to population, sex and age by a critical analysis of the literature.

  7. Transverse cervical skin incision and vertical platysma splitting approach for anterior cervical vertebral column exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior surgical approaches provide direct access to symptomatic areas of the cervical spine, allow management of the vast spectrum of cervical spine pathologies and there are many articles in the literature that discussed these techniques in detail. Cosmesis is an important issue for patients who undergone surgeryon neck structures as an improperly placed incision attracting significant morbidity and few publications discuss this issue in details. The purpose of the present article is to describe our experience with transverse cervical skin incision and vertical platysma splitting approach for anterior cervical vertebral column exposure.

  8. Cause of focal uptake in the cervical vertebral column in routine bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, U.; Winkler, U.

    1983-09-01

    Focal uptake was seen in the cervical vertebral column of 61 patients in the course of routine bone scintigraphy. These focal increases were subjected to close analysis. In 60 of these patients (98.4%) degenerative lesions became manifest as the cause of the scintigraphic finding already by the bone scintigraphy pattern (paravertebral localisation in the posterior and dorsal localisation in the lateral. Two typical examples of metastatic changes are presented to facilitate differentiation. The bone scintigraphic pattern in arthrosis of the intervertebral joint is so typical that X-ray control examinations to confirm the diagnosis can be omitted in many cases.

  9. Evaluation of Three Human Cervical Fusion Implants for Use in the Canine Cervical Vertebral Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Emily J; Litsky, Alan S; Allen, Matthew J; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Hettlich, Bianca F

    2016-10-01

    To assess technical feasibility and mechanical properties of 3 locking plate designs (Zero-P, Zero-P VA, and Uniplate 2) for use in the canine cervical spine. Prospective ex vivo study. Cadaver cervical spines from skeletally mature large breed dogs (n = 18). Specimens were screened using radiography and allocated into balanced groups based on bone density. Stiffness of intact C4-C5 vertebral motion units was measured in extension, flexion, and lateral bending using nondestructive 4-point bend testing. Uniplate 2 was then implanted at C4-C5 and mechanical testing was repeated. Mechanical test data were compared against those from 6 spines implanted with monocortical screws, an allograft ring spacer, and PMMA. The Zero-P and Zero-P VA systems could not be surgically implanted due to anatomical constraints in the vertebral column sizes of the canine cervical spines used in this study. Fixation with Uniplate 2 or with screws/PMMA significantly increased stiffness of the C4-C5 vertebral motion units compared to unaltered specimens (P dogs requiring cervical fusion. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. No relationship between vertebral column shifts and limb fluctuating asymmetry in human foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M.A. ten Broek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance from the normal developmental trajectory of a trait during growth—the so-called developmental instability—can be observed morphologically through phenodeviants and subtle deviations from perfect symmetry (fluctuating asymmetry. This study investigates the relationship between phenodeviance in the human vertebral column (as a result of axial patterning defects and limb fluctuating asymmetry. Since both types of markers of developmental instability have been found associated with congenital abnormalities in humans, we anticipate a relationship between them if the concept of developmental instability, measured through either phenodeviants or asymmetry, would reflect an organism-wide process. Yet we did not find any support for this hypothesis. We argue that the vast differences in the developmental processes involved in both systems renders these two markers of developmental instability unrelated, in spite of their associations with other congenital abnormalities. Our results thus contribute to the growing awareness that developmental instability is not an organism-wide property.

  11. No relationship between vertebral column shifts and limb fluctuating asymmetry in human foetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broek, Clara M A; Bots, Jessica; Bugiani, Marianna; Galis, Frietson; Van Dongen, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Disturbance from the normal developmental trajectory of a trait during growth-the so-called developmental instability-can be observed morphologically through phenodeviants and subtle deviations from perfect symmetry (fluctuating asymmetry). This study investigates the relationship between phenodeviance in the human vertebral column (as a result of axial patterning defects) and limb fluctuating asymmetry. Since both types of markers of developmental instability have been found associated with congenital abnormalities in humans, we anticipate a relationship between them if the concept of developmental instability, measured through either phenodeviants or asymmetry, would reflect an organism-wide process. Yet we did not find any support for this hypothesis. We argue that the vast differences in the developmental processes involved in both systems renders these two markers of developmental instability unrelated, in spite of their associations with other congenital abnormalities. Our results thus contribute to the growing awareness that developmental instability is not an organism-wide property.

  12. Study regarding the incidence of physical deficiencies of the vertebral column at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Avramescu-Opriţoiu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical deficiencies of the vertebral column at puberty have become an acute reality of our present time in the schools ofTimisoara and not only, reason for which a study regarding their incidence on the pupils at the age of puberty, from Timisoara,has been started; the study was performed on a 308 pupil group (V-XI classes and used as methods the somatoscopic andsomatometrical exam of the pupils, as well as a short period of time related to the daily activities, which could be the sublayerof these pathological changes at the level of the vertebral column. The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis inaccordance with which there is an increasing number of deficient postures and proper deficiencies at the level of the vertebralcolumn at the young people being studied, correlated with a daily program where the static activities (TV watching, computeruse, individual study, etc. prevail over the physical activities; in accordance with this study 20,13% of them pupils do notshow changes at the level of the axial segment, the rest of 79,87% being diagnosed with deficient postures (45,12%,respectively with proper deficiencies (34,75%; the type of the found deficiencies are scoliosis (14,94%, kiphoses (8,77%,lumbar hyperlordoses (6,82% and kiphoscolioses (2,27%. The alarming proportion of young people that have been diagnosedwith such modifications make us conclude that there is given an insignificant importance to the physical exercise, the mainmethod of primary prophylaxis, but secondary as well of these disturbances.

  13. Evolution of the hominoid vertebral column: The long and the short of it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott A; Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-01-01

    The postcranial axial skeleton exhibits considerable morphological and functional diversity among living primates. Particularly striking are the derived features in hominoids that distinguish them from most other primates and mammals. In contrast to the primitive catarrhine morphotype, which presumably possessed an external (protruding) tail and emphasized more pronograde trunk posture, all living hominoids are characterized by the absence of an external tail and adaptations to orthograde trunk posture. Moreover, modern humans evolved unique vertebral features that satisfy the demands of balancing an upright torso over the hind limbs during habitual terrestrial bipedalism. Our ability to identify the evolutionary timing and understand the functional and phylogenetic significance of these fundamental changes in postcranial axial skeletal anatomy in the hominoid fossil record is key to reconstructing ancestral hominoid patterns and retracing the evolutionary pathways that led to living apes and modern humans. Here, we provide an overview of what is known about evolution of the hominoid vertebral column, focusing on the currently available anatomical evidence of three major transitions: tail loss and adaptations to orthograde posture and bipedal locomotion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Importance of mechanics and kinematics in determining the stiffness contribution of the vertebral column during body-caudal-fin swimming in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-02-01

    Whole-body stiffness in fishes has important consequences for swimming mode, speed and efficiency, but the contribution of vertebral column stiffness to whole-body stiffness is unclear. In our opinion, this lack of clarity is due in part to the lack of studies that have measured both in vitro mechanical properties of the vertebral column as well as in vivo vertebral kinematics in the same species. Some lack of clarity may also come from real variation in the mechanical role of the vertebral column across species. Previous studies, based on either mechanics or kinematics alone, suggest species-specific variation in vertebral column locomotor function that ranges from highly stiff regimes that contribute greatly to whole-body stiffness, and potentially act as a spring, to highly compliant regimes that only prohibit excessive flexion of the intervertebral joints. We review data collected in combined investigations of both mechanics and kinematics of three species, Myxine glutinosa, Acipenser transmontanus, and Morone saxatilis, to illustrate how mechanical testing within the context of the in vivo kinematics more clearly distinguishes the role of the vertebral column in each species. In addition, we identify species for which kinematic data are available, but mechanical data are lacking. We encourage further investigation of these species to fill these mechanical data gaps. Finally, we hope these future combined analyses will identify certain morphological, mechanical, or kinematic parameters that might be associated with certain vertebral column functional regimes with respect to body stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Subaxial rotational vertebral artery syndrome: resection of the uncinate process and anterior fusion can be sufficient!: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelfaut, Sebastiaan; Verhasselt, Skrallan; Carpentier, Karel; Moke, Lieven

    2015-03-01

    A case report on rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) and surgical treatment. To illustrate a safe treatment option of RVAS with diminished risk of iatrogenic damage to the vertebral artery. RVAS is an uncommon cause of symptomatic transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency induced by physiological head rotation with temporary significant external compression of the dominant subaxial vertebral artery. Previous reports state that the treatment of choice consists of decompression of the vessel with resection of the anterior rim of the transverse process and any fibrotic sheet or intertransverse muscle, if necessary, combined with an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with uncus resection. This is a case report on RVAS and its surgical treatment. The diagnosis of RVAS due to an osteophyte of the uncinate process at level C5/C6 was confirmed using computed tomographic angiography. We performed a classic ACDF using the contralateral approach with complete resection of the uncovertebral joint at the pathologic site. In our case, the symptoms of transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency induced by head rotation completely resolved postoperatively, and computed tomographic angiography images at 3 months postoperatively showed good bony ingrowth and restoration of vertebral artery patency during extreme rotation. Classic ACDF with complete resection of the uncovertebral joint is a safe treatment option for RVAS in the subaxial cervical spine. Fusion at the pathologic level will eliminate rotation and prevent further formation of osteophytes at the operated level. Unroofing of the vertebral artery seems not always necessary, diminishing the surgical risk.

  16. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    life, the second to evaluate the level of the iliac bones proportional to the ossified vertebral column. Whole body radiographs in antero-posterior projections from 98 human fetuses (36 female and 44 male fetuses, as well as 18 fetuses on which the sex had not been determined) were analyzed...... in the study. The fetuses derived from spontaneous or induced abortions and they were radiographed as part of the required autopsy procedure. The crown-rump-length (CRL) of the fetuses varied from 32 to 245 mm. The outer and inner bi-iliac distance was measured from the radiographs with a digital Helios slide...

  17. Lesões ocupacionais afetando a coluna vertebral em trabalhadores de enfermagem Lesiones ocupacionales de la columna vertebral en trabajadores de enfermería Vertebral column trauma caused by occupational accidents involving members of the nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisandra de Oliveira Parada

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Através do levantamento das comunicações de acidente do trabalho (CAT de um hospital universitário no período de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 1997, analisou-se determinadas características da ocorrência de acidentes do trabalho relacionados com a coluna vertebral em trabalhadores de enfermagem. Verificou-se que nesse período foram notificados 531 acidentes e 37 (7,0% destes eram acidentes típicos que comprometeram a coluna vertebral. Os resultados indicam subnotificação do acidente e que a categoria mais acometida foi o atendente de enfermagem. Os acidentes ocorreram principalmente pela movimentação e transporte de equipamentos e pacientes e pelas quedas.A través de los reportes de accidentes de trabajo (RAT de un Hospital Universitario en el periodo de enero de 1990 a diciembre de 1997, se analizaron determinadas características de la ocurrencia de accidentes de trabajo relacionados con la columna vertebral en trabajadores de enfermería. Se verificó que en ese periodo fueron notificados 531 accidentes y 37 (7,0% eran accidentes típicos que comprometieron la columna vertebral. Los resultados indican la subnotificación del accidente y que la categoría más afectada fue la de ayudante de enfermería. Los accidentes ocurrieron principalmente por el movimiento y traslado de equipos y pacientes y también por las caídas.All occupational accidents (CAT reported at a University hospital, from January 1990 to December 1997, were analyzed and the characteristics of the vertebral column trauma caused by the occupational accidents involving members of the nursing team were investigated. During this period, 531 accidents were reported and 37 (7% of these were typical vertebral column traumas. These results suggested that the number of accidents reported were below actual estimates and that the nursing auxiliaries were the most affected. The accidents were mainly caused by falls and during the transport or transfer of patients and

  18. Vertebral Derotation by Vertebral Column Manipulator Improves Postoperative Radiographs Outcomes of Lenke 5C Patients for Follow-up of Minimum 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zifang; Wang, Qifei; Yang, Junlin; Yang, Jingfan; Li, Fobao

    2016-04-01

    This was a retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare radiographic outcomes of Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated by vertebral column manipulator (VCM) or simple rod derotation (SRD) maneuver. The direct vertebral rotation (DVR) technique has demonstrated better rotational and coronal correction than SRD, but clinical radiographic outcomes for Lenke 5C AIS following DVR using a VCM derotational device have not been described. A retrospective study was carried out in 39 Lenke 5C AIS patients treated by VCM (n=20) or SRD (n=19) techniques between April 2008 and June 2011. All patients had complete clinical record and radiographic data. Nine radiographic variables were collected and compared at 3 time points (preoperative, immediate postoperative, and minimum 2-year follow-up) between both groups. Scoliosis was successfully corrected in both groups. All patients obtained good coronal and sagittal balance, and no severe complications occurred. The postoperative apical rotation corrective rate of the VCM and SRD groups were 55.1% and 25.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Lowest instrumented vertebra and stable vertebra (LIV-SV) was statistically significant between the VCM and SRD groups, the mean values were 1.2 ± 0.4 level and 0.7 ± 0.5 level (P < 0.05). The main curve corrective rates and LIV-tilt angle correction rates were not significantly different between groups, but it showed a spontaneous correction for the coronal LIV-tilt angle for both groups at the last follow-up. VCM improved postoperative apical axial rotational correction and lessened the lumbar fusion segment compared with the SRD technique, which might have a potential trend to reserve lumbar mobility.

  19. Cervical vertebral column morphology in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea assessed using lateral cephalograms and cone beam CT. A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, L; Jensen, K E; Petersson, A R

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have described morphological deviations in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients on two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalograms, and the reliability of 2D radiographs has been discussed. The objective is to describe the morphology of the cervical vertebral column on cone...

  20. Analysis of sagittal balance using spinopelvic parameters in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with vertebral column decancellation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Cai, Tao-yi; Lu, Cheng-Wu; Zhou, Qin; Huang, Zhuanzhi; Yu, Hui

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to explore the change of spinopelvic parameters after vertebral column decancellation (VCD) for the management of thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Forty-two AS patients including thirty-six males and six females with thoracolumbar kyphosis, who underwent VCD from April 2005 to June 2012 in our hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. A series of spinopelvic parameters including thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) measured on preoperative and postoperative free-standing radiographs were obtained and analyzed. Also clinical assessments were performed with the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity and Function Index (BASDAI and BASFI) so as to seek correlations between radiological parameters and symptoms. Except for pelvic incidence (PI), significant difference was found in all radiological spinopelvic parameters between the preoperative and follow-up values. Furthermore, there was significant improvement in the clinical assessment parameters ODI, BASDAI and BASFI, which all correlated significantly with the postoperative pelvic tilt (PT). The results of this study show that posterior VCD is an effective option to manage sagittal imbalance in AS. In the current series, patients improving LL and PT were found to achieve good clinical outcomes. Overall, our findings show that it is important to quantify sagittal spinopelvic parameters and promote sagittal balance in the surgery for AS.

  1. Angle of insertion and confirmation of angles measured after in vitro implantation during laminar vertebral stabilization in vertebral columns obtained from canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Sebastian C; Kircher, Patrick; Dennler, Matthias; Montavon, Pierre M; Voss, Katja; Hurter, Karin

    2011-12-01

    To determine angles of insertion for laminar vertebral fixation of L1 and L2 by use of a locking plate in dogs and to confirm screw placement by use of computed tomography (CT). Vertebral specimens harvested from 8 canine cadavers. The point of insertion and minimum and maximum insertion angles for laminar and facet screws for laminar vertebral stabilization were determined by use of CT. A precontoured locking plate was then placed by use of 1 locking screw in the lamina of each lumbar vertebra and 1 nonlocking screw in the facet joint. The position and angle of the screws were examined by use of CT, and penetration into the vertebral canal was recorded. Mean ± SD insertion angles for L1 and L2 were 18 ± 4° and 21 ± 5° toward the vertebral canal and 11 ± 4.4° and 10 ± 3° in a dorsal direction, respectively. Insertion angles for the facet joint were between 24 ± 4° ventrally and 12 ± 2° dorsally. Insertion of the screw did not penetrate the vertebral canal for 23 of 24 (96%) screws. For 23 of 24 inserted screws, the previously determined angle was maintained and purchase of bone and cortices was satisfactory. Placement of laminar and facet screws in canine vertebrae was possible and can be performed safely if angles of insertion determined pre-operatively via CT are maintained.

  2. Osteological and Soft-Tissue Evidence for Pneumatization in the Cervical Column of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus) and Observations on the Vertebral Columns of Non-Volant, Semi-Volant and Semi-Aquatic Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolaki, Naomi E; Rayfield, Emily J; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP) is a condition most notably found in birds, but that is also present in other saurischian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. In birds, skeletal pneumatization occurs where bones are penetrated by pneumatic diverticula, membranous extensions that originate from air sacs that serve in the ventilation of the lung. Key questions that remain to be addressed include further characterizing (1) the skeletal features that can be used to infer the presence/absence and extent of PSP in birds and non-avian dinosaurs, and (2) the association between vertebral laminae and specific components of the avian respiratory system. Previous work has used vertebral features such as pneumatic foramina, fossae, and laminae to identify/infer the presence of air sacs and diverticula, and to discuss the range of possible functions of such features. Here, we tabulate pneumatic features in the vertebral column of 11 avian taxa, including the flightless ratites and selected members of semi-volant and semi-aquatic Neornithes. We investigate the associations of these osteological features with each other and, in the case of Struthio camelus, with the specific presence of pneumatic diverticula. We find that the mere presence of vertebral laminae does not indicate the presence of skeletal pneumaticity, since laminae are not always associated with pneumatic foramina or fossae. Nevertheless, laminae are more strongly developed when adjacent to foramina or fossae. In addition, membranous air sac extensions and adjacent musculature share the same attachment points on the vertebrae, rendering the use of such features for reconstructing respiratory soft tissue features ambiguous. Finally, pneumatic diverticula attach to the margins of laminae, foramina, and/or fossae prior to their intraosseous course. Similarities in PSP distribution among the examined taxa are concordant with their phylogenetic interrelationships. The possible functions of PSP are discussed in brief, based

  3. Osteological and Soft-Tissue Evidence for Pneumatization in the Cervical Column of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus and Observations on the Vertebral Columns of Non-Volant, Semi-Volant and Semi-Aquatic Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Apostolaki

    Full Text Available Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP is a condition most notably found in birds, but that is also present in other saurischian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. In birds, skeletal pneumatization occurs where bones are penetrated by pneumatic diverticula, membranous extensions that originate from air sacs that serve in the ventilation of the lung. Key questions that remain to be addressed include further characterizing (1 the skeletal features that can be used to infer the presence/absence and extent of PSP in birds and non-avian dinosaurs, and (2 the association between vertebral laminae and specific components of the avian respiratory system. Previous work has used vertebral features such as pneumatic foramina, fossae, and laminae to identify/infer the presence of air sacs and diverticula, and to discuss the range of possible functions of such features. Here, we tabulate pneumatic features in the vertebral column of 11 avian taxa, including the flightless ratites and selected members of semi-volant and semi-aquatic Neornithes. We investigate the associations of these osteological features with each other and, in the case of Struthio camelus, with the specific presence of pneumatic diverticula. We find that the mere presence of vertebral laminae does not indicate the presence of skeletal pneumaticity, since laminae are not always associated with pneumatic foramina or fossae. Nevertheless, laminae are more strongly developed when adjacent to foramina or fossae. In addition, membranous air sac extensions and adjacent musculature share the same attachment points on the vertebrae, rendering the use of such features for reconstructing respiratory soft tissue features ambiguous. Finally, pneumatic diverticula attach to the margins of laminae, foramina, and/or fossae prior to their intraosseous course. Similarities in PSP distribution among the examined taxa are concordant with their phylogenetic interrelationships. The possible functions of PSP are

  4. In vivo genome-wide analysis of multiple tissues identifies gene regulatory networks, novel functions and downstream regulatory genes for Bapx1 and its co-regulation with Sox9 in the mammalian vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Sivakamasundari, V; Yap, Sook Peng; Kraus, Petra; Kumar, Vibhor; Xing, Xing; Lim, Siew Lan; Sng, Joel; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lufkin, Thomas

    2014-12-05

    Vertebrate organogenesis is a highly complex process involving sequential cascades of transcription factor activation or repression. Interestingly a single developmental control gene can occasionally be essential for the morphogenesis and differentiation of tissues and organs arising from vastly disparate embryological lineages. Here we elucidated the role of the mammalian homeobox gene Bapx1 during the embryogenesis of five distinct organs at E12.5 - vertebral column, spleen, gut, forelimb and hindlimb - using expression profiling of sorted wildtype and mutant cells combined with genome wide binding site analysis. Furthermore we analyzed the development of the vertebral column at the molecular level by combining transcriptional profiling and genome wide binding data for Bapx1 with similarly generated data sets for Sox9 to assemble a detailed gene regulatory network revealing genes previously not reported to be controlled by either of these two transcription factors. The gene regulatory network appears to control cell fate decisions and morphogenesis in the vertebral column along with the prevention of premature chondrocyte differentiation thus providing a detailed molecular view of vertebral column development.

  5. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Seco, Joao; Eaton, Bree R; Simeone, F Joseph; Kooy, Hanne; Yock, Torunn I; Tarbell, Nancy J; DeLaney, Thomas F; Adams, Judith; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M

    2017-05-01

    At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (-35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potential higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral body and allow for vertebral column growth for children

  6. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu; Seco, Joao; Eaton, Bree R.; Simeone, F. Joseph; Kooy, Hanne; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Adams, Judith; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2017-05-01

    body and allow for vertebral column growth for children with central nervous system tumors requiring CSI. This was true even when considering variable RBE values. A clinical trial is planned for VBS to the thoracic and lumbosacral spine in growing children.

  7. [Deformations of the vertebral column in the visually impaired schoolchildren presenting with complicated high myopia and the possibilities for its correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, T S; Smirnova, T S; Romashin, O V; Egorova, I V

    2016-01-01

    Complicated high myopia is one of the leading causes responsible for the disablement in the children associated with visual impairment especially when it is combined with other pathological conditions and abnormalities among which are disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the present study, we for the first time examined visually impaired schoolchildren (n=44) who suffered from high myopia complications making use of the computed optical topographer for the evaluation of the state of their vertebral column. The control group consisted of 60 children attending a secondary school. The study revealed various deformations of the musculoskeletal system including scoliosis, misalignment of the pelvis, kyphosis, hyperlordosis, torsion, platypodia, deformation of the lower extremities and the chest. These deformations were more pronounced in the visually impaired schoolchildren in comparison with the children of the same age comprising the control group (pvisually impaired schoolchildren presenting with high myopia complications.

  8. The Impact of Hospital Teaching Status on Timing of Intervention, Inpatient Morbidity, and Mortality After Surgery for Vertebral Column Fractures with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Nakhla, Jonathan; Nasser, Rani; Jada, Ajit; Sciubba, Daniel M; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of hospital teaching status on the timing of intervention and inpatient morbidity and mortality after surgery for acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011) were reviewed. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of closed vertebral column fracture with SCI, underwent spine surgery, and were admitted urgently or emergently. Early intervention (the day of or the day after admission), inpatient morbidity and mortality rates were compared between patients admitted to teaching versus nonteaching hospitals. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. A total of 9236 patients were identified (mean age 43 years, 82.6% male gender), with 78.7% admitted to a teaching hospital (n = 7,272) and 21.3% to a nonteaching hospital (n = 1,964). The most common mechanism of injury was a motor vehicle collision (43.9%), while the most common fracture location was between C5 and C7 (35.3%), and 22% of cases were complete SCIs. Following multivariable analysis, teaching hospital status was significantly associated with early intervention (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.25), but not with complication development (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98-1.23) or mortality (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.91-1.56). In this nationwide study, patients with vertebral column fractures with SCI who were admitted to teaching hospitals were more likely to receive early intervention compared to patients admitted to nonteaching hospitals. Future studies into the long-term implications of admission to teaching hospitals versus nonteaching hospitals for patients with SCI are encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Major destructive asymptomatic lumbar Charcot lesion treated with three column resection and short segment reconstruction. Case report, treatment strategy and review of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valancius, Kestutis; Garg, Gaurav; Duicu, Madalina

    2017-01-01

    Charcot's spine is a long-term complication of spinal cord injury. The lesion is often localized at the caudal end of long fusion constructs and distal to the level of paraplegia. However, cases are rare and the literature relevant to the management of Charcot's arthropathy is limited. This paper...... reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgical management of post-traumatic spinal neuroarthropathy in the current literature. We present a rare case of adjacent level Charcot's lesion of the lumbar spine in a paraplegic patient, primarily treated for traumatic spinal cord lesion 39 years before...... current surgery. We have performed end-to-end apposition of bone after 3 column resection of the lesion, 3D correction of the deformity, and posterior instrumentation using a four-rod construct. Although the natural course of the disease remains unclear, surgery is always favorable and remains the primary...

  10. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with eight fractures in the vertebral column treated with kyphoplasty and bracing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacker, J; Janousek, M; Kröber, M

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition, which imposes multiple symptoms in the musculoskeletal system. Common complaints announced by patients are severe pain in the lower back, hips and the joints of the lower extremities with a reduced and less mobility status in general. Most of the patients' problems occur in the last trimester of pregnancy or postpartum and are often not diagnosed as side effects of osteoporosis but as problems associated with pregnancy. Although vertebral fractures are rare complications of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis, they should be always considered in women presenting with an acute pain syndrome in peripregnancy period. This case presents a 40-year-old primagravid woman who developed pain in hips and severe pain in the lower back causing an immobilization diagnosed with a pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with eight compression fractures in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Because of sagittal imbalance of the spine, she was treated with kyphoplasty at the four lumbar fractures and with bracing for the upper, thoracic ones, additional to the conservative anti-osteoporotic therapy. The authors discuss pregnancy-associated osteoporosis and its clinical presentation, as well as the indications of kyphoplasty, spinal alignment and the risk of single conservative treatment.

  11. Thoracolumbar spine fractures in the geriatric fracture center: early ambulation leads to good results on short term and is a successful and safe alternative compared to immobilization in elderly patients with two-column vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerink, L B M; Folbert, E C; Kraai, M; Smit, R S; Hegeman, J H; van der Velde, D

    2014-06-01

    Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common osteoporotic fractures among elderly patients. Several studies suggest that these fractures can be treated successfully with a nonoperative management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conservative treatment of elderly patients with a vertebral fracture. This study is a retrospective cohort study, which included all patients with an age of 65 years and older, who were diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and where therefore admitted to the Geriatric Fracture Center over a period of 2 years. Primary outcome was the level of functioning 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. We included 106 patients with 143 vertebral fractures, of which 61 patients were evaluated after 3 months. In our population, 53% of the patients had a fracture involving both middle and anterior columns. The majority of the patients functioned sufficiently 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. Analysis showed that age columns may be altered from immobilization to mobilization in the future.

  12. Major destructive asymptomatic lumbar Charcot lesion treated with three column resection and short segment reconstruction. Case report, treatment strategy and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valancius Kestutis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcot's spine is a long-term complication of spinal cord injury. The lesion is often localized at the caudal end of long fusion constructs and distal to the level of paraplegia. However, cases are rare and the literature relevant to the management of Charcot's arthropathy is limited. This paper reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgical management of post-traumatic spinal neuroarthropathy in the current literature. We present a rare case of adjacent level Charcot's lesion of the lumbar spine in a paraplegic patient, primarily treated for traumatic spinal cord lesion 39 years before current surgery. We have performed end-to-end apposition of bone after 3 column resection of the lesion, 3D correction of the deformity, and posterior instrumentation using a four-rod construct. Although the natural course of the disease remains unclear, surgery is always favorable and remains the primary treatment modality. Posterior long-segment spinal fusion with a four-rod construct is the mainstay of treatment to prevent further morbidity. Our technique eliminated the need for more extensive anterior surgery while preserving distal motion

  13. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  14. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  15. Bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction resulting from vertebral artery injury following cervical trauma without radiographic damage of the spinal column: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimata, Yoshikuni; Sato, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yoshiaki [Iwate Prefectural Chubu Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitakami (Japan); Murakami, Hideki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Vertebral artery injury can be a complication of cervical spine injury. Although most cases are asymptomatic, the rare case progresses to severe neurological impairment and fatal outcomes. We experienced a case of bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction with fatal outcome resulting from vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine trauma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of tetraplegia after falling down the stairs and hitting his head on the floor. Marked bony damage of the cervical spine was not apparent on radiographs and CT scans, so the injury was initially considered to be a cervical cord injury without bony damage. However, an intensity change in the intervertebral disc at C5/C6, and a ventral epidural hematoma were observed on MRI. A CT angiogram of the neck showed the right vertebral artery was completely occluded at the C4 level of the spine. Forty-eight hours after injury, the patient lapsed into drowsy consciousness. The cranial CT scan showed a massive low-density area in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and brain stem. Anticoagulation was initiated after a diagnosis of the right vertebral artery injury, but the patient developed bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction. The patient's brain herniation progressed and the patient died 52 h after injury. We considered that not only anticoagulation but also treatment for thrombosis would have been needed to prevent cranial embolism. We fully realize that early and appropriate treatment are essential to improve the treatment results, and constructing a medical system with a team of orthopedists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons is also very important. (orig.)

  16. The Neurological Compromised Spine Due to Ewing Sarcoma. What First: Surgery or Chemotherapy? Therapy, Survival, and Neurological Outcome of 15 Cases With Primary Ewing Sarcoma of the Vertebral Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Lida; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Schreuder, Hendrik W B; Bartels, Ronald H M A

    2015-11-01

    The vertebral column is an infrequent site of primary involvement in Ewing sarcoma. Yet when Ewing sarcoma is found in the spine, the urge for decompression is high because of the often symptomatic compression of neural structures. It is unclear in alleviating a neurological deficit whether chemotherapy is preferred over decompressive laminectomy. To underline, in this case series, the efficiency of initial chemotherapy before upfront surgery in the setting of high-grade spinal cord or cauda equina compression of primary Ewing sarcoma. Fifteen patients with Ewing sarcoma primarily located in the spine were treated at our institution between 1983 and 2015. Localization, neurological deficit expressed as Frankel grade, and outcome expressed as Rankin scale before and after initial chemotherapy, the recurrence rate, and overall survival were evaluated. The multidisciplinary approach of 1 case will be discussed in detail. Nine patients (60%) were female. The age at presentation was 15.0 ± 5.5 years (range: 0.9-22.8 years). Ten patients (67%) were initially treated with chemotherapy, and 1 patient (7%) was treated primarily with radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy. The remaining 4 patients (27%) were initially treated with decompressive surgery. All patients treated primarily nonsurgically improved neurologically at follow-up, showing the importance of chemotherapy as an effective initial treatment option. Adequate and quick decompression of neural structures with similar results can be achieved by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, avoiding the local spill of malignant cells.

  17. Short Segment Spinal Instrumentation With Index Vertebra Pedicle Screw Placement for Pathologies Involving the Anterior and Middle Vertebral Column Is as Effective as Long Segment Stabilization With Cage Reconstruction: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartanusz, Viktor; Harris, Jonathan; Moldavsky, Mark; Cai, Yiwei; Bucklen, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    LF and ACD, and 2LF, ACD, and CC (P ≤ 0.05). Cross-connectors and fracture screws reinforced each other in posterior-only constructs, providing maximum stability (P ≥ 0.05). This biomechanical comparison study found no significant superiority of combined anterior-posterior constructs over short segment fracture screw fixation, only multilevel posterior instrumentation with and without anterior support, providing increased stability in LB. Biomechanical equivalency suggests that short segment fracture screw intervention may provide appropriate stabilization for non-neoplastic pathologies involving the anterior and middle vertebral columns. 2.

  18. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  19. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  20. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  1. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  2. Creative columns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Diane

    2017-01-01

      Here, Hoff presents creative columns. As her seventh-graders began learning about ancient Greece in social studies, in art they observed ancient Greek architecture, paying attention to the orders of Pork, Ionic, and Corinthian...

  3. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  4. COLUMN TESSELLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh Ngoc Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of non facet-to-facet random tessellations in three-dimensional space is introduced -- the so-called column tessellations. The spatial construction is based on a stationary planar tessellation; each cell of the spatial tessellation is a prism whose base facet is  congruent to a cell of the planar tessellation. Thus intensities, topological and metric mean values of the spatial tessellation can be calculated from suitably chosen parameters of the planar tessellation.

  5. [Limitations of liver resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laca, L; Urdzik, J; Dobrota, Fani M; Polácek, H

    2009-03-01

    Evaluation of the functional reserve before resectional performance and sufficient rest of liver parenchyma function is essential for the surgeon. From these factors, the decision based on operability, the maximum extent of liver parenchyma resection and the severity of post-operative course. In the period from December 2003 to December 2008, at the Dept of Transplant and Vascular surgery, JLF UK Martin, have been performed 161 resections of the liver in 144 patients, of which 91 large resections performances in the liver (hemihepatektomies or greater performance). Six patients have undergone repeated resection (4.1%), in 11 patients was performed Radio Frequency Ablation due to relaps of the disease (6.1%), and 3 patients were performed two steps resection. Of 91 major resection performance in the liver was 62 (68%) performed by anatomical boundaries of individual segments, in remaining 29 (32%) resections was reflected more to the localization of tumor itself as anatomical subdivision called combined anatomical and non-antomical resection. Radical resection R0 has been achieved in 76% of malignant tumors. In the post-operative course in 17% experienced complications, most often to the hematoma and biloma in place of the resection area, pleural effusion and 8 patients had postoperative liver dysfunction. Of this group, 5 patients had made volumetric examinations, and in all was the volume of residual liver parenchyma < 30% of the total volume of functional liver. Mortality within 30 days of the performance was 1.1%. The survival of patients was affected mainly by extent of resection, histological type of tumor, radicality of resection and necessity of the complex surgical procedures. Based on our evaluation of the results of a group of patients was arranged scheme measures for planning resectional procedures of the liver in our department. These include the adjustment of laboratory parameters, management of jaundice, preference of anatomical resections and

  6. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  7. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães Complications determined by polyvinylchloride (PVC plates in the stabilization of caudal cervical vertebral column of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à formação de granuloma de corpo estranho e a reações inflamatórias locais que podem ter causado degradação do material implantado. Assim, placas de PVC, apesar de proporcionarem estabilidade e alinhamento da coluna vertebral, não satisfazem a maioria das propriedades necessárias a um biomaterial, não sendo recomendadaa a sua utilização em ortopedia veterinária.In ten dogs with an average mean weight of 14,6 kg, the cervical vertebra 5 and 6 were destabilized and fixed with plates of 2mm of thickness. The purpose of this work was to verify the effect of orthopedic PVC plates on the internal stabilization of the caudal cervical spine of dogs by studying the occurrence of alterations in the bone tissue and fibrous tissue adjacent to the plate after 180 days of permanence of the material in the dogs' organism. PVC causes progressive bone alterations, which, in the long term, could promote the loosening of the screws and failure of the implant. It also induces the formation of foreign body granuloma and inflammatory reactions which could cause degradation of the implant. Thus, PVC plates do not satisfy the majority of properties required of a biomaterial, its use not being recommended in veterinary orthopedics.

  8. The use of the carbon-fiber reinforced modular implant for the reconstruction of the anterior column of the spine. A clinical and experimental study conducted on 42 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriani, S; Bandiera, S; Biagini, R; De Iure, F; Giunti, A

    2000-01-01

    The conservative treatment of neoplasms of the locomotor apparatus means the production of bone defects that may be filled with prostheses, bone grafts, systems of osteosynthesis. In the vertebral column, reconstruction of the resected elements--in the case of total vertebrectomy--requires the combination of anterior and posterior implants. It is the purpose of this study to analyze a group of 42 patients who, after accurate and uniform oncological (Enneking) and surgical (Weinstein-Boriani-Biagini) staging, were submitted to excision of one or more vertebral bodies for the treatment of neoplastic pathology, with reconstruction by prosthetic carbon fiber modular implant in order to obtain immediate stability, and to stimulate solid intervertebral fusion by bone grafts introduced inside the prosthesis. Thirty of the 42 patients presented with primary malignant tumor, 3 with benign tumor, 6 with solitary metastases, and 3 with plasmacytoma. In 32 cases, en bloc resection of the vertebral body was carried out (vertebrectomy) with combined anterior and posterior access in 29 patients (69.0%), and by posterior approach alone in 3 cases (7.1%). Ten intralesional corporectomies were carried out, 8 by anterior approach, 2 by posterior approach. The carbon prosthesis was filled with cortical and cancellous bone grafts in 38 cases. At a mean clinical and instrumental follow-up obtained 26 months after surgery for all of the patients, the use of a carbon prosthesis did not cause short- or long-term mechanical complications. The results of our study tend to affirm that the use of a carbon fiber modular implant may fill any loss of bone substance of the vertebral column, that it allows for immediate weight-bearing, and that if favors bone fusion. Some particular features of the carbon prosthesis favorably adapt to the surgical method of vertebrectomy: 1. The various components of the prosthesis may adapt to any type of bone resection of the vertebral body, even in unexpected

  9. CONSERVATIVE ORTHOPEDIC RHEUMATOLOGY: THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN (Part IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Petrovich Pavlov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This part considers the diagnosis and medical treatment for cervical and lumbar spinal lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA. The author has developed an original procedure for medical measures for patients with RA and OA with cervical spinal lesion and a modified procedure for the management of lower back pain (LBP. The help-himself principle is used to prevent recurrent LBP

  10. Hernia of intervertebral disk in the lumbar vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.K.; Uhlenbrock, D.; Steiner, G.

    1986-02-01

    Degenerations of the spinal disc especially in the lumbar region are the most frequent degenerative diseases in orthopedics. As diagnostic proceedings to discover disc herniation myelography and computerized tomography have been proven to be very useful. Each of those methods show a high sensitivity and accuracy. Computerized tomography seems to be the first procedure because of the lac of any risk. Myelography has been reserved for the second approach, if there is any doubt in diagnosis. This paper will especially discuss advantages and disadvantages of MRI-tomography for the diagnosis of disc herniation. In MRI-tomography we have no radiation, there is no risk for the patient and we have the possibility of slices in different orientations with the sagittal orientation having priority in diagnosis of disc herniation. A more pronounced contrast in MRI relatively to the computerized tomography with nearly the same spatial resolution is an other important fact in favour for MRI. The value of MRI diagnosis of the spine depends however mainly on the use of special surface coils and on the use of high magnetic fields which provides a good signal to noise relation and which would permit us to use a thin-slice technique. The main disadvantage by now are the relative high costs.

  11. Impact of habitual cranial loading on the vertebral column of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the unloaded and loaded phases EMG measures were recorded of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The unloaded phase was when subjects stood without the 20 kg pot placed onto their cranium, whilst the loaded phase was when subjects stood with the 20 kg pot placed onto their cranium against a ...

  12. The Neandertal vertebral column 1: the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Been, Ella; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Stock, Jay T

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a metric analysis of the Neandertal cervical spine in relation to modern human variation. All seven cervical vertebrae have been analysed. Metric data from eight Neandertal individuals are compared with a large sample of modern humans. The significance of morphometric differences is tested using both z-scores and two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The results identify significant metric and morphological differences between Neandertals and modern humans in all seven cervical vertebrae. Neandertal vertebrae are mediolaterally wider and dorsoventrally longer than modern humans, due in part to longer and more horizontally oriented spinous processes. This suggests that Neandertal cervical morphology was more stable in both mid-sagittal and coronal planes. It is hypothesized that the differences in cranial size and shape in the Neandertal and modern human lineages from their Middle Pleistocene ancestors could account for some of the differences in the neck anatomy between these species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Esophageal resections and plastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagajevas, Aleksandras

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate interim results of surgery and plastics for esophageal diseases. From March 2002 to August 2003, 31 patients underwent esophageal resections in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of Klaipeda Hospital. The following operations were performed: 10 patients (32.3%) had transthoracic resections, 10 patients (32.3%) - transhiatal resections, 2 patients (6.5%) - Lewis type, 5 patients (16.1%) - Garlock type and 4 patients (12.9%) - first step of Thoreck type operations. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) underwent surgery due to cancer, 3 patients (9.7%) due to esophagus perforation, 1 patient (3.2%) due to peptic stricture, 1 patient (3.2%) due to post-burn stricture, and 1 patient (3.2%) due to gastric necrosis. In 7 cases (22.6%) combined esophageal resections were performed: 2 patients (6.5%) with lung segmentectomies, 2 patients (6.5%) with liver metastasis resections, 1 patient (3.25%) with right lower lobectomy, and 2 patients (6.5%) with proximal gastric metastasis resection. In 58% of patients we observed postoperative complications; lethal outcome was present in 5 patients (16.1%). Subtotal esophageal resection with gastric pipe reconstruction and two-level lymphadenectomies are sufficient radical treatment in cancer patients. Postoperative mortality (16.1%) after 31 resections depends on stage of disease, performance status, comorbidity, surgeon experience and type of operation.

  14. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Charcot arthropathy of the lumbosacral spine mimicking a vertebral tumor after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Soo-Bum; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-12-01

    Charcot spinal arthropathy is a rare, progressive type of vertebral joint degeneration that occurs in the setting of any preexisting condition characterized by decreased afferent innervation to the extent that normal protective joint sensation in the vertebral column is impaired. The authors report on a case of Charcot arthropathy of the lower lumbar spine mimicking a spinal tumor following cervical cord injury.

  16. Charcot Arthropathy of the Lumbosacral Spine Mimicking a Vertebral Tumor after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Soo-Bum; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    Charcot spinal arthropathy is a rare, progressive type of vertebral joint degeneration that occurs in the setting of any preexisting condition characterized by decreased afferent innervation to the extent that normal protective joint sensation in the vertebral column is impaired. The authors report on a case of Charcot arthropathy of the lower lumbar spine mimicking a spinal tumor following cervical cord injury.

  17. A machine learning approach to extract spinal column centerline from three-dimensional CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caihua; Li, Yuanzhong; Ito, Wataru; Shimura, Kazuo; Abe, Katsumi

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column is one of the most important anatomical structures in the human body and its centerline, that is, the centerline of vertebral bodies, is a very important feature used by many applications in medical image processing. In the past, some approaches have been proposed to extract the centerline of spinal column by using edge or region information of vertebral bodies. However, those approaches may suffer from difficulties in edge detection or region segmentation of vertebral bodies when there exist vertebral diseases such as osteoporosis, compression fracture. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on machine learning to robustly extract the centerline of the spinal column from threedimensional CT data. Our approach first applies a machine learning algorithm, called AdaBoost, to detect vertebral cord regions, which have a S-shape similar to and close to, but can be detected more stably than, the spinal column. Then a centerline of detected vertebral cord regions is obtained by fitting a spline curve to their central points, using the associated AdaBoost scores as weights. Finally, the obtained centerline of vertebral cord is linearly deformed and translated in the sagittal direction to fit the top and bottom boundaries of the vertebral bodies and then a centerline of the spinal column is obtained. Experimental results on a large CT data set show the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    was characterized by shortening of the cervical and thoracic parts of the vertebral column due to multiple hemivertebrae, fused and misshaped vertebrae, and scoliosis. Symmetrical flexures of the carpal joints and the metacarpophalangeal joint in combination with a slight lateral rotation of the phalanges also were...

  19. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  20. Computed Tomography Based Three-dimensional Measurements of Spine Shortening Distance After Posterior Three-column Osteotomies for the Treatment of Severe and Stiff Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Shi; Huang, Zi-Fang; Deng, Yao-Long; Fan, Heng-Wei; Sui, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yang, Jun-Lin

    2017-07-15

    Retrospective study. This study is to measure and analyze the changes of three-dimensional (3D) distances of spinal column and spinal canal at the three-column osteotomy sites and address their clinical and neurologic significance. Three-column osteotomies were developed to treat severe and stiff spine deformities with insufficient understanding on the safe limit of spine shortening and the relationship between the shortening distance of the spinal column and that of the spinal canal. Records of 52 continuous patients with severe and stiff scoliosis treated with three-column spine osteotomies at our institution from July 2013 to June 2015 were reviewed. The preoperative spinal cord function classification were type A in 31 cases, type B in 10 cases, and type C in 11 cases. The types of osteotomies carried out were extended pedicle subtraction osteotomy in nine patients and posterior vertebral column resection in 43 patients. Multimodality neuromonitoring strategies were adopted intraoperatively. 3D pre- and postoperative spine models were reconstructed from the computed tomography (CT) scans. The distances of convex and concave spinal column and the spinal canal shortening were measured and analyzed. The spinal column shortening distance (SCSD) measured on the 3D models (27.8 mm) were statistically shorter than those measured intraoperatively (32.8 mm) (P < 0.05); however, they were strongly correlated statistically (r = 0.82). The central spinal canal shortening distance (CCSD) was significantly shorter than the convex SCSD (P < 0.05). The convex SCSD and CCSD were significantly shorter in cases with anterior column strut graft than in those with bone-on-bone fusion (P < 0.05). The shortening distance of the convex spinal column cannot represent that of the central spinal canal in patients with severe scoliosis. The spinal column shortening procedure in appropriately selected patient groups with bone-on-bone fusion is a viable option with the

  1. Kyphoplasty Increases Vertebral Height, Decreases Both Pain Score and Opiate Requirements While Improving Functional Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B.; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. PMID:24165285

  2. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  3. Dupla meningocele na coluna vertebral Double spinal meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de dupla meningocele de coluna vertebral, respectivamente nas regiões cervico-torácica e tóraco-lombar, no qual ocorreu hidrocéfalo após pneumoventriculografia. Para a compensação do hidrocéfalo foi feita drenagem ventrículo-peritonial.A case of double spinal meningocele in thoraxic vertebral column in which occurred hydrocephalus after a pneumo-encephalographic examination is reported. To compensate the hydrocephalus a ventricle-peritoneal derivation was performed.

  4. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...... of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly...... of improving the prediction of bone strength of the vertebral body. The correlations between BV/TV of L-2 and bone strength of L-3 were comparable with the correlation obtained by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptrometry (DEXA) of L-3 and bone strength...

  5. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  6. Avaliação dos resultados clínicos e radiográficos de pacientes submetidos à ressecção de hemivértebra nas deformidades congênitas da coluna vertebral Evaluación de los resultados clínicos y radiográficos de los pacientes sometidos a resección de hemivértebra en deformidades congénitas de la columna vertebral Evaluation of clinical and radiographic results in patients undergoing resection of hemivertebra in congenital deformities of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Medeiros Moliterno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A proposta do estudo foi determinar nossos resultados clínicos e radiográficos de pacientes com deformidades congênitas da coluna vertebral submetidos à ressecção de hemivértebra por via posterior isolada e correção com instrumentação posterior e fusão. MÉTODOS: Registros de 31 pacientes submetidos à ressecção de hemivértebra no período de 2003 a 2010 foram revistos para identificar idade e sexo, grau de correção, níveis da artrodese, quadro neurológico, perda sanguínea, tempo cirúrgico e complicações. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 22 pacientes com escoliose e Cobb pré-operatório médio de 46.66°(20-88° e 9 pacientes com cifose e média angular de 83.54°(13-137°. Vinte e quatro pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 7 do sexo masculino. Foram 13 pacientes adolescentes e 18 crianças (1-19 anos. A ressecção de hemivértebra foi realizada em 1 nível (64%, 2 níveis (32% e 3 níveis (4%. As taxas de correção da escoliose e cifose foram 63.8 e 40.1% e as médias angulares pós-operatórias foram 16.88° e 50°, respectivamente. Complicações ocorreram em 7 pacientes: pseudartrose, cifose juncional, neurite óptica, déficit neurológico, infecção de ferida operatória e óbito. A média de perda sanguínea foi de 1132ml (300ml-3500ml e o tempo cirúrgico foi de 7.15 horas (4-13 horas. CONCLUSÕES: A ressecção de hemivértebra é uma valiosa técnica no tratamento das deformidades congênitas angulares e uma alternativa eficiente que oferece correção satisfatória nos planos coronal e sagital sem a necessidade de uma abordagem anterior.OBJETIVO: El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar los resultados clínicos y radiográficos de los pacientes con deformidades congénitas de la columna vertebral que se sometieron a la resección de hemivértebra por el acceso aislado posterior con instrumentación posterior y fusión. MÉTODOS: Registros de 31 pacientes sometidos a resección de la hemiv

  7. Modeling Stone Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Gonzalez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, eith...

  8. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which...... current design guides can be used. The columns tested had a slenderness varying from 1.11 to 12.76 and a reinforcement ratio (area of rebar to area of concrete) ranging from 0 to 8.8 %. A total of 77 tests were carried out - 61 columns were tested in ambient conditions and 16 columns were tested...

  9. Inflatable Column Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  10. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  11. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, C. V.; Nalley, T. K.; Spoor, F.; Tafforeau, P.; Alemseged, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had z...

  12. Analyzing Dendritic Morphology in Columns and Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chun-Yuan; McQueen, Philip G; Pandya, Nishith; McCreedy, Evan S; McAuliffe, Matthew; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2017-03-23

    In many regions of the central nervous systems, such as the fly optic lobes and the vertebrate cortex, synaptic circuits are organized in layers and columns to facilitate brain wiring during development and information processing in developed animals. Postsynaptic neurons elaborate dendrites in type-specific patterns in specific layers to synapse with appropriate presynaptic terminals. The fly medulla neuropil is composed of 10 layers and about 750 columns; each column is innervated by dendrites of over 38 types of medulla neurons, which match with the axonal terminals of some 7 types of afferents in a type-specific fashion. This report details the procedures to image and analyze dendrites of medulla neurons. The workflow includes three sections: (i) the dual-view imaging section combines two confocal image stacks collected at orthogonal orientations into a high-resolution 3D image of dendrites; (ii) the dendrite tracing and registration section traces dendritic arbors in 3D and registers dendritic traces to the reference column array; (iii) the dendritic analysis section analyzes dendritic patterns with respect to columns and layers, including layer-specific termination and planar projection direction of dendritic arbors, and derives estimates of dendritic branching and termination frequencies. The protocols utilize custom plugins built on the open-source MIPAV (Medical Imaging Processing, Analysis, and Visualization) platform and custom toolboxes in the matrix laboratory language. Together, these protocols provide a complete workflow to analyze the dendritic routing of Drosophila medulla neurons in layers and columns, to identify cell types, and to determine defects in mutants.

  13. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo [Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Medical Univ., School of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.).

  14. Nuclear reactor control column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  15. Resection of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Hermien; Ijzermans, Jan N M; van Gulik, Thomas M; Groot Koerkamp, Bas

    2016-04-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma presents at the biliary and vascular junction of the hepatic hilum with a tendency to extend longitudinally into segmental bile ducts. Most patients show metastatic or unresectable disease at time of presentation or surgical exploration. In patients eligible for surgical resection, challenges are to achieve negative bile duct margins, adequate liver remnant function, and adequate portal and arterial inflow to the liver remnant. Surgical treatment is characterized by high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the various strategies and techniques, the role of staging laparoscopy, intraoperative frozen section, caudate lobectomy, and vascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microminiature gas chromatographic column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, R. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques commonly used for fabrication of integrated circuits are utilized to produce long capillary tubes for microminiature chromatographs. Method involves bonding of flat silicon plate to top of spirally grooved silicon chip to close groove and form capillary column.

  17. Vertebral contour in spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Rho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. K. [Wallace memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The defect in the pars interarticularis of spondylolisthesis may be dependent on contributing factors related to trauma and stress to which the neural arch is subjected, superimposed on a hereditary diasthesis. Posterior wedging of 5th lumber vertebral body in lumbosacral spondylolisthesis together with the degree of slip have been measured. The average wedging in spondylolisthesis is significantly greater than patient without this condition, and forms a characteristic radiological sign. The degree of wedging and slip show a statistically valid correlation. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is becoming more prevalent as the complexity of our society result in the increasing use of roentgenography of the lumbar spine. Isolated lateral deviation and rotation of spinous process seen in anteroposterior radiographs of the lumbar spine seems to be associated with pathology in the pars interarticularis.

  18. Analysis of instrumentation failures after three column osteotomies of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavadi, Niranjan; Tallarico, Richard A; Lavelle, William F

    2017-01-01

    Correction of fixed spinal imbalance in a sagittal and/or coronal plane frequently needs a tricolumnar wedge resection when the deformity is rigid. Complications associated with deformity correction surgery are pseudoarthrosis and implant failure located along the construct. The purposes of this study were to assess comparative rates of pseudoarthrosis (implant failure) at weaker points along lumbosacral junction and level of osteotomy, estimate overall incidence of implant failure, and comparatively analyze failures at different points along the construct. This was an IRB approved, single center study retrospective analysis. Twenty-six patients who underwent three column osteotomies were grouped according to procedure: pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO, (n = 18)); vertebral column resection (VCR, (n = 4)); hemivertebra excision (HE, (n = 2)); and extracavitary corpectomy (EC, (n = 2)). Follow-up data is presented on all of the study patients. Number of levels of fusion, anchors, percent saturation of fixation levels, type of bone graft and graft substitutes, and rod material and diameter were recorded. Radiographical data was reviewed preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months and annually to determine sagittal and coronal balance, lumbopelvic parameters, presence or absence of interbody structural support, laterality or rod failure, and time to implant failure. Twenty-seven percent (7/26) patients demonstrated rod breakage either unilaterally (N = 2) or bilaterally (N = 5) during follow-up. Seventy-one percent had increasing back pain or worsening sagittal balance, while remaining failures found incidentally. No failures in children were seen. Tricolumnar osteotomy by posterior approach is a valuable tool. Rod failures found approximately 1 year from surgery, with 86% located at level of osteotomy and 14% at lumbosacral junction. Possible reasons are increased stress in the rod at this point and relatively

  19. Towards Atomic Column-by-Column Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, S.J.; Rafferty, B.

    1998-09-06

    The optical arrangement of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is ideally suited for performing analysis of individual atomic columns in materials. Using the incoherent Z-contrast image as a reference, and arranging incoherent conditions also for the spectroscopy, a precise correspondence is ensured between features in the inelastic image and elastic signals. In this way the exact probe position needed to maximise the inelastic signal from a selected column can be located and monitored during the analysis using the much higher intensity elastic signal. Although object functions for EELS are typically less than 1 {Angstrom} full width at half maximum, this is still an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding object functions for elastic (or diffuse) scattering used to form the Z-contrast image. Therefore the analysis is performed with an effective probe that is significantly broader than that used for the reference Z-contrast image. For a 2.2 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is of the order of 2.5 {Angstrom}, while for a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is 1.6 {Angstrom}. Such increases in effective probe size can significantly reduce or even eliminate contrast between atomic columns that are visible in the image. However, this is only true if we consider circular collector apertures. Calculations based upon the theory of Maslen and Rossouw (Maslen and Rossouw 1984; Rossouw and Maslen 1984) show that employing an annular aperture can reduce the FWHM of the inelastic object function down to values close 0.1 {Angstrom}. With practical aperture sizes it should be possible to achieve this increased spatial resolution without loosing too much signal.

  20. ENDOSCOPIC TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BILHARZIAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 1 10-5 704. African Journal of Urology. V0/. 9, NO. 1, 2003. 36-40. ENDOSCOPIC TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BILHARZIAL. ULCERS OF THE URINARY BLADDER. SINGLE-CENTER ... ulcers (78% de novo and 22% recurrent ul- cers after previous open partial .... tion cf its tip is used for resection. However, it.

  1. ENDOSCOPIC TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BILHARZIAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 1 10-5 704. African Journal of Urology. Vol. 9, NO. 1, 2003. 36-40. ENDOSCOPIC TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BILHARZIAL. ULCERS OF THE URINARY BLADDER. SINGLE-CENTER ... ulcers (78% de novo and 22% recurrent ul- cers after previous open partial .... tion of its tip is used for resection. HoWever, it.

  2. [Laparoscopic liver resection: lessons learned after 132 resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Campos, Ricardo; Marín Hernández, Caridad; Lopez-Conesa, Asunción; Olivares Ripoll, Vicente; Paredes Quiles, Miriam; Parrilla Paricio, Pascual

    2013-10-01

    After 20 years of experience in laparoscopic liver surgery there is still no clear definition of the best approach (totally laparoscopic [TLS] or hand-assisted [HAS]), the indications for surgery, position, instrumentation, immediate and long-term postoperative results, etc. To report our experience in laparoscopic liver resections (LLRs). Over a period of 10 years we performed 132 LLRs in 129 patients: 112 malignant tumours (90 hepatic metastases; 22 primary malignant tumours) and 20 benign lesions (18 benign tumours; 2 hydatid cysts). Twenty-eight cases received TLS and 104 had HAS. 6 right hepatectomies (2 as the second stage of a two-stage liver resection); 6 left hepatectomies; 9 resections of 3 segments; 42 resections of 2 segments; 64 resections of one segment; and 5 cases of local resections. There was no perioperative mortality, and morbidity was 3%. With TLS the resection was completed in 23/28 cases, whereas with HAS it was completed in all 104 cases. Transfusion: 4,5%; operating time: 150min; and mean length of stay: 3,5 days. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for the primary malignant tumours were 100, 86 and 62%, and for colorectal metastases 92, 82 and 52%, respectively. LLR via both TLS and HAS in selected cases are similar to the results of open surgery (similar 5-year morbidity, mortality and survival rates) but with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Perioperative chemotherapy and hepatic resection for resectable colorectal liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The role of perioperative chemotherapy in the management of initially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is still unclear. The EPOC trial [the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 40983] is an important study that declares perioperative chemotherapy as the standard of care for patients with resectable CRLM, and the strategy is widely accepted in western countries. Compared with surgery alone, perioperative FOLFOX therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (PFS) in eligible patients or those with resected CRLM. Overall survival (OS) data from the EPOC trial were recently published in The Lancet Oncology, 2013. Here, we discussed the findings and recommendations from the EORTC 40983 trial. PMID:25713806

  4. Relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais The relationship between excursion of the diaphragm and curvatures of the spinal column in mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiao Yi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 52 crianças de 5 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Por meio de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, foram divididas em dois grupos: respiradores bucais e respiradores nasais. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exame de videofluoroscopia do músculo diafragma e a avaliação postural. A excursão do diafragma foi analisada pelo programa Adobe Photoshop®, e a avaliação postural através de fotografias em norma lateral esquerda, sendo analisadas pelo Software de Avaliação Postural. RESULTADOS: Os grupos estudados apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante quanto ao comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral (lordose cervical: p = 0,003; lordose lombar: p = 0,001; cifose torácica: p = 0,002; posição da pelve: p = 0,001 e da excursão do músculo diafragma (diafragma lado direito: p = 0,001; diafragma lado esquerdo: p = 0,001. O grupo respirador bucal apresentou diminuição da lordose cervical, aumento da cifose torácica, aumento da lordose lombar e anteversão da posição da pelve. A distância excursionada pelo músculo diafragma em crianças respiradoras bucais é menor que em crianças respiradoras nasais. Não houve significância estatística ao relacionar o comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma. CONCLUSÃO: Não há relação entre as curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma nos grupos estudados.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between excursion of the diaphragm muscle and spinal curvatures in mouth breathing children. METHODS: A total of 52 children of both sexes, aged from 5 to 12 years, were studied. After otorhinolaryngological assessment, the children were divided into two groups: mouth breathers and nose breathers. All of the children underwent

  5. Comparison of Ponte Osteotomies and 3-Column Osteotomies in the Treatment of Congenital Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscella; Andras, Lindsay M; Nielsen, Ena; Sousa, Ted; Joiner, Elizabeth; Choi, Paul D; Tolo, Vernon T; Skaggs, David L

    2017-08-02

    Congenital spinal deformity (CSD) has traditionally been treated with 3-column osteotomies [hemivertebrectomy (HV) or vertebral column resection (VCR)] to address rigid deformities. Alternatively, multiple Ponte osteotomies (PO) may provide correction while minimizing risk. The purpose of this study was to compare safety and outcomes of patients undergoing surgical treatment for CSD with these 3 procedures. Retrospective review of CSD patients treated with posterior spinal fusion between 1996 to 2013. Patients treated with multiple Ponte osteotomies (PO group) were compared with those managed with 3-column osteotomies (HV/VCR group). Patients with previous instrumentation, isolated cervical deformity, growing spine instrumentation, or Deformity angular ratio (DAR) was calculated as curve magnitude divided by number of levels of the deformity. There were 49 patients [17 PO, 32 HV/VCR (26 HV, 6 VCR)]. For the PO group, mean age was 14 years, and they had an average of 4 ponte osteotomies and 11 levels fused. Mean total DAR was 25 and mean number of congenital anomalies was 1.8 in the PO group. The HV/VCR group had a mean age of 7 years and 5 levels fused. Mean total DAR was 28 and mean number of congenital anomalies was 2.1 in the HV/VCR group. Patients had a mean of 54.1% correction of coronal deformity in the PO group and 54.4% in the HV/VCR group (P=0.78). Signal changes were observed less frequently with PO (1/17) and HV (1/26) than with VCR (4/6), P=0.001. Revision rates were 17.6% (3/17) in the PO group and 37.5% (12/32) in the HV/VCR group (P=0.35). Patients with CSD and a mean total DAR of 25 treated with multiple PO and long fusions had correction comparable with the HV/VCR group. Patients treated with VCR had the highest incidence of signal changes and postoperative neurologic deficits. Level III.

  6. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  7. Practical column design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsche, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the aspects that need to be considered when designing distillation columns in practice. It discusses the influencing parameters as well as the equations governing them, and presents several numerical examples. The book is intended both for experienced designers and for those who are new to the subject.

  8. Vertebral Malformations in French Bulldogs

    OpenAIRE

    KURICOVÁ, Mária; LEDECKÝ, Valent; KVETKOVÁ, Jaroslava; LIPTÁK, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect vertebral malformations among French Bulldogs admitted between the years 2011 – 2016 due to the high popularity of the breed and the intentions to increase the breed welfare by reducing the occurrence of congenital anomalies. Besides, we aimed to look for gender predisposition, possible vertebral predisposition, occurrence of clinical symptoms and radiographic findings. A total of 73 French Bulldogs met the inclusion criteria (radiographs of the whole spine...

  9. DMRT genes in vertebrate gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkower, David

    2013-01-01

    Genes containing the DM domain DNA-binding motif regulate sex determination and sexual differentiation in a broad variety of metazoans, including nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. They can function in primary sex determination or downstream in sexual differentiation, and they can act either throughout the body or in highly restricted cell types. In vertebrates, several DM domain genes--DMRT genes--play critical roles in gonadal differentiation or gametogenesis. DMRT1 has the most prominent role and likely regulates testicular differentiation in all vertebrates. In the mammalian gonad, DMRT1 exerts both intrinsic and extrinsic control of gametogenesis; it is required for germ cell differentiation in males and regulates meiosis in both sexes, and it is required in supporting cells for the establishment and maintenance of male fate in the testis. These varied functions of DMRT1 serve to coordinate gonadal development and function. In other vertebrates, DMRT1 regulates gonadal differentiation, and it also appears to have played a central role in the evolution of new sex-determining mechanisms in at least three vertebrate clades. This chapter focuses on the regulation of vertebrate gametogenesis by DMRT1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Morphological Study of the Vertebral Venous Plexus and its Connections in the Cape Dune Mole-Rat, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotze, S.H.; Boonzaier, J.; Vorster, W.; Hoogland, P.V.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bathyergus suillus are subterranean rodents found in the Western Cape of South Africa, where they inhabit sandy, humid burrows. Vertebral venous plexuses around the vertebral column have been implicated in aiding the maintenance of a constant central nervous system temperature via its connections

  11. Transurethral resection of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURP; Prostate resection - transurethral ... used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity. ... if you have benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ). The prostate gland often grows larger as men get older. ...

  12. Colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Pujan; Wallace, Michael B

    2017-08-01

    Colonoscopy has the benefit of detecting and treating precancerous adenomatous polyps and thus reduces mortality associated with CRC. Screening colonoscopy is the keystone for prevention of colorectal cancer. Over the last 20 years there has been increased in the management of large colorectal polyps from surgery to endoscopic removal techniques which is less invasive. Traditionally surgical resection was the treatment of choice for many years for larger polyps but colectomy poses significant morbidity of 14-46% and mortality of up to 7%. There are several advantages of endoscopic resection technique over surgery; it is less invasive, less expensive, has rapid recovery, and preserves the normal gut functions. In addition patient satisfaction and efficacy of EMR is higher with minor complications. Thus, this has facilitated the development of advanced resection technique for the treatment of large colorectal polyps called as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconstructing the ancestral vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Murakami, Yasunori; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain. Previous developmental studies had shown that the lamprey lacked well-established brain compartments that are present in gnathostomes, such as the medial ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip. The most accepted scenario suggested that cyclostomes had fewer compartments than that of the gnathostome brain and that gnathostomes thus evolved by a stepwise addition of innovations on its developmental sequence. However, recent studies have revealed that these compartments are present in hagfish embryos, indicating that these brain regions have been acquired before the split of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. By comparing two cyclostome lineages and gnathostomes, it has become possible to speculate about a more complex ancestral state of the brain, excluding derived traits in either of the lineages. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the brain development of the lamprey and hagfish. Then, we attempt to reconstruct the possible brain architecture of the last common ancestor of vertebrates. Finally, we discuss how the developmental plan of the vertebrate brain has been modified independently in different vertebrate lineages. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  14. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater...

  15. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  16. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  17. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  18. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  19. Delayed Post-traumatic Vertebral Collapse: MR Categorization and MR-Pathology Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Suh; Yu, Je-Wook; Chung, Sung Soo; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Ahn, Geunghwan; Ahn, Joong Mo

    2007-06-01

    A retrospective study. To categorize the MR appearance of ischemic vertebral collapse and to correlate surgical and histologic findings. X-ray and MRI findings of delayed posttraumatic vertebral collapse shows several patterns. Histopathologic signs of osteonecrosis were present only in minor portion of cases sampled for biopsy of delayed post-traumatic vertebral collapse in the literature. Twenty-one patients (22 vertebral bodies), with surgically and histopathologically proven ischemic vertebral collapse were included. The patients were examined with a 1.5 T MR imager. Spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in axial and sagittal planes. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists, who reached consensus, evaluated the MR images. Then, MR-pathology correlations were made. Four different MR patterns were identified. Fluid patterns, were seen in 14% (3/22) of the affected vertebral bodies, and were characterized by hypo-intense signals on T1-weighted images, and hyper-intense signals, similar to water, on T2-weighted images. Extensive bone necrosis was predominant. Compression pattern, the most common pattern, found in 41% (9/22 vertebral bodies), was characterized by a marked decrease of anterior column height. Bone necrosis, granulation tissue, marrow fibrosis, and reactive new bone formation were found in relatively equal proportion. Granulation pattern, seen in 27% (6/22 vertebral bodies), was characterized by hypo-intense signals on T1-weighted images, and intermediate signals on T2-weighted images. Extensive granulation tissue was predominant. Mixed patterns were present in 18% (4/22), of the vertebral bodies. Awareness of histopathologic correlation of MR patterns in patients with delayed post-traumatic vertebral collapse may facilitate effective interpretation of clinical MR images of the spine.

  20. Column: Every Last Byte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance powder is the name that was given to poisons, especially arsenic, that were commonly used in the 17th and early 18th centuries to hasten the death of the elderly. For most of the 17th century, arsenic was deadly but undetectable, making it nearly impossible to prove that someone had been poisoned. The first arsenic test produced a gas—hardly something that a scientist could show to a judge. Faced with a growing epidemic of poisonings, doctors and chemists spent decades searching for something better.(see PDF for full column

  1. Development of a external exposure computational model for studying of input dose in skin for radiographs of thorax and vertebral column; Desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional de exposicao externa para estudo da dose de entrada na pele para radiografias de torax e coluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Menezes, Claudio J.M., E-mail: bianca.cm95@gmail.com, E-mail: cjmm@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.net [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The dosimetric measurements do not always happen directly in the human body. Therefore, these assessments can be performed using anthropomorphic models (phantoms) evidencing models computational exposure (MCE) using techniques of Monte Carlo Method for virtual simulations. These processing techniques coupled with more powerful and affordable computers make the Monte Carlo method one of the tools most used worldwide in radiation transport area. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGS4 program was used to develop a computer model of external exposure to study the entrance skin dose for chest and column X-radiography and, aiming to optimize these practices by reducing doses to patients, professionals involved and the general public. The results obtained experimentally with the electrometer Radcal, model 9015, associated with the ionization chamber for radiology model 10X5-6, showed that the proposed computational model can be used in quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic, evaluating the entrance skin dose when varying parameters of the radiation beam such as kilo voltage peak (kVp), current-time product (mAs), total filtration and distance surface source (DFS), optimizing the practices in radiodiagnostic and meeting the current regulation.

  2. Axial allometry in a neutrally buoyant environment: effects of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on vertebral scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pierce, S E

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification into new environments presents new mechanical challenges for locomotion. An extreme example of this is the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. Here, we examine the implications of life in a neutrally buoyant environment on adaptations of the axial skeleton to evolutionary increases in body size. On land, mammals must use their thoracolumbar vertebral column for body support against gravity and thus exhibit increasing stabilization of the trunk as body size increases. Conversely, in water, the role of the axial skeleton in body support is reduced, and, in aquatic mammals, the vertebral column functions primarily in locomotion. Therefore, we hypothesize that the allometric stabilization associated with increasing body size in terrestrial mammals will be minimized in secondarily aquatic mammals. We test this by comparing the scaling exponent (slope) of vertebral measures from 57 terrestrial species (23 felids, 34 bovids) to 23 semi-aquatic species (pinnipeds), using phylogenetically corrected regressions. Terrestrial taxa meet predictions of allometric stabilization, with posterior vertebral column (lumbar region) shortening, increased vertebral height compared to width, and shorter, more disc-shaped centra. In contrast, pinniped vertebral proportions (e.g. length, width, height) scale with isometry, and in some cases, centra even become more spool-shaped with increasing size, suggesting increased flexibility. Our results demonstrate that evolution of a secondarily aquatic lifestyle has modified the mechanical constraints associated with evolutionary increases in body size, relative to terrestrial taxa. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Parenteral Nutrition in Liver Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Chiarla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit a very large number of experiments have assessed the impact of various substrates on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, a limited number of clinical studies have evaluated artificial nutrition in liver resection patients. This is a peculiar topic because many patients do not need artificial nutrition, while several patients need it because of malnutrition and/or prolonged inability to feeding caused by complications. The optimal nutritional regimen to support liver regeneration, within other postoperative problems or complications, is not yet exactly defined. This short review addresses relevant aspects and potential developments in the issue of postoperative parenteral nutrition after liver resection.

  4. Intramedullary ependymoma: Microsurgical resection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammattei, L; Penet, N; Parker, F; Messerer, M

    2016-04-27

    Spinal ependymomas are predominantly slow-growing lesions constituting approximately 30-88% of primary spinal intramedullary tumors. They usually present as circumscribed lesions, with regular margins and a clear surgical plane. Gross-total resection is often feasible and potentially curative but neurosurgeons should keep in mind that the ultimate goal of surgery is the preservation of spinal cord function. We present the surgical technique to safely resect an intramedullary ependymoma using a posterior median sulcus approach. A brief description of current management of this pathology is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. of reinforced concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modification of the dynamic relaxation method in order to increase its effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis. For this purpose, the arc-length parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure. The additional constraints equation that combines increment of load parameter and the vector of displacement increments with the arc-length increment on the solution path was incorporated to analysis of the equations of motion. Solution of nonlinear equilibrium equations is obtained recursively in subsequent pseudo-time instants. The proposed method allows for tracking the global softening phenomenon of the structural element in the post-critical range, which leads to failure. We ran numerical experiments for the reinforced concrete eccentrically loaded column. Our comparative analysis with previously published numerical results demonstrated that the proposed computational method is effective.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete columns, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method, load-carrying capacity

  6. Dupla meningocele na coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de dupla meningocele de coluna vertebral, respectivamente nas regiões cervico-torácica e tóraco-lombar, no qual ocorreu hidrocéfalo após pneumoventriculografia. Para a compensação do hidrocéfalo foi feita drenagem ventrículo-peritonial.

  7. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features.

  8. Percutanous vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fracture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; a report of two cases. ... Background: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common in the geriatric age group. ... Conclusion: Percutanous vertebroplasty offers effective, immediate and sustained pain relief in osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  9. [Vertebral destruction with sever pain in the SAPHO syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, D; Pfaffenbach, B; Schmid, G; Adamek, R J

    1999-02-05

    A 57-year-old man had for the past 18 months complained of recurrent, recently worsening, belt-like backache radiating ventrally. On admission a skin rash consisting of blister and pustules was noted on the palms of both hands. He had pain on pressure over the right upper abdomen, an enlarged prostate and definite pain on percussing the vertebral column with restricted movement of the thoracic vertebral column, but no other physical signs. Radiology revealed clearly increased sclerosis of several thoracic vertebrae with osteolytic destruction and a paravertebral soft tissue tumor. Search for a primary tumor was unsuccessful. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated nuclide enrichment of the thoracic vertebrae and of the sternoclavicular joints without increase in the LeukoScan. These findings indicated the diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome (synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteomyelitis). Rapid subjective and objective improvement followed the administration of clindamycin and ibuprofen. In case of bone pain of uncertain aetiology, especially when associated with skin rash, the rare SAPHO syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis, avoiding lengthy diagnostic steps and allowing early treatment.

  10. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  12. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  13. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  14. Bowel resection in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although bowel resections are commonly done for congenital malformations in children in developed countries, they usually follow neglected and preventable acquired diseases of the intestine in developing countries. Objectives : To determine the indications and outcome of bowel resections in children of a developing country in a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Data of the patients operated (from birth to 15 years was retrospectively collected over eight years (January 1999 to December 2006. The biodata of children included the following: Indications for operation, type of operations, duration of admission, and outcome of treatment including complications. Patients with Hirschsprung′s disease were excluded from the study because bowel resection forms part of their definitive surgical management. Results : There were 70 patients (38 boys and 32 girls. The age ranged between four hours to 15 years (median, five months. There were 16 (22.9% neonates, 26 (37.1% infants, and 28 (40% grown children. The indications were congenital anomalies in the 16 neonates. Also, 23 (88.5% infants had intussusception, 2 (7.7% had midgut vovulusm and 1 (3.8% had congenital small intestine band. Among the grown children, typhoid ileal perforation (TIP was seen in 14 (50.0%, intussusception in 5 (17.9%, and other causes in nine patients. Overall, intussusception was the most common indication for bowel resection, followed by TIP. A total of 24 patients developed 33 complications. Complications included wound infection in 47.8% and anastomotic leak in 42.8%. The duration of admission ranged between 4-35 days (median, 15 days. The overall mortality was 17.1% -; which was highest among neonates (56.3%, followed by the infants (26.9% -. Conclusion : Bowel resections are mainly done for intussusception and complications of TIP at our centre. Late presentation, preexisting malnutrition, and nonavailability of parenteral nutrition

  15. MRI appearances of inflammatory vertebral osteitis in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kanberoglu, Kaya; Mihmanli, Ismail; Cokyuksel, Oktay [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University (Turkey); Kanberoglu, Ayfer [Department of Physical Medicine, SSK Istanbul Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-03-01

    Background: Undiagnosed and early ankylosing spondylitis (AS), especially in adolescent patients suffering from back pain, may present with the finding of vertebral osteitis on MRI. Aims: To identify the early MRI changes of vertebral osteitis in AS. Patients and methods: Five patients (three boys, two girls) aged 11-20 years (mean 15.4 years) suffering from back pain underwent MRI of the thoracolumbar spine. There was no initial diagnosis of AS. After clinical and radiological suspicion of AS, MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints was performed. Results: During the course of AS, destructive and reactive changes affect the discovertebral junctions that are initially seen in the thoracolumbar area. At this stage plain radiography of the spinal column may be normal. On MR images, inflammatory osteitis of the vertebrae is seen as hypointense areas on T1-weighted images and hyperintense areas on T2-W images. The lesions enhance homogenously with contrast material. Conclusions: Awareness of the MRI appearances of vertebral osteitis is helpful in suspecting AS. Radiological examination of the SI facilitates the diagnosis and unnecessary further imaging can be avoided. (orig.)

  16. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  17. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  18. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors for incomplete resection and complications in endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Hun; Kim, Joo Hoon; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won

    2012-07-01

    Lateral spreading tumors (LST) are relatively large flat lesions with diameters exceeding 10 mm in length. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a commonly used technique for removing LST. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for incomplete resection and complications of EMR for LST. Between January 2004 and December 2010, 497 patients who underwent EMR for LST were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for endoscopic and histopathological complete resection, complications, and clinical outcomes were investigated. Risks for incomplete resection by piecemeal resection and en bloc resection of a lesion ≥ 30 mm were higher than for en bloc resection of a lesion LST ≥ 30 mm, hospitalize patients for 12 h and note risk for incomplete resection. (iii) Following en bloc resection for LST<30 mm, hospitalize the patient for 12 h and expect complete resection. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  20. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord.

  1. Reconstruction of type II+III pelvic resection with a modular hemipelvic endoprosthesis: a finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tao; Guo, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Yi

    2010-11-01

    To conduct a biomechanical study of the whole reconstructed pelvic ring using a modular hemipelvic endoprosthesis. A subject-specific finite-element (FE) model of the whole pelvic ring, including the pelvis, sacrum and main ligaments, was constructed. Type II+III pelvic resection was simulated on the FE model. Then a three-dimensional model of a reconstructed pelvic ring with a modular hemipelvic endoprosthesis was developed, and FE analysis performed to compare the stresses along the bilateral arcuate lines of the reconstructed and normal pelvis in the bipedal standing position. Comparison between bilateral stress distributions along the sciatic notch was also performed. The characteristics of load transmission within the endoprosthesis were also studied. No significant difference in the stresses along the bilateral arcuate lines was observed between the reconstructed and normal pelvis. The stress distribution on the prosthesis along the sciatic notch paths was significantly greater than that on the unaffected side in the same position. The peak stress of the implant on the S1 vertebral body was 182.9 MPa under a load of 600N. Study of load transfer on the implant showed that the posterior side of the column between the point of iliac fixation and the acetabulum was subject to the greatest stress. This FE study showed that a modular hemipelvic endoprosthesis can restore load transfer between the sacrum and acetabulum on simple standing. Future implant design should aim to decrease the stress concentration and make the biomechanical performance more balanced. © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Endolaryngeal laser resection of larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mudunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal cancer takes the leading position among malignant tumors of head and neck. Currently, endolaryngeal laser resection is the leading treatment option for localized processes (T1-T2. In the period from December 2014 to January 2016 such surgeries were performed in 76 patients in our clinic. Carcinoma in situ was detected in 19 (25 %, T1a in 27 (35 %, T1b in 24 (31 %, T2 in 6 (8 % patients. As result of the planned histological examination, in all cases surgical procedures had microscopically radical character. Endolaryngeal CO2 -laser resections allow to perform enough large radical surgical interventions with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results, without compromising long-term outcomes. 

  3. [Robot-assisted pancreatic resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssle, B; Distler, M; Weitz, J; Welsch, T

    2017-06-01

    Although robot-assisted pancreatic surgery has been considered critically in the past, it is nowadays an established standard technique in some centers, for distal pancreatectomy and pancreatic head resection. Compared with the laparoscopic approach, the use of robot-assisted surgery seems to be advantageous for acquiring the skills for pancreatic, bile duct and vascular anastomoses during pancreatic head resection and total pancreatectomy. On the other hand, the use of the robot is associated with increased costs and only highly effective and professional robotic programs in centers for pancreatic surgery will achieve top surgical and oncological quality, acceptable operation times and a reduction in duration of hospital stay. Moreover, new technologies, such as intraoperative fluorescence guidance and augmented reality will define additional indications for robot-assisted pancreatic surgery.

  4. DNA End Resection: Facts and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which arise following exposure to a number of endogenous and exogenous agents, can be repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways in eukaryotic cells. A vital step in HR repair is DNA end resection, which generates a long 3′ single-stranded DNA (ssDNA tail that can invade the homologous DNA strand. The generation of 3′ ssDNA is not only essential for HR repair, but also promotes activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR. Multiple factors, including the MRN/X complex, C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein (CtIP/Sae2, exonuclease 1 (EXO1, Bloom syndrome protein (BLM/Sgs1, DNA2 nuclease/helicase, and several chromatin remodelers, cooperate to complete the process of end resection. Here we review the basic machinery involved in DNA end resection in eukaryotic cells.

  5. [A telescopic vertebral endoprosthesis for subaxial cervical fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhlopochin, A S; Shvets, A I; Nekhlopochin, S N

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to develop an anterior subaxial cervical fusion technique using a new telescopic vertebral graft (VG) construction and to introduce the technique into clinical practice. We analyzed existing VG constructions used in anterior interbody fusion at the cervical spine level and developed our own variant of a vertical, cylindrical, telescopic, mesh, vertebral endoprosthesis as well as a technique of its placement to replace bodies of the cervical vertebrae. The technique was used in 11 patients with spinal trauma. The orthopedic and neurological status and outcomes of surgical treatment were assessed using ASIA/IMSOP, Odom, and VAS scales. The first cases of replacement of a resected vertebra by the proposed construction indicate the advisability of using this VG to restore the sagittal profile, stabilize the operated spinal motion segment, and create conditions for the formation of an adequate supporting bone block. The graft construction can be filled with a significant amount of a filler and makes it possible to add and tighten the filler after placing the graft into the operating position. The study demonstrated the construct efficacy. No postoperative complications associated with the use and placement of the telescopic constructions was observed.

  6. Safety barriers and lighting columns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems arising from the sitting of lighting columns on the central reserve are reviewed, and remedial measures such as break-away lighting supports and installation of safety fences on the central reserve on both sides of the lighting columns are examined.

  7. Developing the bundled glass column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; da Sousa Cruz, Paulo J.

    In this paper a bundled glass column is presented as a promising solution for a completely transparent, almost dematerialized structural compressive element. The aim is to ob-tain a glass column that can safely carry loads, achieve a high visual result and be relatively eas-ily manufactured.

  8. METHODS FOR EXPERIMENTAL ANASTOMOSES PROTECTION ON THE COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Višnjić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research on small animals (rats whose purpose is to check upon efficiency of the protection methods for suppressing dehiscence of the column anastomoses.The research is carried out on 90 experimental animals divided into three groups of 30. In the control group (group K the segment resection of the left side of the column is done with termino-terminal anastomosis by a one-layer extension suture. In the II animal group the anastomosis protection is done by intraluminal application of latex prosthesis (group L and in the III group the fibrin adhesive or bio adhesive application is done (group F. The complete dehiscence of anastomosis as the cause of mortality in the group K is registered in 3 (10% cases while in the group L in 2 (6,6% animals. In the group F there is no dehiscence with the energence of diffuse peritonitis. By applying the protection methods in performing on the column better results are achieved and they are manifested in a smaller number of dehiscences. The local application of the fibrin adhesive provides for the best results since the good mechanical protection is achieved while at the same time the healing time of the column anastomoses is shortened.

  9. Occurrence of vertebral osteophytosis in a museum sample of white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders; Sonne, Christian; Kinze, Carl Christian

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of pathologic new bone formation in the vertebral column was studied in 46 skeletons of the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) stranded in Denmark between 1903 and 2002 and held in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. New bone formation...

  10. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  11. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  12. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  13. New perspective for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures: Preliminary results at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Daniele; Pantalone, Andrea; Bigossi, Francesco; Pineto, Filippo; Lucantoni, Danilo; Salini, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF) increased in the last years. Compression fractures promote a progressive spine kyphosis increase, resulting in a weight shift and anterior column overload, with OVF additional risk (domino effect). The aim of this study is to evaluate the OVF treatment outcome using Spine Jack(®), a titanium device for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures (PVAPs). From February 2010, a prospective randomized study was performed examining 300 patients who underwent PVAP due to OVF type A1 according to Magerl/AO spine classification. Patients enrolled in the study were divided in two homogenous groups with regards to age (65-85 years), sex, and general clinical findings. Group A included 150 patients who underwent PVAP using Spine Jack(®) system; the second, group B (control group), included 150 patients treated by conventional balloon kyphoplasty. Patients underwent a clinical (visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index) and radiographic follow-up, with post-operative standing plain radiogram of the spine at 1, 6, and 12 months. The radiographic parameters that were taken into account were: Post-operative anterior vertebral body height, pre-operative anterior vertebral body height, cephalic anterior vertebral body height, and caudal anterior vertebral body height. Compared to the Spine Jack(®) group, the kyphoplasty group required a little longer operation time (an average of 40 min-group A vs. 45 min-group B, P Jack(®) group than in the kyphoplasty group (P Jack(®) has some new features compared to other systems: It is equipped with a mechanical and not a hydraulic opening control; this ensures a gradual and controlled vertebral fracture reduction. In our study, we demonstrated that the third generation PVAP with Spine Jack(®) is able to determine a safe vertebral body height restoration compared to the conventional balloon kyphoplasty.

  14. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF VERTEBRAL FRACTURES ASSOCIATED WITH LOW MINERAL BONE DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rerikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of 177 patients with monolocal fractures of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using transpedicular fixation (n=17, transpedicular fixation and osteoplasty (n=101, vertebroplasty (n=48 or kyphoplasty (n=ll. Restoration of support ability of the fractured osteoporotic vertebrae within ventral column by means of plasty particularly in combination with internal fixation allows achievement of better clinical outcomes, improvement of the quality of life in patients in the early and late periods after surgery.

  15. Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report Paraganglioma maligno com metástase vertebral: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lázaro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A paraganglioma is a rare tumor, composed of chromaffin cells, groups of cells associated to the autonomous system. When the tumor occurs in the adrenal gland, it is called pheochromocitoma. The malignant paraganglioma is a very rare presentation; it is diagnosed by local recurrence after total resection of the primary mass, or findings of distant metastases. We present a case report of a 29-year-old woman with cervico-brachial pain. In 1995 she underwent a carotid body tumor resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, plain X-rays and computerized tomography scan revealed multiple lesions in C5, T5 and T12. She underwent a surgical procedure to correct the cervical lesion. The histological and immunohistochemical assays revealed a malignant paraganglioma. She received adjuvant radiotherapy, showing clinical improvement after treatment, presenting no symptoms after one year. The therapeutic approach is based on the total resection of the tumor. The treatment of distant metastases can be made with adjuvant measures such as conventional radiotherapy, I¹³¹-MIBG, or chemotherapy, especially in malignant pheochromocitomas.O paraganglioma é tumor raro, composto de células cromafins, associado ao sistema nervoso autônomo. Quando localizado na glândula supra-renal, o tumor é chamado feocromocitoma. Descreve-se um caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 29 anos, que se apresentou com cervicobraquialgia e que havia sido operada em 1995 para exérese de tumor glômico da carótida cervical. RM, RX e TC revelaram múltiplas lesões acometendo o corpo vertebral de C5, T5 e T12. Foi submetida à ressecção cirúrgica radical da lesão cervical, com substituição do corpo vertebral por prótese de titânio. A histopatologia e o estudo imunohistoquímico da lesão confirmaram o diagnóstico de paraganglioma maligno. As outras lesões foram tratadas com radioterapia. Um ano após os procedimentos, a paciente apresenta-se assintomática. O tratamento destas

  16. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Abadi; P.A. Boncz (Peter); S. Harizopoulos

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as

  17. A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs, like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity. Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae, but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses. We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from "primary landmarks," which form the zygodiapophyseal table, "secondary landmarks," which orient with respect to that table, and "tertiary landmarks," which further delineate a given fossa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental

  18. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  19. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eve R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  20. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Eve R.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Bagriantsev, Slav N.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates.

  1. Vertebral wedging characteristic changes in scoliotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques

    2004-10-15

    A morphometric analysis of vertebral wedging in vertebrae from scoliotic specimens. To quantify the vertebral body changes in 30 anatomic specimens affected by a scoliotic deformity. Only a few studies have evaluated the exact changes occurring at the level of the vertebral body in scoliotic spines. Most are observational studies of rare scoliotic specimens presenting major curvatures. The orientation of vertebral wedging is important for the planning of corrective surgery, performing vertebral osteotomy, and the evaluation of possible growth modulation. Thirty scoliotic specimens with curves presenting various degrees of severity were studied using a three-dimensional digitizing protocol developed to create a precise three-dimensional reconstruction of the vertebrae. Every scoliotic specimen was then matched with a normal specimen, and comparisons were made on the vertebral body parameters both for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Analysis of variance and t test calculations were performed to identify significant differences with P = 0.05. A total of 471 vertebrae from scoliotic spines and 510 vertebrae from normal specimens were measured. Vertebral wedging increased progressively towards the apex of the curve and was maximal at the apex. Vertebral wedging was more prominent in the frontal plane, and there was minimal wedging in the sagittal plane. Vertebral heights were significantly different at T3 and T4 for the upper adjacent curve and at T6-T8 for a typical right thoracic curve, with smaller heights located on the concavity of the curve. No changes were observed on the convexity of the curve. Vertebral wedging is an essential component of the scoliotic deformity. The present study provides critical information for corrective surgery and vertebral osteotomy, as vertebral wedging occurs primarily in the frontal plane. Accurate knowledge of this deformity should also provide new insight into corrective surgical strategies aiming at growth modulation and more

  2. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  3. Water Column Sonar Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection and analysis of water column sonar data is a relatively new avenue of research into the marine environment. Primary uses include assessing biological...

  4. Liver resection over the last decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, A.; Larsen, P.N.; Rasmussen, A.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The results after liver resection have improved over the last decade with an operative mortality rate of less than 5% in high-volume centres. The aim of the present study was to assess the perioperative outcome after hepatic resection and to assess the long-term survival after liver resection...... stay was 9 days (3-38). The most frequent complication was biliary leakage (7.8%), haemorrhage (2.8%) and hepatic insufficiency (2.8%). 30-days mortality was 1.4%. The actuarial 5-survival after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma was 39% and 42%, respectively...

  5. New perspective for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures: Preliminary results at 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF increased in the last years. Compression fractures promote a progressive spine kyphosis increase, resulting in a weight shift and anterior column overload, with OVF additional risk (domino effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the OVF treatment outcome using Spine Jack ®, a titanium device for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures (PVAPs. Materials and Methods: From February 2010, a prospective randomized study was performed examining 300 patients who underwent PVAP due to OVF type A1 according to Magerl/AO spine classification. Patients enrolled in the study were divided in two homogenous groups with regards to age (65-85 years, sex, and general clinical findings. Group A included 150 patients who underwent PVAP using Spine Jack ® system; the second, group B (control group, included 150 patients treated by conventional balloon kyphoplasty. Patients underwent a clinical (visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index and radiographic follow-up, with post-operative standing plain radiogram of the spine at 1, 6, and 12 months. The radiographic parameters that were taken into account were: Post-operative anterior vertebral body height, pre-operative anterior vertebral body height, cephalic anterior vertebral body height, and caudal anterior vertebral body height. Results: Compared to the Spine Jack ® group, the kyphoplasty group required a little longer operation time (an average of 40 min-group A vs. 45 min-group B, P < 0.05 and a greater amount of polymethylmethacrylate (4.0 mL-group A vs. 5.0 mL-group B, P < 0.05;. The post-operative increase in vertebral body height was greater in the Spine Jack ® group than in the kyphoplasty group (P < 0.05. Discussion: PVAP are based on the cement injection into the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty does not allow the vertebral body height recovery. Balloon kyphoplasty allows a temporary height

  6. Vaginoscopic resection of vaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Joseph; Al Chami, Ali; Abu Musa, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar H; Kurdi, Ahmed Toufic; Ghulmiyyah, Labib

    2012-12-01

    We report the resection of a vaginal septum while preserving the virginity of a 12-year-old girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome (HWWS) having a didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and an ipsilateral renal agenesis with follow-up at 18 months. Successful resection of the vaginal septum with conservation of the hymenal ring and complete drainage of both the hematocolpos and the hematometra were achieved. Cyclic dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain were completely resolved on follow-up visits at 4, 6, and 18 months. Office hysteroscopy performed during the last follow-up visit revealed a patent vaginal vault without evidence of adenosis or recurrence of the vaginal septum. Vaginoscopy is a safe, convenient, and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modality that can be used in the management of patients with an obstructed hemivagina. It maintains the patient's virginity and it is useful in patients with a restrictive vaginal opening or narrow vaginal canal. Furthermore, the hysteroscopic excision of the vaginal septum offers minimal risk of recurrence of the septal defect.

  7. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  8. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol V.; Nalley, Thierra K.; Spoor, Fred; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes. What has not been clear is whether Australopithecus had 12 thoracic vertebrae as in most humans, or 13 as in most African apes, and where the position of the thoracolumbar transitional element was. The discovery, preparation, and synchrotron scanning of the Australopithecus afarensis partial skeleton DIK-1-1, from Dikika, Ethiopia, provides the only known complete hominin cervical and thoracic vertebral column before 60,000 years ago. DIK-1-1 is the only known Australopithecus skeleton to preserve all seven cervical vertebrae and provides evidence for 12 thoracic vertebrae with a transition in facet morphology at the 11th thoracic level. The location of this transition, one segment cranial to the ultimate rib-bearing vertebra, also occurs in all other early hominins and is higher than in most humans or extant apes. At 3.3 million years ago, the DIK-1-1 skeleton is the earliest example of this distinctive and unusual pattern of axial segmentation. PMID:28533391

  9. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition inAustralopithecus afarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol V; Nalley, Thierra K; Spoor, Fred; Tafforeau, Paul; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2017-06-06

    The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba , and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes. What has not been clear is whether Australopithecus had 12 thoracic vertebrae as in most humans, or 13 as in most African apes, and where the position of the thoracolumbar transitional element was. The discovery, preparation, and synchrotron scanning of the Australopithecus afarensis partial skeleton DIK-1-1, from Dikika, Ethiopia, provides the only known complete hominin cervical and thoracic vertebral column before 60,000 years ago. DIK-1-1 is the only known Australopithecus skeleton to preserve all seven cervical vertebrae and provides evidence for 12 thoracic vertebrae with a transition in facet morphology at the 11th thoracic level. The location of this transition, one segment cranial to the ultimate rib-bearing vertebra, also occurs in all other early hominins and is higher than in most humans or extant apes. At 3.3 million years ago, the DIK-1-1 skeleton is the earliest example of this distinctive and unusual pattern of axial segmentation.

  10. Meningeal cysts of the vertebral column in MRI; Torbiele oponowe kanalu kregowego w obrazie MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bem, Z.; Sasiadek, M.; Batycka-Ugorska, I.; Wasik, A. [Pracownia Tomografii Komputerowej, Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii, Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Meningeal cysts (MC) of the spinal canal are rare abnormality. Reports describing MRI findings in these lesions are few. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the MRI findings according to a new classification that divides MC into three major groups: extradural cysts without spinal nerve roots (type 1.); extradural cysts with spinal nerve roots (type 2.); intradural cysts (type 3.). The material consist of 15 cases: 11 type 1. and 4 type 2. MRI is the most sensitive and specific modality for the study of this pathology and can distinguish the 3 type of MC. In selected cases contrast studies with Gd-DTPA can be useful for differential diagnosis. In presented series there was used only in one case. (author) 10 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Swordfish bill injury involving abdomen and vertebral column: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossos Charalambos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penetrating injuries of the abdomen and spinal canal that involve organic material of animal origin are extremely rare and derive from domestic and wild animal attacks or fish attacks. Case presentation In this case report we present the unique, as far as the literature is concerned, unprovoked woman's injury to the abdomen by a swordfish. There are only four cases of swordfish attacks on humans in the literature - one resulted to thoracic trauma, two to head trauma and one to knee trauma, one of which was fatal - none of which were unprovoked. Three victims were professional or amateur fishermen whereas in the last reported case the victim was a bather as in our case. Our case is the only case where organic debris of animal's origin remained in the spinal canal after penetrating trauma. Conclusions Although much has been written about the management of penetrating abdominal and spinal cord trauma, controversy remains about the optimal management. Moreover, there is little experience in the management of patients with such spinal injuries, due to the fact that such cases are extremely rare. In this report we focus on the patient's treatment with regard to abdominal and spinal trauma and present a review of the literature.

  12. Analysis of four scoring systems for the prognosis of patients with metastasis of the vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollner, Péter; Horváth, Anna; Mezei, Tamás; Banczerowski, Péter; Czigléczki, Gábor

    2018-01-31

    The metastatic spinal diseases are common health problems and there is no consensus on the appropriate treatment of metastases in several conditions. Using clinical measures (e.g. survival time, functional status), the prognosis prediction systems advise on the appropriate interventions. The aim of this article is to assess and compare four widely used scoring systems (revised Tokuhashi, Tomita, Van der Linden and modified Bauer scores) on a single center cohort. A retrospective study of 329 patients was designed who were subjected to surgeries because of metastatic spinal diseases. Subpopulations according to the classifications of four scoring systems were identified. The overall survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier formula. The difference between the survival curves of subpopulations was analyzed with the log-rank tests. The consistency rates for the four scoring systems are calculated as well. The follow up period was 8 years. The median survival time was 222 days. The overall survival of prognostic categories in three scoring systems was significantly differing from each other, but we found no differences between the categories of the van der Linden system. In this cohort the revised Tokuhashi system gave the best approximation for the survival time with a mean predictive capability 60.5%. The evaluation of four standard scoring systems showed that three of them were self-consistent although, none of systems was able to predict the survival rates in our cohort. Based on the predictive capability, the revised Tokuhashi system may provide the best predictions with careful examination of individual cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic function MR of the cervical vertebral column. Dynamische Funktions-MRT der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegele, M.; Woell, B.; Reiser, M. (Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany)); Koch, W. (Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany)); Kaden, B. (Neurochirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany))

    1992-09-01

    To obtain functional studies of the cervical spine, a device has been developed which allows MRI examinations to be carried out in five different degrees of flexion. T[sub 1] and T[sub 2][sup *] weighted FFE sequences were used. Dynamic functional MRI was performed on 5 normals and 31 patients (5 disc herniation, 4 whiplash injuries, 6 spinal canal stenoses, 14 laminectomies and spinal fusions, 2 rheumatoid arthritis). The relationship of the spinal cord to the bony and ligamentous components in different degrees of flexion was particularly well shown in whiplash injury, spinal stenosis and postoperative situations. (orig.).

  14. Diagnostic radiology for functional analysis of the cervical vertebral column. Roentgenfunktionsdiagnostik der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamieth, H.

    1986-01-01

    The book is averaged in 17 chapters. The first three, introductory chapters dealing with the significance of radiology for the functional diagnosis of the cervical spine are followed by three chapters discussing the movements of the atlantoaxial joints, the statics of the cervical spine, and the sagittal flexural movements in the C2-C7 segments. Subsequent chapters discuss the radiodiagnostical method according to Arlen, the innervation of the cervical spine segments of movement, disturbances of movement including restriction of movement, degenerative processes of the invertebral disks, and hypermobile disturbance of movement. The final chapters deal with compensational and dissociation phenomena, subluxations, defective or compulsive positions, etc., the causes of each, and with the clinical relevance of spondylochondrosis and arthrosis, and with the pain. With 171 figs..

  15. Improvements in Vertebral-Column Angles and Psychological Metrics After Abdominoplasty With Rectus Plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Metin; Türkmen, Arif; Berberoğlu, Ömer

    2016-05-01

    Substantial fluctuations in body weight can result in diastasis recti and weakening of the connections between the lateral abdominal muscles and the rectus sheath. The authors sought to determine the postural and psychological effects of abdominoplasty with vertical rectus plication. Forty women with substantial back and lumbar pain owing to abdominal lipodystrophy were evaluated in a prospective study. Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, patients underwent bidirectional radiography of the thoracic and lumbar regions. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were applied to assess physical, psychological, and quality-of-life changes following surgery. Significant improvements in posture, assessed in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and the lumbosacral angle, were observed 6 months after abdominoplasty with rectus plication. Results of the VAS and BDI indicated significant improvements in pain and quality of life, respectively. Results of the NHP indicated significant postoperative improvements in fatigue, pain, and sleep. Abdominoplasty with rectus plication improves posture by tightening the thoracolumbar fascia. In selected patients, abdominoplasty can reduce back and lumbar pain, thereby improving quality of life. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Validity of the three-column theory of thoracolumbar fractures. A biomechanic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, M M; Oxland, T R; Kifune, M; Arand, M; Wen, L; Chen, A

    1995-05-15

    This study validated the three-column theory of fractures by correlating the multidirectional instabilities and the vertebral injuries to each of the three columns, using a biomechanic trauma model. The objective was to validate the three-column theory as applied to the thoracolumbar fractures. The widely used three-column theory of fractures for classification and evaluation was based on retrospective analysis of radiographs. No biomechanic study, using realistic spinal fractures and multidirectional instability measurements, was available. Using 16 fresh cadaveric thoracolumbar human spine specimens, two groups of burst fractures were produced by either simple axial compression or flexion-compression, using a high-speed trauma model. Multidirectional flexibility was measured before and after the trauma, thus quantifying the instability of the burst fracture. Computed tomography scans were taken after the fracture, and a newly developed injury scoring scheme quantified the injuries to the anterior, middle, and posterior columns. Statistical correlations were obtained between the flexibility parameters and injuries to each of the three columns. In the axial compression group, the middle column injury, compared with the other two columns, showed the highest correlations to eight of the nine flexibility parameters (average R2 = 0.77). In the flexion-compression group, again the middle column injury showed the highest correlations to eight of the nine flexibility parameters (average R2 = 0.85). The results of this study supported the three-column theory of the thoracolumbar fractures and bolstered the concept of the middle column being the primary determinant of mechanical stability of this region of the spine.

  17. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Sofia N. Chatziioannou; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned ca...

  18. Yoga, vertebral fractures, and osteoporosis: research and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva Norlyk; Boser, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone density that leaves bones fragile and highly susceptible to fracture. Globally, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men older than 50 will suffer from an osteoporotic fracture, and those individuals will experience a considerably higher risk of postfracture mortality than will the general population. Gentle, weight-bearing exercises such as yoga can help prevent or cease the progression of osteoporosis; however, there is insufficient data regarding which yoga poses present the least risk and are most beneficial to individuals with reduced bone density. Review the extant literature about the risks and benefits to the spine of particular forms of movement and consider recommendations relative to the practice of yoga. A review of the PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases was conducted that identified manuscripts published between 1966 and 2011 about topics related to osteoporosis and spinal movement. Movements involving spinal flexion can increase risk for vertebral compression fractures; however, a combination of mild spinal flexion and extension may prove beneficial. Moderate, weight-bearing activities that strengthen the muscles supporting the spinal column, promote balance, improve posture, and enhance quality of life appear to be of greatest benefit. Ample evidence supports the importance of varied spinal movement for preserving the health and strength of the vertebral bodies. Exercise modifications suitable for high-risk individuals may be counterproductive for those at low risk for vertebral fractures. Yoga therapists are cautioned to not apply a one-size-fits-all approach when working with this population. Well-designed empirical studies are needed to further our understanding of which yoga poses present the least risk and are of greatest benefit to individuals with osteoporosis.

  19. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  20. The MHC molecules of nonmammalian vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    to develop. There is no molecular evidence yet to decide whether vertebrate immune systems (and particularly the MHC molecules) are evolutionarily related to invertebrate allorecognition systems, and the functional evidence can be interpreted either way. Even among the vertebrates, there is great...

  1. BK Channels in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, S. J.; Duncan, R. K.; Contet, C

    2016-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the

  2. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  3. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Goomany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach.

  4. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  5. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and 1 year after apical surgery to measure the angle of the resection plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the root. Further, the surgical depth (distance from the buccal cortex to the most lingual/palatal point of the resection...

  6. Successful Surgical Resection of Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It then resulted in gradual tumor regression, following which the patient underwent successful tumor resection. Post surgical resection patient had no radiological evidence of intra abdominal tumor but mild left sided pleural effusion with left lower lobe atelectasis. The patient had uneventful post operative recovery and he is ...

  7. Percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteoma by CT-guided drilling resection in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierre, Sergio; Lipsich, Jose; Questa, Horacio; Moguillansky, Silvia [Hospital Nacional de Pediatria, Department of Interventional Radiology, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Innocenti, Sergio; Lanfranchi, Lucas [Hospital Nacional de Pediatria, Department of Orthopedics, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-02-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a painful, benign, small osteogenic bone tumor. For a long time, surgery was the only treatment for these lesions. Different minimally invasive therapeutic techniques have been proposed. We report our experience in the treatment of osteoid osteoma by CT-guided drilling resection in pediatric patients. To evaluate the efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous drilling resection as a minimally invasive therapy for osteoid osteoma in children. Over a 5-year period, 18 patients (age range 6-17 years, mean age 11.6 years) with osteoid osteomas (femur, n=10; tibia, n=5; humerus, n=2; vertebral body, n=1) were treated with this technique. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. All procedures were technically successful. Clinical success was achieved in 94.5% of patients (17/18). Only one patient had recurrence of symptoms 8 months after percutaneous resection and was surgically retreated. There were no complications. CT-guided percutaneous drilling resection is a safe, simple and effective minimally invasive technique for the treatment of osteoid osteoma in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  8. Intramedullary hemangioblastoma: Microsurgical resection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, M; Cossu, G; Pralong, E; Daniel, R T

    2017-11-01

    Spinal hemangioblastomas are benign and highly vascular tumors accounting for 1-5% of intramedullary spinal tumors in surgical series. Surgery is curative in sporadic cases. We present the description of a surgical technique to safely resect an intramedullary hemangioblastoma. A dorsal midline myelotomy provides an excellent exposure of the tumor and identification of the feeding arteries. Interruption of these arteries and precise dissection of the tumor from the cord tissue followed by division of the venous drainage allow the in toto excision of the tumor. Closure of the dorsal myelotomy may be achieved with sequential fusion of the pial and arachnoid edges using a "welding" technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Biliary Stricture Following Hepatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Matthews

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic distortion and displacement of hilar structures due to liver lobe atrophy and hypertrophy occasionally complicates the surgical approach for biliary stricture repair. Benign biliary stricture following hepatic resection deserves special consideration in this regard because the inevitable hypertrophy of the residual liver causes marked rotation and displacement of the hepatic hilum that if not anticipated may render exposure for repair difficult and dangerous. Three patients with biliary stricture after hepatectomy illustrate the influence of hepatic regeneration on attempts at subsequent stricture repair. Following left hepatectomy, hypertrophy of the right and caudate lobes causes an anteromedial rotation and displacement of the portal structures. After right hepatectomy, the rotation is posterolateral, and a thoracoabdominal approach may be necessary for adequate exposure. Radiographs obtained in the standard anteroposterior projection may be deceptive, and lateral views are recommended to aid in operative planning.

  10. Colon resection for ovarian cancer: intraoperative decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mitchel S; Zervose, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    To discuss the benefits and morbidity of and indications for colon resection during cytoreductive operations for ovarian cancer. The history of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is discussed, with special attention to the incorporation of colon resection. Literature regarding cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is then reviewed, again with attention to the role of colon resection. The focus of the review is directed at broad technical considerations and rationales, for both primary and secondary cytoreduction. Over the past 15 to 20 years the standard cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer has shifted from an abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy to an en bloc radical resection of the pelvic tumor and an omentectomy, and more recently to include increasing use of extensive upper abdominal surgery. En bloc pelvic resection frequently includes rectosigmoid resection, almost always accompanied by a primary anastomosis. Other portions of the colon are at risk for metastatic involvement and sometimes require resection in order to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The data regarding colon resection for the purpose of surgical cytoreduction of ovarian cancer are conflicting (in terms of benefit) and all retrospective. However, the preponderance of information supports a benefit in terms of survival when cytoreduction is clearly optimal. Similar to primary surgery, benefit from secondary cytoreduction of ovarian cancer occurs when only a small volume of disease is left behind. The preponderance of data suggests that colon resection to achieve optimal cytoreduction has a positive impact on survival. In order to better understand the role of colon resection as well as other extensive cytoreductive procedures for ovarian cancer, it will be important to continue to improve our understanding of prognostic variables such as the nuances of metastatic bowel involvement in order to better guide appropriate surgical management.

  11. Clinicodemographic aspect of resectable pancreatic cancer and prognostic factors for resectable cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Kun-Chun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCA is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and radical surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment. After resection, the overall 5-year survival rate is only 10% to 29%. At the time of presentation, however, about 40% of patients generally have distant metastases and another 40% are usually diagnosed with locally advanced cancers. The remaining 20% of patients are indicated for surgery on the basis of the results of preoperative imaging studies; however, about half of these patients are found to be unsuitable for resection during surgical exploration. In the current study, we aimed to determine the clinicopathological characteristics that predict the resectability of PCA and to conduct a prognostic analysis of PCA after resection to identify favorable survival factors. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 688 patients (422 men and 266 women who had undergone surgery for histopathologically proven PCA in the Department of Surgery at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan from 1981 to 2006. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent resection and patients who did not undergo resection in order to identify the predictive factors for successful resectability of PCA, and we conducted prognostic analysis for PCA after resection. Results A carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA 19–9 level of 37 U/ml or greater and a tumor size of 3 cm or more independently predicted resectability of PCA. In terms of survival after resection, PCA patients with better nutritional status (measured as having an albumin level greater than 3.5 g/dl, radical resection, early tumor stage and better-differentiated tumors were associated with favorable survival. Conclusions Besides traditional imaging studies, preoperative CA 19–9 levels and tumor size can also be used to determine the resectability of PCA. Better nutritional status, curative resection, early tumor stage and well

  12. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  13. Fracture of posterior margin of lumbar vertebral body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Ajay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is not a common clinical entity and is missed often. These fractures are mostly traumatic lesions typically seen in adolescents and young adults, because fusion in this area is not complete until the age of 18 to 25 years. These fractures are occult on plain radiographs and are frequently missed due to unfamiliarity with the entity. But, CT scanning and MR imaging shows characteristic picture. Methods: We had 21 cases of fracture of posterior margin of a lumbar vertebral body from 1991 to 2002. Fracture in all patients were classified according to CT imaging, into the three types described by Takata et al. Out of these, 8 patients were of type I, 4 patients of type II and 9 patients of type III respectively. Focal deficit / muscle weakness was present in only three patients. No fractures of type IV (Epstein et al was found. Twelve patients were treated conservatively and 9 patients were treated by posterior decompression with total laminectomy and removal of retropulsed fragment and discectomy. Results: The mean follow-up period was of 42 months. Conventional radiography could locate the fracture in only 6 cases and CT scan was required in all cases for stamping the diagnosis and classification. Though it is uncommon, high index of suspicion is required to diagnose it, in especially adolescent patients. All the 21 patients had good outcome following the management. Conclusion: Avulsion or fracture of posterior margin of lumbar vertebral body is not so rare entity. In children and young adults diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, this lesion may be the proper diagnosis. These fractures need to be accurately diagnosed because as compared to simple disc herniations these fractures require more extensive exposure and resection to relieve the nerve impingent.

  14. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  15. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  16. Molecular Synapomorphies Resolve Evolutionary Relationships of Extant Jawed Vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrappa Venkatesh; Mark V. Erdmann; Sydney Brenner

    2001-01-01

    .... We identified 13 derived shared molecular markers (synapomorphies) that define clades in the vertebrate lineage and used them to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of extant jawed vertebrates...

  17. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  18. Epidemiology of acute vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, M R; Wagn, P; Bengtsson, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of acute, non-tuberculous, hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark during 1978-1982. 137 patients fulfilled the criteria for acute vertebral osteomyelitis. The incidence was 5/mill/year. There were no cases in the age group 20-29 years. The highest incidence......-1993, the relative number of reported patients with vertebral osteomyelitis had increased in the age group 20-49 years, compared to 1978-1982, but the incidence was highest in the group aged 60-79 years....

  19. Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer: Definitions and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nicole E; Prendergast, Cristina; Lowy, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. While surgical resection remains the only curative option, more than 80% of patients present with unresectable disease. Unfortunately, even among those who undergo resection, the reported median survival is 15-23 mo, with a 5-year survival of approximately 20%. Disappointingly, over the past several decades, despite improvements in diagnostic imaging, surgical technique and chemotherapeutic options, only modest improvements in survival have been realized. Nevertheless, it remains clear that surgical resection is a prerequisite for achieving long-term survival and cure. There is now emerging consensus that a subgroup of patients, previously considered poor candidates for resection because of the relationship of their primary tumor to surrounding vasculature, may benefit from resection, particularly when preceded by neoadjuvant therapy. This stage of disease, termed borderline resectable pancreatic cancer, has become of increasing interest and is now the focus of a multi-institutional clinical trial. Here we outline the history, progress, current treatment recommendations, and future directions for research in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25152577

  20. Bubble columns : Structures or stability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, W.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the hydrodynamics of the gravity driven bubbly flow that can be found in bubble columns. Special attention is paid to the large scale structures that have a strong impact on several key parameters such as the degree of mixing, mass and

  1. Editorial/Associate Editor's Column

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Editorial / Associate Editor's Column. Rajaram Nityananda. Editorial Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 1-1. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0001-0001. Author Affiliations.

  2. Augmented reality in a tumor resection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Pauline; Collins, Toby; Debize, Clement; Novais-Gameiro, Lorraine; Pereira, Bruno; Bartoli, Adrien; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) guidance is a technology that allows a surgeon to see sub-surface structures, by overlaying pre-operative imaging data on a live laparoscopic video. Our objectives were to evaluate a state-of-the-art AR guidance system in a tumor surgical resection model, comparing the accuracy of the resection with and without the system. Our system has three phases. Phase 1: using the MRI images, the kidney's and pseudotumor's surfaces are segmented to construct a 3D model. Phase 2: the intra-operative 3D model of the kidney is computed. Phase 3: the pre-operative and intra-operative models are registered, and the laparoscopic view is augmented with the pre-operative data. We performed a prospective experimental study on ex vivo porcine kidneys. Alginate was injected into the parenchyma to create pseudotumors measuring 4-10 mm. The kidneys were then analyzed by MRI. Next, the kidneys were placed into pelvictrainers, and the pseudotumors were laparoscopically resected. The AR guidance system allows the surgeon to see tumors and margins using classical laparoscopic instruments, and a classical screen. The resection margins were measured microscopically to evaluate the accuracy of resection. Ninety tumors were segmented: 28 were used to optimize the AR software, and 62 were used to randomly compare surgical resection: 29 tumors were resected using AR and 33 without AR. The analysis of our pathological results showed 4 failures (tumor with positive margins) (13.8%) in the AR group, and 10 (30.3%) in the Non-AR group. There was no complete miss in the AR group, while there were 4 complete misses in the non-AR group. In total, 14 (42.4%) tumors were completely missed or had a positive margin in the non-AR group. Our AR system enhances the accuracy of surgical resection, particularly for small tumors. Crucial information such as resection margins and vascularization could also be displayed.

  3. Determination of vertebral range of motion using inertial measurement units in 27 Franches-Montagnes stallions and comparison between conditions and with a mixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, C; Pfau, T; Gerber, V; Schweizer, C; Doherr, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Witte, S

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of equine back disorders is challenging. Objectively determining movement of the vertebral column may therefore be of value in a clinical setting. To establish whether surface-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) can be used to establish normal values for range of motion (ROM) of the vertebral column in a uniform population of horses trotting under different conditions. Vertebral ROM was established in Franches-Montagnes stallions and a general population of horses and the variability in measurements compared between the two groups. Repeatability and the influence of specific exercise condition (on ROM) were assessed. Finally, attempts were made to explain the findings of the study through the evaluation of factors that might influence ROM. Dorsoventral (DV) and mediolateral (ML) vertebral ROM was measured at a trot under different exercise conditions in 27 Franches-Montagnes stallions and six general population horses using IMUs distributed over the vertebral column. Variability in the ROM measurements was significantly higher for general population horses than for Franches-Montagnes stallions (both DV and ML ROM). Repeatability was strong to very strong for DV measurements and moderate for ML measurements. Trotting under saddle significantly reduced the ROM, with sitting trot resulting in a significantly lower ROM than rising trot. Age is unlikely to explain the low variability in vertebral ROM recorded in the Franches-Montagnes horses, while this may be associated with conformational factors. It was possible to establish a normal vertebral ROM for a group of Franches-Montagnes stallions. While within-breed variation was low in this population, further studies are necessary to determine variation in vertebral ROM for other breeds and to assess their utility for diagnosis of equine back disorders. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Intraoperative MRI and Maximizing Extent of Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ganesh

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is a neurosurgical adjunct used to maximize the removal of glioma, the most common primary brain tumor. Increased extent of resection of gliomas has been shown to correlate with longer survival times. iMRI units are variable in design and magnet strength, which can affect patient selection and image quality. Multiple studies have shown that surgical resection of gliomas using iMRI results in increased extent of resection and survival time. Level II evidence supports the use of iMRI in the surgical treatment of glioma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Robot assisted tumor resection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yutaka; Sumiyama, Kazuki; Chiu, Philip Wai-Yan

    2017-08-01

    In Japan, colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is being conducted safely and effectively as shown by the increased number of the cases, however, it is still regarded as a complicated and challenging procedure. Therefore, piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection (p-EMR) is still regarded as an appropriate treatment, rather than ESD for large colorectal tumors, especially in Western countries. Areas covered: There are several factors those are responsible for colorectal ESD difficulty. Firstly, there is no adequate traction or counter-traction in colorectal ESD. Secondly, it is challenging to handle the colonoscope in a redundant and narrow colonic lumen. Thirdly, the risk of perforation is estimated to be relatively higher compared to the stomach or esophagus Expert commentary: To overcome these difficulties, various traction and counter-traction methods have been reported and finally, the new concept of the Master and Slave Transluminal Endoscopic Robot (MASTER) has been developed and is soon to be available for clinical use. The authors have reviewed the history of colorectal ESD and MASTER in this paper.

  6. Vertebral Fractures After Discontinuation of Denosumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Steven R; Ferrari, Serge; Eastell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Denosumab reduces bone resorption and vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. Denosumab discontinuation increases bone turnover markers 3 months after a scheduled dose is omitted, reaching above-baseline levels by 6 months, and decreases bone mineral density (BMD) to baseline levels by 12 months....... We analyzed the risk of new or worsening vertebral fractures, especially multiple vertebral fractures, in participants who discontinued denosumab during the FREEDOM study or its Extension. Participants received ≥2 doses of denosumab or placebo Q6M, discontinued treatment, and stayed in the study ≥7...... months after the last dose. Of 1001 participants who discontinued denosumab during FREEDOM or Extension, the vertebral fracture rate increased from 1.2 per 100 participant-years during the on-treatment period to 7.1, similar to participants who received and then discontinued placebo (n = 470; 8.5 per 100...

  7. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  8. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process.

  10. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  11. Extended esophagolaryngeal resection with parathyroid autotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourias, E; Arkadopoulos, N; Kostopanagiotou, G; Kinoglou, G; Smyrniotis, V

    1999-01-01

    Esopharyngolaryngeal resection for carcinoma of the cervical esophagus must be accompanied by resection of the thyroid gland, parathyroid bodies, and regional lymph nodes. In order to reduce long-term morbidity associated with the procedure, we performed parathyroid autotransplantation in two patients who underwent esophagolaryngeal resections. Grafting of the upper two parathyroid glands into the sternocleidomastoid muscle was carried out successfully in both cases. Graft function was rapidly restored. During the third postoperative week, blood levels of intact parathormone (PTH) reached 20 pg ml(-1) in the first case and 15 pg ml(-1) in the second, and the patients were successfully weaned off calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Parathyroid autotransplantation should be attempted in all cases of esophagolaryngeal resections provided that parathyroid glands are free of malignancy.

  12. Open resections for congenital lung malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullassery Dhanya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pediatric lung resection is a relatively uncommon procedure that is usually performed for congenital lesions. In recent years, thoracoscopic resection has become increasingly popular, particularly for small peripheral lesions. The aim of this study was to review our experience with traditional open lung resection in order to evaluate the existing "gold standard." Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of all children having lung resection for congenital lesions at our institution between 1997 and 2004. Data were collected from analysis of case notes, operative records and clinical consultation. The mean follow-up was 37.95 months. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Forty-one children (13 F/28 M underwent major lung resections during the study period. Their median age was 4.66 months (1 day-9 years. The resected lesions included 21 congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, 14 congenital lobar emphysema, four sequestrations and one bronchogenic cyst. Fifty percent of the lesions were diagnosed antenatally. Twenty-six patients had a complete lobectomy while 15 patients had parenchymal sparing resection of the lesion alone. Mean postoperative stay was 5.7 days. There have been no complications in any of the patients. All patients are currently alive, asymptomatic and well. None of the patients have any significant chest deformity. Conclusions: We conclude that open lung resection enables parenchymal sparing surgery, is versatile, has few complications and produces very good long-term results. It remains the "gold standard" against which minimally invasive techniques may be judged.

  13. Complications following resection of the olecranon bursa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, Ilse; De Smet, Luc

    2006-08-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 37 cases of resection of the olecranon bursa and noted wound healing problems in 10 (27%) and recurrence in 8 (22%). A lateral arm flap was necessary in one patient. Conservative treatment remains the treatment of choice for olecranon bursitis. Differentiation between septic and non-septic cases is challenging. The risk of wound healing problems and recurrence should be taken into account when planning surgical resection.

  14. MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

  15. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  16. Two-year results of vertebral body stenting for the treatment of traumatic incomplete burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Frank; Griese, Marleen; Dietz, Sven-Oliver; Kuhn, Sebastian; Rommens, Pol Maria; Gercek, Erol

    2015-06-01

    Vertebral body stenting (VBS) was developed to prevent loss of reduction after balloon deflation during kyphoplasty. The aim of this study is the radiological and clinical mid-term evaluation of traumatic incomplete burst fractures treated by vertebral body stenting. This retrospective study included patients with traumatic thoracolumbar incomplete burst fractures treated with VBS between 2009 and 2010. The outcome was evaluated with the visual analogue pain scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Score (ODI), the SF-36 Health Survey and radiologically assessed. Eighteen patients with an average age of 74.8 years were treated with VBS. Twelve were female and six were male. Two years after the operation the ODI and SF-36 showed a moderate limitation of daily activities and quality of life without neurological deficits. VBS restored the vertebral kyphosis by 3.2° and segmental kyphosis by 5°. A minor sintering was observed at follow-up losing 0.8° vertebral kyphosis and 2.1° segmental kyphosis correction. Two asymptomatic cement leakages were detected. VBS provides clinical outcomes comparable with BKP. The stent allows a reconstruction of the anterior column with reduced subsequent loss of correction.

  17. Endoscopic Resection of a Prominent Median Lobe During TURP: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic Resection of a Prominent Median Lobe During TURP: a Simple Technique to Avoid Sub- Trigonal Resection. AA Attia, MTA Al-Hak. Abstract. No Abstract. Key Words: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, surgery, Transurethral resection of prostate, Endoscopic resection, prominent median lobe. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  18. In quest of Great Lakes ice age vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holman, J. Alan

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Pleistocene in the Great Lakes Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Where to Find Vertebrate Fossils...

  19. Embryonic development of the axial column in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Katharine E; Coates, Michael I; Gillis, J Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The morphological patterns and molecular mechanisms of vertebral column development are well understood in bony fishes (osteichthyans). However, vertebral column morphology in elasmobranch chondrichthyans (e.g., sharks and skates) differs from that of osteichthyans, and its development has not been extensively studied. Here, we characterize vertebral development in an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, using microCT, paraffin histology, and whole-mount skeletal preparations. Vertebral development begins with the condensation of mesenchyme, first around the notochord, and subsequently around the neural tube and caudal artery and vein. Mesenchyme surrounding the notochord differentiates into a continuous sheath of spindle-shaped cells, which forms the precursor to the mineralized areolar calcification of the centrum. Mesenchyme around the neural tube and caudal artery/vein becomes united by a population of mesenchymal cells that condenses lateral to the sheath of spindle-shaped cells, with this mesenchymal complex eventually differentiating into the hyaline cartilage of the future neural arches, hemal arches, and outer centrum. The initially continuous layers of areolar tissue and outer hyaline cartilage eventually subdivide into discrete centra and arches, with the notochord constricted in the center of each vertebra by a late-forming "inner layer" of hyaline cartilage, and by a ring of areolar calcification located medial to the outer vertebral cartilage. The vertebrae of elasmobranchs are distinct among vertebrates, both in terms of their composition (i.e., with centra consisting of up to three tissues layers-an inner cartilage layer, a calcified areolar ring, and an outer layer of hyaline cartilage), and their mode of development (i.e., the subdivision of arch and outer centrum cartilage from an initially continuous layer of hyaline cartilage). Given the evident variation in patterns of vertebral construction, broad taxon sampling, and

  20. Outcome following treatment of vertebral tumors in 20 dogs (1986-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernell, W S; Van Vechten, B J; Straw, R C; LaRue, S M; Powers, B E; Withrow, S J

    2000-01-01

    Twenty dogs with histopathologically confirmed primary (n=15) or metastatic (n=5) osteosarcoma (n=14) or fibrosarcoma (n=6) of the vertebral column were treated with surgery (n=4), radiation therapy and chemotherapy (n=6), surgery and chemotherapy (n=2), or surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy (n=8). All dogs died due to their disease; 15 died due to local failure, and five died due to nonvertebral metastasis. Overall median survival time was 135 days, with a range of 15 to 600 days. Of the factors evaluated, only postoperative neurological status had a significant influence on outcome by multivariate analysis. This study supports the overall guarded prognosis for dogs with vertebral neoplasia. Better combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy remain to be defined for this difficult subset of animal cancer.

  1. A proposed radiographic classification scheme for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guevar, Julien; Stalin, Catherine; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Penderis, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations are common in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds such as French bulldogs, English bulldogs, Boston terriers, and pugs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether a radiographic classification scheme developed for use in humans would be feasible for use in these dog breeds. Inclusion criteria were hospital admission between September 2009 and April 2013, neurologic examination findings available, diagnostic quality lateral and ventro-dorsal digital radiographs of the thoracic vertebral column, and at least one congenital vertebral malformation. Radiographs were retrieved and interpreted by two observers who were unaware of neurologic status. Vertebral malformations were classified based on a classification scheme modified from a previous human study and a consensus of both observers. Twenty-eight dogs met inclusion criteria (12 with neurologic deficits, 16 with no neurologic deficits). Congenital vertebral malformations affected 85/362 (23.5%) of thoracic vertebrae. Vertebral body formation defects were the most common (butterfly vertebrae 6.6%, ventral wedge-shaped vertebrae 5.5%, dorsal hemivertebrae 0.8%, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae 0.5%). No lateral hemivertebrae or lateral wedge-shaped vertebrae were identified. The T7 vertebra was the most commonly affected (11/28 dogs), followed by T8 (8/28 dogs) and T12 (8/28 dogs). The number and type of vertebral malformations differed between groups (P = 0.01). Based on MRI, dorsal, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae were the cause of spinal cord compression in 5/12 (41.6%) of dogs with neurologic deficits. Findings indicated that a modified human radiographic classification system of vertebral malformations is feasible for use in future studies of brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  3. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For in...

  4. Molecular pathology of vertebral deformities in hyperthermic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelde Kirsti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia has been shown in a number of organisms to induce developmental defects as a result of changes in cell proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. In spite of this, salmon aquaculture commonly uses high water temperature to speed up developmental rate in intensive production systems, resulting in an increased frequency of skeletal deformities. In order to study the molecular pathology of vertebral deformities, Atlantic salmon was subjected to hyperthermic conditions from fertilization until after the juvenile stage. Results Fish exposed to the high temperature regime showed a markedly higher growth rate and a significant higher percentage of deformities in the spinal column than fish reared at low temperatures. By analyzing phenotypically normal spinal columns from the two temperature regimes, we found that the increased risk of developing vertebral deformities was linked to an altered gene transcription. In particular, down-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM genes such as col1a1, osteocalcin, osteonectin and decorin, indicated that maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts were restrained. Moreover, histological staining and in situ hybridization visualized areas with distorted chondrocytes and an increased population of hypertrophic cells. These findings were further confirmed by an up-regulation of mef2c and col10a, genes involved in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conclusion The presented data strongly indicates that temperature induced fast growth is severely affecting gene transcription in osteoblasts and chondrocytes; hence change in the vertebral tissue structure and composition. A disrupted bone and cartilage production was detected, which most likely is involved in the higher rate of deformities developed in the high intensive group. Our results are of basic interest for bone metabolism and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in development of temperature induced

  5. Potential underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Birkan İlhan, Fatih Tufan, Gülistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif KaranDivision of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read with great interest the article by Liang et al “Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study”.1\tIn their study, the authors investigated the factors possibly associated with new vertebral compression fractures in patients who previously had vertebral augmentation procedures. They reported that osteoporosis (OP was not observed as a risk factor for repeat vertebral augmentation. Among multiple chronic diseases, hypertension (HT was reported as one factor associated with new vertebral fractures. Among the medications used to treat or prevent OP, they reported calcium/vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and calcitonin were associated with not having repeat vertebral augmentation. However, steroids, paracetamol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with having repeat vertebral augmentation. We would like to comment on their article.View original paper by Kurimato and colleagues.

  6. Vertebral body stenting versus kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Osterhoff, Georg; Schlickeiser, Jannis; Jenni, Raphael; Wanner, Guido A; Ossendorf, Christian; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-03

    In the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, vertebral body stenting with an expandable scaffold inserted before application of the bone cement was developed to impede secondary loss of vertebral height encountered in patients treated with balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there are relevant differences between balloon kyphoplasty and vertebral body stenting with regard to perioperative and postoperative findings. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial, patients with a total of 100 fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were treated with either balloon kyphoplasty or vertebral body stenting. The primary outcome was the post-interventional change in the kyphotic angle on radiographs. The secondary outcomes were the maximum pressure of the balloon tamp during inflation, radiation exposure time, perioperative complications, and cement leakage. The mean reduction (and standard deviation) of kyphosis (the kyphotic correction angle) was 4.5° ± 3.6° after balloon kyphoplasty and 4.7° ± 4.2° after vertebral body stenting (p = 0.972). The mean pressures were 24 ± 5 bar (348 ± 72 pounds per square inch [psi]) during vertebral body stenting and 16 ± 6 bar (233 ± 81 psi) during balloon kyphoplasty (p = 0.014). There were no significant differences in radiation exposure time.None of the patients underwent revision surgery, and postoperative neurologic sequelae were not observed. Cement leakage occurred at twenty-five of the 100 vertebral levels without significant differences between the two intervention arms (p = 0.230). Intraoperative material-related complications were observed at one of the fifty vertebral levels in the balloon kyphoplasty group and at nine of the fifty levels in the vertebral body stenting group. No beneficial effect of vertebral body stenting over balloon kyphoplasty was found among patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures with regard to kyphotic correction, cement leakage

  7. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma: Treatment with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aich Ranen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebrae are the second commonest site among skeletal locations affected by hemangioma, but only about one per cent becomes symptomatic throughout the life. Though surgery, intra vertebral injection of various sclerosing agents have been tried in treating this benign process, no general consensus regarding management has been reached. Radiotherapy is emerging as a low cost, simple, non-invasive but very effective modality of treatment of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma. Aim: This study aims to find out the role of external beam radiotherapy in alleviating the symptoms of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas without compromising the quality of life. Materials and Methods: Seven consecutive patients with symptomatic vertebral hemangioma were treated with a fixed dose of external beam radiotherapy; and muscle power was assessed before, after treatment and during follow-up. Results: All patients showed improvement of muscle power, which increased with the passage of time. Pain relief with improvement of quality of life was obtained in all the patients. Conclusion: Effect of radiotherapy on vertebral hemangioma is dose-dependent and the dose limiting factor is the spinal cord tolerance. In the present era of IMRT, greater dose can be delivered to the parts of vertebra affected by the hemangioma without compromising the spinal cord tolerance and expected to give better results.

  8. Bone creep can cause progressive vertebral deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollintine, Phillip; Luo, Jin; Offa-Jones, Ben; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2009-09-01

    Vertebral deformities in elderly people are conventionally termed "fractures", but their onset is often insidious, suggesting that time-dependent (creep) processes may also be involved. Creep has been studied in small samples of bone, but nothing is known about creep deformity of whole vertebrae, or how it might be influenced by bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesise that sustained compressive loading can cause progressive and measurable creep deformity in elderly human vertebrae. 27 thoracolumbar "motion segments" (two vertebrae and the intervening disc and ligaments) were dissected from 20 human cadavers aged 42-91 yrs. A constant compressive force of approximately 1.0 kN was applied to each specimen for either 0.5 h or 2 h, while the anterior, middle and posterior heights of each of the 54 vertebral bodies were measured at 1 Hz using a MacReflex 2D optical tracking system. This located 6 reflective markers attached to the lateral cortex of each vertebral body, with resolution better than 10 microm. Experiments were at laboratory temperature, and polythene film was used to minimise water loss. Volumetric BMD was calculated for each vertebral body, using DXA to measure mineral content, and water immersion for volume. In the 0.5 h tests, creep deformation in the anterior, middle and posterior vertebral cortex averaged 4331, 1629 and 614 micro-strains respectively, where 10,000 micro-strains represents 1% loss in height. Anterior creep strains exceeded posterior (Pspecimens with average BMDfracture.

  9. Re-resection of remnant Caroli syndrome six years after the first resection (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zidan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Imaging is essential in planning the operative treatment to detect the extent of the Caroli disease and define the extent of resection. Any residual disease due to inappropriate imaging planning may cost the patient another cycle of suffering and may need another surgical intervention as in our case. We recommend using intraoperative ultrasound for accurate determination of the line of resection.

  10. Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Gert; Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Hallworth, Mark A.

    2004-06-01

    Experimental observations of the collapse of initially vertical columns of small grains are presented. The experiments were performed mainly with dry grains of salt or sand, with some additional experiments using couscous, sugar or rice. Some of the experimental flows were analysed using high-speed video. There are three different flow regimes, dependent on the value of the aspect ratio a {=} h_i/r_i, where h_i and r_i are the initial height and radius of the granular column respectively. The differing forms of flow behaviour are described for each regime. In all cases a central, conically sided region of angle approximately 59(°) , corresponding to an aspect ratio of 1.7, remains undisturbed throughout the motion. The main experimental results for the final extent of the deposit and the time for emplacement are systematically collapsed in a quantitative way independent of any friction coefficients. Along with the kinematic data for the rate of spread of the front of the collapsing column, this is interpreted as indicating that frictional effects between individual grains in the bulk of the moving flow only play a role in the last instant of the flow, as it comes to an abrupt halt. For a {reach r_infty is given by t_infty {=} 3(h_i/g)(1/2} {=} 3(r_i/g)({1/2}a^{1/2)) , where g is the gravitational acceleration. The insights and conclusions gained from these experiments can be applied to a wide range of industrial and natural flows of concentrated particles. For example, the observation of the rapid deposition of the grains can help explain details of the emplacement of pyroclastic flows resulting from the explosive eruption of volcanoes.

  11. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  12. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  13. Mitochondrial genome organization and vertebrate phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Sérgio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of DNA sequencing techniques the organization of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome shows variation between higher taxonomic levels. The most conserved gene order is found in placental mammals, turtles, fishes, some lizards and Xenopus. Birds, other species of lizards, crocodilians, marsupial mammals, snakes, tuatara, lamprey, and some other amphibians and one species of fish have gene orders that are less conserved. The most probable mechanism for new gene rearrangements seems to be tandem duplication and multiple deletion events, always associated with tRNA sequences. Some new rearrangements seem to be typical of monophyletic groups and the use of data from these groups may be useful for answering phylogenetic questions involving vertebrate higher taxonomic levels. Other features such as the secondary structure of tRNA, and the start and stop codons of protein-coding genes may also be useful in comparisons of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  14. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  15. Cervical vertebral fusion with anterior meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mathew J; Chavredakis, Emmanuel; Carter, David; Bhojak, Manesh; Jenkinson, Michael D; Clark, Simon R

    2015-04-01

    We present the first described case of cervical vertebral fusion associated with anterior meningocele and syringomyelia. A 45-year-old woman presented with minor trauma, and plain cervical spine radiographs highlighted a congenital deformity of the cervical vertebral bodies. She had a normal neurological examination; however, further imaging revealed a meningocele and syringomyelia. This case highlights the importance of thorough imaging investigation when presented with a congenital deformity in order to detect and prevent development of degenerative spinal cord pathologies. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  17. Development of gamma column scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Jun, Jong Kyu; Kim, Jin Sup

    2004-11-01

    Distillation column is important unit in petro-chemical industries, and its on-line diagnose is important. To get density profile measured by the radiation transmitted through column is well method for on-line diagnose to find out missing tray or flooding. In many cases the distance from radiation detector to detection circuit is up to 100m long. Conventional radiation detection method that is to transmit analog signal by co axial cable directly to detection circuit couldn't give good result because of its long cable. In this case the system is sensitive to electric noise because of long cable and interface between the radiation circuit and the controller for mechanical system. The radiation detection system introduced here is using digital modulated signal and loop coil to transmit signal instead of slip ring and analog signal. In detail detection part of automatic gamma scanner consists of high voltage circuit, PHA circuit FSK modem and battery. This method isolates power system and gives good solution for automatic gamma scanning by isolating the controlling circuit of mechanical system from radiation detecting circuit which is sensitive to noise.

  18. Extralevator abdominoperineal resection in the prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Lorente, Blas; Frasson, Matteo; Montilla, Erick

    2014-03-01

    The Miles operation is every day more in the limelight. The abdominoperineal resection compared to anterior resection results in increased rate of circumferential resection margin (CRM) infiltration, increased iatrogenic tumor perforation rate and poorer quality of the mesorectum. These worse results may be caused by excessive dissection between the distal mesorectum and the plane of the levator ani and the consequent "resection waist" or "cone" effect in the specimen. A wider excision of the pelvic floor muscles, known as extraelevator abdominoperineal resection (ELAPE), would provide a "cylindrical" specimen which would hypothetically reduce the risk of tumor perforation and CRM infiltration and local recurrence rate. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the ELAPE is oncologically superior compared to standard abdominoperineal resection. Independently from the surgical technique adopted, another actual point of discussion is the position of the patient during the perineal part of the operation. The position on "prone" provides excellent pelvic exposure, a top-down dissection under direct vision and is very comfortable for the operating surgeons. However, there is no clear scientific evidence of the superiority of prone ELAPE over supine ELAPE in terms of oncologic results, morbidity and mortality. The laparoscopy seems to be the best surgical approach for the abdominal part of the operation, although it has not been validated so far by large prospective studies. Prospective, controlled and randomized trials are necessary to resolve all these issues. The current interest in a more accurate and standardized perineal surgery to obtain a cylindrical specimen, undoubtedly, will improve results. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Cirujanos. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. les hemangiomes vertebraux agressifs vertebral hemangiomas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background 1. Vertebral hemangiomas are benign tumeurs and are raré< ly symptomatic Aggressive forms represent less than. 1% of all cases Medical imaging allows both diagnosis ... '+ tro'ubles sphinctêriens. Irritation pyramidale '. Laminectomie - échec [saignement important) embolieationcomplêtée par une résection.

  20. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  1. Separation of vertebral epiphyses in bovine carcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M

    1987-01-01

    Separation of vertebral epiphyses in the thoracolumbar region is a cause of rejection of beef carcases for Intervention storage. Incidence is highest in younger cattle and the problem is associated with certain types of hide puller and dressing technique. Three dressing methods are evaluated and tensile strenght of bone specimens is measured. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Extensive thoracolumbosacral vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, D. H R; van Dijk, M.; Hoepelman, A. I M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074382160; Oner, F. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188615326; Verlaan, J. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269057285

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a unique case of multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome. Methods: A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented in the Emergency Department in septic shock because of Lemierre syndrome for which he was subsequently treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jason; Davis, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. VCFs can lead to chronic pain, disfigurement, height loss, impaired activities of daily living, increased risk of pressure sores, pneumonia, and psychological distress. Patients with an acute VCF may report abrupt onset of back pain with position changes, coughing, sneezing, or lifting. Physical examination findings are often normal, but can demonstrate kyphosis and midline spine tenderness. More than two-thirds of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on plain radiography. Acute VCFs may be treated with analgesics such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, and calcitonin. Physicians must be mindful of medication adverse effects in older patients. Other conservative therapeutic options include limited bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, nerve root blocks, and epidural injections. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, is controversial, but can be considered in patients with inadequate pain relief with nonsurgical care or when persistent pain substantially affects quality of life. Family physicians can help prevent vertebral fractures through management of risk factors and the treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R.; Oguiza, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. Database URL: VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php PMID:28365718

  5. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.G.; Martin, I.R.; Shaw, D.G.; Robinson, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    Four cases of progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion are described. Three cases remain relatively asymptomatic, but one has developed spinal cord compression secondary to an acute angled kyphosis. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features are reviewed and some comparisons with the spinal changes in thalidomide embryopathy are made.

  6. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  7. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its ... of the size of the bone's building blocks (such as osteon or trabecular thickness) to meet the metabolic demand concomitant to minimal expenditure of energy.

  8. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates: potential approach to palaeontological investigations. S MISHRA. School of Engineering Systems and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology,. Brisbane 4000, Australia. (Email, sk.mishra@qut.edu.au).

  9. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  10. Charcot arthropathy of the lumbar spine treated using one-staged posterior three-column shortening and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Kenny Samuel; Agarwala, Amit Omprakash; Rampersaud, Yoga Raja

    2010-06-15

    Case report. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy successfully treated surgically using posterior 3-column resection, spinal shortening, and fusion. The operative treatment of Charcot arthropathy of the spine has conventionally been a combination of anterior and posterior surgery. The morbidity associated with these surgical procedures can be considerable. A posterior-only approach to the problem would avoid the additional morbidity associated with an anterior approach. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy with deformity treated successfully using such a procedure. Discussion of the patient's clinical and radiologic history, the technical merits of the operative intervention and a review of the relevant background literature are presented. A multilevel, single-stage, posterior 3-column resection with primary shortening and instrumented fusion augmented with rhBMP2 in a multiply operated patient with deformity provided a optimal biologic and mechanical environment for healing of the Charcot arthropathy and improved the sagittal and coronal profile of the spine. A single-stage, multilevel, posterior 3-column resection and primary shortening can be a useful surgical strategy in symptomatic patients with Charcot arthropathy of the spine.

  11. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  12. Resection planning for robotic acoustic neuroma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Kepra L.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Noble, Jack H.

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic neuroma surgery is a procedure in which a benign mass is removed from the Internal Auditory Canal (IAC). Currently this surgical procedure requires manual drilling of the temporal bone followed by exposure and removal of the acoustic neuroma. This procedure is physically and mentally taxing to the surgeon. Our group is working to develop an Acoustic Neuroma Surgery Robot (ANSR) to perform the initial drilling procedure. Planning the ANSR's drilling region using pre-operative CT requires expertise and around 35 minutes' time. We propose an approach for automatically producing a resection plan for the ANSR that would avoid damage to sensitive ear structures and require minimal editing by the surgeon. We first compute an atlas-based segmentation of the mastoid section of the temporal bone, refine it based on the position of anatomical landmarks, and apply a safety margin to the result to produce the automatic resection plan. In experiments with CTs from 9 subjects, our automated process resulted in a resection plan that was verified to be safe in every case. Approximately 2 minutes were required in each case for the surgeon to verify and edit the plan to permit functional access to the IAC. We measured a mean Dice coefficient of 0.99 and surface error of 0.08 mm between the final and automatically proposed plans. These preliminary results indicate that our approach is a viable method for resection planning for the ANSR and drastically reduces the surgeon's planning effort.

  13. Complications of liver resection in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinská, Ivana; Laca, Ludovít; Miklušica, Juraj; Palkoci, Blazej; Skálová, Petra; Lauková, Slavomíra; Osinová, Denisa; Strmeňová, Simona; Janík, Ján; Mokáň, Marián

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and aims. Liver resection is the treatment of choice for many primary and secondary liver diseases. Most studies in the elderly have reported resection of primary and secondary liver tumors, especially hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal metastatic cancer. However, over the last two decades, hepatectomy has become safe and is now performed in the older population, implying a paradigm shift in the approach to these patients. We retrospectively evaluated the risk factors for postoperative complications in patients over 65 years of age in comparison with those under 65 years of age after liver resection (n = 360). The set comprised 127 patients older than 65 years (35%) and 233 patients younger than 65 years (65%). In patients younger than 65 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of benign liver tumors (P = 0.0073); in those older than 65 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of metastasis of colorectal carcinoma to the liver (0.0058). In patients older than 65 years, there were significantly more postoperative cardiovascular complications (P = 0.0028). Applying multivariate analysis, we did not identify any independent risk factors for postoperative complications. The 12-month survival was not significantly different (younger versus older patients), and the 5-year survival was significantly worse in older patients (P = 0.0454). In the case of liver resection, age should not be a contraindication. An individualized approach to the patient and multidisciplinary postoperative care are the important issues.

  14. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  15. Root resection: Apropos of 6 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resection procedures are indicated in the treatment of advanced Grade II and Grade III furcation involvement. Their long-term prognosis is comparable to that of implants. The objective of this article is to present case reports of hemisection in mandibular first molar and root amputation in maxillary second molar, employed successfully as a part of the oral rehabilitation procedure.

  16. Postoperative omental infarction following colonic resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, S.F., E-mail: skerr44@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hyland, R.; Rowbotham, E.; Chalmers, A.G. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Aim: To illustrate the computed tomography (CT) appearances and natural history of postoperative omental infarction following colonic resection and to highlight the important clinical implications of this radiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Over a 3 year period, 15 patients with a history of colonic resection were identified as having a CT diagnosis of postoperative omental infarction. Relevant clinical and pathological data were retrospectively collected from the institution's electronic patient records system and all relevant imaging was reviewed, including serial CT images in 10 patients. Results: A diagnosis of postoperative omental infarction was made in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone open or laparoscopic colonic resection for benign or malignant disease. CT appearances ranged from diffuse omental stranding to discrete masses, which typically appeared within weeks of surgery and could persist for years. In four (36%) of the patients with colorectal cancer, the CT appearances raised concern for recurrent malignancy, but percutaneous biopsy and/or serial CT allowed a confident diagnosis of omental infarction to be made. Although most cases were self-limiting, three (20%) cases were complicated by secondary infection and required radiological or surgical intervention. Conclusion: Postoperative omental infarction is an under-recognized complication of colonic resection. It has the potential to mimic recurrent malignancy and may require radiological or surgical intervention for secondary infection.

  17. Hysteroscopic Endometrial Resection in the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a major health problem and it is a substantial cause of ill health in women. Medical treatment has a high failure rate and adverse effects. There are few published data on hysteroscopic endometrial resection (HER) in the management of patients with AUB. Objective: To ...

  18. Resection methodology for PSP data processing: Recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A processing software based on these methodologies has been successfully developed and validated and is currently in use at the Experimental Aerodynamics Division of the National Aerospace laboratories, Bangalore. In this paper, we show the merits of resection methodology through two examples: a wing-body model ...

  19. Outcome of colorectal cancer resection in octogenarians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absolute number of postoperative complications in patients aged >80 years and 60 - 70 years undergoing colorectal resection (CVA = cerebrovascular accident; DVT = deep-vein thrombosis; PE = pulmonary embolism; CDT = Clostridium difficile; UTI = urinary tract infection; MI = myocardial infarction; AF = atrial fibrillation).

  20. Manual Colostomy Reversals Following Wide Colorectal Resections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manual Colostomy Reversals Following Wide Colorectal Resections at Poorly Equipped Surgical Facilities. EBFK Odimba, M Nthele, M Mbambiko. Abstract. Background: The decision for colostomy reversal is usually not easy and often reflects patient's desire, fully analyzed and agreed by the surgeon. The unavailability of ...

  1. The CW domain, a structural module shared amongst vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jason; Zhao, Yunde

    2003-11-01

    A previously undetected domain, named CW for its conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues, appears to be a four-cysteine zinc-finger motif found exclusively in vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants. Of the twelve distinct nuclear protein families that comprise the CW domain-containing superfamily, only the microrchida (MORC) family has begun to be characterized. However, several families contain other domains suggesting a relationship between the CW domain and either chromatin methylation status or early embryonic development.

  2. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called "vertebral body stenting" (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean +/- SD in %, p VBS: 3.7 +/- 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 +/- 9.4; VBS: 13.3 +/- 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.

  3. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called ?vertebral body stenting? (VBS) was tested in?vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be impl...

  4. Good results after repeated resection for colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Larsen, Peter Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Our study aim was to evaluate the perioperative events, postoperative events and survival after a second liver resection due to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), compared with a matched control group that had only undergone primary liver resection due to CLM....

  5. Surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in Cape Town - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCC) at our institution between 1990 and 1996, histology of resected specimens, and clinical outcome. Design, Retrospective and prospective study of 14 patients who underwent resection for HCC. Setting. The Hepatobiliary Unit and Liver ...

  6. [Enteral resection in the nursing rabbit (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Alvarez, F; Cárdenas Orihuela, A; Vigueras Villaseñor, R M

    1994-01-01

    The response to enteral resection in human newborns and nursing babies depends on the site and magnitude of the resection: usually these patients have a satisfactory recovery although long term supportive measures are required in order to prevent nutritional and digestive complications. This study assessed the post-surgical response of six groups of nursing rabbits with 0, 40, 50, 60, 75 and 90% selective resection of the small intestine. A greater number of surgical complications was observed in those cases with more manipulation and greater resection. Villi hypertrophic was found at the distal extremes of the enteral remnants only with 40% jejunal resection and 75 and 90% jejunum-ileum resections. None of the groups showed growth interruption. Only in rabbits with resections greater than 60% a significant decrease in weight was found. Forty and sixty percent enteral resections, mainly proximal and distal respectively, did not yield weight or length deficits as compared with the control group.

  7. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  8. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  9. Treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty and Sky expander kyphoplasty on vertebral compression fracture: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the treatment effect of balloon kyphoplasty (Pkp and Sky expander kyphoplasty (Sky on vertebral compression fracture, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical application. Methods  The database of Ovid medline, PubMed, Web of science, EMbase and CNKI from Jan. 1995 to Oct. 2012 were retrieved with computer, and relevant journals were manually retrieved, for the collection of the literature of therapeutic studies on treatment of vertebral compression fracture with Pkp and Sky method. The literature collected was then selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and analyzed by Meta-analysis software RevMan 5.0.25. Results  A total of 4 papers were selected based on that criterion, including 146 cases of Pkp group and 83 cases of Sky group. Random effect model analysis showed no significant difference existed between the two groups regarding postoperative anterior height and column height of vertebral body, Cobb angle and pain relieve (SMD=0.50, 95%CI -0.27–1.27; SMD=0.33, 95%CI -0.11–0.77; SMD=0.46, 95%CI -0.74–1.66; SMD=-0.09, 95%CI -0.37–0.18. However, the subgroup analysis showed the effect of Sky was better than that of Pkp on restoring anterior height and column height of vertebral body and Cobb angle. Conclusion  No significant difference was found regarding the treatment effect between Pkp and Sky method in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, but the clinical effect of Sky was better because of fewer complications and lower medical cost.

  10. Good results after repeated resection for colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Larsen, Peter Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Our study aim was to evaluate the perioperative events, postoperative events and survival after a second liver resection due to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), compared with a matched control group that had only undergone primary liver resection due to CLM.......Our study aim was to evaluate the perioperative events, postoperative events and survival after a second liver resection due to colorectal liver metastases (CLM), compared with a matched control group that had only undergone primary liver resection due to CLM....

  11. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  12. Development and clinical application of Vertebral Metrics: using a stereo vision system to assess the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ana Teresa; Quaresma, Cláudia; Secca, Mário Forjaz; Vieira, Pedro

    2018-01-20

    The biomechanical changes in the spinal column are considered to be the main responsible for rachialgia. Although radiological techniques use ionizing radiation, they are the most applied tools to assess the biomechanics of the spine. To face this problem, non-invasive techniques must be developed. Vertebral Metrics is an ionizing radiation-free instrument designed to detect the 3D position of each vertebrae in a standing position. Using a stereo vision system combined with low intensity UV light, recognition is achieved with software capable of distinguishing fluorescent marks. The fluorescent marks are the skin projection of the vertex of the spinal processes. This paper presents a major development of Vertebral Metrics and its evaluation. It performs a scan in less than 45 s with a resolution on the order of 1 mm, in each spatial direction, therefore, allowing an accurate analysis of the spine. The instrument was applied to patients without associated pathology. Statistically significant differences between consecutive scans were not found. A positive correlation between the 3D positions of each vertebra and the homologous position of the other vertebrae was observed. Using Vertebral Metrics, innovative results can be obtained. It can be used in areas such as orthopedics, neurosurgery, and rehabilitation. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Meng, Bin; Gan, Minfeng; Niu, Junjie; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are minimally invasive and effective vertebral augmentation techniques for managing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Recent meta-analyses have compared the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques or conservative treatment; however, the inclusions were not thorough and rigorous enough, and the effects of each technique on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures remain unclear. To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies with more rigorous inclusion criteria on the effects of vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for OVCF on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant original articles comparing the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for patients with OVCFs. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were identified. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated, relevant data were extracted and recorded, and an appropriate meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 articles were included. The pooled results from included studies showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis comparing different study designs, durations of symptoms, follow-up times, races of patients, and techniques were conducted, and no significant differences in the incidence of secondary fractures were identified (P > 0.05). No obvious publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.360 > 0.05) or Egger's test (P = 0.373 > 0.05). Despite current thinking in the

  14. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  15. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  16. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  17. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Park, Y K; Gupta, S; Yoon, C; Han, I; Kim, H-S; Choi, H; Hong, J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137-143. © 2017 Cho et al.

  18. Transanal submucosal endoscopic resection (TASER) by TEO system®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz de Nova, José Luis; Viamontes Ugalde, Francisco Eduardo; Mendoza Jiménez-Ridruejo, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Given the higher incidence of non-invasive colorectal tumors due to the further implementation of screening techniques, multiple endoscopic techniques have emerged for its resection. Recently described, transanal submucosal endoscopic resection (TASER) pools the concepts of endoscopic resection with the transanal surgery. We report our initial experience and reflections on this new technique.

  19. 1980 Volvo award in biomechanics. Measurement of the distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M; Brinckmann, P

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body has been measured by the aid of miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers in specimens of motion segments of the human vertebral column. The results indicate that the stress distribution depends essentially on the state of degeneration of the intervertebral disc and on the relative position of the adjacent end-plates. Furthermore lumbar and thoracic motion segments show a different behaviour. The measured results relate to the problem of the stress dependent deformation of the growing vertebra, the codfish shape of the osteoporotic vertebra and to the mechanism of degeneration of the intervertebral disc.

  20. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cancers that metastasize to the spine and primary cancers such as multiple myeloma can result in vertebral compression fractures or instability. Conservative strategies, including bed rest, bracing, and analgesic use, can be ineffective, resulting in continued pain and progressive functional disability limiting mobility and self-care. Surgery is not usually an option for cancer patients in advanced disease states because of their poor medical health or functional status and limited life expectancy. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous image-guided vertebral augmentation techniques, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, for palliation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures. We performed a systematic literature search for studies on vertebral augmentation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures published from January 1, 2000, to October 2014; abstracts were screened by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Owing to the heterogeneity of the clinical reports, we performed a narrative synthesis based on an analytical framework constructed for the type of cancer-related vertebral fractures and the diversity of the vertebral augmentation interventions. The evidence review identified 3,391 citations, of which 111 clinical reports (4,235 patients) evaluated the effectiveness of vertebroplasty (78 reports, 2,545 patients) or kyphoplasty (33 reports, 1,690 patients) for patients with mixed primary spinal metastatic cancers, multiple myeloma, or hemangiomas. Overall the mean pain intensity scores often reported within 48 hours of vertebral augmentation (kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty), were significantly reduced. Analgesic use, although variably reported, usually involved parallel decreases, particularly in opioids, and mean pain-related disability scores were also significantly improved. In a randomized controlled trial comparing kyphoplasty

  1. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. The base case considered each of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

  2. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para aumentar a segurança cirúrgica. OBJETIVO: Estudar a morfometria da artéria vertebral no atlas através da tomografia computadorizada do sulco da artéria vertebral (SAV em 30 atlas isolados de cadáveres. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O SAV e suas relações com a linha média foram avaliados através de oito medidas lineares e duas angulares, bilateralmente. A média, valor máximo e mínimo, e desvio padrão foram calculados para cada parâmetro. RESULTADOS: O SAV apresentou uma maior largura e maior espessura do lado esquerdo (pINTRODUCTION: Several surgical techniques have been carried through in the skull-cervical region due to various pathologies. During the surgical access to this region, a potential risk of iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery exists, related to extended lateral access and the inadequate evaluation of the local anatomy. Variations in the groove of the vertebral artery lead to a greater risk of vascular injury during surgery. Preoperative image study of the vertebral artery anatomy and its groove has been realized to enhance surgical safety. OBJECTIVE: to study the morphometry of atlas vertebral artery on computed tomography scan images of the vertebral artery groove (VAG in 30 dry atlas. METHODS: VAG and its relationship with the midline were evaluated through eight linear and two angular measures, bilaterally. The average, maximum and minimum values, and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter

  3. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. Methods We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. Results The base case considered each of

  4. Grading apical vertebral rotation without a computed tomography scan: a clinically relevant system based on the radiographic appearance of bilateral pedicle screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Chambers, Reid C; Dalal, Ali H; Shah, Suken A; Lehman, Ronald A; Newton, Peter O

    2009-08-01

    Bench-top and retrospective analysis to assess vertebral rotation based on the appearance of bilateral pedicle screws in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To develop a clinically relevant radiographic grading system for evaluating postoperative thoracic apical vertebral rotation that would correlate with computed tomography (CT) measures of rotation. The 3-column vertebral body control provided by bilateral pedicle screws has enabled scoliosis surgeons to develop advanced techniques of direct vertebral derotation. Our ability to accurately quantify spinal deformity in the axial plane, however, continues to be limited. Trigonometry was used to define the relationship between the position of bilateral pedicle screws and vertebral rotation. This relationship was validated using digital photographs of a bench-top model. The mathematical relationships were then used to calculate vertebral rotation from standing postoperative, posteroanterior radiographs in AIS patients and correlated with postoperative CT measures of rotation. Fourteen digital photographs of the bench-top model were independently analyzed twice by 3 coauthors. The mathematically calculated degree of rotation was found to correlate significantly with the actual degree of rotation (r = 0.99; P < 0.001) and the intra- and interobserver reliability for these measurements were both excellent (kappa = 0.98 and kappa = 0.97, respectively). In the retrospective analysis of 17 AIS patients, the average absolute difference between the radiographic measurement of rotation and the CT measure was only 1.9 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees (r = 0.92; P < 0.001). Based on these correlations a simple radiographic grading system for postoperative apical vertebral rotation was developed. An accurate assessment of vertebral rotation can be performed radiographically, using screw lengths and screw tip-to-rod distances of bilateral segmental pedicle screws and a trigonometric calculation. These data support the use

  5. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

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    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  6. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  7. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

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    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  8. Functions of Antimicrobial Peptides in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Eva Edilia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the multiple activities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in vertebrates. The largest AMP families are the cathelicidins and defensins, but several peptides derived from bigger proteins have also been reported. Cathelicidins are characterized by a conserved Nterminal pro-region and a variable region that encodes the C-terminal mature peptide. The β-defensins comprise a large family of AMPs that have diversified their functions, apparently without losing their antimicrobial activity. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are present in all vertebrates studied so far; α- defensins are present in mammals, while θ-defensins are only present in some non-human primates. The AMPs are regulated by posttranslational modifications that mainly include proteolysis, amidation, ADP-ribosylation, glycosylation and phosphorylation. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs show activity against viral particles and interfere in different steps of virus replication. Moreover, AMPs may both promote and inhibit cancer growth: several vertebrate AMPs kill cancer cells, and some tumors grow in an environment wherein the expression of β-defensins is reduced; however, human cathelicidin and some β-defensins are overexpressed in several types of cancer and are correlated with tumor growth. AMPs are part of the complex network of cells and molecules that forms the vertebrate innate defense system and they induce adaptive responses. In addition, they participate in sperm maturation and male reproduction. AMPs are multifunctional peptides that participate in immune responses, wound healing, angiogenesis, toxin neutralization, iron metabolism, male reproduction, among other functions. However, AMPs may also contribute to excessive inflammation and tumorigenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Luis G.; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Andrew C. Oates

    2008-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock’s collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A th...

  10. Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  12. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  13. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

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    Damien Cazaméa-Catalan

    Full Text Available All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish. We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish. We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish. Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  14. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

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    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  15. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

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    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  16. Evolution of sound localisation in land vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, Christine

    2009-08-11

    The story of the evolution of hearing in land vertebrates is fascinating but complex. The water-to-land transition changed the physical environment in which hearing happens so dramatically that both the peripheral receptor structures and the central auditory circuits underwent a revolution, leading to the sensitive hearing of higher-frequency airborne sound. This (r)evolution took a very long time indeed. Most of it happened after the early divergence of the major clades of land vertebrates. Hearing, at least hearing as we commonly understand it today, is the youngest of the major senses and much of its evolutionary history is not shared between amphibians, lepidosauromorphs (lizards and snakes), archosauromorphs (birds and crocodilians) and mammals. There was no linear evolution of complexity from 'lower' to 'higher' vertebrates. We are only just beginning to appreciate the implications of this for central auditory processing. There is no consensus, yet, on the evolution of sound localisation. The multitude of physical cues involved in sound localisation means that different selective pressures interact and need to be considered. The use and neural processing of interaural time differences is just one example. It has taught us that long-standing assumptions, such as the homology of the mammalian medial superior olive and the avian nucleus laminaris, need to be questioned and that important insights may arise from unexpected directions, such as the paleontology of middle-ear ossicles. There is still much to discover.

  17. Vertebral osteomyelitis in adults: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Emma K; Sinha, Rohitashwa

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing, attributed to an ageing population with inherent co-morbidities and improved case ascertainment. References were retrieved from the PubMed database using the terms 'vertebral osteomyelitis' and 'spondylodiscitis' between January 1, 2009 and April 30, 2014 published in English as checked in May 2014 (>1000 abstracts checked). Blood cultures and whole spine imaging with magnetic resonance imaging are essential investigations. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of surgical management, although placing metalwork in active infection is becoming increasingly common. The extent of pursuing spinal biopsies to determine aetiology, antimicrobial choices and duration, monitoring the response to treatment, and surgical techniques and timing all vary widely in clinical practice with heterogeneous studies limiting comparisons. Surgery, rather than conservative approaches, is being proposed as the default management choice, because it can, in carefully selected patients, offer faster reduction in pain scores and improved quality of life. Further studies are needed to define the most effective technique for spinal biopsies to maximize determining aetiology. High-quality trials are required to provide an evidence base for both the medical and surgical management of vertebral osteomyelitis, including challenging medical management as the default option. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisarri, Iker; Baurain, Denis; Brinkmann, Henner; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sire, Jean-Yves; Kupfer, Alexander; Petersen, Jörn; Jarek, Michael; Meyer, Axel; Vences, Miguel; Philippe, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on "standards" for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find this phylotranscriptomic approach successful and highly cost-effective. Increased sequencing effort up to ca. 10Gbp allows recovering more genes, but shallower sequencing (1.5Gbp) is sufficient to obtain thousands of full-length orthologous transcripts. We reconstruct a robust and strongly supported timetree of jawed vertebrates using 7,189 nuclear genes from 100 taxa, including 23 new transcriptomes from previously unsampled key species. Gene jackknifing of genomic data corroborates the robustness of our tree and allows calculating genome-wide divergence times by overcoming gene sampling bias. Mitochondrial genomes prove insufficient to resolve the deepest relationships because of limited signal and among-lineage rate heterogeneity. Our analyses emphasize the importance of large curated nuclear datasets to increase the accuracy of phylogenomics and provide a reference framework for the evolutionary history of jawed vertebrates.

  19. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations. Dyn...

  1. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  2. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in invasive vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  3. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmetti GC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni C Anselmetti1, Sean M Tutton2, Francis R Facchini3, Larry E Miller4,5, Jon E Block51Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Turin, Italy; 2Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Interventional Radiology, Interventional Oncology, VIR Chicago, Hinsdale, IL, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system.Case presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No

  4. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.

    2017-04-01

    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  5. Evolution of vertebrate GnRH receptors from the perspective of a basal vertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacia A Sower

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian, type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that 2 whole rounds of genome duplication (2R occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.

  6. Thoracic wall reconstruction after tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran eHarati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical treatment of malignant thoracic wall tumors represents a formidable challenge. In particular, locally advanced tumors that have already infiltrated critical anatomic structures are associated with a high surgical morbidity and can result in full thickness defects of the thoracic wall. Plastic surgery can reduce this surgical morbidity by reconstructing the thoracic wall through various tissue transfer techniques. Sufficient soft tissue reconstruction of the thoracic wall improves life quality and mitigates functional impairment after extensive resection. The aim of this article is to illustrate the various plastic surgery treatment options in the multimodal therapy of patients with malignant thoracic wall tumors.Material und methods: This article is based on a review of the current literature and the evaluation of a patient database.Results: Several plastic surgical treatment options can be implemented in the curative and palliative therapy of patients with malignant solid tumors of the chest wall. Large soft tissue defects after tumor resection can be covered by local, pedicled or free flaps. In cases of large full-thickness defects, flaps can be combined with polypropylene mesh to improve chest wall stability and to maintain pulmonary function. The success of modern medicine has resulted in an increasing number of patients with prolonged survival suffering from locally advanced tumors that can be painful, malodorous or prone to bleeding. Resection of these tumors followed by thoracic wall reconstruction with viable tissue can substantially enhance the life quality of these patients. Discussion: In curative treatment regimens, chest wall reconstruction enables complete resection of locally advanced tumors and subsequent adjuvant radiotherapy. In palliative disease treatment, stadium plastic surgical techniques of thoracic wall reconstruction provide palliation of tumor-associated morbidity and can therefore improve

  7. Use of Amiodarone after Major Lung Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark F.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the association of respiratory complications and amiodarone use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after major lung resection. METHODS Outcomes of patients who had postoperative AF treated with or without amiodarone after lobectomy, bilobectomy, or pneumonectomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2010 were evaluated using multivariable logistic modeling. RESULTS Of 1412 patients who underwent lobectomy, bilobectomy, or pneumonectomy, AF occurred in 232 (16%). AF developed after a respiratory complication in 31 patients, who were excluded from subsequent analysis. The remaining 201 patients that had AF without an antecedent respiratory complication had similar mortality (3.0% [6/201] versus 2.5% [30 /1180], p=0.6) and respiratory morbidity (10% [20/201] versus 9% [101/1180], p=0.5) but longer hospital stays (5 [4,7] versus 4 days [3,6], pAmiodarone was used in 101 (50%) of these 201 patients, including 5 patients who had a pneumonectomy. Age, pulmonary function, and operative resection were similar between the patients treated with/without amiodarone. Amiodarone use was not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of subsequent respiratory complications [12% (12/101 amiodarone patients) versus 8% (8/100 non-amiodarone patients), p=0.5)]. CONCLUSIONS AF that occurs without an antecedent respiratory complication in patients after major lung resection results in longer hospital stay but not increased mortality or respiratory morbidity. Using amiodarone to treat atrial fibrillation after major lung resection is not associated with an increased incidence of respiratory complications. PMID:25106684

  8. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  9. Neuropraxia following resection of a retroperitoneal liposarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Tsiao

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: The patient required only physical therapy and oral prednisone following surgery for treatment of the neuropraxia. She responded well and has regained significant neuromotor function of the affected limb. Cases presenting with post-resection neurological sequelae without any known intraoperative nerve injury may respond very well to conservative treatment. Hence, it is very important to collaborate with Neurology and Physical Therapy to achieve best possible outcome.

  10. Neuropraxia following resection of a retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiao, Stevenson; Aydin, Nail; Misra, Subhasis

    2017-01-01

    This is a unique case of neuropraxia of femoral nerve seen after resection of retroperitoneal liposarcoma which has not been reported before in the literature. Neuropraxia, a transient paralysis due to blockage of nerve conduction, commonly associated with athletes and orthopedic procedures, has not been previously reported as a complication following resection of retroperitoneal sarcoma. This is an 81-year-old female who, on CT for evaluation of her atherosclerosis, was found to have an incidental right-sided retroperitoneal mass extending from the right renal capsule inferiorly through the inguinal canal. At this point, the patient reported mild right sided abdominal pain and right lower back pain, but reported no neuromotor deficits of the right lower extremity. Given the symptoms of the patient as well as the size, location and the density of the lesion, surgical intervention was pursued. On exploration, the lipomatous lesion, suggestive of liposarcoma, was invading the right genitofemoral nerve and ilioinguinal nerve which were sacrificed to ensure a complete oncologic resection. Following complete removal of the mass, she developed right side femoral nerve neuropraxia, suffering complete loss of motor function in the femoral distribution. Pathology revealed the mass to be a low grade liposarcoma. The patient required only physical therapy and oral prednisone following surgery for treatment of the neuropraxia. She responded well and has regained significant neuromotor function of the affected limb. Cases presenting with post-resection neurological sequelae without any known intraoperative nerve injury may respond very well to conservative treatment. Hence, it is very important to collaborate with Neurology and Physical Therapy to achieve best possible outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Van Nes rotationplasty with segmental limb resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajbich, J I; Carroll, N C

    1990-07-01

    Segmental limb resection is becoming a practical alternative to limb ablation in tumor surgery. The addition of Van Nes rotationplasty to provide a pseudo knee joint has been found to be a practical, functional addition facilitating prosthesis use. This procedure has now been used successfully in 21 children with malignant neoplasms, with few complications. The surgical technique, as outlined, produces significantly improved functional results over an above-knee amputation or hip disarticulation.

  12. Laparoscopic caecal wedge resection with intraoperative endoscopic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavarini, Luisa; Boni, Luigi; Cortellezzi, Camillo Claudio; Segato, Sergio; Cassinotti, Elisa; Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Marzorati, Alessandro; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Sambucci, Daniele; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a potential evolution of adenomatous polyps, that is why nowadays screening programs for colorectal cancer are widely diffused. Colonoscopy is the gold standard procedure for identifying and resecting polyps; however, for some polyps resection during colonoscopy is not possible. The aim of the present study is to identify a fast and safe procedure for endoscopically resecting unresectable polyps. Patients with endoscopically unresectable polyps were scheduled for laparoscopic wedge resection under colonoscopic assistance. From November 2010 to November 2012 we treated 15 patients with endoscopically unresectable adenomatous polyps. All patients underwent a laparoscopic caecal wedge resection with intraoperative endoscopic assistance. All procedures were completed without complications and in all cases complete resection of the polyps was achieved. Laparoscopic wedge caecal resection with intraoperative colonoscopy is a fast and safe procedure that can be performed for large polyps that could not be treated endoscopically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resection of pancreatic cancer in Europe and USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Jansen, Lina; Balavarca, Yesilda

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Resection can potentially cure resectable pancreatic cancer (PaC) and significantly prolong survival in some patients. This large-scale international study aimed to investigate variations in resection for PaC in Europe and USA and determinants for its utilisation. DESIGN: Data from six...... European population-based cancer registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database during 2003-2016 were analysed. Age-standardised resection rates for overall and stage I-II PaCs were computed. Associations between resection and demographic and clinical parameters were...... performance status, tumour location and size were also associated with resection application. CONCLUSION: Rates of PaC resection remain low in Europe and USA with great international variations. Further studies are warranted to explore reasons for these variations....

  14. Development and validation of a subject-specific finite element model of the functional spinal unit to predict vertebral strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R 2  = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R 2  = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R 2  = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.

  15. Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change. PMID:17422768

  16. [Resection of intracardiac myxoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Delgado, Víctor Manuel; Deloya-Maldonado, Angélica María; Carranza-Bernal, María Lourdes; Hinojosa-Pérez, Arturo; Farías-Mayene, Leobardo

    2017-01-01

    Myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumors, which are considered emergency surgery. The resection should not be delayed because 8-9% of affected patients may die due to intracardiac blood flow obstruction. We presente a clinical case of a 47 year old female, history of dyslipidemia. Disease starts with retrosternal oppression feeling, dyspnea on moderate exercise, dizziness, pain in joints hands. Arrhytmic heart sounds, diastolic mitral murmur II/IV, breth sounds present, no lymph. Laboratory: hemoglobin 11.0, leucocyte 9000, glucose 96 mg/dL, chest RX medium arch prominence cardiac silhouette. ECO transthoracic LVEF 60 %, with left atrial intracardiac tumor 13x11 cm, pedicle fixed the interatrial septum, the mitral valve bulges, with mild mitral valve. Half sternotomy is performed intracardiac tumor resection, pericardial placement interatrial with extracorporeal circulation support 65', aortic clamping time of 40'. Intracardiac tumor surgical findings interatrial septum fixed to left side, pedicle, rounded, yellow, multiloculated, soft, 13x10 cm in diameter. Histopathological diagnosis cardiac myxoma. We conclude that the tumor resection was carried in a timely manner with satisfactory evolution.

  17. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  18. Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Suspected Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Andreas; Shepherd, Sheila; Mason, Avril; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2016-12-01

    To explore the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures in disease groups investigated for primary and secondary osteoporosis, using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). VFA was performed independently by 2 nonradiologists, in 165 children (77 males, 88 females) as part of their investigation for osteoporosis. Vertebral bodies from T6 to L4 were assessed for vertebral fractures using the Genant scoring system. The common readings for the presence of vertebral fractures were used for evaluating the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures. The median age of the subjects was 13.4 years (range, 3.6, 18). Of the 165 children, 24 (15%) were being investigated for primary bone disease, and the remainder had a range of chronic diseases known to affect bone health. Vertebral fractures were identified in 38 (23%) children. The distribution of the vertebral fractures was bimodal, with vertebral fractures peaks centered at T9 and L4. Conditions associated with increased odds for vertebral fractures were inflammatory bowel disease (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4, 8.0; P = .018) and osteogenesis imperfecta (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04, 5.8; P = .022). Among children with vertebral fractures, those with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (P = .015) and osteogenesis imperfecta (P = .023) demonstrated higher number of vertebral fractures than the other disease groups. VFA identified the presence of vertebral fractures, in a bimodal distribution, in both primary bone disease and chronic disease groups. VFA is a practical screening tool for identification of vertebral fractures in children and adolescents at risk of fragility fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiological examination of the spinal column in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): experiments with Flavobacterium psychrophilum and oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Arnbjerg, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum and oxytetracycline have both been associated with spinal deformities in salmonids. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether infection with F, psychrophilum or medication with oxytetracycline (OTC) at the fry stage would result in an increased occurrence...... of infected fish. OTC treatments of up to 200 mg of OTC(kgfish)(-1) day(-1) for 10 days and repeated three times did not result in increased spinal deformities relative to untreated control groups; therefore, medication of rainbow trout with oxytetracycline did not cause deformities of the spinal column under...... of vertebral column deformities in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Fish were on-grown for 9 months and examined by radiology at the end of the experiments. There was a relationship between infection by F. psychrophilum and deformities of the spinel column, if fish with more than 10 affected...

  20. The efficacy of resection of an intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation presenting with repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tomoya; Sakai, Naoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Kawaji, Hiroshi; Namba, Hiroki

    2017-03-09

    Intradural extramedullary cavernous angiomas of the central nervous system are a rare type of cavernous angioma, but they can cause fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The efficacy of resection for this type of cavernous malformations remains uncertain. This is the first report to recommend surgical resection of these types of lesions regardless of the fatal condition. Our patient was a 70-year-old Japanese man who experienced a sudden onset of an occipital headache, followed by bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small amount of hemorrhage in both of the lateral ventricles and an intradural extramedullary mass lesion in the left side of his foramen magnum. Two weeks after the appearance of initial symptoms, he became comatose. A computed tomography scan showed an increase in the subarachnoid intraventricular hemorrhaging and of the acute hydrocephalus. Following ventricular drainage, total tumor resection was performed using the lateral suboccipital transcondylar approach in conjunction with a first cervical hemilaminectomy. We observed a grape-like vascular-rich tumor with calcification that was adhering tightly to the wall of his left vertebral artery. A histopathological examination of the surgery specimen identified it as a cavernous angioma. After placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 2 months of rehabilitation, he recovered completely. An intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation is quite rare. The fragile surface of our patient's lesion was causing repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequently progressive fatal neurological deterioration. Surgical resection of the lesion to prevent repeated hemorrhage was performed and he recovered fully. Therefore, we recommend surgical resection of the lesion regardless of the potentially fatal condition.

  1. Colonoscopic resection of lateral spreading tumours: a prospective analysis of endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, D P; Sanders, D S; Cross, S S; Adam, I; Shorthouse, A J; Brown, S; Drew, K; Lobo, A J

    2004-09-01

    Lateral spreading tumours are superficial spreading neoplasms now increasingly diagnosed using chromoscopic colonoscopy. The clinicopathological features and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumours (G-type "aggregate" and F-type "flat") has yet to be clarified in Western cohorts. Eighty two patients underwent magnification chromoscopic colonoscopy using the Olympus CF240Z by a single endoscopist. All patients had received a previous colonoscopy where an endoscopic diagnosis of lateral spreading tumour was made. All lesions were examined initially using indigo carmine chromoscopy to delineate contour followed by crystal violet for magnification crypt pattern analysis. A 20 MHz "mini probe" ultrasound was used if T2 disease was suspected. Following endoscopic mucosal resection, patients were followed up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months using total colonoscopy. Eighty two lateral spreading tumours were diagnosed in 80 patients (32% (26/82) F-type and 68% (56/82) G-type). G-type lesions were larger than F-type (G-type mean 42 (SD 14) mm v F-type 24 (6.4) mm; plateral spreading tumours using endoscopic mucosal resection at two years of follow-up was 96% (56/58). Endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumours, staged as T1, is a safe and effective treatment despite their large size. Endoscopic mucosal resection may be an alternative to surgery in selected patients.

  2. Clinical and neuroimaging features vertebral radiculopathy in the combination with vertebral hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-honatskaya M.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to study the clinical and neuroimaging features of radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas in conjunction with the vertebrae. Materials and methods. A total of 56 patients with radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas combined with the vertebrae. Results. The patients in addition to pain, and focal neurological symptoms were observed violation of urination, and chronic venous insuffciency of lower extremities. MRI identifed three types of vertebral hem-angiomas, depending on the structural characteristics. Conclusion. The aim of the study is realized.Most hemangiomas are asymptomatic yourself. Pain and neurological symptoms caused by musculo-tonic component, the presence of disc herniation, changes in the intervertebral joints, ligaments violation. Type III meets the criteria for hemangiomas and requires aggressive surgical treatment.

  3. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  4. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  5. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  6. Surgical strategy for intra- and extra-vertebral dumbbell-shaped tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Li-yong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features and surgical strategy of intra- and extra-vertebral dumbbell-shaped tumors. Methods Clinical data of 39 patients with intra- and extra-vertebral tumor were retrospectively studied. The tumors were removed via posterior midline approach in 33 patients, and via posterior combined with anterior approach in 6 patients. Thirty patients underwent tumor resection and internal fixation. Lateral mass screw fixation was performed in the level of C3-7, while the pedicular screw fixation was performed in the level of C2 and thoracic and lumbar segment. Results Tumors were totally excised in all the cases. The patients were followed-up for 6 months to 5 years with an average of 18.67 months. Pain relief occured in 29 cases, of whom the average Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score decreased from (7.51 ± 1.05 before surgery to (3.17 ± 1.17 24 h after surgery (P < 0.05. The numbness area emerged or enlarged in 12 cases and was unchanged in 3 cases. The average American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA sensation score decreased from (218.67 ± 2.80 before surgery to (213.33 ± 2.16 24 h after surgery (P < 0.05, but it increased to (216.78 ± 1.47 6 months after operation (P < 0.05. The motor function improved in 18 cases, and ASIA motor function score improved from (92.33 ± 1.63 before surgery to (95.05 ± 1.41 6 months after operation (P < 0.05. No tumor recurrence and secondary spinal deformity were found. Conclusion Most cases of dumbbell-shaped intra- and extra-vertebral tumor can be totally removed with one-session microsurgery. In the cases with bony erosion caused by tumor and facetectomy, concurrent internal fixation and fusion were recommended in order to maintain spinal stability.

  7. Single column locking plate fixation is inadequate in two column acetabular fractures. A biomechanical analysis

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    Bellino Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine whether one can achieve stable fixation of a two column (transverse acetabular fracture by only fixing a single column with a locking plate and unicortical locking screws. We hypothesized that a locking plate applied to the anterior column of a transverse acetabular fracture would create a construct that is more rigid than a non-locking plate, and that this construct would be biomechanically comparable to two column fixation. Methods Using urethane foam models of the pelvis, we simulated transverse acetabular fractures and stabilized them with 1 an anterior column plate with bicortical screws, 2 an anterior locking plate with unicortical screws, 3 an anterior plate and posterior column lag screw, and 4 a posterior plate with an anterior column lag screw. These constructs were mechanically loaded on a servohydraulic material testing machine. Construct stiffness and fracture displacement were measured. Result and Discussion We found that two column fixation is 54% stiffer than a single column fixation with a conventional plate with bicortical screws. There was no significant difference between fixation with an anterior column locking plate with unicortical screws and an anterior plate with posterior column lag screw. We detected a non-significant trend towards more stiffness for the anterior locking plate compared to the anterior non-locking plate. Conclusion In conclusion, a locking plate construct of the anterior column provides less stability than a traditional both column construct with posterior plate and anterior column lag screw. However, the locking construct offers greater strength than a non-locking, bicortical construct, which in addition often requires extensive contouring and its application is oftentimes accompanied by the risk of neurovascular damage.

  8. Spontaneous vertebral dissection: Clinical, conventional angiographic, CT, and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzale, J.M.; Morgenlander, J.C. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Gress, D. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if typical clinical and neuroradiologic patterns exist in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The medical records and neuroradiologic examinations of 14 patients with spontaneous VA dissection were reviewed. The medical records were examined to exclude patients with a history of trauma and to record evidence of a nontratimatic precipitating event ({open_quotes}trivial trauma{close_quotes}) and presence of possible risk factors such as hypertension. All patients under-went conventional angiography, 13 either CT or MRI (II both CT and MRI), and 3 MRA. Conventional arteriograrris were evaluated for dissection site, evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia, luminal stenosis or occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm formation, CT examinations for the presence of infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage, MR examinations for the presence of infarction or arterial signal abnormality, and MR angiograms for abnormality of the arterial signal column. Seven patients had precipitating events within 24 h of onset of symptoms that may have been causative of dissection and five had hypertension. At catheter angiography, two patients had dissections in two arteries (both VAs in one patient, VA and internal carotid artery in one patient), giving a total of 15 VAs with dissection. Dissection sites included V1 in four patients, V2 in one patient, V3 in three patients, V4 in six patients, and both V3 and V4 in one patient. Luminal stenosis was present in 13 VAs, occlusion in 2, pseudoaneurysm in 1, and evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia in 1. Posterior circulation infarcts were found on CT or MR in five patients. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found on CT in two patients and by lumbar puncture alone in two patients. Abnormal periarterial signal on MRI was seen in three patients. MRA demonstrated absent VA signal in one patient, pseudoaneurysm in one, and a false-negative examination in one.

  9. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  10. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments (ERA) has even been banned, and in other situations the numbers of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced, or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is not just based on ethical considerations but also to reduce the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases to provide better information aimed at improving ERAs. The present focus paper provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made towards alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades. The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organi

  11. Juxta-vertebral lesions in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Campochiaro, Corrado; Bozzolo, Enrica; Berti, Alvise; Praderio, Luisa; Dagna, Lorenzo; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical, pathological, serological, and radiological characteristics of juxta-vertebral masses occurring in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We analyzed the clinical records of patients with juxta-vertebral lesions from our GPA study cohort and reviewed the English literature for other cases of GPA with juxta-vertebral localization. Out of 74 patients in our GPA study cohort, six (8%) had juxta-vertebral lesions. We found 10 cases of juxta-vertebral GPA described in the English literature. Overall, juxta-vertebral lesions were detected at GPA onset in 11/16 (69%) patients, and preferentially occurred on the right side of the spine (12/15 patients, 80%). Fifteen patients (94%) with juxta-vertebral lesions had systemic GPA. Juxta-vertebral lesions were associated with back pain at GPA onset in 8/16 (50%) patients. In all of them juxta-vertebral lesions resolved or improved after treatment. Preference for the right-anterior side of the spine, increased 18 FDG uptake on PET scan, low or absent invasiveness of the surrounding tissues, and occurrence in the context of systemic disease were the main features of juxta-vertebral GPA. Symptomatic lesions showed a better response to immunosuppressive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  13. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified Levator Muscle Resection Using Putterman Muller's Muscle-Conjunctival Resection-Ptosis Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Wen

    2017-11-28

    The traditional technique for levator muscle resection includes a time-consuming dissection procedure that causes tissue trauma and swelling. The Putterman ptosis clamp has been popularly used in recent years for conjunctival müllerectomy. In this paper, we describe a modified surgical technique for ptosis treatment using the Putterman ptosis clamp. The modified technique improves the surgical results of levator muscle resection. We performed a retrospective case-series study to determine the outcomes and complications associated with the use of the Putterman ptosis clamp in levator muscle resection. Adults aged ≥18 years with moderate-to-severe ptosis underwent the modified technique for levator muscle resection. We first performed dissection to expose the aponeurosis and tarsus. Then, we placed the Putterman ptosis clamp to measure redundant aponeurotic and septal tissues and to perform the resection. Following the adjustment of the eyelid fissure, we refixed the levator muscle to the tarsus with 4-0 vicryl stitches. Seventeen patients (34 eyes) were included in the study. Of the 34 eyes, 31 (91.2%) experienced the complete resolution of ptosis after the surgery. One patient (2 eyes, 5.9%) had mild bilateral dermatochalasis and received revision surgery 6 months postoperative. One patient (1 eye, 2.9%) lost the crease of the left eye and received revision surgeries 2 and 6 months after the first surgery. No residual ptosis or severe adverse events were noted in the patients. Modified levator muscle resection using the Putterman ptosis clamp is an effective procedure for ptosis treatment. 4.

  15. Urethral strictures after bipolar transurethral resection of prostate may be linked to slow resection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Hee Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to determine the urethral stricture (US rate and identify clinical and surgical risk factors associated with US occurrence after transurethral resection of the prostate using the bipolar Gyrus PlasmaKinetic Tissue Management System (PKTURP. Materials and Methods: This was an age-matched case-control study of US occurrence after PK-TURP. Retrospective data were collected from the hospital records of patients who had a minimum of 36 months of follow-up information. Among the data collected for analysis were prostate-specific antigen level, estimated prostate weight, the amount of prostate resected, operative time, history of urinary tract infection, previous transurethral resection of the prostate, and whether the PK-TURP was combined with other endourological procedures. The resection rate was calculated from the collected data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinical and surgical risk factors related to US formation. Results: A total of 373 patients underwent PK-TURP between 2003 and 2009. There were 13 cases of US (3.5%, and most of them (10 of 13, 76.9% presented within 24 months of surgery. Most of the US cases (11 of 13, 84.6% occurred at the bulbar urethra. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified slow resection rate as the only risk factor significantly associated with US occurrence. Conclusions: The US rate of 3.5% after PK-TURP in this study is comparable to contemporary series. A slow resection rate seems to be related to US occurrence. This should be confirmed by further studies; meanwhile, we must be mindful of this possibility when operating with the PK-TURP system.

  16. Vertebral body integrity: a review of various anatomical factors involved in the lumbar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash; Prabhu, L V; Saralaya, V V; Pai, M M; Ranade, A V; Singh, G; Madhyastha, S

    2007-07-01

    morphology, development, genetics, growth and ossification, blood supply, specifically in the lumbar region, have been described, which were not covered earlier. The limitations of this review is its wide dimensions; hence, there are fair scopes of missing many relevant facts, as all of them cannot be compiled in a single article. We have attempted to confine our views to different anatomical domains only, this is our second limitation. Additional studies are required to incorporate and discuss the uncovered relevant scientific details. The integrity of the body of the lumbar vertebra is multifactorial (Fig. 8). The vast spectrum of the anatomical domain influencing it has been summarized. The evolution of erect posture is a landmark in the morphology of human beings and the lumbar lordosis, which has also contributed to the gross design of the vertebral body, is one of the most important adaptations for axial loading and bipedal movements. The role of metamerism in the evolution of vertebrate morphology is repeated in the development of spine. The body of the vertebra is intersegmental in origin, which results in dual vascular and nerve supply, both from superior and inferior aspects of the body of the lumbar vertebrae. The vertebral body ossifies from three primary centers, one for centrum, which will form the major portion of body, and the other two for neural arches. The cartilaginous growth plate is mainly responsible for the longitudinal vertebral growth. Regional differentiation of the vertebral column, and the definite pattern of the structure of the different vertebra, is regulated by a large number of genetic factors, including the Hox genes. The vertebral body design therefore provides the requirements for optimal load transfer by maximal strength with minimal weight. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone quality, microarchitecture, and material properties are the important factors that contribute to bone strength. BMD is highly heritable; bone mineral distribution and

  17. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magariños

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  18. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Marta; Pulido, Sara; Aburto, María R; de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  19. Thoracic meningocele in lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome in a child: possible enlargement with repeated motion by anchoring to the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataya, Takafumi; Horikawa, Kyohei; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tashiro, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by hemivertebrae, congenital absence of ribs, meningocele, and hypoplasia of the truncal and abdominal wall presenting as a congenital lumbar hernia. An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl was referred to the authors' hospital with soft swelling on her left middle back; scoliosis had been present since birth. Imaging revealed a thoracic meningocele, ectopia of the spleen suggesting lumbar hernia, multiple anomalies of the thoracic vertebral columns, and defects of the ribs; thus, LCVS was diagnosed. Surgical observation revealed that the meningocele was firmly anchored to part of the diaphragm, which created stretching tension in the meningocele continuously with exhalation. Once detached, the meningocele shrank spontaneously and never developed again after cauterization. In this case, continuous or pulsatile pressure in the presence of a vertebral defect was thus considered to be an important factor for formation of the thoracic meningocele.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    Among the five senses, taste and olfaction play crucial roles in the detection of chemical substances in the environment and are referred to as chemical senses. In the past decade, much progress has been made in studies on molecular mechanisms of the gustatory system by methods such as those based on molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  1. [Percutaneous vertebroplasty to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures combined with intravertebral clefts by unilateral approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanxu; Mi, Shijun; Gao, Jingchun

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with or without intravertebral clefts by unilateral approach and the impact of intravertebral clefts on the effectiveness. The clinical data of 65 patients who met the inclusion criteria of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture were retrospectively analyzed. According to having intravertebral clefts or not, the patients were divided into 2 groups: cleft group (group A, n=25) and non-cleft group (group B, n=40). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, the level of fracture vertebrae, degree of damage, and interval of injury and operation between 2 groups (P > 0.05). All patients were given PVP procedure by unilateral approach. The operation time, the injected volume of bone cement, time to ambulate, complications, and adjacent vertebral re-fracture were recorded. The height of anterior and middle column and the posterior convex Cobb angle of injured spine were measured on the lateral X-ray film in standing position at preoperation and 1, 48 weeks after operation. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score and Oswestry disability index (ODI) system were used to evaluate the pain relief and improvement of daily activity function respectively at preoperation and 1, 4, and 48 weeks after operation. There was no significant difference in the operation time and time to ambulate between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The injected volume of bone cement in group B was significantly less than that in group A (t=1.833, P=0.034). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 6 patients (4 in group A and 2 in group B), in group A including 1 case of venous leakage, 2 cases of paravertebral leakage, and 1 case of intradiscal leakage; in group B including 2 cases of venous leakage. No symptomatic pulmonary embolism was observed. The vital sign was stable during operation and postoperatively. All patients were followed up 12-30 months

  2. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with standing cervical radiographs for evaluation of vertebral canal stenosis in equine cervical stenotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, J G; Garrett, K S; McQuerry, K J; Pease, A P; Williams, N M; Reed, S M; MacLeod, J N

    2014-11-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of lateral cervical radiographs to evaluate horses suspected of cervical stenotic myelopathy (CSM) are limited by the assessment being restricted to the sagittal plane. To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a more accurate identification of stenosis than lateral cervical radiographs in horses with CSM. Case control study. Nineteen Thoroughbred horses with CSM (17 males, 2 females, age 6-50 months) were compared to 9 control Thoroughbreds (6 males, 3 females, age 9-67 months). Ante mortem, the subjects had neurological examinations and standing cervical radiographs with sagittal ratios calculated from C3 to C7. Intact cervical column MRI scans and histological examinations of the spinal cord were performed post mortem. Morphometric parameters were measured on the vertebral canal, spinal cord and intervertebral foramen. Radiographic cervical canal height measurements categorised by standard minimal sagittal diameter intravertebral and intervertebral ratios produced several false positive and false negative determinations of canal stenosis as defined by spinal cord histopathology. Post mortem MRI measurements of canal area and cord canal area ratio more accurately predicted sites of cord compression in CSM cases. No differences in spinal cord measurements were observed when comparing CSM to control horses, but each of the vertebral canal parameters achieved significance at multiple sites. Vertebral canal area and cord canal area ratio are better parameters to predict the location of cervical canal stenosis compared to only the sagittal plane of canal height. Additional visual planes and measurements obtained by MRI, specifically vertebral canal area and the cord canal area ratio, will provide a more accurate method to identify regions of canal stenosis than lateral cervical radiographs. The development of MRI or computed tomography equipment capable of evaluating the cervical column of mature horses may

  3. The Sports Column on National Daily Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Çelik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available National daily newspapers aim to report detailed daily news. Sport pages of the newspapers contain sport columns and news about sport activities. The aim of this research was to investigate the sport columns appearing on sport pages of national daily newspapers published in Turkey. During the research process, nine national daily newspapers published in Turkey were reviewed for one year. The number of sport columns, publishing page, publishing space in cm. and accessibility of newspapers are ascertained. Newspaper field measurement, statistical and percentage calculations are made by Microsoft Excel. The study was completed with the transfer of the data obtained from Excel to Word as a document. According to the obtained data, regarding the news density on sport columns; Milliyet has the most news published, Cumhuriyet has the most news on front page, Haber Turk has the most space allocated and Zaman has been the most accessible newspaper.

  4. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  5. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  6. Nonlinear control of high purity distillation columns

    OpenAIRE

    Groebel, Markus; Allgöwer, Frank; Storz, Markus; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Two simple models of distillation columns are studied to investigate their suitability for the practical use with exact I/O-linearization. An extension of exact I/O-linearization, the asymptotically exact I/O-linearization is applied to the control of a high purity distillation column, using one of these models to derive the static state feedback law. Simulation studies demonstrate the advantage of asymptotically exact I/O-linearization versus classical exact I/O-linearization techniques. Exp...

  7. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  8. Pulmonary resection for metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Foucault, Christophe; Cazes, Aurélie; Mitry, Emmanuel; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Médioni, Jacques; Rougier, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Surgery is a safe and effective treatment for patients with lung metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Combining chemotherapy and surgery seems to prolong survival time after metastasectomy. Our purpose was to review the effectiveness of surgery with time and evolving managements. The records of 127 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of primary cancer, lung metastases, resections, and associated therapy were studied according to their incidence on survival. There were 74 male and 53 female patients (mean age, 65 years); 223 operations were performed and 314 metastases were resected. Completeness of surgery (n = 117) was the main factor for prolonged survival (5- and 10-year survival, 41% and 27%, versus 0%). There was no factor of significantly better prognosis, but a tendency to higher survival rates was observed in cases of single metastasis, in patients undergoing several lung operations, and in patients in whom liver metastases were previously removed. Three of 7 patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement survived more than 5 years; 58 patients were operated on before January 2000, and 59 between January 2000 and December 2007. Five-year survival rates were 35.1% versus 63.5%, respectively (p = 0.0096), probably related to better selection with modern workup, more frequent use of chemotherapy, and repeated pulmonary resections. Different treatment protocols were reported in the literature and in our series with time, resulting in better survival rates and a more aggressive surgical tendency. The beneficial role of such combined therapy justifies further research, including prospective trials. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavior of reinforced concrete short columns exposed to fire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Bikhiet, M; El-Shafey, Nasser F; El-Hashimy, Hany M

    2014-01-01

    Fire could dramatically reduce strength of reinforced concrete columns. The objective of this work is to study columns exposed to fire under axial load and to evaluate reduction in column compressive capacity after fire...

  10. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better

  11. Quality improvements of cell membrane chromatographic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Jia, Dan; Wang, Dongyao; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Juping; Hong, Zhanying; Chai, Yifeng

    2014-09-12

    Cell Membrane Chromatography (CMC) is a biological affinity chromatographic method using a silica stationary phase covered with specific cell membrane. However, its short life span and poor quality control was highlighted in a lot of research articles. In this study, special attention has been paid to the disruption, cell load and packing procedure in order to improve the quality of the CMC columns. Hereto, two newly established CMC models, HSC-T6/CMC and SMMC-7721/CMC have been developed and used in this research project. The optimization of the abovementioned parameters resulted in a better reproducibility of the retention time of the compound GFT (RSDCMC columns. 3.5×10(7)cells were the optimal cell load for the preparation of the CMC columns, the disruption condition was optimized to 5 cycles (400W and 20s interval per cycle) by an ultrasonic processor reducing the total time of cell disruption to 1.5min and the packing flow rate was optimized by applying a linear gradient program. Additionally, 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) was employed to improve the column quality and prolong the column life span. The results showed that the retention time was longer with PFA treated columns than the ones obtained with the control groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paraneoplastic pemphigus regression after thymoma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergiou Eleni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among human neoplasms thymomas are associated with highest frequency with paraneoplastic autoimmune diseases. Case presentation A case of a 42-year-old woman with paraneoplastic pemphigus as the first manifestation of thymoma is reported. Transsternal complete thymoma resection achieved pemphigus regression. The clinical correlations between pemphigus and thymoma are presented. Conclusion Our case report provides further evidence for the important role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic skin diseases in thymoma patients. It also documents the improvement of the associated pemphigus after radical treatment of the thymoma.

  13. [Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Transrectal Mesh Erosion Requiring Bowel Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Marta Maria; Slim, Karem; Rabischong, Benoît; Bourdel, Nicolas; Canis, Michel; Botchorishvili, Revaz

    To report a case of a transrectal mesh erosion as complication of laparoscopic promontofixation with mesh repair, necessitating bowel resection and subsequent surgical interventions. Sacrocolpopexy has become a standard procedure for vaginal vault prolapse [1], and the laparoscopic approach has gained popularity owing to more rapid recovery and less morbidity [2,3]. Mesh erosion is a well-known complication of surgical treatment for prolapse as reported in several negative evaluations, including a report from the US Food and Drug Administration in 2011 [4]. Mesh complications are more common after surgeries via the vaginal approach [5]; nonetheless, the incidence of vaginal mesh erosion after laparoscopic procedures is as high as 9% [6]. The incidence of transrectal mesh exposure after laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is roughly 1% [7]. The diagnosis may be delayed because of its rarity and variable presentation. In addition, polyester meshes, such as the mesh used in this case, carry a higher risk of exposure [8]. A 57-year-old woman experiencing genital prolapse, with the cervix classified as +3 according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system, underwent laparoscopic standard sacrocolpopexy using polyester mesh. Subtotal hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy were performed concomitantly. A 3-year follow-up consultation demonstrated no signs or symptoms of erosion of any type. At 7 years after the surgery, however, the patient presented with rectal discharge, diagnosed as infectious rectocolitis with the isolation of Clostridium difficile. She underwent a total of 5 repair surgeries in a period of 4 months, including transrectal resection of exposed mesh, laparoscopic ablation of mesh with digestive resection, exploratory laparoscopy with abscess drainage, and exploratory laparoscopy with ablation of residual mesh and transverse colostomy. She recovered well after the last intervention, exhibiting no signs of vaginal or rectal fistula and no recurrence

  15. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  16. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  17. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in Vertebral Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparisi, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive treatments and indispensable tools in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures. This method of treatment is performed using fluoroscopy or a scanner control an access via the pedicle or the posterolateral angle of the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty requires a smaller caliber needle than kyphoplasty, so it is technically easier. Vertebroplasty uses high-pressure injection, whereas in kyphoplasty the injection is held at low pressure, which together with the effect of compression on the bone that the balloon produces reduces the risk and rate of cement leakage. Vertebroplasty is effective in managing osteoporotic compression vertebral fractures, with improvement in pain and quality of life in the immediate postoperative period and over the medium term.Both techniques have a very low complication rate. There is no consensus on whether the emergence of new fractures in the cases treated by vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are related to mechanical variations that were introduced or is a complication related to the age and evolution of the patient's osteoporosis. Even with this risk of new fractures, the improvement in quality of life obtained after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty treatment is worthwhile. The benefits outweigh the risks. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  19. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  20. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  1. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  2. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  3. The vertebrate heart: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andrea; Adams, Justin W; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2017-09-14

    Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia). Subsequent tetrapods, including crocodiles and alligators (Order Crocodylia, Subclass Crocodylomorpha, Class Reptilia), birds (Subclass Aves, Class Reptilia) and mammals (Class Mammalia) evolved a four-chambered heart. The structure and function of the circulatory system of each individual holds a vital role which benefits each species specifically. The special characteristics of the four-chamber mammalian heart are highlighted by the peculiar structure of the myocardial muscle. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  4. "Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

    2012-11-01

    Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-04-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems.

  6. Appearance of Myelin proteins during vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehneldt, T V; Matthieu, J M; Jeserich, G

    1986-01-01

    Myelin, defined as an arrangement of spirally fused unit membranes, is an acquisition of vertebrates and first appeared during evolution in Gnathostomata. In all species studied PNS and CNS myelins contain the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the myelin basic protein (MBP). Throughout phylogeny PNS myelin is characterized by the major P(0) glycoprotein which is called IP in fishes. The PNS myelin proteins did not evolve further except for the addition of P(2) protein from reptiles onward. In Elasmobranchii and Chondrostei, PNS and CNS myelin proteins are similar. CNS myelin of actinopterygian fishes possesses a 36,000 Da protein (36K) in addition to P(0)-like IP glycoproteins. In tetrapod CNS myelin, P(0) is replaced by the proteolipid protein (PLP) and the Wolfgram protein (WP). Of particular interest in a transitional phylogenetic sense are the lungfish Protopterus, carrying glycosylated PLP (g-PLP) but no P(0), 36K or WP, and the bichir Polypterus, showing simultaneous presence of P(0), 36K and PLP. These results indicate that myelin proteins could be valuable molecular markers in establishing vertebrate phylogenetic relationships and in reconstructing the fish-tetrapod transition.

  7. Vertebral Compression Fractures after Lumbar Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Michelle; Berti, Aldo; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-09-29

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is primarily found in an older population. This is a similar demographic group that develops both osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures (VCF). This report reviewed a series of patients treated for VCF that had previous lumbar surgery for symptomatic spinal stenosis. Patients that only underwent laminectomy or fusion without instrumentation had a similar distribution of VCF as the non-surgical population in the mid-thoracic, or lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine. However, in the patients that had previous short-segment spinal instrumentation, fractures were found to be located more commonly in the mid-lumbar spine or sacrum adjacent to or within one or two spinal segments of the spinal instrumentation. Adjacent-level fractures that occur due to vertebral osteoporosis after long spinal segment instrumentation has been discussed in the literature. The purpose of this report is to highlight the previously unreported finding of frequent lumbar and sacral osteoporotic fractures in post-lumbar instrumentation surgery patients. Important additional factors found were lack of preventative medical treatment for osteoporosis, and secondary effects related to inactivity, especially during the first year after surgery.

  8. Evolution of Adaptive Immune Recognition in Jawless Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the “jawless” vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is beco...

  9. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Galaktionov; A. V. Dubovoy; K. S. Ovsyannikov

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship....

  10. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae.

  11. Colonoscopic resection of lateral spreading tumours: a prospective analysis of endoscopic mucosal resection

    OpenAIRE

    Hurlstone, D P; Sanders, D S; Cross, S S; Adam, I; Shorthouse, A J; Brown, S; Drew, K; Lobo, A J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Lateral spreading tumours are superficial spreading neoplasms now increasingly diagnosed using chromoscopic colonoscopy. The clinicopathological features and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumours (G-type “aggregate” and F-type “flat”) has yet to be clarified in Western cohorts.

  12. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures are a frequent entity, mainly in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. In some circumstances the differential diagnosis of vertebral injuries can confuse the physician, since the difference between an osteoporotic vertebral fracture and a fracture secondary to a tumor is not clear. We report the case of a patient with osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor, handled by our department of neurosurgery as illustrative experience to guide the approach in those cases, in which the definitive diagnosis is crucial for therapeutic decision making

  14. Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

    1992-05-29

    From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago).

  15. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  16. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2017-06-01

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  17. Cheledochal cyst resection and laparoscopic hepaticoduodenostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Urueta Pedro Salvador

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Choledochal cyst is a rare abnormality. Its esti- mated incidence is of 1:100,000 to 150,000 live births. Todani et al. in 1981 reported the main objection for performing a simpler procedure, i.e., hepaticoduodenostomy, has been the risk of an “ascending cholangitis”. This hazard, however, seems to be exaggerated. Methods: A laparoscopic procedure was performed in 8 consecutive patients with choledochal cyst between January 2010 and Septem- ber 2012; 6 females and 2 males mean age was 8 years. Results. Abdominal pain was the main symptom in everyone, jaundice in 1 patient and a palpable mass in 3 patients. Lapa- roscopic surgical treatment was complete resection of the cyst with cholecystectomy and hepaticoduodenostomy laparoscopy in every patient. Discussion and conclusion. A laparoscopic approach to chole- dochal cyst resection and hepaticoduodenostomy is feasible and safe. The hepaticoduodenal anastomosis may confer additional benefits over hepaticojejunostomy in the setting of a laparoscopic approach. The creation of a single anastomosis can decrease operative time and anesthetic exposure.

  18. Enhanced recovery after surgery in gastric resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Vorwald, Peter; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a modality of perioperative management with the purpose of improving results and providing a faster recovery of patients. This kind of protocol has been applied frequently in colorectal surgery, presenting less available experience and evidence in gastric surgery. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the bibliography and the consensus established in a multidisciplinary meeting in Zaragoza on the 9th of October 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of fast-track for resective gastric surgery. The measures to be applied are divided in a preoperative, perioperative and postoperative stage. This document provides recommendations concerning the appropriate information, limited fasting and administration of carbohydrate drinks 2hours before surgery, specialized anesthetic strategies, minimal invasive surgery, no routine use of drainages and tubes, mobilization and early oral tolerance during the immediate postoperative period, as well as criteria for discharge. The application of a protocol of enhanced recovery after surgery in resective gastric surgery can improve and accelerate the functional recovery of our patients, requiring an appropriate multidisciplinary coordination, the evaluation of obtained results with the application of these measures and the investigation of controversial topics about which we currently have limited evidence. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of Sigmoid Volvulus Avoiding Sigmoid Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Katsikogiannis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute sigmoid volvulus is typically caused by an excessively mobile and redundant segment of colon with a stretched mesenteric pedicle. When this segment twists on its pedicle, the result can be obstruction, ischemia and perforation. A healthy, 18-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, distention, constipation and obstipation for the last 72 h, accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal tenderness. The patient had tympanitic percussion tones and no bowel sounds. She was diagnosed with acute sigmoid volvulus. Although urgent resective surgery seems to be the appropriate treatment for those who present with acute abdominal pain, intestinal perforation or ischemic necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, the first therapeutic choice for clinically stable patients in good general condition is considered, by many institutions, to be endoscopic decompression. Controversy exists on the decision of the time, the type of definitive treatment, the strategy and the most appropriate surgical technique, especially for teenagers for whom sigmoid resection can be avoided.

  20. Laparoscopic resection of splenic artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, P R; Otah, E; Craig, E S; Matthews, B D; Reardon, M J

    2005-04-01

    Laparoscopic techniques used to manage asymptomatic splenic artery aneurysms have been reported infrequently. A laparoscopic splenic artery aneurysm resection was attempted for six consecutive patients. One patient underwent conversion to laparotomy because of a tear in the splenic vein. Among the five successful laparoscopic splenic artery aneurysm resections, the mean estimated blood loss was 37 +/- 12.6 ml, the mean operative time was 187.6 +/- 79.2 min, and the mean postoperative length of hospital stay was 1.8 +/- 1.3 days. The mean time to a clear liquid diet was 5.3 +/- 0.5 h, and the mean time to a regular diet was 1 +/- 0 day. The mean duration of narcotic analgesic use was 5.4 +/- 1.5 days, and the mean time to resumption of regular activities was 12.7 +/- 1.6 days. These cases illustrate the benefit of a laparoscopic approach with brief hospitalizations, early resumption of diet and regular activity, and minimal use of postoperative narcotic analgesics.

  1. Radiological Imaging Findings of a Case with Vertebral Osteoid Osteoma Leading to Brachial Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a small, benign osteoblastic tumor consisting of a highly vascularized nidus of connective tissue surrounded by sclerotic bone. Three-quarters of osteoid osteomas are located in the long bones, and only 7-12% in the vertebral column. The classical clinical presentation of spinal osteoid osteoma is that of painful scoliosis. Other clinical features include nerve root irritation and night pain. Osteoid osteoma has characteristic computed tomography (CT findings. Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of the osteoid osteomas causing intense perinidal edema can be confusing, these patients should be evaluated with clinical findings and other imaging techniques. In this study, we present X-ray, CT, and MRI findings of a case with osteoid osteoma located in thoracic 1 vertebra left lamina and transverse process junction leading to brachial neuralgia symptoms.

  2. Postoperative susceptibility artifact during magnetic resonance imaging of the vertebral column in two dogs and a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Sean R; Scrivani, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    In humans that have undergone cervical diskectomy, magnetic susceptibility artifacts are often found on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images of the affected region. In some patients, these artifacts complicate image interpretation, while in others the artifacts lead to a false diagnosis of spinal cord compression. We describe two dogs and one cat that had susceptibility artifacts visible in postoperative MR images. In each patient, multiple, small-to-large, distinct, magnetic susceptibility artifacts were visible along the surgery site. In both dogs, interpretation was impossible and subsequently computed tomography (CT) was performed. During CT, no cause for the MR artifact was identified. The most likely source of the artifact is microscopic metal fragments from the burr, suction tip or other surgical instruments, but other possible causes include hemorrhage or paramagnetic suture material. These artifacts may cause difficulty in interpretation or suggest a clinical problem. MR imaging therefore might not be the most appropriate examination for patients following certain types of surgery due to the possibility of susceptibility artifacts. Although this artifact probably is common in the postoperative patient, the frequency that this finding will prevent accurate diagnosis is unknown.

  3. How Did the Pelvis and Vertebral Column Become a Functional Unit during the Transition from Occasional to Permanent Bipedalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Christine; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Haeusler, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The functional linkage between pelvis and spine remained long hidden to science. Here, we recount the history of research that led in 1992 to the discovery of the "angle of sacral incidence" by the team of G. Duval-Beaupère. This angle, formed between a ray from the hip joint center to the superior sacral surface and the perpendicular to the sacral surface, was later called pelvic incidence. Specific to each individual, pelvic incidence is tightly correlated with the degree of lumbar lordosis. It is each individual's "signature" for an efficient sagittal balance since it represents the sum of two positional parameters, sacral slope and pelvic tilt. The simultaneous experimental determination of the trunk line of gravity permitted Duval-Beaupère's team to elucidate the conditions of an efficient sagittal balance of the trunk on the lower limbs. We present an in vivo EOS study of eight spino-pelvic parameters describing the sagittal balance in 131 adults. We observe a chain of correlations between the six angular parameters and discuss the functional significance of these results. We show that pelvic incidence increases and lumbar lordosis develops when the infant learns to walk, leading to a correlation between these parameters. This process of association between pelvis and spine might have acquired a solid genetic basis during hominid evolution by natural selection acting on both pelvis and spine. We suggest that this process of functional integration was only possible in the context of bipedal locomotion becoming permanent and stereotyped, expressed by a relatively invariant, periodic walking cycle. Anat Rec, 300:912-931, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Degenerative lesion of the vertebral column: a new view of the disease, approaches to therapy (the authors' own findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Shostak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An open-labeled randomized study of the efficacy and safety of Piascledine-300 in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs versus the latter was conducted in 2 matched groups of patients with lower back pain associated with spondylarthrosis. During combined therapy using Piascledine, there was a reduction in the pain syndrome particularly with the longer administration of the drug. The use of Piascledine in spondylarthrosis showed its clinical efficacy in 89,2% of patients: the indices of lumbago substantially reduced and spinal function improved, which was associated with the good tolerability of the drug.

  5. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology.

  6. Current and emerging treatment strategies for vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacein-Bey L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lotfi Hacein-BeyRadiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group Inc, Sacramento, CA, USABackground: Vertebral compression fractures are most commonly related to osteoporosis or cancer, both of which are on the rise throughout the world. Once a vertebra is fractured, gradual deterioration of quality of life due to crippling pain and spinal instability usually follows. Although a number of traditional management options have been available to promote pain relief and to allow for increased activities, such as bed rest, bracing, pain medications, and light exercise programs, these have limited effectiveness in the majority of patients. Over 20 years ago, percutaneous vertebroplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure consisting of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate directly into the fractured vertebra, emerged as an effective treatment. Various vertebral augmentation procedures were subsequently designed, all of which aim at eliminating pain, limiting or reversing vertebral collapse, and providing stability to the affected segment of the spine.Objective: This article discusses clinical aspects of vertebral compression fractures, current indications and contraindications and summarizes technical aspects of vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, lordoplasty, and device-implanting vertebral augmentation procedures. Treatment effectiveness, which is significant despite recent criticism of vertebroplasty and other vertebral augmentation procedures, is also discussed. As economic pressures on health care systems are increasing in all countries, it is expected that the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of vertebral augmentation procedures will be increasingly established by outcome analyses.Conclusion: It is important that physicians are familiar with vertebroplasty and other procedures designed to treat vertebral fractures in patients with advanced osteoporosis or cancer. These fractures, which are common and often

  7. On the Origin of the High Column Density Turnover in the H I Column Density Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-12-01

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2, which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 1022 cm-2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I >~ 1022 cm-2. We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ~ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  8. Contributions to reversed-phase column selectivity: III. Column hydrogen-bond basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P W; Dolan, J W; Dorsey, J G; Snyder, L R; Kirkland, J J

    2015-05-22

    Column selectivity in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) can be described in terms of the hydrophobic-subtraction model, which recognizes five solute-column interactions that together determine solute retention and column selectivity: hydrophobic, steric, hydrogen bonding of an acceptor solute (i.e., a hydrogen-bond base) by a stationary-phase donor group (i.e., a silanol), hydrogen bonding of a donor solute (e.g., a carboxylic acid) by a stationary-phase acceptor group, and ionic. Of these five interactions, hydrogen bonding between donor solutes (acids) and stationary-phase acceptor groups is the least well understood; the present study aims at resolving this uncertainty, so far as possible. Previous work suggests that there are three distinct stationary-phase sites for hydrogen-bond interaction with carboxylic acids, which we will refer to as column basicity I, II, and III. All RPC columns exhibit a selective retention of carboxylic acids (column basicity I) in varying degree. This now appears to involve an interaction of the solute with a pair of vicinal silanols in the stationary phase. For some type-A columns, an additional basic site (column basicity II) is similar to that for column basicity I in primarily affecting the retention of carboxylic acids. The latter site appears to be associated with metal contamination of the silica. Finally, for embedded-polar-group (EPG) columns, the polar group can serve as a proton acceptor (column basicity III) for acids, phenols, and other donor solutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-12-01

    In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks. The entire motor repertoire can be spanned by applying a well-defined set of operations and transformations to these primitives and by combining them in many different ways according to well-defined syntactic rules. Motor and movement primitives and modules might exist at the neural, dynamic and kinematic levels with complicated mapping among the elementary building blocks subserving these different levels of representation. Hence, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in unravelling the nature of these primitives, new experimental, computational and conceptual approaches are needed to further advance our understanding of motor compositionality.

  10. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  11. High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

  12. Giant cell tumor of dorsal vertebral body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Redhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10 vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT. Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.

  13. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  14. Biomechanical analysis and modeling of different vertebral growth patterns in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driscoll Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of AIS remains unclear, thus various hypotheses concerning its pathomechanism have been proposed. To date, biomechanical modeling has not been used to thoroughly study the influence of the abnormal growth profile (i.e., the growth rate of the vertebral body during the growth period on the pathomechanism of curve progression in AIS. This study investigated the hypothesis that AIS progression is associated with the abnormal growth profiles of the anterior column of the spine. Methods A finite element model of the spinal column including growth dynamics was utilized. The initial geometric models were constructed from the bi-planar radiographs of a normal subject. Based on this model, five other geometric models were generated to emulate different coronal and sagittal curves. The detailed modeling integrated vertebral body growth plates and growth modulation spinal biomechanics. Ten years of spinal growth was simulated using AIS and normal growth profiles. Sequential measures of spinal alignments were compared. Results (1 Given the initial lateral deformity, the AIS growth profile induced a significant Cobb angle increase, which was roughly between three to five times larger compared to measures utilizing a normal growth profile. (2 Lateral deformities were absent in the models containing no initial coronal curvature. (3 The presence of a smaller kyphosis did not produce an increase lateral deformity on its own. (4 Significant reduction of the kyphosis was found in simulation results of AIS but not when using the growth profile of normal subjects. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that accelerated growth profiles may encourage supplementary scoliotic progression and, thus, may pose as a progressive risk factor.

  15. Modeling of rotating disc contactor (RDC) column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wan Nurul Aiffah; Zakaria, Siti Aisyah; Noor, Nor Fashihah Mohd; Sulong, Ibrahim; Arshad, Khairil Anuar

    2014-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most important separation processes. Different kinds of liquid-liquid extractor such as Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) Column being used in industries. The study of liquid-liquid extraction in an RDC column has become a very important subject to be discussed not just among chemical engineers but mathematician as well. In this research, the modeling of small diameter RDC column using the chemical system involving cumene/isobutryric asid/water are analyzed by the method of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In the previous research, we begin the process of analyzed the data using methods of design of the experiments (DOE) to identify which factor and their interaction factor are significant and to determine the percentage of contribution of the variance for each factor. From the result obtained, we continue the research by discussed the development and validation of an artificial neural network model in estimating the concentration of continuous and concentration of dispersed outlet for an RDC column. It is expected that an efficient and reliable model will be formed to predict RDC column performance as an alternative to speed up the simulation process.

  16. Bioremediation of PAH polluted soils: column studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, R.O. [Dept. of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Trepte, B.S. [Angpannefoereningen AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Due to spills, discharges and leakage, the gaswork site at Husarviken in Stockholm is today the largest (36 ha) creosote-contaminated site in Sweden. The main pollutants are creosote, lead and mercury. The remediation costs are estimated to be as high as US $125 million. It is thus of great interest to find more cost effective remediation methods. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate i) if the addition of NTA, EDTA, nitrate, iron and dry yeast would enhance the bioremediation rate of a complex organic pollutant like PAH and, if so, at what concentrations they would be most efficient, ii) the effect on PAH reduction when larger dimensions of the column is used to diminish the effect of water passing along the sides of the column, iii) long-term effects on the reduction of PAH in field-contaminated soil with high concentrations. Materials and Methods. Creosote-contaminated soil from the Husarviken gaswork site was treated with aerated water in column experiments at room temperature. Three column experiments were performed in 2 and 100 L of homogenised soil samples percolated by recirculating flushing water. Fluoranthene was analysed as a representative of the overall degradation of PAH in the columns. (orig.)

  17. Effect of backmixing on pulse column performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Y.W.

    1979-05-01

    A critical survey of the published literature concerning dispersed phase holdup and longitudinal mixing in pulsed sieve-plate extraction columns has been made to assess the present state-of-the-art in predicting these two parameters, both of which are of critical importance in the development of an accurate mathematical model of the pulse column. Although there are many conflicting correlations of these variables as a function of column geometry, operating conditions, and physical properties of the liquid systems involved it has been possible to develop new correlations which appear to be useful and which are consistent with much of the available data over the limited range of variables most likely to be encountered in plant sized equipment. The correlations developed were used in a stagewise model of the pulse column to predict product concentrations, solute inventory, and concentration profiles in a column for which limited experimental data were available. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the mathematical model and the experimental data. Complete agreement, however, can only be obtained after a correlation for the extraction efficiency has been developed. The correlation of extraction efficiency was beyond the scope of this work.

  18. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is ''typical'' (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an ''atypical'' appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots (''aggressive'' VHs). These ''atypical'' and ''aggressive'' VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. Laparoscopic versus open resection for sigmoid diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Iosief; Binda, Gian A; Montedori, Alessandro; Arezzo, Alberto; Cirocchi, Roberto

    2017-11-25

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western industrialised countries. Most individuals remain asymptomatic throughout life; however, 25% experience acute diverticulitis. The standard treatment for acute diverticulitis is open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery - a minimal-access procedure - offers an alternative approach to open surgery, as it is characterised by reduced operative stress that may translate into shorter hospitalisation and more rapid recovery, as well as improved quality of life. To evaluate the effectiveness of laparoscopic surgical resection compared with open surgical resection for individuals with acute sigmoid diverticulitis. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 23 February 2017); Ovid Embase (1974 to 23 February 2017); clinicaltrials.gov (February 2017); and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry (February 2017). We reviewed the bibliographies of identified trials to search for additional studies. We included randomised controlled trials comparing elective or emergency laparoscopic sigmoid resection versus open surgical resection for acute sigmoid diverticulitis. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the domains of risk of bias from each included trial, and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous outcomes, we planned to calculate mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs for outcomes such as hospital stay, and standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs for quality of life and global rating scales, if researchers used different scales. Three trials with 392 participants met the inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in three European countries (Switzerland, Netherlands, and Germany). The median age of participants ranged from 62 to 66 years; 53% to 64% were

  20. The vertebral venous plexuses: the internal veins are muscular and external veins have valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Mark D; Restieaux, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda L; Crosado, Brynley

    2012-07-01

    The internal and external vertebral venous plexuses (VVP) extend the length of the vertebral column. Authoritative sources state that these veins are devoid of valves, permitting bidirectional blood flow and facilitating the hematogenous spread of malignant tumors that have venous connections with these plexuses. The aim of this investigation was to identify morphologic features that might influence blood flow in the VVP. The VVP of 12 adult cadavers (seven female, mean age 79.5 years) were examined by macro- and micro-dissection and representative veins removed for histology and immunohistochemistry (smooth muscle antibody staining). A total of 26, mostly bicuspid, valves were identified in 19 of 56 veins (34%) from the external VVP, all orientated to promote blood flow towards the internal VVP. The internal VVP was characterized by four main longitudinal channels with transverse interconnections; the maximum caliber of the longitudinal anterior internal VVP veins was significantly greater than their posterior counterparts (P < 0.001). The luminal architecture of the internal VVP veins was striking, consisting of numerous bridging trabeculae (cords, thin membranes and thick bridges) predominantly within the longitudinal venous channels. Trabeculae were composed of collagen and smooth muscle and also contained numerous small arteries and nerve fibers. A similar internal venous trabecular meshwork is known to exist within the dural venous sinuses of the skull. It may serve to prevent venous overdistension or collapse, to regulate the direction and velocity of venous blood flow, or is possibly involved in thermoregulation or other homeostatic processes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comprehensive, structurally-informed alignment and phylogeny of vertebrate biogenic amine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Spielman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amine receptors play critical roles in regulating behavior and physiology in both vertebrates and invertebrates, particularly within the central nervous system. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family, these receptors interact with endogenous bioamine ligands such as dopamine, serotonin, and epinephrine, and are targeted by a wide array of pharmaceuticals. Despite the clear clinical and biological importance of these receptors, their evolutionary history remains poorly characterized. In particular, the relationships among biogenic amine receptors and any specific evolutionary constraints acting within distinct receptor subtypes are largely unknown. To advance and facilitate studies in this receptor family, we have constructed a comprehensive, high-quality sequence alignment of vertebrate biogenic amine receptors. In particular, we have integrated a traditional multiple sequence approach with robust structural domain predictions to ensure that alignment columns accurately capture the highly-conserved GPCR structural domains, and we demonstrate how ignoring structural information produces spurious inferences of homology. Using this alignment, we have constructed a structurally-partitioned maximum-likelihood phylogeny from which we deduce novel biogenic amine receptor relationships and uncover previously unrecognized lineage-specific receptor clades. Moreover, we find that roughly 1% of the 3039 sequences in our final alignment are either misannotated or unclassified, and we propose updated classifications for these receptors. We release our comprehensive alignment and its corresponding phylogeny as a resource for future research into the evolution and diversification of biogenic amine receptors.

  2. Distribution of immunoreactive Tamm-Horsfall protein in various species in the vertebrate classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, A J; Lote, C J; Cunningham, A A; Zaccone, G; Fasulo, S

    1993-10-01

    A sheep antibody to human Tamm-Horsfall protein, the major protein in normal urine, was used in an immunohistological study of organs of 48 species of vertebrate animals, representing the classes Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes. Immunoreactivity was shown in the thick limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney of mammals, but there was no reactivity with tissues of birds or reptiles. Superficial layers of the skin of several amphibians and fish, superficial layers of the oral mucosa and gills of fish, and the distal tubules of the kidney of some amphibians, reacted with the antibody. Immunoreactivity with mammalian kidney was removed by passage of the antibody down an immunoadsorption column coated with human Tamm-Horsfall protein, and amphibian immunoreactivity was removed by incubation of the antibody with material prepared from frogs in the same way as Tamm-Horsfall protein. These findings suggest that immunoreactive Tamm-Horsfall protein appeared early in vertebrate phylogeny, initially in skin and gills and later in kidney, and that although conserved in evolution, it shows antigenic differences between amphibians and mammals. Its distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that is acts as a waterproofing agent.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. 52 SAJR June 2013 Vol. 17 No. 2. Vertebral artery injuries are rare, with an incidence of 0.1 - 1.0%, if all patients admitted with blunt head trauma are considered.[1] It is not unusual for vertebral artery injury to occur when there are fractures through the transverse foraminae of the first to the sixth ...

  4. Vertebrate pests of cassava in Africa and their control | Cudjoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much attention bas been given to almost all agents that cause losses to crops with the possible exception of vertebrate pests of which comparatively little is known in relation to farming activities. Due to the paucity of information on vertebrate pests there is very little or no indication of what damage is caused by which pest, ...

  5. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepel, Adam; Bejerano, Gill; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three spe...... for RNA secondary structure....

  6. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  7. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  8. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  9. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  10. Can vertebral density changes be explained by intervertebral disc degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homminga, J.J.; Aquarius, R.J.; Bulsink, V.E.; Jansen, C.T.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major problems facing the elderly spine is the occurrence of vertebral fractures due to low bone mass. Although typically attributed to osteoporosis, disc degeneration has also been suggested to play a role in vertebral fractures. Existing bone adaptation theories and simulations may

  11. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, P; Patterson, J D; Wintman, B I; Ozuna, R M; Brick, G W

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  12. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  13. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Poliakov

    Full Text Available In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT, which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma, but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa (previously annotated as an RPE65 has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65, coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates

  14. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Mathematical modeling of alcohol distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ones Osney Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New evaluation modules are proposed to extend the scope of a modular simulator oriented to the sugar cane industry, called STA 4.0, in a way that it can be used to carry out x calculation and analysis in ethanol distilleries. Calculation modules were developed for the simulation of the columns that are combined in the distillation area. Mathematical models were supported on materials and energy balances, equilibrium relations and thermodynamic properties of the ethanol-water system. Ponchon-Savarit method was used for the evaluation of the theoretical stages in the columns. A comparison between the results using Ponchon- Savarit method and those obtained applying McCabe-Thiele method was done for a distillation column. These calculation modules for ethanol distilleries were applied to a real case for validation.

  16. Neutron camera employing row and column summations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonts, Lloyd G.; Diawara, Yacouba; Donahue, Jr, Cornelius; Montcalm, Christopher A.; Riedel, Richard A.; Visscher, Theodore

    2016-06-14

    For each photomultiplier tube in an Anger camera, an R.times.S array of preamplifiers is provided to detect electrons generated within the photomultiplier tube. The outputs of the preamplifiers are digitized to measure the magnitude of the signals from each preamplifier. For each photomultiplier tube, a corresponding summation circuitry including R row summation circuits and S column summation circuits numerically add the magnitudes of the signals from preamplifiers for each row and for each column to generate histograms. For a P.times.Q array of photomultiplier tubes, P.times.Q summation circuitries generate P.times.Q row histograms including R entries and P.times.Q column histograms including S entries. The total set of histograms include P.times.Q.times.(R+S) entries, which can be analyzed by a position calculation circuit to determine the locations of events (detection of a neutron).

  17. Incidence and management of bile leakage after partial liver resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdogan, D.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Delden, O. M.; Rauws, E. A. J.; Gouma, D. J.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: Bile leakage after partial liver resection still is a common complication and is associated with substantial morbidity and even mortality. Methods: A total of 234 consecutive liver resections without biliary reconstruction, performed between January 1992 and December 2004, were

  18. Video assisted resections. Increasing access to minimally invasive liver surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Perini, Marcos Vinícius; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirola; Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Makdissi, Fábio Ferrari; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Cecconello, Ivan; Herman, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate perioperative outcomes, safety and feasibility of video-assisted resection for primary and secondary liver lesions. From a prospective database, we analyzed the perioperative results (up to 90 days) of 25 consecutive patients undergoing video-assisted resections in the period between June 2007 and June 2013. The mean age was 53.4 years (23-73) and 16 (64%) patients were female. Of the total, 84% were suffering from malignant diseases. We performed 33 resections (1 to 4 nodules per patient). The procedures performed were non-anatomical resections (n = 26), segmentectomy (n = 1), 2/3 bisegmentectomy (n = 1), 6/7 bisegmentectomy (n = 1), left hepatectomy (n = 2) and right hepatectomy (n = 2). The procedures contemplated postero-superior segments in 66.7%, requiring multiple or larger resections. The average operating time was 226 minutes (80-420), and anesthesia time, 360 minutes (200-630). The average size of resected nodes was 3.2 cm (0.8 to 10) and the surgical margins were free in all the analyzed specimens. Eight percent of patients needed blood transfusion and no case was converted to open surgery. The length of stay was 6.5 days (3-16). Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients, with no perioperative mortality. The video-assisted liver resection is feasible and safe and should be part of the liver surgeon armamentarium for resection of primary and secondary liver lesions.

  19. Video assisted resections. Increasing access to minimally invasive liver surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Ferreira Coelho

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate perioperative outcomes, safety and feasibility of video-assisted resection for primary and secondary liver lesions. Methods : From a prospective database, we analyzed the perioperative results (up to 90 days of 25 consecutive patients undergoing video-assisted resections in the period between June 2007 and June 2013. Results : The mean age was 53.4 years (23-73 and 16 (64% patients were female. Of the total, 84% were suffering from malignant diseases. We performed 33 resections (1 to 4 nodules per patient. The procedures performed were non-anatomical resections (n = 26, segmentectomy (n = 1, 2/3 bisegmentectomy (n = 1, 6/7 bisegmentectomy (n = 1, left hepatectomy (n = 2 and right hepatectomy (n = 2. The procedures contemplated postero-superior segments in 66.7%, requiring multiple or larger resections. The average operating time was 226 minutes (80-420, and anesthesia time, 360 minutes (200-630. The average size of resected nodes was 3.2 cm (0.8 to 10 and the surgical margins were free in all the analyzed specimens. Eight percent of patients needed blood transfusion and no case was converted to open surgery. The length of stay was 6.5 days (3-16. Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients, with no perioperative mortality. Conclusion : The video-assisted liver resection is feasible and safe and should be part of the liver surgeon armamentarium for resection of primary and secondary liver lesions.

  20. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with a resected right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report presents the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with a resected right mandible, caused by an accident. Right condyle, ramus, and the posterior part of ramus were affected by the accident. These structures were resected, and the mandible was positioned toward the surgical area and a facial asymmetry ...

  1. Flap Hitching Technique to the Teeth after Oral Cancer Resection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flap Hitching Technique to the Teeth after Oral Cancer. Resection. Krishnakumar Thankappan, Subramania Iyer, Mayuri Rajapurkar, Mohit Sharma, Pramod Subash1. INTRODUCTION. Flap surgery for reconstruction is an integral part in the surgical management of head and neck tumors. After resection of the tumors of oral ...

  2. Transurethral resection of very large prostates. A retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Hansen, B J; Christensen, S W

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and a weight of transurethrally resected tissue exceeding 80 g (Group 1), were compared to a control group of 30 patients with a weight of resected tissue less than 80 g (Group 2) with regard to the peri- and postoperative course...... large prostates....

  3. Degree of vaporization in bipolar and monopolar resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Tim; Nyman, Claes R; Hahn, Robert G

    2012-11-01

    To compare the in vitro degree of vaporization in bipolar and monopolar resection. Using either a bipolar system or a monopolar system, samples of chicken muscle and lamb kidney were resected in an isolated basin and then desiccated in an incubator. The percentual degree of vaporization for each sample was obtained as a difference between the total fresh weight of the sample and the calculated fresh weights of the resected tissue and remains. Reference samples showed that the water content was 73% in muscle and 77% in kidney. More muscle (mean 52%) than kidney (32%; Pvaporized. The fraction of vaporized tissue was significantly higher in the bipolar technique. In muscle, the differences between monopolar and bipolar were 17% (Pvaporization when using the bipolar resection showed that the choice of loop (Pvaporization. This study indicated that vaporization removes 50% more tissue than the weight of the resected tissue during conventional tissue resection. Bipolar standard loop resection resulted in a significantly higher degree of vaporization in both muscle and kidney than did monopolar technique. Bipolar resection worked satisfactorily in Ringer's acetate.

  4. Outcomes after middle turbinate resection: revisiting a controversial topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Zachary M; Hwang, Peter H; Mace, Jess; Smith, Timothy L

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate differences in endoscopy exam, olfactory function, and quality-of-life (QOL) status after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for patients with and without bilateral middle turbinate (BMT) resection. Open, prospective, multi-institutional cohort. Subjects completing enrollment interviews, computed tomography (CT), and endoscopy exam were asked to provide pre- and postoperative responses to the Smell Identification Test (SIT), Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI), Chronic Sinusitis Survey (CSS), and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed at the .05 alpha level. Forty-seven subjects with BMT resection were compared to 195 subjects without BMT resection with a mean follow-up of 17.4 months postoperatively. Patients with BMT resection were more likely to have asthma (P = .001), aspirin intolerance (P = .022), nasal polyposis (P = .025), and prior sinus surgery (P = .002). Patients with BMT resection had significantly higher baseline disease burden measured by endoscopy, CT, and SIT scores (P .05). Patients undergoing BMT resection were more likely to show improvements in mean endoscopy (-4.5 +/- 5.2 vs. -1.9 +/- 4.3; P = .005) and olfaction (5.3 +/- 10.8 vs. 1.3 +/- 7.6, P = .045) compared to those with BMT preservation. This investigation found no difference in QOL outcomes in patients with BMT preservation vs. resection. Patients undergoing BMT resection did, however, show greater improvements in endoscopy and SIT scores, which persisted after controlling for confounding factors.

  5. Anaesthetic considerations for liver resections in paediatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... Stumpfle R, Riga A, Deshpande A. Anesthesia for metastatic liver resection surgery. Current Anesth Crit Care. 2009;20():3-7. 10. Lentschener C, Ozier Y. Anesthesia for elective liver resection: some points should be revisited. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19(11):780-788. 11. Smith T, Grounds R, Rhodes A.

  6. Liver resection for non-cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. We describe the clinicopathologic features and outcome of South African patients who have undergone hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in a non-cirrhotic liver. Methods. We utilised the prospective liver resection database in the Surgical Gastroenterology Unit at Groote Schuur ...

  7. Safe Resection and Primary Anastomosis of Gangrenous Sigmoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The management of sigmoid volvulus has remained a controversial issue to many surgeons. Rapid resection with colostomy fashioning has been done over time for gangrenous sigmoid volvulus. However, resection and primary anastomosis has also been described with less complications and a shorter ...

  8. Emergency embolization after resection of a laryngeal Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Augusto Cypreste Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a rare cause of benign tumors of the larynx. The first-choice treatment is surgical resection. The objective of this paper is to report on a rare case of a young female patient who suffered severe intraoperative hemorrhaging during surgical resection of a laryngeal Schwannoma and needed emergency embolization.

  9. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  10. Rapid rehabilitation in elderly patients after laparoscopic colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Linda; Funch-Jensen, P; Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    . Routine use of morphine and traditional tubes, drains and prolonged bladder catheterization was avoided. RESULTS: Laparoscopic resection was intended in 50 consecutive patients, of median age 81 years. The conversion rate to open resection was 22 per cent. In patients in whom the procedure was completed...... rehabilitation protocol of pain relief, early mobilization and oral nutrition....

  11. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R.; Zilliacus, Kelly M.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth’s terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:29075662

  12. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  13. Comparison of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion in the treatment of ingrown toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The present retrospective study compared the efficacy of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion for the treatment of ingrown toenails (onychocryptosis). Two surgical methods were performed in 95 patients with a stage 2 or 3 ingrown toenail. Each patient was examined weekly until healing and then at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. The outcomes measured were surgical duration, healing time, recurrence rate, the incidence of postoperative infection, and cosmetic appearance after surgery. Of the 95 patients (115 ingrown toenails) included in the present study, 39 (41.1%) underwent wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 56 (59%), wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. The mean surgical duration for wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion was 14.9 ± 2.4 minutes and 15.1 ± 3.2 minutes, respectively (p = .73). The corresponding healing times were 2.8 ± 1.2 weeks and 2.7 ± 1.3 weeks (p = .70). Recurrence developed in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and in 4 (4.2%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. In addition, postoperative infection occurred in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 2 (2.1%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. Both of the surgical procedures were practical and appropriate for the treatment of ingrown toenails, being simple and associated with low morbidity and a high success rate. However, cosmetically, wedge resection (Winograd procedure) would be the better choice because the nail plate remains intact. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retention Models on Core-Shell Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Růžičková, Marie

    2017-07-13

    A thin, active shell layer on core-shell columns provides high efficiency in HPLC at moderately high pressures. We revisited three models of mobile phase effects on retention for core-shell columns in mixed aqueous-organic mobile phases: linear solvent strength and Snyder-Soczewiński two-parameter models and a three-parameter model. For some compounds, two-parameter models show minor deviations from linearity due to neglect of possible minor retention in pure weak solvent, which is compensated for in the three-parameter model, which does not explicitly assume either the adsorption or the partition retention mechanism in normal- or reversed-phase systems. The model retention equation can be formulated as a function of solute retention factors of nonionic compounds in pure organic solvent and in pure water (or aqueous buffer) and of the volume fraction of an either aqueous or organic solvent component in a two-component mobile phase. With core-shell columns, the impervious solid core does not participate in the retention process. Hence, the thermodynamic retention factors, defined as the ratio of the mass of the analyte mass contained in the stationary phase to its mass in the mobile phase in the column, should not include the particle core volume. The values of the thermodynamic factors are lower than the retention factors determined using a convention including the inert core in the stationary phase. However, both conventions produce correct results if consistently used to predict the effects of changing mobile phase composition on retention. We compared three types of core-shell columns with C18-, phenyl-hexyl-, and biphenyl-bonded phases. The core-shell columns with phenyl-hexyl- and biphenyl-bonded ligands provided lower errors in two-parameter model predictions for alkylbenzenes, phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds in comparison with C18-bonded ligands.

  15. Abducens nerve palsy after schwannoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Antonio; Hamelin-Canny, Emelyne; Roche, Nicolas; Taillia, Herve; Alifano, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Tumors of the posterior mediastinum are mostly neurogenic and could involve the intervertebral foramen and the medullary canal. We describe the case of a patient who underwent surgery for a nerve sheet tumor originating at the level of the right second neural root. Resection was associated with an incidental dural tear and cerebrospinal fluid leak that was promptly repaired. One week after surgery, horizontal diplopia occurred. A palsy of the left abducens nerve secondary to intracranial hypotension was diagnosed. We present the pathogenic cascade leading to this ocular complication after posterior mediastinal surgery. The surgical techniques to prevent this complication are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coblation resection of paediatric laryngeal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmanidou, A; Modayil, P C

    2011-08-01

    To demonstrate the successful treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis in a 32-month-old girl, using coblation (radio-frequency ablation) resection. A 32-month-old girl was referred to the ENT out-patients clinic due to a hoarse cry and a very croaky voice since birth. Under general anaesthesia, fibre-optic airway endoscopy revealed a large papillomatous lesion involving the anterior glottis, which was reported as a laryngeal papilloma on histological analysis. This was later excised using an Evac 70Xtra wand. The patient made an uneventful post-operative recovery, and there were no signs of recurrence on repeated airway endoscopies at three and 18 months. Coblation (radio-frequency ablation) is a promising surgical technique for the treatment of paediatric laryngeal papillomatosis. The main advantages of this technique include limited damage to underlying tissues and a bloodless field.

  18. Pyrocarbon Interposition after Capitate Head Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Mathieu; Bellemere, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Isolated lunocapitate disease is a rare situation. It includes both capitolunate arthritis and osteonecrosis of the capitate head. The management of this pathology is not defined yet. Case Description We treated three patients by resection of the capitate head and interposition of a so-called capitolunate Pi2 implant (Tornier, BioProfile, Grenoble, France). We reported encouraging results at average follow-up of 4.8 years. Literature Review Several procedures have been reported in this indication. All suffer from lack of follow-up. Four-corner fusion seems to be the most reliable solution at the expense of wrist stiffness. Clinical Relevance case series PMID:24436841

  19. [Multilocular pyoderma gangrenosum after uterus resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazal, P; Dissemond, J

    2012-03-01

    A 71-year-old patient presented with very painful ulcers after uterus-resection with the da Vinci® Surgical System 3 months before. The anamnesis revealed that in the past 10 months similar wounds had appeared after osteosynthesis of a humerus fracture and after breast biopsy. The patient had been unsuccessfully treated with different antibiotics and wound dressings for several months for a suspected superinfected, postoperative disturbed wound healing. None of the wounds became smaller or healed completely. After exclusion of relevant differential diagnoses pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) could be diagnosed and systemic immunosuppressive therapy was initiated. The pain improved rapidly and complete wound healing was achieved. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rarely diagnosed autoimmune disease which often occurs after physical trauma such as surgical interventions. Because a correct diagnose is usually made late it is important to be aware of this disease to treat it early and correctly.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.756 - Beams and columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beams and columns. 1926.756 Section 1926.756 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.756 Beams and columns. (a.... (c) (1) Double connections at columns and/or at beam webs over a column. When two structural members...

  1. Rasch models with exchangeable rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    The article studies distributions of doubly infinite binary matrices with exchangeable rows and columns which satify the further property that the probability of any $m \\times n$ submatrix is a function of the row- and column sums of that matrix. We show that any such distribution is a (unique......) mixture of random Rasch distributions. The non-degenerate elements of these distributions were introduced by Rasch (1960). We investigate the relationship between these random Rasch distributions and a problem in visual perception, the characters of a certain Abelian semigroup, and the problem...

  2. Hyperkyphosis predicts mortality independent of vertebral osteoporosis in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Deborah M; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Fink, Howard A; Karlamangla, Arun S; Cummings, Steven R

    2009-05-19

    Excessive kyphosis may be associated with earlier mortality, but previous studies have not controlled for clinically silent vertebral fractures, which are a known mortality risk factor. To determine whether hyperkyphosis predicts increased mortality independent of vertebral fractures. Prospective cohort study. Four clinical centers in Baltimore County, Maryland; Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania. 610 women, age 67 to 93 years, from a cohort of 9704 women recruited from community-based listings between 1986 and 1988. Kyphosis was measured by using a flexicurve. Prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures at baseline were defined by morphometry, and mortality was assessed during an average follow-up of 13.5 years. In age-adjusted models, each SD increase in kyphosis carried a 1.14-fold increased risk for death (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P = 0.023). After adjustment for age and other predictors of mortality, including such osteoporosis-related factors as low bone density, moderate and severe prevalent vertebral fractures, and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, women with greater kyphosis were at increased risk for earlier death (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.15 [CI, 1.01 to 1.30]; P = 0.029). On stratification by prevalent vertebral fracture status, only women with prevalent fractures were at increased mortality risk from hyperkyphosis, independent of age, self-reported health, smoking, spine bone mineral density, number of vertebral fractures, and severe vertebral fractures (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.58 [CI, 1.06 to 2.35]; P = 0.024). The study population included only white women. In older women with vertebral fractures, hyperkyphosis predicts an increased risk for death, independent of underlying spinal osteoporosis and the extent and severity of vertebral fractures. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and National Institute on Aging.

  3. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  4. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  5. Endoscopic resection for gastric schwannoma with long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming-Yan; Xu, Jia-Xin; Zhou, Ping-Hong; Xu, Mei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun; Zhong, Yun-Shi; Zhang, Yi-Qun; Ma, Li-Li

    2016-09-01

    Gastric schwannoma is not so recognized by clinicians as its counterparts. The efficacy of endoscopic resection has not been described yet. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection in the management of gastric schwannoma. Retrospective data were reviewed from January 2008 to December 2013 in our center. Fourteen patients who had endoscopic resection with the final pathology result of gastric schwannoma were included in the study. Of the 14 patients, there were 12 females and two males. The median age was 59 years (range 32-83). Thirteen tumors (92.9 %) were from the muscularis propria and one located in the submucosa. Endoscopic en bloc resection was achieved in 12 patients (12/14, 85.7 %), including seven cases of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR). The mean resected tumor size was 1.73 ± 1.10 cm (range 0.3-4.0 cm). In one case, endoscopic resection was suspended due to the limited experience of EFTR during the early period of the study. In another case, due to the difficult tumor location (gastric angle) and extraluminal growth pattern, the patient was referred to laparoscopic surgery. In the 12 successful endoscopic resection cases, during the median follow-up time of 4 years (range 17-77 months, one patient lost), no tumor residue, recurrence or metastasis was found. Endoscopic resection is safe and effective in treating gastric schwannoma with excellent long-term outcomes. However, it should be performed with caution because schwannoma is mainly located in the deep muscular layer, which leads to the full-thickness resection of gastric wall.

  6. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  7. [The Efficacy of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection due to Cervical Vertebral Fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Misato; Nii, Kouhei; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Kawahara, Kanae; Inoue, Ritsurou; Hiraoka, Fumihiro; Morinaga, Yusuke; Mitsutake, Takafumi; Hanada, Hayatsura; Tsutsumi, Masanori

    2018-02-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted at another hospital after a traffic accident. The diagnosis was cervical vertebral fracture. Despite conservative treatment, 5 days later he manifested dysarthria due to cerebellar infarction and was transferred to our hospital. Imaging studies revealed right vertebral arterial dissection at the level of the axial fracture. We performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting to address his subacute vertebral artery dissection prior to treating the cervical vertebral fracture using external fixation. His clinical course was good;ischemia did not recur after stenting and his dysarthria disappeared upon rehabilitation. Cerebral angiograms obtained 6 months later revealed no significant in-stent restenosis. While medical management tends to be the first-line treatment of traumatic vertebral artery dissection, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting is necessary before treating other traumatic lesions to prevent neurologic events.

  8. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  9. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  10. Pilot scale benzene stripping column testing: Review of test data and application to the ITP columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1993-09-10

    Radioactive cesium will be removed from aqueous high level waste (HLW) solutions by precipitation with sodium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Benzene is generated due to the radiolysis of TPB, and dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into the water used to wash (WW) the precipitate. These solutions will be processed through stripping columns to reduce the benzene concentration to satisfy limits for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW. A pilot scale testing program to evaluate the stripping column operation in support of ITP startup activities has been completed. Equipment and test plans were developed so that data obtained from the pilot scale testing would be directly applicable to full scale column operation and could be used to project hydraulic performance and stripping efficiency of both columns. A review of the test data indicate that the ITP stripping columns will be capable of reducing benzene concentrations in salt solutions to satisfy Saltstone and Tank 22 acceptance limits. An antifoam (AF) will be required to maintain the column differential pressure below the vendor recommendation of 40 inches wc so that design feed rates can be achieved. Additionally, the testing program indicated that the nitrogen rate can be decreased from the ITP column design rates and still satisfy benzene concentration requirements in the product.

  11. Seismic Behaviour of Synthetic-Frc Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paultre, P.; Eid, R.

    2017-09-01

    Inclusion of short discrete fibres into the concrete mixture can increase the compressive strength and ductility of normal-strength concrete (NSC) and high-strength concrete (HSC) column specimens under compressive loading as already has been shown by several studies. Concrete design codes ensure ductile behaviour of columns by setting a requirement for a minimum amount of transverse steel reinforcement. Therefore, the inclusion of discrete short fibres into the concrete mixture combined with a reduced amount of lateral reinforcement can be an alternative to the latter full amount required by the codes. This paper presents tests that were performed on large-scale fibre-reinforced NSC circular columns under cyclic flexure and constant axial load simulating earthquake loading. The aim of this test program is to examine the combined confinement effect of steel or synthetic fibres and the transverse steel reinforcement type (spirals or hoops) on the structural performance of RC columns. The results show that in terms of ductility and energy dissipation, the behaviour of the fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) specimens is improved compared to the nonfibrous ones. This behaviour is also predicted by the proposed confinement model which takes into account the mechanical and the geometrical properties of the concrete and the reinforcement as well as those of the fibres.

  12. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  13. Superior dislocation hip with anterior column acetabular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Abstract. Superior variety of anterior dislocation of the hip is a rare injury. Its occurrence with acetabular fractures has been documented infrequently. We report a case of superior dislocation of the hip with anterior column acetabular fracture. Open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the fracture was ...

  14. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-06-16

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  15. Density Gradient Columns for Chemical Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for preparing density gradient columns for chemical displays are presented. They include displays illustrating acid-base reactions, metal ion equilibria, and liquid density. The lifetime of these metastable displays is surprising, some lasting for months in display cabinets. (JN)

  16. Synthesis and applications of monolithic HPLC columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu

    Silica and carbon monolithic columns were synthesized and modified for liquid chromatography applications. Column configurations and cladding techniques were investigated in detail. Three novel approaches have been developed for the synthesis of bimodal porous rods. Out of these three methods, gel-casting was adopted for the synthesis of silica monoliths with ordered mesopores and uniform macropores; the use of colloidal templates and dual phase separation has been successfully implemented for the synthesis of carbon monoliths with well-controlled meso- and macro- porosities. The formation of mesopores in carbon materials has been further studied in the microphase separation of block copolymers. Electrochemical modification of carbon monoliths was discovered to be an efficient method for converting covalently bonded functionalities to carbon monoliths. N,N'-diethylaminobenzene has been attached to carbon surface for the separation of proteins and protein digests. The performances of carbon-based monolithic columns were studied intensely through frontal analysis and Van Deemter plot. Temperature and pressure effects were also investigated in carbon-based columns. The density of bonding on the modified carbon monoliths was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. Chief Editor's column/Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles. R K Laxman. Science Smiles Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/04/0004-0004. Author Affiliations.

  18. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  19. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  20. Comparison of acute kidney injury between open and laparoscopic liver resection: Propensity score analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young-Jin Moon; In-Gu Jun; Ki-Hun Kim; Seon-Ok Kim; Jun-Gol Song; Gyu-Sam Hwang

    2017-01-01

    .... Considering that laparoscopic surgery is beneficial in reducing the inflammatory response, we compared the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury between laparoscopic liver resection and open liver resection...

  1. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  2. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  3. PMMA vertebroplasty in patients with malignant vertebral destruction of the thoracic and lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böker, Dieter-Karsten

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Object: Patients with osteolytic metastases frequently suffer from serious local and radicular pain. Pathophysiologically, local pain arises from skeletal instability, whereas radicular pain originates from compression of nerve roots by local tumor growth. Causal treatment of osteolytic metastases in disseminated malignant disease is very difficult. Resection of vertebrae, in combination with ventro-dorsal stabilization, is a complex treatment for patients with a limited life expectancy. Percutaneous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA vertebroplasty is a new and easy method of relieving patients' pain. In addition, it is both cost effective and safe. Pain is reduced immediately after treatment. Due to the regained vertebral stability, early mobilization of the patients is possible. Methods: A total of 22 patients with osteolytic malignancies of the thoracic and lumbar spine were treated with PMMA vertebroplasty. Prior to and after surgery, then six weeks and six months after discharge from hospital, patients answered the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability (OLBPD Questionnaire for assessment of treatment-related change in disability. Percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed in a total of 19 patients. In three patients with tumor related compression of nerve roots an open neurolysis was performed followed by vertebroplasty. Results: A total of 86% of patients reported a significant pain reduction. Vertebroplasty was highly beneficial for patients with pain related to local instability of the spine, but less so in patients with additional nerve root compression. Extravasation of PMMA beyond the vertebral margins was observed in 23% of the cases. No treatment-related clinical or neurological complications were seen. Conclusions: PMMA vertebroplasty is a useful and safe method of pain relief for patients with malignant osteolytic diseases of the thoracic and lumbar spine.

  4. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  5. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  6. Microtubules, polarity and vertebrate neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cearns, Michael D; Escuin, Sarah; Alexandre, Paula; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular components, long known to participate in morphogenetic events that shape the developing embryo. However, the links between the cellular functions of MTs, their effects on cell shape and polarity, and their role in large-scale morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, these relationships were examined with respect to two strategies for generating the vertebrate neural tube: bending and closure of the mammalian neural plate; and cavitation of the teleost neural rod. The latter process has been compared with 'secondary' neurulation that generates the caudal spinal cord in mammals. MTs align along the apico-basal axis of the mammalian neuroepithelium early in neural tube closure, participating functionally in interkinetic nuclear migration, which indirectly impacts on cell shape. Whether MTs play other functional roles in mammalian neurulation remains unclear. In the zebrafish, MTs are important for defining the neural rod midline prior to its cavitation, both by localizing apical proteins at the tissue midline and by orienting cell division through a mirror-symmetric MT apparatus that helps to further define the medial localization of apical polarity proteins. Par proteins have been implicated in centrosome positioning in neuroepithelia as well as in the control of polarized morphogenetic movements in the neural rod. Understanding of MT functions during early nervous system development has so far been limited, partly by techniques that fail to distinguish 'cause' from 'effect'. Future developments will likely rely on novel ways to selectively impair MT function in order to investigate the roles they play. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  7. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luis G; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock's collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock's collective period depends on delayed coupling. We derive an expression for pattern wavelength across the PSM and show how this can be used to fit dynamic wildtype gene-expression patterns, revealing the quantitative values of parameters controlling spatial and temporal organization of the oscillators in the system. Our theory can be used to analyze experimental perturbations, thereby identifying roles of genes involved in segmentation.

  8. Cilia in vertebrate left-right patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-19

    Understanding how left-right (LR) asymmetry is generated in vertebrate embryos is an important problem in developmental biology. In humans, a failure to align the left and right sides of cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal systems often results in birth defects. Evidence from patients and animal models has implicated cilia in the process of left-right patterning. Here, we review the proposed functions for cilia in establishing LR asymmetry, which include creating transient leftward fluid flows in an embryonic 'left-right organizer'. These flows direct asymmetric activation of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signalling pathway that guides asymmetric morphogenesis of developing organs. We discuss the leading hypotheses for how cilia-generated asymmetric fluid flows are translated into asymmetric molecular signals. We also discuss emerging mechanisms that control the subcellular positioning of cilia and the cellular architecture of the left-right organizer, both of which are critical for effective cilia function during left-right patterning. Finally, using mosaic cell-labelling and time-lapse imaging in the zebrafish embryo, we provide new evidence that precursor cells maintain their relative positions as they give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer. This suggests the possibility that these cells acquire left-right positional information prior to the appearance of cilia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  10. Vertebrate bacterial gut diversity: size also matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Jean-Jacques; Arulazhagan, Pugazhendi; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Hamelin, Jérôme

    2016-03-23

    One of the central issues in microbial ecology is to understand the parameters that drive diversity. Among these parameters, size has often been considered to be the main driver in many different ecosystems. Surprisingly, the influence of size on gut microbial diversity has not yet been investigated, and so far in studies reported in the literature only the influences of age, diet, phylogeny and digestive tract structures have been considered. This study explicitly challenges the underexplored relationship connecting gut volume and bacterial diversity. The bacterial diversity of 189 faeces produced by 71 vertebrate species covering a body mass range of 5.6 log. The animals comprised mammals, birds and reptiles. The diversity was evaluated based on the Simpson Diversity Index extracted from 16S rDNA gene fingerprinting patterns. Diversity presented an increase along with animal body mass following a power law with a slope z of 0.338 ± 0.027, whatever the age, phylogeny, diet or digestive tract structure. The results presented here suggest that gut volume cannot be neglected as a major driver of gut microbial diversity. The characteristics of the gut microbiota follow general principles of biogeography that arise in many ecological systems.

  11. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

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    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  12. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

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    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  13. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

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    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  14. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

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    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Organotin Exposure and Vertebrate Reproduction: A Review

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    Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin (OTs compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms. In male animals, OTs decrease the weights of the testis and epididymis and reduce the spermatid count, among other dysfunctions. In female animals, OTs alter the weights of the ovaries and uteri and induce damage to the ovaries. In addition, OTs prevent fetal implantation and reduce mammalian pregnancy rates. OTs cross the placental barrier and accumulate in the placental and fetal tissues. Exposure to OTs in utero leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells and gonocytes of male offspring in addition to inducing early puberty in females. In both genders, this damage is associated with the imbalance of sex hormones and the modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Here, we report that OTs act as reproductive disruptors in vertebrate studies; among the compounds are tetrabutyltin, tributyltin chloride, tributyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride, triphenyltin hydroxide, dibutyltin chloride, dibutyltin dichloride, diphenyltin dichloride, monobutyltin, and azocyclotin.

  16. [Exploration of risk factors on the occurrence of osteoporotic vertebral fracture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

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    Liu, Wen; Xu, Shengqian; Ma, Xixi; Hu, Linwei; Peng, Liping; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    To explore the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP) and vertebral osteoporotic fracture (OPF) and related risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 644 patients with RA from Jan. 2010 to Oct. 2013 were recruited, anteroposterior and lateral X-rays examination of vertebral column (T5-L5) were conducted, and semi-quantity method were used as the standard for judging vertebral OPF. Meanwhile, patients' clinical and laboratory data including daily dosage of glucocorticoid, duration of glucocorticoid usage, cumulative amount dosage of glucocorticoid were recorded in details. 158 normal subjects were selected as control group. (1)The prevalence of vertebral OPF in patients with RA was 16.6%. Bone mineral density (BMD) of all measured lumbar vertebra in RA group were markedly decreased [(0.97 ± 0.22) g/cm(2)]. The total prevalence of OP at lumbar vertebra in RA was 17.9% (81/452), which was significantly higher than that of control group (4.4%, 7/158) (P OPF was significantly higher than that in patients without OPF [40.6% (41/101) vs 11.4% (40/351); P OPF were of older age, longer use of glucocorticoid, more cumulative amount dosage of glucocorticoid, longer disease duration, higher scores of health assessment questionnaires (HAQ) and increased ESR (P OPF in RA patients. Logistic regression analysis also showed that RA was the risk factor of OPF (OR = 4.716, 95% CI 1.987-11.192, P OPF has found that age-OPF and daily dosage of glucocorticoid-OPF AUCROC were 0.689 and 0.636 respectively. The cut-off value in ROC curve of age and daily dose or treatment course of glucocorticoid-OPF were 54.5 years and 6.25 mg (P OPF AUCROC was 0.685, with cut-off value in ROC of age-OPF 135 days (P OPF in patients with RA increases remarkably. Old age and OP at spine are risk factors related to the development of OPF in patients with RA.

  17. VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY IN CHILDREN AND DISPENSARY CARE ORGANIZATION

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    I. T. Batrshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the prevalence of spine deformation pathology and the state of vertebral children care screening of 18 500 schoolchildren was conducted by computer optical topography. In 79.5% of them the posture disturbances and in 14.5% - spinal deformity were detected. The multivariate analysis of vertebral deformity was performed. It is established that vertebral deformity till 10° on Coob has usually monoplane form, and more than 10° - only multiplane form. Dispensary health groups were formed, screening program for children with subsequent monitoring was proposed.

  18. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

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    D. M. Galaktionov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  19. Structure related phylogenetic variations in brain gangliosides of vertebrates.

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    Hilbig, R

    1984-01-01

    The concentration and composition of brain gangliosides from five brain structures of vertebrate species belonging to the classes of Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were investigated. The complexity of brain ganglioside composition is strikingly reduced over phyletic lines. In lower vertebrates there is only little variation in the ganglioside pattern between the different brain structures, whereas in higher vertebrates differences distinctly occurred. A similarity over phyletic lines of ganglioside pattern was only noted in phylogenetically old brain structures as for instance in the medulla oblongata and the brain stem.

  20. Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Park, Shin-Young; Park, Keun-Myoung; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Hur, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Keon-Young; Ahn, Seung-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is investigated.The medical records of 45 patients who had undergone radical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from March 2010 to September 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 34 patients in the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) group and 10 patients in the distal pancreatectomy (DP) group. One patient received total pancreatectomy. The endocrine function was measured using the glucose tolerance index (GTI), which was derived by dividing daily maximum serum glucose fluctuation by daily minimum glucose. Remnant pancreas volume (RPV) was estimated by considering pancreas body and tail as a column, and head as an ellipsoid, respectively. The pancreatic atrophic index (PAI) was defined as the ratio of pancreatic duct width to total pancreas width. Representative indices of each patient were compared before and after resection up to 2 years postoperatively.The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of GTI for diagnosing DM was 0.823 (95% confidence interval, 0.699-0.948, P < .001). Overall, GTI increased on postoperative day 1 (POD#1, mean ± standard deviation, 1.79 ± 1.40 vs preoperative, 1.02 ± 1.41; P = .001), and then decreased by day 7 (0.89 ± 1.16 vs POD#1, P < .001). In the PD group, the GTI on POD#14 became lower than preoperative (0.51 ± 0.38 vs 0.96 ± 1.37; P = .03). PAI in the PD group was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (0.22 ± 0.12 vs preoperative, 0.38 ± 0.18; P < .001). In the PD group, RPV was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (25.3 ± 18.3 cm vs preoperative, 32.4 ± 20.1 cm; P = .02), due to the resolution of pancreatic duct dilatation. RPV of the DP group showed no significant change. GTI was negatively related to RPV preoperatively (r = -0.317, P = .04), but this correlation disappeared postoperatively (r = -0