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Sample records for vertebrae applications methods

  1. Method for analysing the deformation and stress of vertebra assembly

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    Spanu Alina Rodica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for testing the deformation and stress values of the vertebra assembly when variable forces are applied on the body surface. The working points have very well-known positions and they could be changed, so the compression force, torsional or bending couples could act. The system is actuated by an electrical stepper motor controlled with Arduino. The force and displacement sensors were used.

  2. Morphometric Study of the Atlas Vertebra using Manual Method

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    Shilpa N Gosavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The atlas (first cervical vertebra has undergone many structural modifications. It is critically located and close to the ‘life centres’. For this study, one hundred dried intact human atlas vertebrae from the Indian population were measured using a digital Vernier calliper that provides accurate resolution up to 0.01 mm. The distance between the tips of the transverse process, the outer and the inner distance between the foramen transversaria and various diameters of vertebral foramen were measured. The mean width of the measured atlases was 69.37 mm. The mean distance between the lateral margins of foramen transversaria was 55.66 mm and the inner distance was 45.93 mm. The mean thickness of vertebral artery grooves was 3.72 + 1.06 mm. The observations made in the present study may help in improving understanding of various bony dimensions while operating close to important structures like nerve roots and the vertebral artery.

  3. A method for automatic feature points extraction of human vertebrae three-dimensional model

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    Wu, Zhen; Wu, Junsheng

    2017-05-01

    A method for automatic extraction of the feature points of the human vertebrae three-dimensional model is presented. Firstly, the statistical model of vertebrae feature points is established based on the results of manual vertebrae feature points extraction. Then anatomical axial analysis of the vertebrae model is performed according to the physiological and morphological characteristics of the vertebrae. Using the axial information obtained from the analysis, a projection relationship between the statistical model and the vertebrae model to be extracted is established. According to the projection relationship, the statistical model is matched with the vertebrae model to get the estimated position of the feature point. Finally, by analyzing the curvature in the spherical neighborhood with the estimated position of feature points, the final position of the feature points is obtained. According to the benchmark result on multiple test models, the mean relative errors of feature point positions are less than 5.98%. At more than half of the positions, the error rate is less than 3% and the minimum mean relative error is 0.19%, which verifies the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Application of cement on strategic vertebrae in the treatment of the osteoporotic spine.

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    Erdem, Mehmet Nuri; Karaca, Sinan; Sarı, Seckin; Yumrukcal, Feridun; Tanli, Ruhat; Aydogan, Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    The application of pedicle screws with cement to strengthen the fixation of the osteoporotic spine has increasingly gained popularity. However, the technique has also led to an increase in cement-related complications. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiological results of the patients with degenerative spinal pathologies who were treated with pedicle screws and cement injections on all segments versus those who were treated with cement injections only on the strategic vertebrae selected. A retrospective clinical study. The sample consists of 31 patients who underwent spinal surgery due to degenerative spinal pathologies. Patients were assessed for the adequate spinal fusion and cement-related complication parameters. Thirty-one patients with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years were divided into two groups and evaluated. Group A consisted of 17 patients (14 females, 3 males; mean age: 68.1 years) with cemented pedicle screws and Group B consisted of 14 patients (12 females, 2 males; mean age: 67.2 years) with cemented screws on selected vertebrae alone. Selection of the strategic vertebrae was made by taking the most stressed regions in the fusion site into account. Prophylactic vertebroplasty was performed in all patients in Group A and on strategic segments in Group B to avoid an adjacent segment fracture. Early- and late-term complications during the follow-up period were recorded. Mean follow-up period was 51.8 (range: 31 to 80) months in Group A and 41.2 (range: 26 to 61) months in Group B. Cemented pedicle screws were bilaterally placed on 94 vertebrae in Group A. In Group B, cement was applied on 28 of 80 vertebrae. Including the prophylactic vertebroplasties, a total of 111 cement applications were performed in Group A and 38 in Group B. Cement embolism, symptomatic chest discomfort, and duration of surgery were significantly higher in Group A (pstrategic vertebrae alone will enhance the fixation strength and endurance and

  5. Validity of the assessment method of skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Bittencourt, M A V; Paranhos, L R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to answer the question: is the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) effective to replace hand–wrist radiograph (gold standard) in determining the pubertal growth spurt in patients undergoing bone growth? Methods: A search in three databases was performed, in which studies were selected that compared one of the two main assessment methods for cervical vertebrae (Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 58–66, or Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72: 316–23) to a carpal assessment method. The main methodological data from each of the texts were collected and tabulated after. Later, the meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients obtained was performed. Results: 19 articles were selected from an initial 206 articles collected. Regardless of the method used, the results of the meta-analysis showed that every article selected presented a positive correlation between skeletal maturation assessment performed by cervical vertebrae and carpal methods, with discrepancy of values between genders indicating higher correlation for the female gender (0.925; 0.878) than for the male (0.879; 0.842). When the assessment was performed without gender separation, correlation was significant (0.592; 0.688) but lower in the cases when genders were separated. Conclusions: With the results of this meta-analysis, it is safe to affirm that both CVMIs used in the present study are reliable to replace the hand–wrist radiograph in predicting the pubertal growth spurt, considering that the highest values were found in female samples, especially in the method by Hassel and Farman. PMID:25521202

  6. Vertebra disc ratio as a parameter for bone marrow involvement and its application in Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Erik-Jan P.; Maas, Mario; Akkerman, Erik M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the vertebra disc ratio (VDR), the ratio of the average T1-weighted gray value of disc L3 and intervertebral disc L3/L4, as a parameter for bone marrow involvement. To explore its value as alternative for bone marrow fat fraction measured with Dixon Quantitative Chemical

  7. Effect of Augmentation Material Stiffness on Adjacent Vertebrae after Osteoporotic Vertebroplasty Using Finite Element Analysis with Different Loading Methods.

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    Cho, Ah-Reum; Cho, Sang-Bong; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which are one of the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. However, clinical observation has shown that the risk of adjacent vertebral body fractures may increase after vertebroplasty. The mechanism underlying adjacent vertebral body fracture after vertebroplasty is not clear; excessive stiffness resulting from polymethyl methacrylate has been suspected as an important mechanism. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of bone cement stiffness on adjacent vertebrae after osteoporotic vertebroplasty under load-controlled versus displacement-controlled conditions. An experimental computer study using a finite element analysis. Medical research institute, university hospital, Korean. A three-dimensional digital anatomic model of L1/2 bone structure was reconstructed from human computed tomographic images. The reconstructed three-dimensional geometry was processed for finite element analysis such as meshing elements and applying material properties. Two boundary conditions, load-controlled and displacement-controlled methods, were applied to each of 5 deformation modes: compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion. The adjacent L1 vertebra, irrespective of augmentation, revealed nearly similar maximum von Mises stresses under the load-controlled condition. However, for the displacement-controlled condition, the maximum von Mises stresses in the cortical bone and inferior endplate of the adjacent L1 vertebra increased significantly after cement augmentation. This increase was more significant than that with stiffer bone cement under all modes, except the torsion mode. The finite element model was simplified, excluding muscular forces and incorporating a large volume of bone cement, to more clearly demonstrate effects of bone cement stiffness on adjacent vertebrae after vertebroplasty. Excessive stiffness of augmented bone cement increases the risk of

  8. Determining skeletal maturation stage using cervical vertebrae: evaluation of three diagnostic methods

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    Luci Mara Fachardo Jaqueira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the use of three cervical vertebral evaluation methods (Hassel-Farman, Baccetti et al., and Seedat-Forsberg for determinating skeletal maturation stage in orthodontic patients. Twenty-three radiographs were randomly selected from a private orthodontic practice. Each radiograph was analyzed on three separate occasions by four evaluators (one radiologist and three orthodontists, who determined the skeletal maturation stage using the references established by each of the three methods. Intraevaluator and interevaluator comparisons were performed, and the degree of agreement was established using the weighted Kappa coefficient (95% CI. Good agreement (Kappa between 0.61 and 0.80 was observed between the determinations of most of the evaluators. The three methods demonstrated clinical applicability. However, the method proposed by Baccetti et al. achieved the best results, followed by the Hassel-Farman and the Seedat-Forsberg methods.

  9. Vertebra segmentation based on two-step refinement.

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    Courbot, Jean-Baptiste; Rust, Edmond; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Collet, Christophe

    Knowledge of vertebra location, shape, and orientation is crucial in many medical applications such as orthopedics or interventional procedures. Computed tomography (CT) offers a high contrast between bone and soft tissues, but automatic vertebra segmentation remains difficult. Hence, the wide range of shapes, aging, and degenerative joint disease alterations as well as the variety of pathological cases encountered in an aging population make automatic segmentation sometimes challenging. Besides, daily practice implies a need for affordable computation time. This paper aims to present a new automated vertebra segmentation method (using a first bounding box for initialization) for CT 3D data which tackles these problems. This method is based on two consecutive steps. The first one is a new coarse-to-fine method efficiently reducing the data amount to obtain a coarse shape of the vertebra. The second step consists in a hidden Markov chain (HMC) segmentation using a specific volume transformation within a Bayesian framework. Our method does not introduce any prior on the expected shape of the vertebra within the bounding box and thus deals with the most frequent pathological cases encountered in daily practice. We experiment this method on a set of standard lumbar, thoracic, and cervical vertebrae and on a public dataset, on pathological cases, and in a simple integration example. Quantitative and qualitative results show that our method is robust to changes in shapes and luminance and provides correct segmentation with respect to pathological cases.

  10. Assessment of the Relation between Clinical Phases of Dental Eruption and Skeletal Maturity Stages Using Cervical Vertebrae Method

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    MohammadJavad KharraziFard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Timing is an important factor in orthodontic treatment planning. Skeletal age is a standard indicator for determining optimum time for treatment. On the other hand, in clinic the phases of the dentition (deciduous, early and late mixed, permanent have often been used for treatment timing, investigations of the different outcomes of treatment protocols at earlier vs later stages of development. Considering the importance of this issue and to evaluate it in the Iranian adolescents, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between clinical phases of dental eruption and the skeletal maturity stages by cervical vertebrae method (CVM.Materials & Methods: Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 100 boys and 100 girls were used. For determination of the Phases of dentition, Vander Linden method and for the skeletal maturity, CVM were used. The relationship between the skeletal maturity (stages in CVM and the phases of the dentition was evaluated statistically by means of indicators of diagnostic tests and spearman’s rho analysis.Results: Spearman’s rho analysis indicated a relatively strong correlation of 0.775 (P<0.001; The early mixed dentition phase was a valid indicator of prepubertal stage (CS1, but the late mixed and early permanent dentitions were not valid indicators for the diagnosis of the onset of the pubertal growth spurt (CS3.Conclusion: In comparison with a reliable indicator of skeletal maturity (CVM, the dentition phases perform poorly in the detection of the onset of the pubertal spurt in skeletal growth.

  11. Automatic localization of vertebrae based on convolutional neural networks

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    Shen, Wei; Yang, Feng; Mu, Wei; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Localization of the vertebrae is of importance in many medical applications. For example, the vertebrae can serve as the landmarks in image registration. They can also provide a reference coordinate system to facilitate the localization of other organs in the chest. In this paper, we propose a new vertebrae localization method using convolutional neural networks (CNN). The main advantage of the proposed method is the removal of hand-crafted features. We construct two training sets to train two CNNs that share the same architecture. One is used to distinguish the vertebrae from other tissues in the chest, and the other is aimed at detecting the centers of the vertebrae. The architecture contains two convolutional layers, both of which are followed by a max-pooling layer. Then the output feature vector from the maxpooling layer is fed into a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier which has one hidden layer. Experiments were performed on ten chest CT images. We used leave-one-out strategy to train and test the proposed method. Quantitative comparison between the predict centers and ground truth shows that our convolutional neural networks can achieve promising localization accuracy without hand-crafted features.

  12. Three Dimensional (3D Lumbar Vertebrae Data Set

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    H. Bennani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D modelling can be used for a variety of purposes, including biomedical modelling for orthopaedic or anatomical applications. Low back pain is prevalent in society yet few validated 3D models of the lumbar spine exist to facilitate assessment. We therefore created a 3D surface data set for lumbar vertebrae from human vertebrae. Models from 86 lumbar vertebrae were constructed using an inexpensive method involving image capture by digital camera and reconstruction of 3D models via an image-based technique. The reconstruction method was validated using a laser-based arm scanner and measurements derived from real vertebrae using electronic callipers. Results show a mean relative error of 5.2% between image-based models and real vertebrae, a mean relative error of 4.7% between image-based and arm scanning models and 95% of vertices’ errors are less than 3.5 millimetres with a median of 1.1 millimetres. The accuracy of the method indicates that the generated models could be useful for biomechanical modelling or 3D visualisation of the spine.

  13. Can micro-imaging based analysis methods quantify structural integrity of rat vertebrae with and without metastatic involvement?

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    Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Beek, Maarten; Akens, Margarete K; Whyne, Cari M

    2012-09-21

    This study compares the ability of μCT image-based registration, 2D structural rigidity analyses and multimodal continuum-level finite element (FE) modeling in evaluating the mechanical stability of healthy, osteolytic, and mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic metastatically involved rat vertebrae. μMR and μCT images (loaded and unloaded) were acquired of lumbar spinal motion segments from 15rnu/rnu rats (five per group). Strains were calculated based on image registration of the loaded and unloaded μCT images and via analysis of FE models created from the μCT and μMR data. Predicted yield load was also calculated through 2D structural rigidity analysis of the axial unloaded μCT slices. Measures from the three techniques were compared to experimental yield loads. The ability of these methods to predict experimental yield loads were evaluated and image registration and FE calculated strains were directly compared. Quantitatively for all samples, only limited weak correlations were found between the image-based measures and experimental yield load. In comparison to the experimental yield load, we observed a trend toward a weak negative correlation with median strain calculated using the image-based strain measurement algorithm (r=-0.405, p=0.067), weak significant correlations (pmodes of failure. Improvements in load characterization, material properties assignments and resolution are necessary to yield a more generalized ability for image-based registration, structural rigidity and FE methods to accurately represent stability in healthy and pathologic scenarios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of statistical shape analysis for the estimation of bone and forensic age using the shapes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in a young Japanese population.

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    Rhee, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang Min; Choi, Yong-Seok; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-12-01

    From computed tomographic images, the dentocentral synchondrosis can be identified in the second cervical vertebra. This can demarcate the border between the odontoid process and the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra and serve as a good model for the prediction of bone and forensic age. Nevertheless, until now, there has been no application of the 2nd cervical vertebra based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. In this study, statistical shape analysis was used to build bone and forensic age estimation regression models. Following the principles of statistical shape analysis and principal components analysis, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate a Japanese population (35 males and 45 females, from 5 to 19 years old). The narrowest prediction intervals among the multivariate regression models were 19.63 for bone age and 2.99 for forensic age. There was no significant difference between form space and shape space in the bone and forensic age estimation models. However, for gender comparison, the bone and forensic age estimation models for males had the higher explanatory power. This study derived an improved objective and quantitative method for bone and forensic age estimation based on only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervical vertebral shapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An unusual case of congenital scoliosis associated with rib agenesis in the upper part of the concavity treated by VEPTR vertebra to vertebra.

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    Burnei, Gheorghe; Gavriliu, Traian-Stefan; Georgescu, Ileana; Vlad, Costel; Burnei, Cristian

    2013-11-01

    Rib agenesis in congenital scoliosis is rarely encountered, and its disposal in the application area of the proximal vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) module is a challenge to the orthopedic surgeon. To present a case in which known treatment methods in early-onset scoliosis were not possible to apply. Case report. A patient aged 1 year and 10 months, presenting a congenital scoliosis with the following characteristics: left T3 hemisegmented hemivertebra, T5-T6-T7 hemivertebral segment, T9, T10 trapezoidal vertebrae, right side I-IV rib agenesis with T1-T2-T4 hemivertebral hypoplasia (T3 agenesis) and bilateral XIIth rib agenesis, and V-VI and VII-VIII-IX fused ribs on the right side. We applied a standard VEPTR in a new construct, vertebra to vertebra. The VEPTR vertebra to vertebra proved to be an efficient and stabile construct after 1.5 years of follow-up and three device distractions in a row. The curve corrected from 100 to 58 Cobb degrees. We believe that the vertebra-to-vertebra construct with eventual modifications may be a solution in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis needing surgery, which associate rib agenesis in the area where the proximal module has to be applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Variations in Transverse Foramina of Cervical Vertebrae: Morphology & Clinical Importance

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    Vaishakhi Gonsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate variations in transverse foramina in the cervical vertebrae and its morphological and clinical importance. Materials and Method : The variations in the number and size of transverse foramina was studied in total 200 human dried cervical vertebrae, which were taken from the Department of Anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad. All the vertebrae were observed for variation in number and size of transverse foramina. Results: Out of 200 cervical vertebrae, complete double transverse foramina were observed in 40 vertebrae (20%, among them unilateral double foramina were found in 31 vertebrae (15.5% and the bilateral double foramina were found in 9 vertebrae (4.5%. Incomplete double transverse foramina were observed in 22 vertebrae (11%, among them unilateral double foramina were found in 16 vertebrae (8% and bilateral double foramina were observed in 6 vertebrae (3%. Conclusion: Complete unilateral double transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae were more common than bilateral. Also unilateral small size transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae were also common. This variation is important for the neurosurgeon during cervical surgery. Under such condition the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted. It is also useful for Radiologist during CT and MRI scan.

  17. Morphometric analysis of superior articular facets of atlas vertebra and its clinical applications in ergonomics of atlanto-occipital joints.

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    Motagi, Manjunath V; Ranganath, Vallabhajosyula

    2013-12-01

    The classic variants in superior articular facets of atlas such as, variability in shape, presence of notch, constrictions, partial or complete separation of facets, and presence of pressure facets, have been reported to a limited extent in relation to ergonomics of cranio-vertebral joint. The objectives of the present study were to report the analyzed morphological features and metrical values of superior articular facets of the atlas. The morphological features which were included in this study were variability in shapes, constrictions and partial or complete separation of facets. The metrical measure included the surface area measurement of the facets. This study was carried out on 50 (100 sides) dry atlas vertebrae from the Department of Anatomy, St John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. The superior articular facets were studied for the shape and symmetry, constrictions and partial or complete separation of facets. The surface area of the facets were measured by using Image J (Image processing and analysis in JAVA) tool, that was primarily designed to measure and analyze different metrics. The mean surface area on the right side was 157.3 ± 29.02, and on the left side, it was 158.5 ± 24.85. Oval, irregular, kidney and figure of eight shapes were observed either on both sides or on one side. Bilateral constrictions of facets were seen in 58 % of vertebrae. Bilateral, complete separations of facets were seen in 30% of vertebrae. The observations of the present study are important to understand the ergonomics of the cranio-vertebral joint and they are helpful for academicians, neuro-surgeons, clinicians and radiologists in day to day clinical practice.

  18. On prediction of the strength levels and failure patterns of human vertebrae using quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method.

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    Mirzaei, Majid; Zeinali, Ahad; Razmjoo, Arash; Nazemi, Majid

    2009-08-07

    This paper presents an effective patient-specific approach for prediction of failure initiation and growth in human vertebra using the general framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method (FEM). The studies were carried out on 13 vertebrae (lumbar and thoracic), excised from 3 cadavers with the average age of 42 years old. Initially, 4 samples were QCT scanned and the images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent plastic strains obtained from the nonlinear analyses were used to predict the occurrence of local failures and development of the failure patterns. In the linear analyses, the strain energy density measure was used to identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. Subsequently, the samples were destructively tested in uniaxial compression and the experimental load-displacement diagrams were obtained. The plain radiographic images of the tested samples were also examined for observation of the failure patterns. In continuation, the presence of osteolytic defects in vertebrae was simulated by creation of artificial cavities within 9 remaining samples using a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. The same protocol was followed for scanning, modeling, and destructive testing of these samples. A strong correlation was found between the predicted and measured strengths. Finally, a typical vertebroplasty treatment was simulated by injection of low-viscosity bone cement within 3 compressed samples. The failure patterns and the associated load levels for these samples were also predicted using the QCT voxel-based FEM.

  19. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

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    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  20. Comparison of vertebrae and otoliths measured directly and from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    from macerated fish. The present study shows that measurement of vertebrae from radiographs of intact fish is a reliable and quick method for estimating the relationship between vertebral length and fish length from a number of reference fish. The relationship between vertebrae size and fish length...

  1. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

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    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  2. Bayes estimation of shape model with application to vertebrae boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crimi, Alessandro; Ghosh, Anarta; Sporring, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of the covariance matrix is a pivotal step in landmark based statistical shape analysis. For high dimensional representation of the shapes, often the number of available shape examples is far too small for reliable estimation of the covariance matrix by the traditionally used Maximum...... to the smallest eigenvalues. We take a Bayesian approach to the problem and show how the prior information can be used to estimate the covariance matrix from a small number of samples in a high dimensional shape space. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in the context of reconstructions of high...... resolution vertebral boundary from an incomplete and lower dimensional representation. The algorithm performs better than the ML method, especially for small number of samples in the training set. The superiority of the proposed Bayesian approach was also observed when noisy incomplete lower dimensional...

  3. Imaging of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2004-11-01

    Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a common finding in the general population. Their clinical significance is controversial with no consensus as to their relationship to low back pain or disc prolapse. However, on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they may be difficult to positively identify on sagittal sequences and can lead to confusion with respect to numbering of lumbar discs and vertebrae, with the consequent risk of surgical intervention at an inappropriate level. The imaging findings of LSTV on plain radiography and MRI are reviewed and their clinical significance discussed.

  4. PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA

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    CAPPETTI Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.

  5. Distraction of lumbar vertebrae in gravitational traction.

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    Tekeoglu, I; Adak, B; Bozkurt, M; Gürbüzoglu, N

    1998-05-01

    Experimental study of 30 patients diagnosed with low back pain resulting from lumbar disc herniation, disc degeneration, and segmental instability. Patients underwent gravitational traction, and widening of the intervertebral space and posterior facets was measured on radiographs. This same procedure was performed with a group of 30 healthy individuals. To determine the effect of gravitational traction on the widening of the intervertebral space and the other vertebral structures in patients with low back pain and in healthy individuals. Gravitational traction is performed by suspending the patient in a hanging, upright position for an extended period of time. In spite of disagreement among authors about the effect of lumbar traction, recent innovations have enabled the distraction of vertebrae. A specially designed apparatus was used to apply gravitational traction. Pre- and post-traction radiographs were obtained to study the changes in the L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 intervertebral spaces; Ferguson's angle; L1-S1 total distance; and blood pressure. Distraction was more than approximately 3 mm in each intervertebral space in both groups. Gravitational traction had a very apparent effect on intervertebral space and was found to be an effective method to distract lumbar vertebrae. Discomfort experienced by the patient during suspension may be overcome by making biomedical changes to the suspension corset.

  6. Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a "bumpy" boat ride.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chukwunyerenwa, C K

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during a boat ride while on holiday. One individual had fracture of the T8, while the other fractured the L1 vertebrae. Both injuries were treated conservatively with Taylor braces. CONCLUSION: We highlight one of the potential hazards of this recreational activity, and the almost identical fracture pattern in this couple.

  7. Evaluation of thoracic vertebrae rotation in patients with pectus excavatum.

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    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Wiktor, Łukasz; Machała, Ludwina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate thoracic vertebrae rotation in patients with pectus excavatum. Moreover, we wanted to assess the prevalence, the severity and relationship between pectus excavatum and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We performed retrospective analysis of 82 preoperative chest CT in children with pectus excavatum performed between January 2008 and December 2011. For each patient Haller Index and Cobb angle was measured. To evaluate the severity of thoracic scoliosis we measured vertebral rotation for Th8 and for vertebra at the level of highest chest deformation using Aaro-Dahlborn method. From the group of 54 patients with pectus excavatum enrolled in the study AIS was diagnosed in 8 patients (14,81%). In patients with symmetric deformation, Th8 rotation was found in 21 patients; the rotation of the apical vertebra was found in 20 patients. In patients with asymmetric deformation Th8 rotation was found in 10 patients; the rotation of the apical vertebra was found in 8 patients. 1. We have confirmed the higher prevalence of pectus excavatum in boys; 2. We have found a significant relationship between pectus excavatum and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; 3. We have shown that deformation of the anterior chest wall enforces rotation of the thoracic spine; 4. We haven't found the relationship between the severity of the chest deformity (HI measured) and severity of AIS (Cobb angle measured); 5. We have shown a significant association between HI measured and rotation of thoracic vertebra at the level of highest chest deformation (apical vertebra) in symmetric pectus excavatum. Level IV, Diagnostic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  9. Dermatome variations in patients with transitional vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfert, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test whether the position of lumbosacral dermatomes varies in the presence of transitional vertebrae.
MATERIAL AND METHODS—Fifty consecutive male patients were tested for thoracolumbar and lumbosacral transitional vertebrae by radiography and for the position of the dermatome gap between the lumbar dermatomes Ll, L2, L3, and the sacral dermatomes S2 and S3. The dermatome gap was documented with the use of the cremasteric reflex, the receptive field of which end...

  10. Extraction of the Cervical Vertebrae from Panoramic X-ray image

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 純平; Yamamoto, Junpei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to remove the cervical vertebrae from a dental panoramic x-ray image with a tomosynthesis method. We developed a new method to remove the cervical vertebrae from a dental panoramic x-ray image. In this paper, we removed artifacts caused by metalic objects in the teeth raw. To detect these areas, we used a photon counting x-ray detector. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated with clinical data.

  11. A New CT Method for Assessing 3D Movements in Lumbar Facet Joints and Vertebrae in Patients before and after TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Svedmark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a 3D-CT method for analyzing facet joint motion and vertebral rotation in the lumbar spine after TDR. Ten patients were examined before and then three years after surgery, each time with two CT scans: provoked flexion and provoked extension. After 3D registration, the facet joint 3D translation and segmental vertebral 3D rotation were analyzed at the operated level (L5-S1 and adjacent level (L4-L5. Pain was evaluated using VAS. The median (±SD 3D movement in the operated level for the left facet joint was 3.2 mm (±1.9 mm before and 3.5 mm (±1.7 mm after surgery and for the right facet joint was 3.0 mm (±1.0 mm before and 3.6 mm (±1.4 mm after surgery. The median vertebral rotation in the sagittal plane at the operated level was 5.4° (±2.3° before surgery and 6.8° (±1.7° after surgery and in the adjacent level was 7.7° (±4.0° before and 9.2° (±2.7° after surgery. The median VAS was reduced from 6 (range 5–8 to 3 (range 2–8 in extension and from 4 (range 2–6 to 2 (range 1–3 in flexion.

  12. Acute injuries of the axis vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.T. (United General Hospital, Sedro Woolley, WA (USA)); Harris, J.H. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of 165 patients admitted to Hermann Hospital with acute injuries of the axis vertebra revealed 68 (41%) dens fractures, 62 (38%) cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis ('hangman's' fracture), 21 (13%) extension teardrop fractures, 10 (6%) hyperextension dislocations, and 2 (1.0%) fractures each of the laminae and spinous processes. Of the axis injuries 31 (18%) were limited to the axis body alone. Of these, 21 (61%) were hyperextension teardrop fractures and 10 (32%) were hyperextension dislocations. Axis injuries were associated with acute injuries of other cervical vertebrae in 14 (8%) of the patients. (orig./GDG).

  13. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae: association with various types of malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Costa Armond

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae has proven an important reference for orthodontic diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae and types of malocclusion according to the age and gender of participants. A total of 361 individuals (168 males and 193 females between 8 and 14 years of age were selected from a convenience sample. Malocclusions were diagnosed through study models using the Angle classification. Maturation stages of the cervical vertebrae were determined using the method proposed by Hassel and Farman. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p £ 0.05 and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure. Significant differences were observed between the stage of skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and gender at ages 11, 12 and 14 years. Males with Class II malocclusion were twice as likely to be in Stage 1 or 2 of cervical vertebra maturation than individuals with Class I malocclusion (OR = 2.1 [CI 95%, 1.33-3.18]. There were no differences between individuals with Class I and Class III malocclusions. The association between skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and type of malocclusion was significant, suggesting a skeletal component in the determination of Class II malocclusions.

  14. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  15. Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD, diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10-L2 were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation; b screw with medial cortical perforation; and c screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra ( P = 0.105, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD ( P = 0.901. Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.

  16. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros, E-mail: braunrich@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Institutlo de Radiologia

    2016-03-15

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  17. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  18. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andreas Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  19. Intraosseous monitoring of drilling in lumbar vertebrae by ultrasound: An experimental feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nahum; Halevy-Politch, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The rationale for this project is to evaluate the efficiency of a novel sonographic method for measurements of interosseous distances. The method utilizes a propagating ultrasonic beam through aqueous milieu which is directed as a jet into a drilled tract. We used a plastic model of human L5 vertebra and ex vivo specimen of L5 porcine vertebra and generated 2 mm in diameter tracts in vertebral pedicles. The tracts were created in the "desired" central direction and in the "wrong" medial and lateral directions. The drilled tracts and the residual, up to opposite cortex, distances were measured sonographically and mechanically and compared statistically. We show that "true" mechanical measurements can be predicted from sonographic measurements with correction of 1-3 mm. The correct central route can be distinguished from the wrong misplaced routes. By using the sonographic measurements, a correct direction of drilling in the pedicle of lumbar L5 vertebra can be efficiently monitored.

  20. Simultaneous localization of lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs with SVM-based MRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ayse Betul; Akgul, Yusuf Sinan

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a method for localizing and labeling the lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs in mid-sagittal MR image slices. The approach is based on a Markov-chain-like graphical model of the ordered discs and vertebrae in the lumbar spine. The graphical model is formulated by combining local image features and semiglobal geometrical information. The local image features are extracted from the image by employing pyramidal histogram of oriented gradients (PHOG) and a novel descriptor that we call image projection descriptor (IPD). These features are trained with support vector machines (SVM) and each pixel in the target image is locally assigned a score. These local scores are combined with the semiglobal geometrical information like the distance ratio and angle between the neighboring structures under the Markov random field (MRF) framework. An exact localization of discs and vertebrae is inferred from the MRF by finding a maximum a posteriori solution efficiently using dynamic programming. As a result of the novel features introduced, our system can scale-invariantly localize discs and vertebra at the same time even in the existence of missing structures. The proposed system is tested and validated on a clinical lumbar spine MR image dataset containing 80 subjects of which 64 have disc- and vertebra-related diseases and abnormalities. The experiments show that our system is successful even in abnormal cases and our results are comparable to the state of the art.

  1. Multimodal μCT/μMR based semiautomated segmentation of rat vertebrae affected by mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Foltz, Warren; Wise-Milestone, Lisa; Whyne, Cari M

    2012-05-01

    Multimodal microimaging in preclinical models is used to examine the effect of spinal metastases on bony structure; however, the evaluation of tumor burden and its effect on microstructure has thus far been mainly qualitative or semiquantitative. Quantitative analysis of multimodality imaging is a time consuming task, motivating automated methods. As such, this study aimed to develop a low complexity semiautomated multimodal μCT/μMR based approach to segment rat vertebral structure affected by mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic destruction. Mixed vertebral metastases were developed via intracardiac injection of Ace-1 canine prostate cancer cells in three 4-week-old rnu/rnu rats. μCT imaging (for high resolution bone visualization), T1-weighted μMR imaging (for bone registration), and T2-weighted μMR imaging (for osteolytic tumor visualization) were conducted on one L1, three L2, and one L3 vertebrae (excised). One sample (L1-L3) was processed for undecalcified histology and stained with Goldner's trichome. The μCT and μMR images were registered using a 3D rigid registration algorithm with a mutual information metric. The vertebral microarchitecture was segmented from the μCT images using atlas-based demons deformable registration, levelset curvature evolution, and intensity-based thresholding techniques. The μCT based segmentation contours of the whole vertebrae were used to mask the T2-weighted μMR images, from which the osteolytic tumor tissue was segmented (intensity-based thresholding). Accurate registration of μCT and μMRI modalities yielded precise segmentation of whole vertebrae, trabecular centrums, individual trabeculae, and osteolytic tumor tissue. While the algorithm identified the osteoblastic tumor attached to the vertebral pereosteal surfaces, it was limited in segmenting osteoblastic tissue located within the trabecular centrums. This semiautomated segmentation method yielded accurate registration of μCT and μMRI modalities with application

  2. Patch-based Corner Detection for Cervical Vertebrae in X-ray Images

    OpenAIRE

    Slabaugh, G.G.; Gundry, M.; Knapp, K.; Asad, M.; Al Arif, S.M.M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Corners hold vital information about size, shape and morphology of a vertebra in an x-ray image, and recent literature [1, 2] has shown promising performance for detecting vertebral corners using a Hough forest-based architecture. To provide spatial context, this method generates a set of 12 patches around a vertebra and uses a machine learning approach to predict corners of a vertebral body through a voting process. In this paper, we extend this framework in terms of patch generation and pre...

  3. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF L5-SPONDYLOLISTHESIS VERTEBRAE IN CHILDREN. BENEFITS OF POSTERIOR APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Сергей Валентинович Виссарионов; Владислав Валерьевич Мурашко; Сергей Михайлович Белянчиков; Дмитрий Николаевич Кокушин; Ирина Юрьевна Солохина; Ирина Анатольевна Гусева; Татьяна Валерьевна Мурашко; Мария Сергеевна Павлова

    2014-01-01

    Objective to develop current options of surgical treatment of L5-spondylolisthesis in children. Materials and methods: 48 patients were observed and underwent surgical treatment at age of 10-17 years. In 9 patients spondylolisthesis of L5 was grade 2, in 14 - grade 3, in 12 - grade 4. 9 patients had spondyloptosis of the body of L5-vertebra. The article presents different options of surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis in children depending on the degree of vertebrae body shift and the mai...

  4. VARIATION IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF ATLAS VERTEBRAE IN DIFFERENT SKELETAL PATTERNS: A THREE – DIMENSIONAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Prajakta; Sunita,; Ranjit H; Narendra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : The morphology of the atlas vertebrae seems to be affected by the head posture , age , congenital anomalies and the skeletal growth pattern. The present study was carried out to assess the variation in the morphology of atlas vertebrae in different vertical skeletal patterns MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cone - beam computed tomography images of 45 adu lt subjects aged 18 to 35 years were evaluated. Subjects constituted three groups: group 1; avera...

  5. [Clinical observation on auricular point sticking for treatment of 25 children of semiluxation of circo-axis vertebrae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Liu, Ya-Bin; He, Jun-Jun

    2006-10-01

    To search for the best method for child semiluxation of circo-axis vertebrae. Fifty cases were randomly divided into a treatment group of 25 cases treated with auricular point sticking, and a control group of 25 cases treated with normal acupuncture. The total effective rate was 92.0% in the treatment group and 64.0% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P circo-axis vertebrae.

  6. Foramen arcuale: a rare morphological variation located in atlas vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpan, Sibel; Yonguc, Goksin Nilufer; Edizer, Mete; Mas, Nuket Gocmen; Magden, A Orhan

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the incidence of foramen arcuale in dry atlas vertebrae which may cause clinical problems. Eighty-one dry human cervical vertebrae were examined. The evaluated parameters of two atlas vertebrae including foramen arcuale were as follows: maximum antero-posterior, transverse diameters and areas of the right and left superior articular facets and transverse foramina; maximum antero-posterior diameters, heights, areas and central sagittal thickness of bony arch forming roof of foramen arcuale, respectively. All parameters were measured with caliper in milimeters. Thirteen of eighty-one cervical vertebrae specimens (13/81, 16.05%) were atlas and the two of thirteen atlas vertebrae (2/13, 15.38%) had macroscopically complete foramen arcuale. Each of the two atlas vertebrae was including one foramen arcuale (one on the left and one on the right side). There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04) between the mean antero-posterior diameter of superior articular facet located on each side of atlas vertebrae, whereas not (p = 0.51) between mean antero-posterior diameter of transverse foramina. There was not any significant difference between the mean transverse diameters and areas of superior articular facets and transverse foramina located on each side of atlas vertebrae, respectively. Each of the areas of transverse foramina located on the same sides with foramen arcuale in two atlas vertebrae was less than the mean areas of transverse foramina located ipsilateral side with each foramen arcuale in thirteen atlas vertebrae. The present study provides additional information about the incidence and topography of the atlas vertebrae including foramen arcuale.

  7. Combinatorial methods with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial Methods with Computer Applications provides in-depth coverage of recurrences, generating functions, partitions, and permutations, along with some of the most interesting graph and network topics, design constructions, and finite geometries. Requiring only a foundation in discrete mathematics, it can serve as the textbook in a combinatorial methods course or in a combined graph theory and combinatorics course.After an introduction to combinatorics, the book explores six systematic approaches within a comprehensive framework: sequences, solving recurrences, evaluating summation exp

  8. Numbering of vertebrae on MRI using a PACS cross-referencing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Nam Chull; Lim, Chun Soo; Jang, Ho Suk

    2012-09-01

    For the detection and documentation of numeric variations on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different techniques have previously been introduced. However, these methods require additional special imaging algorithms, software, or devices. We intend to introduce a vertebral numbering method using the existing picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and MRI system. To assess the accuracy of a method for numbering presacral vertebrae based on the cross-referencing of two sagittal MRI series. This study was a retrospective review of 224 consecutive patients who underwent both lumbar MRI with cervicothoracic scan and whole spine radiographic examinations. A radiologist and a neurosurgeon independently counted the number of presacral vertebrae in a cranial-to-caudal approach with cross-referencing of cervicothoracic and lumbar MRI sagittal series on the PACS workstation. Radiographic numbering from the cervical through the thoracic to the lumbar vertebrae, as a reference standard, was completed independently by the two reviewers. An analysis of the inter-observer and intermodality agreements of radiography and MRI was done. In all cases except one, concordant numbering existed between the two modalities of MRI cross-referencing and radiographs combination. Both observers agreed completely, with no inter-observer discordance. The number of vertebrae could be identified consistently by counting caudally from C2 with cross-referencing cervicothoracic and lumbosacral sagittal MRI scans on the PACS workstation.

  9. Recent advances in computational methods and clinical applications for spine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Glocker, Ben; Klinder, Tobias; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2014 workshop on Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together scientists and clinicians in the field of computational spine imaging. The chapters included in this book present and discuss the new advances and challenges in these fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modeling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis. The book also includes papers and reports from the first challenge on vertebra segmentation held at the workshop.

  10. Informetrics theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Junping; Yang, Siluo; Dong, Ke

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to the history, theory and techniques of informetrics. Divided into 14 chapters, it develops the content system of informetrics from the theory, methods and applications; systematically analyzes the six basic laws and the theory basis of informetrics and presents quantitative analysis methods such as citation analysis and computer-aided analysis. It also discusses applications in information resource management, information and library science, science of science, scientific evaluation and the forecast field. Lastly, it describes a new development in informetrics- webometrics. Providing a comprehensive overview of the complex issues in today's environment, this book is a valuable resource for all researchers, students and practitioners in library and information science.

  11. Estimating height from the first and second cervical vertebrae in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Rodríguez-Calvo, María S; González, Antonio; Febrero-Bande, Manuel; Muñoz-Barús, José I

    2016-03-01

    One of the roles of forensic anthropology is the identification of skeletal remains and over the years many methods have been developed to obtain specific details of a corpse such as an estimation of age and height. The femur and tibia are ideal for this purpose but unfortunately they are often missing or badly fragmented. For this reason, in this present study, we used the smaller bones of the first and second cervical vertebrae, which are often better preserved than the long bones. Direct measurement of these bones has been found to be misleading, largely due to the remains of a covering of soft tissue, and to overcome this all measurements were taken from tomographic images. The aim of this study is to provide an auxiliary diagnostic method to evaluate the association of different anthropometric measurements taken with tomographic imagery of both the first cervical and second cervical vertebra with body height within a sample of the Spanish population. Measurements were taken from tomographic images taken with a dental CT of 203 healthy individuals from a Spanish population. The best correlation was obtained in the case of unknown sex using four measurements: two of the first cervical vertebra and two of the second vertebra using the following regression formula S=49.02+1.02O+1.58DO+0.49V+0.67I. All formulae provided statistically significant results and can be applied to any skeletal remains belonging to a Spanish population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF L5-SPONDYLOLISTHESIS VERTEBRAE IN CHILDREN. BENEFITS OF POSTERIOR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Валентинович Виссарионов

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop current options of surgical treatment of L5-spondylolisthesis in children. Materials and methods: 48 patients were observed and underwent surgical treatment at age of 10-17 years. In 9 patients spondylolisthesis of L5 was grade 2, in 14 - grade 3, in 12 - grade 4. 9 patients had spondyloptosis of the body of L5-vertebra. The article presents different options of surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis in children depending on the degree of vertebrae body shift and the main clinical manifestations. During surgery the anatomy of the vertebral canal and the normal interposition in the pathological segment were reconstructed. It resulted in normalization of the body balance and regression of neurological symptoms. Results: in spondylolisthesis grade 2 and 3 full reduction was achieved. In patients with grade 4 spondylolisthesis deformity was reduced to grade 2-3. Pain and radicular syndromes regressed in 2-3 days after surgery. In patients with monoparesis and contractures regression of neurological deficit took 1-1,5 months. Conclusions: The method of surgical treatment in patients with spondylolisthesis of L5 vertebrae depends on the degree of vertebrae shifting presence of segmental instability and neurological sighns.

  13. Methods and Applications of Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lane

    In considering Methods and Applications of Inversions, it is important to realize that the study of inverse problems is not a well-posed endeavor. To begin with, the variety of such problems is extremely broad; any systematic attempt to use observational data to make inferences about a model of the underlying physical processes qualifies as an inverse method. And then, the methods of analysis can branch off in innumerable directions. Many choices must be made in formulating the problem, determining the type and amount of regularization, selecting a solution algorithm, and in representing the results. Finally there is the peculiar process of appraisal, which is often treated as optional, in which one attempts to determine whether a solution was actually obtained and whether it contains any new information. What this means is that when a group gets together to discuss inverse problems, one should not be surprised to encounter a broad variety of problems and approaches. Such is the case with Methods and Applications of Inversions.

  14. Abnormal foramina on the posterior arch of atlas vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. It articulates with the occipital bone above and the axis vertebra below. It plays an important role in movement of the skull and the neck. We found a rare variation of the atlas vertebra. The posterior arch of the atlas had one accessory foramen just behind each lateral mass. Foramen on the right side was larger than that of the left. The knowledge of this variation may be of importance to orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, radiologists and anthropologists.

  15. Extraction of the Cervical Vertebrae from Panoramic X-ray image

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 純平; Yamamoto, Junpei

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe purpose of this study is to remove the cervical vertebrae from a dental panoramic x-ray image with a tomosynthesis method. We developed a new method to remove the cervicalvertebrae from dental panoramic x-ray image. In this paper we removed artifacts causedby metalic objects in the teeth raw. To detect this area, we used a photon counting x-ray detector. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated with clinical data.

  16. Comparison of effectiveness of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty in patients with osteoporotic vertebra fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Ahmet; Gemalmaz, Halil Can; Deveci, Mehmet Ali; Şimşek, Sezai Aykın; Çetin, Engin; Şenköylü, Alpaslan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in patients with osteoporotic vertebra fractures. The files of the patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebrae fractures were retrieved from the archives. Forty-three patients with complete follow-up data were included in the study group. The patients were evaluated for radiological outcomes in terms of local kyphosis angle, wedging index, compression ratio, visual analog pain scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In the study group, kyphoplasty was performed on 24 vertebrae of 22 patients (17 females, 5 males; mean age: 73 years) whereas vertebroplasty was applied on 24 vertebrae of 21 (16 females, 5 males; mean age: 74.7 years) patients. The mean follow-up time was 26 months. When the VAS and ODI values of the groups were analyzed, both groups showed statistically significant progress after the operation. Radiological data showed that the kyphoplasty group showed statistically significant improvement in the sagittal index values whereas the vertebroplasty group did not. The overall complication ratio was 4%. Both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are effective treatment methods for functional recovery and pain relief in osteoporotic fractures of the vertebra. Although radiological outcomes of the kyphoplasty seem to be better, this does not have any clinical relevance. We suggest vertebroplasty over kyphoplasty since it is an easier method to manage. Level III, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  18. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  19. ``Tower vertebra``: a new observation in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, T.J. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Brunson, C.Y. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Jackson, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Schabel, S.I. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Background. Skeletal abnormalities are common in sickle cell anemia. Ischemia, infarction, and growth disturbance of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies are among the most common abnormalities, and can suggest the diagnosis radiographically. Design and patients. We recently encountered two adult patients in whom vertebrae had grown abnormally in height adjacent to infarcted short vertebrae. We then reviewed the thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 54 more adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Results and conclusion. A total of eight patients (14%) displayed infarcted vertebrae with compensatory vertical growth of at least one adjacent vertebrae. These resemble the elongated vertebral bodies associated with other conditions. We can find no prior report of this finding in association with sickle cell anemia. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  20. SU-F-T-642: Sub Millimeter Accurate Setup of More Than Three Vertebrae in Spinal SBRT with 6D Couch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Zhao, Z; Yang, J; Yang, J; McAleer, M; Brown, P; Li, J; Ghia, A [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the initial setup accuracy in treating more than 3 vertebral body levels in spinal SBRT using a 6D couch. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed last 20 spinal SBRT patients (4 cervical, 9 thoracic, 7 lumbar/sacrum) treated in our clinic. These patients in customized immobilization device were treated in 1 or 3 fractions. Initial setup used ExacTrac and Brainlab 6D couch to align target within 1 mm and 1 degree, following by a cone beam CT (CBCT) for verification. Our current standard practice allows treating a maximum of three continuous vertebrae. Here we assess the possibility to achieve sub millimeter setup accuracy for more than three vertebrae by examining the residual error in every slice of CBCT. The CBCT had a range of 17.5 cm, which covered 5 to 9 continuous vertebrae depending on the patient and target location. In the study, CBCT from the 1st fraction treatment was rigidly registered with the planning CT in Pinnacle. The residual setup error of a vertebra was determined by expanding the vertebra contour on the planning CT to be large enough to enclose the corresponding vertebra on CBCT. The margin of the expansion was considered as setup error. Results: Out of the 20 patients analyzed, initial setup accuracy can be achieved within 1 mm for a span of 5 or more vertebrae starting from T2 vertebra to inferior vertebra levels. 2 cervical and 2 upper thoracic patients showed the cervical spine was difficult to achieve sub millimeter accuracy for multi levels without a customized immobilization headrest. Conclusion: If the curvature of spinal columns can be reproduced in customized immobilization device during treatment as simulation, multiple continuous vertebrae can be setup within 1 mm with the use of a 6D couch.

  1. Structural and micro-anatomical changes in vertebrae associated with idiopathic-type spinal curvature in the curveback guppy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Rob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The curveback lineage of guppy is characterized by heritable idiopathic-type spinal curvature that develops during growth. Prior work has revealed several important developmental similarities to the human idiopathic scoliosis (IS syndrome. In this study we investigate structural and histological aspects of the vertebrae that are associated with spinal curvature in the curveback guppy and test for sexual dimorphism that might explain a female bias for severe curve magnitudes in the population. Methods Vertebrae were studied from whole-mount skeletal specimens of curved and non-curved adult males and females. A series of ratios were used to characterize structural aspects of each vertebra. A three-way analysis of variance tested for effects of sex, curvature, vertebral position along the spine, and all 2-way interactions (i.e., sex and curvature, sex and vertebra position, and vertebra position and curvature. Histological analyses were used to characterize micro-architectural changes in affected vertebrae and the intervertebral region. Results In curveback, vertebrae that are associated with curvature demonstrate asymmetric shape distortion, migration of the intervertebral ligament, and vertebral thickening on the concave side of curvature. There is sexual dimorphism among curved individuals such that for several vertebrae, females have more slender vertebrae than do males. Also, in the region of the spine where lordosis typically occurs, curved and non-curved females have a reduced width at the middle of their vertebrae, relative to males. Conclusions Based on similarities to human spinal curvatures and to animals with induced curves, the concave-convex biases described in the guppy suggest that there is a mechanical component to curve pathogenesis in curveback. Because idiopathic-type curvature in curveback is primarily a sagittal deformity, it is structurally more similar to Scheuermann kyphosis than IS. Anatomical

  2. Fish vertebra from Miocene beds at Govce, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a vertebra and a small shark tooth found in the Miocene Govce sandstone near Govce west of Laško in central Slovenia. The vertebra belongs to a shark of the superorder Galeomorphii but we could not determine it with greater precision. The small tooth was assigned to Carcharias cf. taurus Rafinesque, 1810. The nannofossils in the sample are scarce and did not allow dating at biozone precision.

  3. Artificial DNA : methods and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khudyakov, Yury E; Fields, Howard A

    2002-01-01

    ... applications of synthetic oligonucleotideso Covers applications for synthetic DNA in various fields and industrieso Includes historical aspects, comprehensive review, trend analysis, and future developments...

  4. Radiographic Assessment of Skeletal Maturation Stages for Orthodontic Patients: Hand-wrist Bones or Cervical Vertebrae?

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chen, Mu-Hsiung; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-01-01

    The skeletal maturation status of a growing patient can influence the selection of orthodontic treatment procedures. Either lateral cephalometric or hand-wrist radiography can be used to assess skeletal development. In this study, we examined the correlation between the maturation stages of cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist bones in Taiwanese individuals. Methods: The study group consisted of 330 male and 379 female subjects ranging in age from 8 to 18 years. A total of 709 hand-wrist and ...

  5. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  6. Phenotypic integration of the cervical vertebrae in the Hominoidea (Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Catalina I

    2018-01-23

    Phenotypic integration and modularity represent important factors influencing evolutionary change. The mammalian cervical vertebral column is particularly interesting in regards to integration and modularity because it is highly constrained to seven elements, despite widely variable morphology. Previous research has found a common pattern of integration among quadrupedal mammals, but integration patterns also evolve in response to locomotor selective pressures like those associated with hominin bipedalism. Here, I test patterns of covariation in the cervical vertebrae of three hominoid primates (Hylobates, Pan, Homo) who engage in upright postures and locomotion. Patterns of integration in the hominoid cervical vertebrae correspond generally to those previously found in other mammals, suggesting that integration in this region is highly conserved, even among taxa that engage in novel positional behaviors. These integration patterns reflect underlying developmental as well as functional modules. The strong integration between vertebrae suggests that the functional morphology of the cervical vertebral column should be considered as a whole, rather than in individual vertebrae. Taxa that display highly derived morphologies in the cervical vertebrae are likely exploiting these integration patterns, rather than reorganizing them. Future work on vertebrates without cervical vertebral number constraints will further clarify the evolution of integration in this region. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Quantification of fat fraction in lumbar vertebrae: correlation with age and implications for bone marrow dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Maikol; Tran-Gia, Johannes; Kesenheimer, Christian; Weng, Andreas Max; Kosmala, Aleksander; Heidemeier, Anke; Koestler, Herbert; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-11-13

    Absorbed dose to active bone marrow is a predictor of hematological toxicity in molecular radiotherapy. Due to the complex composition of bone marrow tissue, the necessity to improve the personalized dosimetry has led to the application of non-conventional imaging methods in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is to apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of the fat fraction in lumbar vertebrae and to analyze its implications for bone marrow dosimetry. Methods First, a highly accelerated two-point Dixon MRI sequence for fat-water separation was validated in a 3T system against the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) gold standard. The validation was performed in a fat-water phantom composed of 11 vials with different fat fractions between 0% and 100%, and subsequently repeated in the lumbar vertebrae of 3 healthy volunteers. Finally, a retrospective study was performed by analyzing the fat fraction in 5 lumbar vertebrae of 44 patients scanned with the two-point Dixon sequence. Results The two-point Dixon phantom acquisition showed a good agreement (maximum difference = 2.9%) between the nominal fat fraction and MRS. In the volunteers, a statistical analysis showed a non-significant difference (p = 0.19) between MRI and MRS. In the patients, gender-specific linear fits for female and male data indicated that the age-dependent marrow conversion (red→yellow marrow) is slower in males (0.3% per year) than in females (0.5% per year). Lastly, the fat fraction values showed a considerable variability in patients of similar ages and the same gender. Conclusion Two-point Dixon MRI enables a non-invasive and spatially resolved quantification of the fat fraction in bone marrow. Our study provides important evidence on the differences in marrow conversion between females and males. In addition, differences were observed in the cellularity values of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference man (0.7) and the median

  8. Alternative classification and screening protocol for transitional lumbosacral vertebra in German shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lappalainen Anu K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV is a common congenital and hereditary anomaly in many dog breeds. It predisposes to premature degeneration of the lumbosacral junction, and is a frequent cause of cauda equina syndrome, especially in German shepherd dogs. Ventrodorsal hip radiographs are most often used in diagnosis of LTV in screening programs. In this study, value of laterolateral lumbar spine radiographs as additions to ventrodorsal radiographs in diagnosis of LTV, and characteristics of LTV and the eighth lumbar vertebra (L8 in laterolateral radiographs were studied. Additionally, computed tomography (CT features of different types of LTV were elucidated. Methods The ventrodorsal pelvic and laterolateral lumbar spine radiographs of 228 German shepherd dogs were evaluated for existence and type of LTV. Morphology of transverse processes was used in classification of LTV in ventrodorsal radiographs. The relative length of sixth (L6 and seventh (L7 vertebrae (L6/L7 was used in characterization of these vertebrae in laterolateral radiographs. CT studies were available for 16 dogs, and they were used for more detailed characterization of different types of LTV. Non-parametric χ2 statistics, generalized logit model for multinomial data, and one-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analyses. Results In all, 92 (40% dogs had a LTV, the most common type being separation of first spinous process from the median crest of the sacrum in 62 dogs (67% of LTV. Eight dogs had eight lumbar vertebrae. Those dogs with LTV had longer L7 in relation to L6 than dogs with normal lumbosacral junctions. When L6/L7 decreased by 0.1 units, the proportion of dogs belonging to the group with L8 was 14-fold higher than in the group with normal lumbosacral junctions. L8 resembled first sacral vertebra (S1 in length and position and was therefore classified as one type of LTV. With CT it was shown that categorizing LTV, based on shape

  9. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... in our institution from 2002 through 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with Lenke 3C or 6C scoliosis who were treated with posterior pedicle screw-only constructs; (2) 2-year radiographic follow-up. All the included patients were categorized into three groups based on the relative...... surgery. No significant differences were found in thoracic or lumbar correction rate, global coronal balance and incidence rate of trunk shift among the three groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis, post-op lumbar curve behaviour differs due to different choices of LIV...

  10. EDGE DETECTION OF THE SCOLIOTIC VERTEBRAE USING X-RAY IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MOHANKUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bones act as a mineral storage reservoir for calcium and phosphorus. Proper well grown bones give a perfect posture to the human body. In other case, if the bone has an improper growth, it might lead to an abnormal posture or an awkward posture. Scoliosis is a condition where the scoliotic vertebrae are wedge shaped and differ with the shape of normal vertebrae. Treatment for scoliosis depends on Cobb angle which can be measured using spine X-rays. Recent development in the medical imaging techniques brought us to a new research area in image processing which includes medical image enhancement, detailed visualization of internal organs & tissues and edge detection. Bone edges are important feature in an X-ray image. The purpose of application of segmentation in medical imaging is to develop a detailed framework on human anatomy, whose primary objective is to outline the anatomical structures. Whereas edge detection is a technique which extracts vital features like corners, lines, angles and curves from an image. In this study, we are going to deal with the edge detection technique on scoliotic vertebrae. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of edge detectors using filters and operators.

  11. A multi-vertebrae CT to US registration of the lumbar spine in clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Simrin; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Ungi, Tamas; Osborn, Jill; Lessoway, Victoria A; Rudan, John; Jaeger, Melanie; Rohling, Robert N; Borschneck, Dan P; Mousavi, Parvin

    2015-09-01

    Spinal needle injections are widely applied to alleviate back pain and for anesthesia. Current treatment is performed either blindly with palpation or using fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT). Both fluoroscopy and CT guidance expose patients to ionizing radiation. Ultrasound (US) guidance for spinal needle procedures is becoming more prevalent as an alternative. It is challenging to use US as the sole imaging modality for intraoperative guidance of spine needle injections due to the acoustic shadows created by the bony structures of the vertebra that limit visibility of the target areas for injection. We propose registration of CT and the US images to augment anatomical visualization for the clinician during spinal interventions guided by US. The proposed method involves automatic global and multi-vertebrae registration to find the closest alignment between CT and US data. This is performed by maximizing the similarity between the two modalities using voxel intensity information as well as features extracted from the input volumes. In our method, the lumbar spine is first globally aligned between the CT and US data using intensity-based registration followed by point-based registration. To account for possible curvature change of the spine between the CT and US volumes, a multi-vertebrae registration step is also performed. Springs are used to constrain the movement of the individually transformed vertebrae to ensure the optimal alignment is a pose of the lumbar spine that is physically possible. Evaluation of the algorithm is performed on 10 clinical patient datasets. The registration approach was able to align CT and US datasets from initial misalignments of up to 25 mm, with a mean TRE of 1.37 mm. These results suggest that the proposed approach has the potential to offer a sufficiently accurate registration between clinical CT and US data.

  12. Relationship between transitional lumbosacral vertebrae and eight lumbar vertebrae in a breeding colony of Labrador Retrievers and Labrador Crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, C F; Wade, C M

    2017-01-01

    Transitional lumbosacral vertebrae (TLSV) is a hereditary malformation of the spinal column diagnosed in various dog breeds. The aim of this study was to explore whether different lumbosacral phenotypes have an inherited basis. Radiographs of all dogs within a breeding colony were performed and assessed. A comparison of the incidence of TLSV, eight lumbar vertebrae (8LV), and fusion of the first caudal vertebrae to the sacrum or near fusion of this area was made between litters of normal parentage and litters where one or both of the parents had an anomaly. Of the 119 puppies included in the study, 69 had normal conformation, 9 had 8LV, 9 had TLSV and 32 had fusion of the first caudal vertebra (Ca1) to the caudal sacral segment or a reduced joint space in this area. Results indicated that all the abnormal types likely had common underlying genetic causes. Compared with the population as a whole, significantly more progeny were observed to have abnormalities of the sacral region when both parents were affected by either fusion of Ca1 to the third sacral vertebra (S3) and/or had 8LV. Significantly more progeny were normal compared with the entire study population when both parents were normal. Strong similarity between parental and progeny phenotypes suggested that the characteristics were heritable and likely influenced by major gene effects. When performing screening radiographs for TLSV, assessment for 8LV and fusion of Ca1 to S3 should be included. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Identification and tracking of vertebrae in ultrasound using deep networks with unsupervised feature learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Jorden; Pesteie, Mehran; Lessoway, Victoria A.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert N.

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous needle insertion procedures on the spine often require proper identification of the vertebral level in order to effectively deliver anesthetics and analgesic agents to achieve adequate block. For example, in obstetric epidurals, the target is at the L3-L4 intervertebral space. The current clinical method involves "blind" identification of the vertebral level through manual palpation of the spine, which has only 30% accuracy. This implies the need for better anatomical identification prior to needle insertion. A system is proposed to identify the vertebrae, assigning them to their respective levels, and track them in a standard sequence of ultrasound images, when imaged in the paramedian plane. Machine learning techniques are developed to identify discriminative features of the laminae. In particular, a deep network is trained to automatically learn the anatomical features of the lamina peaks, and classify image patches, for pixel-level classification. The chosen network utilizes multiple connected auto-encoders to learn the anatomy. Pre-processing with ultrasound bone enhancement techniques is done to aid the pixel-level classification performance. Once the lamina are identified, vertebrae are assigned levels and tracked in sequential frames. Experimental results were evaluated against an expert sonographer. Based on data acquired from 15 subjects, vertebrae identification with sensitivity of 95% and precision of 95% was achieved within each frame. Between pairs of subsequently analyzed frames, matches of predicted vertebral level labels were correct in 94% of cases, when compared to matches of manually selected labels

  14. Mechanical properties of sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) vertebrae in relation to spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel R; Neveu, Danielle E; Stinson, Charlotte M; Anderson, Paul A; Berzins, Ilze K

    2013-11-15

    Approximately 35% of sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria exhibit spinal deformities ranging from compressed vertebrae and loss of intervertebral space to dislocated spines with vertebral degeneration and massive spondylosis caused by excessive mineralization both within vertebrae and outside the notochordal sheath. To identify the mechanical basis of these deformities, vertebral centra from affected (N=12) and non-affected (N=9) C. taurus were subjected to axial compression tests on an MTS 858 Bionix material testing system, after which mineral content was determined. Vertebral centra from affected sharks had significantly lower mineral content and material behavior in nearly all variables characterizing elasticity, plasticity and failure. These mechanical deficiencies are correlated with size at capture, capture method, vitamin C and zinc deficiency, aquarium size and swimming behavior in public aquaria. Non-affected C. taurus had greater stiffness and toughness even though these properties are generally incompatible in mineralized structures, suggesting that the biphasic (mineralized, unmineralized phases) nature of chondrichthyan vertebrae yields material behavior not otherwise observed in vertebrate skeletons. However, vertebral centra from non-affected sharks had lower mineral content (33%), stiffness (167 MPa), yield strain (14%) and ultimate strength (16 MPa) than other species of sharks and bony vertebrates, indicating that biomechanical precautions must be taken in the husbandry of this species.

  15. Discrete Methods and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-03

    closeness, assign to each element being judged a real interval, and take two intervals to overlap if and only if the corresponding elements are judged...Applications of Mathematical Programming, Italy, September 1992. Fred S. Roberts "Elementary, Sub- Fibonacci , Regular, Van Lier, and other Interesting

  16. Accessory Transversarium Foramen of Cervical Vertebrae: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical variations of the cervical vertebrae as reported in most classical anatomical textbooks mainly include: cervical ribs, non fusion of the halves of the posterior arch of the atlas, presence of articular facets on the superior margin of the anterior arch of the atlas incase of presence of a third occipital condyle. A male ...

  17. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  18. T9 versus T10 as the upper instrumented vertebra for correction of adult deformity-rationale and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Neo, Christabel Shao-En; Lau, Eugene Tze-Chun; Choong, Denise Ai-Wen; Lau, Leok-Lim; Liu, Gabriel Ka-Po; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2017-05-01

    Adult spinal deformity correction sometimes involves long posterior pedicle screw constructs extending from the lumbosacral spine to the thoracic vertebra. As fusion obliterates motion and places supraphysiological stress on adjacent spinal segments, it is crucial to ascertain the ideal upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) to minimize risk of proximal junctional failure (PJF). The T10 vertebra is often chosen to allow bridging of the thoracolumbar junction into the immobile thoracic vertebrae on the basis that it is the lowest immobile thoracic vertebra strut by the rib cage. This study aimed to characterize the range of motion (ROM) of each vertebral segment from T7 to S1 to determine if T10 is truly the lowest immobile thoracic vertebra. This is a prospective, comparative study. Seventy-nine adults (mean age of 45.4 years) presenting with low back pain or lower limb radiculopathy or both, without previous spinal intervention, metastases, fractures, infection, or congenital deformities of the spine, were included in the study. A ROM >5° across two vertebral segments as determined by the Cobb method from radiographs. Lumbar flexion-extension and neutral erect radiographs were obtained in randomized order using a slot scanner. Segmental ROM was measured from T7-T8 to L5-S1 and analyzed for significant differences using t tests. Age, gender, radiographical indices such as standard spinopelvic parameters, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C7-T12 SVA, T1 slope, thoracic kyphosis (TK), and lumbar lordosis (LL) were studied via multivariate analysis to identify predictive factors for >5° change in ROM at the various segmental levels. There were no sources of funding and no conflicts of interest associated with this study. In the thoracolumbar spine, significant decreases in ROM when compared with the adjacent caudad segment occurs up to T9-T10, with mean total ROM of 1.98±1.47° (p5°. Lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM decreases as it approaches the thoracolumbar junction

  19. The distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies among dental malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kamak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of our study were to investigate the distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVAs among dental Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions in Turkish population and whether a correlation between CVA and dental malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University. The final sample of 318 orthodontic patients was included in the study. Dental malocclusions were performed according to Angle classification. CVAs were categorized: (1 fusion and (2 posterior arch deficiency (PAD. The Chi-square test was used to the analysis of the potential differences among dental malocclusions. Results: The final sample of 318 patients was examined. CVA was observed in 42 individuals (of 26 [8.17%] had fusion and 16 [5.03%] had PAD, with a frequency of 13.2%. Of the 26 fusion defect, 8 (30.7% had Angle Class I, 8 (30.7% had Angle Class II, and 10 (38.4% had Angle Class III malocclusion. Of the 16 PAD, 8 (50% had Angle Class I, 8 (50% had Angle Class II but no patients with Angle Class III malocclusion was observed. The distribution of dental malocclusions regarding CVA was not statistically significant (P = 0.076. Of these 42 individuals with CVA, 52.3% (15 fusions and 7 PAD were females and 47.7% (11 fusions and 9 PAD were males. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of fusion and PAD were found 8.1% and 5.0% in Turkish population, respectively. Besides, no statistically significant correlation between CVA and Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions were found. Our findings support the studies showing no gender dimorphism.

  20. Statistical methods and computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, PN

    2009-01-01

    Some of the exclusive features of the book are: Every concept has been explained with the help of solved examples. Working rules showing the various steps for the applications of formulae have also been given. The diagrams and graphs have been neatly and correctly drawn in such a way that the students have the complete understanding of the problem by simply looking at them. Efforts have been made to make the subject throughly exhaustive and nothing important has been omitted. Answer to all the problems have been throughly checked. It is a user-friendly book containing many, solved problems and

  1. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. Objective. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. Summary of Background Data. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. Methods. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. Results. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:28146021

  2. Data mining methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Kenneth D; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2007-01-01

    With today's information explosion, many organizations are now able to access a wealth of valuable data. Unfortunately, most of these organizations find they are ill-equipped to organize this information, let alone put it to work for them. Gain a Competitive Advantage Employ data mining in research and forecasting Build models with data management tools and methodology optimization Gain sophisticated breakdowns and complex analysis through multivariate, evolutionary, and neural net methodsLearn how to classify data and maintain qualityTransform Data into Business Acumen Data Mining Methods and

  3. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2017-05-01

    Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. N/A.

  4. Differential equations methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a variety of techniques for solving ordinary differential equations analytically and features a wealth of examples. Focusing on the modeling of real-world phenomena, it begins with a basic introduction to differential equations, followed by linear and nonlinear first order equations and a detailed treatment of the second order linear equations. After presenting solution methods for the Laplace transform and power series, it lastly presents systems of equations and offers an introduction to the stability theory. To help readers practice the theory covered, two types of exercises are provided: those that illustrate the general theory, and others designed to expand on the text material. Detailed solutions to all the exercises are included. The book is excellently suited for use as a textbook for an undergraduate class (of all disciplines) in ordinary differential equations. .

  5. Morphometric analysis of the uncinate processes of the cervical vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabiyik, N; Ercikti, N; Tunali, S

    2017-01-01

    Uncinate processes (UPs) are distinct features unique to cervical vertebrae. They are consistently found on posterolateral aspect of the superior end plate of 3rd to 7th cervical vertebrae. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the UPs with a particular emphasis on the regional anatomy and clinical significance. The study included 63 vertebrae. The width, height and length of UPs were measured with a digital calliper. We also assessed inclination angle of UP relative to sagittal plane, angle between medial surface of UP and superior surface of vertebra, angle between long axis of the UP and frontal plane, angle between long axis of UP and sagittal plane. Average width of the UPs ranged from 4.25 mm at C3 to 6.33 mm at T1; average height ranged from 4.88 mm at T1 to 7.54 mm at C4; and average length ranged from 6.88 mm at T1 to 11.46 mm at C4. We measured the inclination angle of UP relative to sagittal plane, and found it to be relatively constant with T1 having the largest value. The average angle was 41.39°, and the range was 17° to 85°. The angle between the long axis of the UP and the sagittal plane was increasing signifi-cantly from C5 to T1. The average angle was 20.74° and the range was 6° to 65°. Anatomy of UPs is significant for surgeon who operates on the cervical spine. Hopefully, the information presented herein would decrease complications during surgical approaches to the cervical spine.

  6. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  7. SOME STATISTICAL SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS FOR TAGUCHI METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the variety of Taguchi methods, as important contribution to the quality improvement. The extended use of these methods imposes more and more complex calculi for the practical application and optimization. It should be necessary to benefit by the new software developments, assisted by the advanced statistical methods. The paper presents a few particular applications of some statistical software for the Taguchi methods as a quality enhancement insisting on the quality loss functions, the design of experiments and the new developments of statistical process control.

  8. Advanced computational electromagnetic methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenxing; Elsherbeni, Atef; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This new resource covers the latest developments in computational electromagnetic methods, with emphasis on cutting-edge applications. This book is designed to extend existing literature to the latest development in computational electromagnetic methods, which are of interest to readers in both academic and industrial areas. The topics include advanced techniques in MoM, FEM and FDTD, spectral domain method, GPU and Phi hardware acceleration, metamaterials, frequency and time domain integral equations, and statistics methods in bio-electromagnetics.

  9. Thoracic pedicle morphometry in vertebrae from scoliotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques

    2004-02-01

    A morphometric analysis of thoracic pedicles in vertebrae from scoliotic specimens. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes occurring in thoracic pedicles affected by a scoliotic deformity. There exists a lot of controversy in the literature concerning the shape and size of thoracic pedicles in idiopathic scoliosis. In recent years, thoracic pedicle screws are being used more frequently in corrective spine surgery, but few studies have evaluated the morphology of scoliotic thoracic pedicles. Thirty scoliotic specimens with curves presenting various degrees of severity were studied using a three-dimensional digitizing protocol developed to create a precise three-dimensional reconstruction of the vertebrae. Twenty-two parameters describing specifically the pedicles were then calculated for each vertebra from these reconstructions. Every scoliotic specimen was then matched with a normal specimen to provide for a representative control group and comparisons were made on pedicle width, length, height, surface, and orientation. A total of 683 thoracic vertebrae were measured (325 scoliotic and 358 normal vertebrae). Pedicles located on the concavity of typical right thoracic curves were found to be significantly thinner than their normal counterparts with a maximal mean difference of 1.37 mm at T8. The pedicles on the concavity of the high thoracic compensatory curve were also found to be significantly diminished with a maximal mean difference of 1.68 mm at T4. Mean left pedicle width at T8 (concavity) and mean right pedicle width at T4 (concavity) were found to be 4.08 mm and 2.60 mm, respectively. Pedicle length was found to be slightly increased, and pedicle height was found to be slightly decreased in pedicles from scoliotic spines with no preference for concavity or convexity. Pedicle orientation and inclination were unchanged with respect to each corresponding vertebral body. These results are of critical importance for clinicians performing spinal

  10. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  11. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Carinhena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. METHODS: The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS, 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance.

  12. The optimal homotopy asymptotic method engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes in detail the applicability of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to various engineering problems. It is a continuation of the book “Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Engineering: Some Approximate Approaches”, published at Springer in 2011, and it contains a great amount of practical models from various fields of engineering such as classical and fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, nonlinear oscillations, electrical machines, and so on. The main structure of the book consists of 5 chapters. The first chapter is introductory while the second chapter is devoted to a short history of the development of homotopy methods, including the basic ideas of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method. The last three chapters, from Chapter 3 to Chapter 5, are introducing three distinct alternatives of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method with illustrative applications to nonlinear dynamical systems. The third chapter deals with the first alternative of our approach with two iterations. Five application...

  13. Graphene doping methods and device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Yeom, Geun Young

    2014-02-01

    Graphene has recently been studied as a promising material to replace and enhance conventional electronic materials in various fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, sensors, etc. However, for the electronic applications of graphene prepared by various techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, etc., critical limitations are found due to the defects in the graphene in addition to the absence of a semiconducting band gap. For that, many researchers have investigated the doped graphene which is effective to tailor its electronic property and chemical reactivity. This work presents a review of the various graphene doping methods and their device applications. As doping methods, direct synthesis method and post treatment method could be categorized. Because the latter case has been widely investigated and used in various electronic applications, we will focus on the post treatment method. Post treatment method could be further classified into wet and dry doping methods. In the case of wet doping, acid treatment, metal chloride, and organic material coating are the methods used to functionalize graphene by using dip-coating, spin coating, etc. Electron charge transfer achieved from graphene to dopants or from dopants to graphene makes p-type or n-type graphenes, respectively, with sheet resistance reduction effect. In the case of dry doping, it can be further categorized into electrostatic field method, evaporation method, thermal treatment method, plasma treatment method, etc. These doping techniques modify Fermi energy level of graphene and functionalize the property of graphene. Finally, some perspectives and device applications of doped graphene are also briefly discussed.

  14. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  15. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  16. Molecular Combing of DNA: Methods and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazari, Zeniab Esmail; Gurevich, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    First proposed in 1994, molecular combing of DNA is a technique that allows adsorption and alignment of DNA on the surface with no need for prior modification of the molecule. Since then, many variations of the original method have been devised and used in a wide range of applications from genomi...... of the main methods in molecular combing as well as its major applications in nanotechnology.......First proposed in 1994, molecular combing of DNA is a technique that allows adsorption and alignment of DNA on the surface with no need for prior modification of the molecule. Since then, many variations of the original method have been devised and used in a wide range of applications from genomic...

  17. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  18. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Brezina, M [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Falgout, R [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Manteuffel, T [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); McCormick, S [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Ruge, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Sheehan, B [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Xu, J [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Zikatanov, L [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  19. Multi-level hp-finite cell method for embedded interface problems with application in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaddad, Mohamed; Zander, Nils; Bog, Tino; Kudela, László; Kollmannsberger, Stefan; Kirschke, Jan S; Baum, Thomas; Ruess, Martin; Rank, Ernst

    2017-12-19

    This work presents a numerical discretization technique for solving three-dimensional material interface problems involving complex geometry without conforming mesh generation. The finite cell method (FCM), which is a high-order fictitious domain approach, is used for the numerical approximation of the solution without a boundary-conforming mesh. Weak discontinuities at material interfaces are resolved by using separate FCM meshes for each material sub-domain, and weakly enforcing the interface conditions between the different meshes. Additionally, a recently developed hierarchical hp-refinement scheme is employed to locally refine the FCM meshes in order to resolve singularities and local solution features at the interfaces. Thereby, higher convergence rates are achievable for non-smooth problems. A series of numerical experiments with two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems is presented, showing that the proposed hp-refinement scheme in conjunction with the weak enforcement of the interface conditions leads to a significant improvement of the convergence rates, even in the presence of singularities. Finally, the proposed technique is applied to simulate a vertebra-implant model. The application showcases the method's potential as an accurate simulation tool for biomechanical problems involving complex geometry, and it demonstrates its flexibility in dealing with different types of geometric description. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Epitransverse process: A rare outgrowth from atlas vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute injuries of the upper cervical spine as a cause of severe disability and death following trauma has at all times been an interesting phase of anatomical study. The present case study describes a rare outgrowth from the left transverse process of the atlas vertebra. This process referred to as epitransverse process can be of high importance to many specialties and especially to surgeons performing radical neck dissections, radiologists for accurate diagnosis of bony malformations and manipulative therapists, as it may markedly influence the posture, stability and mobility at the atlanto-occipital joint.

  1. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  2. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  3. Application of Nonparametric Methods in Studying Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Nonparametric Methods in Studying Energy Consumption. ... Consumer behaviour towards different forms of energy varies over time. The variance ... It is found that the mean peak consumption is a decreasing function of the lagged time and that the more extreme the peak consumption, the higher the volatility.

  4. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Development and Application of Kinetic. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of. Metronidazole. Vojkan M Miljkovic1*, Danijela A Kostic2*, Zoran Z Bojanic1, Biljana. M.Kalicanin1, Gordana M Kocic1. 1Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, The University of Nis, ...

  5. Application of Lie transform perturbation method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of Lie transform perturbation method for multidimensional ..... tions of eqs (12) and (13), we can evaluate classical action integrals Ii = ∮ ηi dξi exactly ..... [7] C M Bender, S Boettcher and P N Meisinger, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2201 ...

  6. Innovative Methods and Applications in Mucoadhesion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Alan; Goycoolea, Francisco M.; Menchicchi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    . Then a selection of preparative techniques and testing methods are described (at molecular as well as micro and macroscale) that may support the pharmaceutical development of mucus interactive systems and assist formulators in the scale-up and industrialization steps. Recent applications of mucoadhesive systems...

  7. Morphometric and radiological assessments of dimensions of Axis in dry vertebrae: A study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Mohan Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Material and Methods: 38 dry axis vertebrae from adult South Indian population were subjected to morphometric measurement and CT scan analysis. Height of posterior arch, midlaminar width(bilateral in upper 1/3rd, middle 1/3rd and lower 1/3rd were measured using high precision Vernier Calipers. Each vertebra was subjected to a spiral CT scan (Philips brilliance 16 slice thin 0.5 mm slices were taken and reconstruction was done in coronal and sagittal plane. Analysis was done on a CT work station. Using axial slices, sagittal cuts were reconstructed in plane perpendicular to the lamina at the mid laminar point and upper-middle and lower 1/3rd width of the lamina measured. Height of the posterior arch was measured in the sagittal plane. Intralaminar angle was measured bilaterally. Results: Middle 1/3rd lamina was the thickest portion (mean 5.17 mm +/− 1.42 mm. A total of 32 (84.2% specimen were having midlaminar width in both lamina greater than 4 mm, however only 27 (71% out of them had spinous process more than 9 mm. CT scan measurement in middle and lower 1/3rd lamina was found to be strongly correlated with the direct measurement. Conclusion: There is high variability in the thickness of the C2 lamina. As compared to western population, the axis bones used in the present study had smaller profiles. Hence the safety margin for translaminar screw insertion is low.

  8. Racial and sex differences in timing of the cervical vertebrae maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Mona A; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla A

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate skeletal maturation of female and male subjects from different racial groups by comparing the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) stages. The study included 3 racial groups: white, African American, and Hispanic subjects. Each group was subdivided into female and male. The age range of the subjects was between 7 and 18 years. The sample included 60 lateral cephalographs for each subgroup. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae was assessed according to a method that described 6 CVM stages. Racial differences were evident in the mean ages of CVM stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 (P = 0.002; P = 0.003; P = 0.001; and P = 0.001, respectively) among females; among males, only stage 3 was different (P = 0.001). Sex differences in the mean ages of stages 1, 2, and 3 in Hispanic subjects (P differences were not apparent between whites and African Americans, but differences were evident between Hispanics vs both whites and African Americans. Sex differences were apparent between the sexes in each of the 3 ethnic groups in CVM stages 2 and 3. No sex differences were detected in stages 4, 5, or 6 in any of the 3 racial groups. It is recommended to consider racial and sex differences when using the CVM stage as a skeletal maturation indicator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-sectional study of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-10-01

    An understanding of the normal evolution of the spine is of great relevance in the prenatal detection of spinal abnormalities. This study was carried out to estimate the length, width, cross-sectional area and volume of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus. Using the methods of CT (Biograph mCT), digital-image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics (the one-way ANOVA test for paired data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test, Student's t test, the one-way ANOVA test for unpaired data with post hoc RIR Tukey comparisons) the size for the neural ossification centers throughout the spine in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) at ages of 17-30 weeks was studied. The neural ossification centers were visualized in the whole pre-sacral spine, in 74.5 % for S1, in 61.8 % for S2, in 52.7 % for S3, and in 12.7 % for S4. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences in the size of neural ossification centers were found. The neural ossification centers were the longest within the cervical spine. The maximum values referred to the axis on the right, and to C5 vertebra on the left. There was a gradual decrease in length for the neural ossification centers of T1-S4 vertebrae. The neural ossification centers were the widest within the proximal thoracic spine and narrowed bi-directionally. The growth dynamics for CSA of neural ossification centers were found to parallel that of volume. The largest CSAs and volumes of neural ossification centers were found in the C3 vertebra, and decreased in the distal direction. The neural ossification centers show neither male-female nor right-left differences. The neural ossification centers are characterized by the maximum length for C2-C6 vertebrae, the maximum width for the proximal thoracic spine, and both the maximum cross-sectional area and volume for C3 vertebra. There is a sharp decrease in size of the neural ossification centers along the sacral spine. A

  10. Brucellosis with cervical vertebrae and pulmonary involvement: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Karagöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement of brucellosis. However, there is no case report presented in the literature of both cervical vertebrae spondylodiscitis and pulmonary involvement of brucella.We reported a 52-year-old woman complaining for one month of fever with rigors, fatigue, malaise, pain on the neck and arm, and sweating. The Wright agglutination test for brucella was positive at titers of 1/640. MRI of the cervical vertebrae was consistent with spondylodiscitis and paravertebral and epidural abscesses. Ground glass opacity was seen in the left upper lobe on CT scanning of the chest. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy was performed and Brucella melitensis was isolated. The patient was treated with streptomycin for 3 weeks, plus doxycycline and rifampicin for 3 months. We recommend tissue culture for rucella patients with lung lesions. Isolation of the microorganism from a biopsy material provides conclusive evidence. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 173-175

  11. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  12. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of infected herniated nucleus material in lumbar disc herniations and to determine if patients with an anaerobic infected disc are more likely to develop Modic change (MC) (bone oedema) in the adjacent vertebrae after the disc herniation. MCs (bone oedema...... due to cytokine and propionic acid production. METHODS: Patients undergoing primary surgery at a single spinal level for lumbar disc herniation with an MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation, where the annular fibres were penetrated by visible nuclear tissue, had the nucleus material removed. Stringent......) in vertebrae are observed in 6 % of the general population and in 35-40 % of people with low back pain. These changes are strongly associated with low back pain. There are probably a mechanical cause and an infective cause that causes MC. Several studies on nuclear tissue from herniated discs have demonstrated...

  13. Structural equation modeling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan

    2012-01-01

    A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a

  14. Validation of 3D surface reconstruction of vertebrae and spinal column using 3D ultrasound data--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc V; Vo, Quang N; Le, Lawrence H; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of spine associated with vertebra rotation. The Cobb angle and axial vertebral rotation are important parameters to assess the severity of scoliosis. However, the vertebral rotation is seldom measured from radiographs due to time consuming. Different techniques have been developed to extract 3D spinal information. Among many techniques, ultrasound imaging is a promising method. This pilot study reported an image processing method to reconstruct the posterior surface of vertebrae from 3D ultrasound data. Three cadaver vertebrae, a Sawbones spine phantom, and a spine from a child with AIS were used to validate the development. The in-vitro result showed the surface of the reconstructed image was visually similar to the original objects. The dimension measurement error was 0.99. The results also showed a high accuracy in vertebral rotation with errors of 0.8 ± 0.3°, 2.8 ± 0.3° and 3.6 ± 0.5° for the rotation values of 0°, 15° and 30°, respectively. Meanwhile, the difference in the Cobb angle between the phantom and the image was 4° and the vertebral rotation at the apex was 2°. The Cobb angle measured from the in-vivo ultrasound image was 4° different from the radiograph. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade do método de determinação da maturação esquelética por meio das vértebras cervicais Evaluation of the reproducibility of the method of determination of the skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Almada Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os diversos meios de se determinar o grau de maturação esquelética do paciente destaca-se o Método de Lamparski modificado por Hassel e Farman, em 1995, que propuseram a identificação do estágio da maturação por meio das modificações anatômicas das 2ª, 3ª e 4ª vértebras cervicais. Cientes das qualidades advogadas ao método citado surgiu o interesse em avaliar sua reprodutibilidade com o intuito de divulgá-lo e incorporá-lo como um elemento no diagnóstico e auxiliar no prognóstico dos tratamentos das más oclusões. A amostra constou de 100 telerradiografias em norma lateral de pacientes triados para tratamento ortodôntico na Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba - UNESP nos períodos de 2000 e 2001. Foram incluídos pacientes de ambos os gêneros na faixa etária de 6 a 16 anos e a média de 9 anos e 7 meses. Três examinadores devidamente calibrados realizaram a avaliação das radiografias classificando-as em escores de 1 a 6. Após a análise dos resultados, os mesmos foram tabulados e submetidos ao coeficiente Kappa de concordância para avaliação inter e intra-examinador concluindo, dessa forma, a reprodutibilidade do referido método. O método de determinação da maturação esquelética por meio das vértebras cervicais mostrou-se reproduzível na avaliação do estágio em que o indivíduo se encontra na curva de crescimento.Among the different ways to determine the degree of the skeletal maturation of the patient, the Lamparski method stands out modified by Hassel e Farman that proposed the identification of the maturation stage throught anatomic changes of the 2nd, 3rd and 4rth cervical vertebrae. Awere of the qualities conferred to the quoted method emerged the interest about evaluating its reprodutictibility with the aim of divulge and incorporate it as an element in diagnoses and as an auxiliary in the prognoses of the malocclusion treatment. The sample presented 100 teleradiographs in lateral norm

  16. Finite Element Methods and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhangxin

    2005-01-01

    This book serves as a text for one- or two-semester courses for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students and as a professional reference for people who want to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) using finite element methods. The author has attempted to introduce every concept in the simplest possible setting and maintain a level of treatment that is as rigorous as possible without being unnecessarily abstract. Quite a lot of attention is given to discontinuous finite elements, characteristic finite elements, and to the applications in fluid and solid mechanics including applications to porous media flow, and applications to semiconductor modeling. An extensive set of exercises and references in each chapter are provided.

  17. Advanced Methods and Applications in Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nikodem, Jan; Jacak, Witold; Chaczko, Zenon; ACASE 2012

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an excellent presentation of intelligent engineering and informatics foundations for researchers in this field as well as many examples with industrial application. It contains extended versions of selected papers presented at the inaugural ACASE 2012 Conference dedicated to the Applications of Systems Engineering. This conference was held from the 6th to the 8th of February 2012, at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, organized by the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia), Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland) and the University of Applied Sciences in Hagenberg (Austria). The  book is organized into three main parts. Part I contains papers devoted to the heuristic approaches that are applicable in situations where the problem cannot be solved by exact methods, due to various characteristics or  dimensionality problems. Part II covers essential issues of the network management, presents intelligent models of the next generation of networks and distributed systems ...

  18. Heat kernel method and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Avramidi, Ivan G

    2015-01-01

    The heart of the book is the development of a short-time asymptotic expansion for the heat kernel. This is explained in detail and explicit examples of some advanced calculations are given. In addition some advanced methods and extensions, including path integrals, jump diffusion and others are presented. The book consists of four parts: Analysis, Geometry, Perturbations and Applications. The first part shortly reviews of some background material and gives an introduction to PDEs. The second part is devoted to a short introduction to various aspects of differential geometry that will be needed later. The third part and heart of the book presents a systematic development of effective methods for various approximation schemes for parabolic differential equations. The last part is devoted to applications in financial mathematics, in particular, stochastic differential equations. Although this book is intended for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in, it should also provide a useful reference ...

  19. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  20. Harmony Search Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Harmony Search (HS method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem.

  1. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  2. Nucleus pulposus cells derived IGF-1 and MCP-1 enhance osteoclastogenesis and vertebrae disruption in lumbar disc herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongjiao; Huang, Peng; Chong, Yanxue; George, Suraj K; Wen, Bingtao; Han, Na; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kang, Lixin; Lin, Nie

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation (LDH) cases were classified into bulging LDH, herniated LDH and prolapse LDH types according to imaging examination, and vertebrae disruptions were evaluated. Cytokines derived from the nucleus pulposus cells were detected, and their effects on osteoclastogenesis, as well as the mechanisms involved, were studied via an in vitro osteoclast differentiation system. Objective: To clarify the mechanisms of lumbar vertebrae resorption induced by lumbar herniation. Summary and background data: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation induced vertebrae erosion exacerbates quality of patients’ life and clinical outcome. Although nucleus pulposus cells derived cytokines were reported to play an important role in this pathogenesis, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Methods: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation patients were diagnosed with CT scan and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. RNA was extracted from 192 surgical specimens of the herniated lumbar disc and 29 surgical excisions of the lumbar disc from spinal injury patients. The expressions of osteoclastogenesis related cytokines and chemokines were examined using real time PCR. Monocytes were induced into osteoclast with M-CSF and RANKL in vitro, while the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were added into the differentiation procedure in order to evaluate the effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Results: Vertebrae erosion had a positive relationship with lumbar disc herniation severity types. In all of the osteoclastogenesis related cytokines, the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were the most highly expressed in the nucleus pulposus cells. IGF-1 enhances activation of NF-kB signaling directly, but MCP-1 upregulated the expression of RANK, so that enhanced cellular sensitivity to RANKL resulted in increasing osteoclastogenesis and activity. Conclusion: Lumbar herniation induced overexpression of IGF-1 and MCP-1 in nucleus pulposus cells aggravated

  3. Ultrastructure of Intervertebral Disc and Vertebra-Disc Junctions Zones as a Link in Etiopathogenesis of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina L. Burger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. There is no general accepted theory on the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS. An important role of the vertebrae endplate physes (VEPh and intervertebral discs (IVD in spinal curve progression is acknowledged, but ultrastructural mechanisms are not well understood. Purpose. To analyze the current literature on ultrastructural characteristics of VEPh and IVD in the context of IS etiology. Study Design/Setting. A literature review. Results. There is strong evidence for multifactorial etiology of IS. Early wedging of vertebra bodies is likely due to laterally directed appositional bone growth at the concave side, caused by a combination of increased cell proliferation at the vertebrae endplate and altered mechanical properties of the outer annulus fibrosus of the adjacent IVD. Genetic defects in bending proteins necessary for IVD lamellar organization underlie altered mechanical properties. Asymmetrical ligaments, muscular stretch, and spine instability may also play roles in curve formation. Conclusions. Development of a reliable, cost effective method for identifying patients at high risk for curve progression is needed and could lead to a paradigm shift in treatment options. Unnecessary anxiety, bracing, and radiation could potentially be minimized and high risk patient could receive surgery earlier, rendering better outcomes with fewer fused segments needed to mitigate curve progression.

  4. The effect of saline coolant on temperature levels during decortication with a Midas Rex: An in vitro model using sheep cervical vertebrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher eLivingston

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Decortication of bone with a high speed burr in the absence of coolant may lead to local thermal necrosis and decreased healing ability which may negatively impact clinical outcome. Little data is available on the impact of applying a coolant during the burring process. This study aims to establish an in vitro model to quantitatively assess peak temperatures during endplate preparation with a high speed burr.Six sheep cervical vertebrae were dissected and mounted. Both end plates were used to give a total of 12 sites. Two thermocouples were inserted into each vertebra, 2mm below the end plate surface and a thermal-camera set up to measure surface temperature. A high speed burr (Midas Rex, Medtronic, Fort Worth, TX was used to decorticate the bone in a side to side sweeping pattern, using a matchstick burr (M-8/9MH30 with light pressure. This procedure was repeated while dripping saline onto the burr and bone. Data was compared between groups using a student t-test.Application of coolant at the bone-burr interface during decortication resulted in a significant decrease in final temperature. Without coolant, maximum temperatures 2mm from the surface were not sufficient to cause thermal osteonecrosis, although peak surface temperatures would cause local damage. The use of a high speed burr provides a quick and effective method of vertebral end plate preparation. Thermal damage to the bone can be minimised through the use of light pressure and saline coolant. This has implications for any bone preparation performed with a high speed burr.

  5. The Effect of Saline Coolant on Temperature Levels during Decortication with a Midas Rex: An in Vitro Model Using Sheep Cervical Vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Asher; Wang, Tian; Christou, Chris; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2015-01-01

    Decortication of bone with a high-speed burr in the absence of coolant may lead to local thermal necrosis and decreased healing ability, which may negatively impact clinical outcome. Little data are available on the impact of applying a coolant during the burring process. This study aims to establish an in vitro model to quantitatively assess peak temperatures during endplate preparation with a high-speed burr. Six sheep cervical vertebrae were dissected and mounted. Both end plates were used to give a total of 12 sites. Two thermocouples were inserted into each vertebra, 2 mm below the end plate surface and a thermal camera set up to measure surface temperature. A 3 mm high-pneumatic speed burr (Midas Rex, Medtronic, Fort Worth, TX, USA) was used to decorticate the bone in a side to side sweeping pattern, using a matchstick burr (M-8/9MH30) with light pressure. This procedure was repeated while dripping saline onto the burr and bone. Data were compared between groups using a Student's t-test. Application of coolant at the bone-burr interface during decortication resulted in a significant decrease in final temperature. Without coolant, maximum temperatures 2 mm from the surface were not sufficient to cause thermal osteonecrosis, although peak surface temperatures would cause local damage. The use of a high-speed burr provides a quick and an effective method of vertebral end plate preparation. Thermal damage to the bone can be minimized through the use of light pressure and saline coolant. This has implications for any bone preparation performed with a high-speed burr.

  6. Vertebrae length and ultra-structure measurements of collagen fibrils and mineral content in the vertebrae of lordotic gilthead seabreams (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillis, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Boursiaki, Vaia; Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Mente, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal deformities of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are a major factor affecting the production cost, the external morphology and survival and growth of the fish. Adult individuals of S. aurata were collected from a commercial fish farm in Greece and were divided into two groups: one with the presence of lordosis, a skeletal deformity, and one without any skeletal deformity. Fishes were X-rayed, and cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae lengths were measured. Vertebrae were taken from the site of the vertebral column where lordosis occurred. One part was decalcified and prepared for collagen examination with transmission electron microscopy, and the rest were incinerated, and the Ca and P contents were measured. The stoichiometries of the samples were obtained by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The same procedure was followed for fish without skeletal deformities (vertebrae were taken from the middle region of the vertebral column). The decalcified vertebrae parts were examined with TEM, collagen micrographs were taken and the fibrils' periods and diameters were measured. There were no significant differences for both Ca and P or the collagen fibrils' periods between the two fish groups. The mean lengths of the cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae where lordosis occurred were similar to the lengths of the respective regions of the individuals without the skeletal deformity. The TEM examination showed a significantly smaller mean vertebrae collagen fibril diameter from the fishes with lordosis compared with those from the controls, revealing the significance of collagen to bone structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  8. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  9. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  10. Restricted Kalman Filtering Theory, Methods, and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzinga, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In statistics, the Kalman filter is a mathematical method whose purpose is to use a series of measurements observed over time, containing random variations and other inaccuracies, and produce estimates that tend to be closer to the true unknown values than those that would be based on a single measurement alone. This Brief offers developments on Kalman filtering subject to general linear constraints. There are essentially three types of contributions: new proofs for results already established; new results within the subject; and applications in investment analysis and macroeconomics, where th

  11. Exergy method technical and ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Szargut, J

    2005-01-01

    The exergy method makes it possible to detect and quantify the possibilities of improving thermal and chemical processes and systems. The introduction of the concept ""thermo-ecological cost"" (cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural exergy resources) generated large application possibilities of exergy in ecology. This book contains a short presentation on the basic principles of exergy analysis and discusses new achievements in the field over the last 15 years. One of the most important issues considered by the distinguished author is the economy of non-renewable natural exergy.

  12. Primary pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: biomechanical analysis of pedicle fixation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burval, Daniel J; McLain, Robert F; Milks, Ryan; Inceoglu, Serkan

    2007-05-01

    Pedicle screw pullout testing in osteoporotic and control human cadaveric vertebrae, comparing augmented and control vertebrae. To compare the pullout strengths of pedicle screws fixed in osteoporotic vertebrae using polymethyl methacrylate delivered by 2 augmentation techniques, a standard transpedicular approach and kyphoplasty type approach. Pedicle screw instrumentation of the osteoporotic spine carries an increased risk of screw loosening, pullout, and fixation failure. Osteoporosis is often cited as a contraindication for pedicle screw fixation. Augmentation of the vertebral pedicle and body using polymethyl methacrylate may improve fixation strength and construct survival in the osteoporotic vertebrae. While the utility of polymethyl methacrylate has been demonstrated for salvage of screws that have been pulled out, the effect of the cement technique on pullout strength in osteoporotic vertebrae has not been previously studied. Thirteen osteoporotic and 9 healthy human lumbar vertebrae were tested. All specimens were instrumented with pedicle screws using a uniform technique. Osteoporotic pedicles were augmented with polymethyl methacrylate using either a kyphoplasty type technique or a transpedicular augmentation technique. Screws were tested in a paired testing array, randomly assigning the augmentation techniques to opposite sides of each vertebra. Pullout to failure was performed either primarily or after a 5000-cycle tangential fatigue conditioning exposure. After testing, following screw removal, specimens were cut in the axial plane through the center of the vertebral body to inspect the cement distribution. Pedicle screws placed in osteoporotic vertebrae had higher pullout loads when augmented with the kyphoplasty technique compared to transpedicular augmentation (1414 +/- 338 versus 756 +/- 300 N, respectively; P cycling. Pedicle screw augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate improves the initial fixation strength and fatigue strength of

  13. Intelligent numerical methods applications to fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph the authors present Newton-type, Newton-like and other numerical methods, which involve fractional derivatives and fractional integral operators, for the first time studied in the literature. All for the purpose to solve numerically equations whose associated functions can be also non-differentiable in the ordinary sense. That is among others extending the classical Newton method theory which requires usual differentiability of function. Chapters are self-contained and can be read independently and several advanced courses can be taught out of this book. An extensive list of references is given per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, stochastics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.

  14. Fluctuating Asymmetry: Methods, Theory, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry consists of random deviations from perfect symmetry in populations of organisms. It is a measure of developmental noise, which reflects a population’s average state of adaptation and coadaptation. Moreover, it increases under both environmental and genetic stress, though responses are often inconsistent. Researchers base studies of fluctuating asymmetry upon deviations from bilateral, radial, rotational, dihedral, translational, helical, and fractal symmetries. Here, we review old and new methods of measuring fluctuating asymmetry, including measures of dispersion, landmark methods for shape asymmetry, and continuous symmetry measures. We also review the theory, developmental origins, and applications of fluctuating asymmetry, and attempt to explain conflicting results. In the process, we present examples from the literature, and from our own research at “Evolution Canyon” and elsewhere.

  15. Effect of joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF on a patient with CLBP and a lumbar transitional vertebra: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Eun; Wang, Joong-San

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization using Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on a patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a lumbar transitional vertebra. [Methods] The intervention methods were joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques. The program consisted of 40-min sessions 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The spinal motion (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae), pain, and thickness of the multifidus were measured. [Results] The angle of spinal curvature increased, and the range of motions (ROMs) flexion and extension increased in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The pain score as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased. The thickness of the multifidus (L4) increased on the left and right sides. [Conclusion] These results suggest that joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques had a positive effect on the spinal motion, pain, and thickness of the multifidus of a patient with chronic low back pain and a lumbar transitional vertebra.

  16. Cement interdigitation and bone-cement interface after augmenting fractured vertebrae: A cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Kratz, Marita; Baroud, Gamal; Becker, Stephan; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Background The treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly over the last 20 years. There is still uncertainty about long-term and midterm effects of polymethyl methacrylate in trabecular bone. Preservation of the trabecular structures, as well as interdigitation of the cement with the surrounding bone, therefore has been gaining increasing attention. Interdigitation of cement is likely relevant for biological healing and the biomechanical augmentation process. In this study a cutting and grinding technique was used to evaluate the interdigitation for 4 augmentation techniques. Methods By use of a standardized protocol, wedge fractures were created in vertebrae taken from a fresh-frozen spine. Thereafter the vertebrae were assigned to 1 of 4 similar groups with regard to the vertebral size and force required to produce the fracture. The 4 groups were randomized to the following augmentation techniques: balloon kyphoplasty, radiofrequency (RF) kyphoplasty, shield kyphoplasty, and vertebral stenting. Histologic analysis was designed to examine the bone structure and interdigitation after the augmentation. Results For the void-creating procedures, the distance between bone and cement was 341.4 ± 173.7 µm and 413.6 ± 167.6 µm for vertebral stenting and balloon kyphoplasty, respectively. Specifically, the trabecular bone was condensed around the cement, forming a shield of condensed bone. The procedures without a balloon resulted in shorter distances of 151.2 ± 111.4 µm and 228.1 ± 183.6 µm for RF and shield kyphoplasty, respectively. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P kyphoplasty, 20.5% ± 12.9% for vertebral stenting, 66.45% ± 12.35% for RF kyphoplasty, and 48.61% ± 20.56% for shield kyphoplasty. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P < .00001). Conclusions Cavity-creating procedures reduce the cement interdigitation significantly

  17. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jaime A; Thomsen, Felix; Damm, Timo; Campbell, Graeme M; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C

    2016-07-01

    Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1-1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm(3) corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive localization and densitometric assessment of

  18. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and S1 radiculopathy: the value of coronal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezuidenhout, Abraham Fourie; Lotz, Jan Willem [Stellenbosch University, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2014-06-15

    The association of a lumbosacral transitional vertebra with accelerated degeneration of the disc above has been described. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae have also been reported as a cause of extraforaminal entrapment of the L5 nerve root between the transverse segment of the transitional vertebra and the sacral ala optimally demonstrated by coronal MRI. The association of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra pseudoarthroses and S1 nerve root entrapment due to degenerative stenosis of the nerve root canal has never been described. We present 12 patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae that were referred for symptoms and signs of S1 nerve root radiculopathy in which the sagittal and axial MRI sequences failed to identify a plausible cause for the patients' S1 nerve root symptoms. A coronal T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) MRI sequence was consequently added to the investigation. The coronal T1WI MRI sequence demonstrated hypertrophic degenerative stenosis of the S1 nerve root canal at the level of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra pseudoarthrosis, with entrapment of the respective S1 nerve root in all patients. We emphasize the value of coronal T1WI MRI of the lumbosacral junction and sacrum if the cause for S1 radicular symptoms was not identified on conventional sagittal and axial MRI sequences in patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. (orig.)

  19. Complex networks principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Russo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Networks constitute the backbone of complex systems, from the human brain to computer communications, transport infrastructures to online social systems and metabolic reactions to financial markets. Characterising their structure improves our understanding of the physical, biological, economic and social phenomena that shape our world. Rigorous and thorough, this textbook presents a detailed overview of the new theory and methods of network science. Covering algorithms for graph exploration, node ranking and network generation, among the others, the book allows students to experiment with network models and real-world data sets, providing them with a deep understanding of the basics of network theory and its practical applications. Systems of growing complexity are examined in detail, challenging students to increase their level of skill. An engaging presentation of the important principles of network science makes this the perfect reference for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in physics, ...

  20. Endplate indentation of the fourth lumbar vertebra - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Joseph H; Kerrigan, Jason R; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Del Pozo, Eduardo; Crandall, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the results of indentation tests on the superior vertebral endplate of the 4th lumbar vertebra (L4) of eleven male cadaveric subjects (65 +/- 7 years). Three locations on the superior endplate surface were loaded with a 7.9 mm spherical indentor at either a low (1 mm/s) or high (1000 mm/s) rate. Anterior midline and posterior right and left indentation locations were chosen to prevent local deformations and fractures from influencing the results of subsequent and preceding tests. Peak forces were higher in the dynamic tests (498 +/- 261 N) than in the quasi-static tests (451 +/- 256 N) on the posterior side, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.139). However, the peak forces in the anterior tests (304 +/-166 N) were significantly lower (p =0.0157) than in the posterior tests with the same loading rate. The variation in failure forces in the current study correlates with the variation in thickness of endplate cortical bone (between specimens and between anterior and posterior locations on the same specimen) as measured from small field of view computed tomography scans.

  1. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  2. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  3. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... while the lowest value was obtained in roller sponge in respect to the application methods for waterborne varnishes. However, the application method of spray gun for self crosslinked polyurethane, topcoat-clear, (SCPt) gave the highest metric chroma value among the three different application methods.

  4. The relationship determination between menarche and the peak of skeletal maturation using hand wrist and cervical vertebrae index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mardiati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menarche and skeletal maturation indices are physiological maturation indicators that can be used to establish the maturation stage of individual patient in orthodontic treatment, especially in orthodontic growth modification and orthognatic surgery. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between menarche and the peak of skeletal maturation using hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae indexes. Methods: This was an observational diagnostic research with 220 female of Deutero-Malay Indonesian subjects aged 8-17 years from Dental Hospital Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, and some privates orthodontic practice in Bandung. All subjects had hand-wrist radiograph and lateral cephalogram. Menarche data were collected through interview with the subjects and their parents. There were 89 subjects who already had menarche but only 84 of them remembered the month and year of their menarche. The stage of hand-wrist skeletal maturation was analyzed using Fishman method and cervical vertebrae maturation was analyzed using Baccetty et.al., method. Results: The result indicates that the menarche age of Indonesian DeuteroMalay subject were 12.47 ± 0.73 year. The youngest age of were 10.92 ± 0.0 year and the oldest were 13.83 ± 0.23 year. Conclusion: Menarche could be used as an indicator that the pubertal growth peak has been exceeded and to predict the end of the pubertal growth. This study showed that 0.49 years after MP3cap stage of hand-wrist skeletal maturation index and 0.69 years after CVMS2 stage of cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation index, the subject of Indonesian Deutero-Malay will have their menarche. Latar belakang: Menarke dan indeks maturasi skeletal merupakan indikator maturasi fisologis yang dapat digunakan untuk menentukan tahap maturasi pasien pada perawatan ortodonti modifikasi pertumbuhan dan bedah ortognati. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara menarke dengan

  5. COMPLETE FUSION OF FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA WITH SACRUM: AN OSTEOLOGICAL CASE REPORT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiksha; Ranjana S; Shashi

    2015-01-01

    ...’ s syndrome and difficulty during labor. To highlight the complication of sacralization and its related impact on the body, we report a case of complete fusion of 5 th lumbar vertebra with sacrum ( sacralization...

  6. Sexual dimorphism in the 7th cervical and 12th thoracic vertebrae from a Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Anabel; Botella, Miguel C; Alemán, Inmaculada

    2014-03-01

    Sex determination is an important task in physical anthropology and forensic medicine. The study sample comprised 121 individuals of known sex, age, and cause of death from San Jose cemetery in Granada (Spain). Eight dimensions were analyzed, and discriminant function analysis was performed for each vertebra to obtain discriminating functions and study the percentage of correct assignations of these functions. The percentage accuracy was approximately 80% for both vertebrae, but varied according to the sex, being higher for the 7th cervical in males and higher for the 12th thoracic in females. As reported in other populations, the greatest dimorphism values were found for the length of the inferior surface of the vertebral body and the width and length of the vertebral foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra and for the length of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Automatic segmentation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amruta; Raina, Akshita; Sharifi Sarabi, Mona; Ahn, Christine S.; Babayan, Diana; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Macyszyn, Luke; Raghavendra, Cauligi

    2017-03-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent disorders in the developed/developing world. However, its etiology is poorly understood and treatment is often determined subjectively. In order to quantitatively study the emergence and evolution of back pain, it is necessary to develop consistently measurable markers for pathology. Imaging based measures offer one solution to this problem. The development of imaging based on quantitative biomarkers for the lower back necessitates automated techniques to acquire this data. While the problem of segmenting lumbar vertebrae has been addressed repeatedly in literature, the associated problem of computing relevant biomarkers on the basis of the segmentation has not been addressed thoroughly. In this paper, we propose a Random-Forest based approach that learns to segment vertebral bodies in CT images followed by a biomarker evaluation framework that extracts vertebral heights and widths from the segmentations obtained. Our dataset consists of 15 CT sagittal scans obtained from General Electric Healthcare. Our main approach is divided into three parts: the first stage is image pre-processing which is used to correct for variations in illumination across all the images followed by preparing the foreground and background objects from images; the next stage is Machine Learning using Random-Forests, which distinguishes the interest-point vectors between foreground or background; and the last step is image post-processing, which is crucial to refine the results of classifier. The Dice coefficient was used as a statistical validation metric to evaluate the performance of our segmentations with an average value of 0.725 for our dataset.

  8. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles), the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.

  9. Immunofluorescence in cytogenetic analysis: method and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppesen Peter

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of the genetic information encoded by DNA in mammalian chromosomes is mediated by proteins, some of which are only transiently attached, although others are intrinsically associated with nucleic acid in the complex mixture known as chromatin. Chromatin-associated proteins range from the ubiquitous and abundant histones down to the most specific and rare of transcription factors. Although many chromatin proteins are probably excluded from highly condensed mitotic chromosomes, a number are retained throughout the cell cycle and can be detected on chromosomes in metaphase spreads. Comparing the distribution of a chromosomal protein with known cytogenetic markers on metaphase chromosomes can provide an important and potentially highly informative first source of data on the function of the protein under consideration. The aim of the present study is to summarize some of the principles involved in obtaining suitable chromosome preparations for subsequent immunolocalization of protein antigens. Some applications of the method will be included to illustrate how this approach has increased our understanding of chromosome structure and genetic regulation.

  10. Sex determination based on a thoracic vertebra and ribs evaluation using clinical chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shun; Morishita, Junji; Usumoto, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Kyoko; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Kawazoe, Yusuke; Okumura, Miki; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether sex can be determined from a combination of geometric features obtained from the 10th thoracic vertebra, 6th rib, and 7th rib. Six hundred chest radiographs (300 males and 300 females) were randomly selected to include patients of six age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s). Each group included 100 images (50 males and 50 females). A total of 14 features, including 7 lengths, 5 indices for the vertebra, and 2 types of widths for ribs, were utilized and analyzed for sex determination. Dominant features contributing to sex determination were selected by stepwise discriminant analysis after checking the variance inflation factors for multicollinearity. The accuracy of sex determination using a combination of the vertebra and ribs was evaluated from the selected features by the stepwise discriminant analysis. The accuracies in each age group were also evaluated in this study. The accuracy of sex determination based on a combination of features of the vertebra and ribs was 88.8% (533/600). This performance was superior to that of the vertebra or ribs only. Moreover, sex determination of subjects in their 20s demonstrated the highest accuracy (96.0%, 96/100). The features selected in the stepwise discriminant analysis included some features in both the vertebra and ribs. These results indicate the usefulness of combined information obtained from the vertebra and ribs for sex determination. We conclude that a combination of geometric characteristics obtained from the vertebra and ribs could be useful for determining sex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE FRACTURES OF THE VERTEBRAE IN THE THORACIC SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vissarionov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented an example of a complex treatment of pediatric patient with multiple fractures of the vertebrae in the thoracic spine. The child was operated on the burst fracture of a Th5 vertebra. Due to the presence of vertebral compression fractures Th8 a course of conservative treatment by the orthosis in hyperextension brace. Follow-up was 15 months.

  12. Vertebrae localization in pathological spine CT via dense classification from sparse annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Ben; Zikic, Darko; Konukoglu, Ender; Haynor, David R; Criminisi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Accurate localization and identification of vertebrae in spinal imaging is crucial for the clinical tasks of diagnosis, surgical planning, and post-operative assessment. The main difficulties for automatic methods arise from the frequent presence of abnormal spine curvature, small field of view, and image artifacts caused by surgical implants. Many previous methods rely on parametric models of appearance and shape whose performance can substantially degrade for pathological cases. We propose a robust localization and identification algorithm which builds upon supervised classification forests and avoids an explicit parametric model of appearance. We overcome the tedious requirement for dense annotations by a semi-automatic labeling strategy. Sparse centroid annotations are transformed into dense probabilistic labels which capture the inherent identification uncertainty. Using the dense labels, we learn a discriminative centroid classifier based on local and contextual intensity features which is robust to typical characteristics of spinal pathologies and image artifacts. Extensive evaluation is performed on a challenging dataset of 224 spine CT scans of patients with varying pathologies including high-grade scoliosis, kyphosis, and presence of surgical implants. Additionally, we test our method on a heterogeneous dataset of another 200, mostly abdominal, CTs. Quantitative evaluation is carried out with respect to localization errors and identification rates, and compared to a recently proposed method. Our approach is efficient and outperforms state-of-the-art on pathological cases.

  13. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  14. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  15. Interaction Methods for Virtual Reality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Applications (pp. 14-1 – 14-8). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-136, Paper 14. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France : RTO. Available from: http...applications 14.06.2006 Military Air Systems Defence & Security Systems Military Air Systems EADS Eurocopter Military Transport Aircraft SpaceAirbus M B

  16. Artificial disc and vertebra system: a novel motion preservation device for cervical spinal disease after vertebral corpectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of motion and stability of the human cadaveric cervical spine after the implantation of a novel artificial disc and vertebra system by comparing an intact group and a fusion group. METHODS: Biomechanical tests were conducted on 18 human cadaveric cervical specimens. The range of motion and the stability index range of motion were measured to study the function and stability of the artificial disc and vertebra system of the intact group compared with the fusion group. RESULTS: In all cases, the artificial disc and vertebra system maintained intervertebral motion and reestablished vertebral height at the operative level. After its implantation, there was no significant difference in the range of motion (ROM of C3-7 in all directions in the non-fusion group compared with the intact group (p>0.05, but significant differences were detected in flexion, extension and axial rotation compared with the fusion group (p<0.05. The ROM of adjacent segments (C3-4, C6-7 of the non-fusion group decreased significantly in some directions compared with the fusion group (p<0.05. Significant differences in the C4-6 ROM in some directions were detected between the non-fusion group and the intact group. In the fusion group, the C4-6 ROM in all directions decreased significantly compared with the intact and non-fusion groups (p<0.01. The stability index ROM (SI-ROM of some directions was negative in the non-fusion group, and a significant difference in SI-ROM was only found in the C4-6 segment of the non-fusion group compared with the fusion group. CONCLUSION: An artificial disc and vertebra system could restore vertebral height and preserve the dynamic function of the surgical area and could theoretically reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration compared with the anterior fusion procedure. However, our results should be considered with caution because of the low power of the study. The use of a larger sample should be

  17. Morphometric study of the T6 vertebra and its three ossification centers in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Dombek, Małgorzata; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is critical in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. We aimed to study the size of T6 vertebra in human fetuses with the crown-rump length of 115-265 mm. Using the methods of computed tomography (Biograph mCT), digital image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics, the normative growth of the T6 vertebral body and the three ossification centers of T6 vertebra in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) aged 17-30 weeks were studied. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences were found. The height, transverse, and sagittal diameters of the T6 vertebral body followed natural logarithmic functions as y = -4.972 + 2.732 × ln(age) ± 0.253 (R (2) = 0.72), y = -14.862 + 6.426 × ln(age) ± 0.456 (R (2) = 0.82), and y = -10.990 + 4.982 × ln(age) ± 0.278 (R (2) = 0.89), respectively. Its cross-sectional area (CSA) rose proportionately as y = -19.909 + 1.664 × age ± 2.033 (R (2) = 0.89), whereas its volumetric growth followed the four-degree polynomial function y = 19.158 + 0.0002 × age(4) ± 7.942 (R (2) = 0.93). The T6 body ossification center grew logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters as y = -14.784 + 6.115 × ln(age) ± 0.458 (R (2) = 0.81) and y = -12.065 + 5.019 × ln(age) ± 0.315 (R (2) = 0.87), and proportionately in both CSA and volume like y = -15.591 + 1.200 × age ± 1.470 (R (2) = 0.90) and y = -22.120 + 1.663 × age ± 1.869 (R (2) = 0.91), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio was gradually decreasing with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers revealed the following models: y = -15.188 + 6.332 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R (2) = 0.72) and y = -15.991 + 6.600 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R (2) = 0.74) for length, y = -6.716 + 2.814 × ln(age) ± 0.362 (R (2) = 0.61) and y = -7.058 + 2

  18. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  19. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  20. Application Of Adomian's Decomposition Method In Solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is shown in literature that Adomian's decomposition method gives better results than any other computational techniques. We use this method to tackle simple heat equation and compare the result with the closed form solution of the giving problem. Keywords: Adomian decomposition method; accuracy; nonlinear equation ...

  1. WEM: A design method for CMS-based web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, I. van de

    2005-01-01

    The development of complex, data-intensive web applications is becoming simpler due to the usage of content management systems. Conventional information systems development methods as well as web application development methods do not cover the specific needs of a method for web content

  2. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  3. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  4. Applications of Generalized Method of Moments Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    I describe how the method of moments approach to estimation, including the more recent generalized method of moments (GMM) theory, can be applied to problems using cross section, time series, and panel data. Method of moments estimators can be attractive because in many circumstances they are robust to failures of auxiliary distributional assumptions that are not needed to identify key parameters. I conclude that while sophisticated GMM estimators are indispensable for complicated estimation ...

  5. Numerical Methods for Structured Matrices and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Dario A; Olshevsky, Vadim; Tyrtsyhnikov, Eugene; van Barel, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This cross-disciplinary volume brings together theoretical mathematicians, engineers and numerical analysts and publishes surveys and research articles related to the topics where Georg Heinig had made outstanding achievements. In particular, this includes contributions from the fields of structured matrices, fast algorithms, operator theory, and applications to system theory and signal processing.

  6. Comparison of methods for intestinal histamine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, S; Søondergaard, I; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast ...

  7. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications Theoretical Developments and Numerical Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrates the application of DSM to solve a broad range of operator equations The dynamical systems method (DSM) is a powerful computational method for solving operator equations. With this book as their guide, readers will master the application of DSM to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear problems as well as ill-posed and well-posed problems. The authors offer a clear, step-by-step, systematic development of DSM that enables readers to grasp the method's underlying logic and its numerous applications. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications begins with a general introduction and

  8. Determination of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in kidney urinary bladder x-ray films in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid G. Khashoggi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigated the rate of occurrence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV, spinal variant, in kidney urinary bladder (KUB plain radiographs in a Saudi population. Methods: Between January 2012 to January 2015, KUB plain films obtained from patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed, and the presence or absence of LSTV was documented and classified as incomplete or complete. Patients who had evidence of spinal surgery that would obscure the view were excluded. Results: A total of 2078 patients underwent KUB examinations during the study period; LSTV anomalies were detected in 158 of these. Sacralization was present in 153 (96.8% of this cohort, while lumbarization was present in 5 (3.2%. A total of 136 (86.1% of the sacralized segments were of the incomplete type, whereas 17 (10.7% were complete. Of the lumbarized vertebrae, 3 (1.8% were incomplete, and 2 (1.2% were complete. The most frequent type in men was type Ib (28.5% for sacralized segments, and type IIb for lumbarized segments (0.6%. In women, type Ia was the most common form of sacralized segments (11.3% and type IIb was the most common form of lumbarized segments (2.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of LSTV in Saudi patients is 7.6%, with a higher incidence of sacralization than lumbarization. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up time are needed to demonstrate the clinical significance thereof.

  9. Axial compressive strength of human vertebrae trabecular bones classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic by quantitative ultrasonometry of calcaneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Biomechanical assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture contributes to the evaluation of fractures risk associated with osteoporosis and plays a crucial role in planning preventive strategies. One of the most widely clinical technics used for osteoporosis diagnosis by health professionals is bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. However, doubts about its accuracy motivate the introduction of congruent technical analysis such as calcaneal ultrasonometry (Quantitative Ultrasonometry - QUS. Methods Correlations between Bone Quality Index (BQI, determined by calcaneal ultrasonometry of thirty (30 individuals classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic, and elastic modulus (E and ultimate compressive strength (UCS from axial compression tests of ninety (90 proof bodies from human vertebrae trabecular bone, which were extracted from cadavers in the twelfth thoracic region (T12, first and fourth lumbar (L1 and L4. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant differences for E (p = 0.001, for UCS (p = 0.0001 and BQI. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rho between BQI and E (r = 0.499 and BQI and UCS (r = 0.508 were moderate. Discussion Calcaneal ultrasonometry technique allowed a moderate estimate of bone mechanical strength and fracture risk associated with osteoporosis in human vertebrae.

  10. Adolescent Scoliosis 1A001: Radiographic Results of Selecting the Touched Vertebra as the Lowest Instrumented Vertebra in Lenke Type 1 (Main Thoracic) & Type 2 (Double Thoracic) Curves at a Minimum 5-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Lenke, Lawrence; Newton, Peter; Lehman, Ronald; Kelly, Michael; Clements, David; Errico, Thomas; Betz, Randall; Samdani, Amer; Blanke, Kathy; Oggiano, Leonardo; Sessa, Sergio; Rosa, Guido La; Guler, Umit Ozgur; Ozalay, Metin; Eyvazov, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A prior study showed the touched vertebra (TV), defined as the most cephalad thoracolumbar/lumbar vertebra “touched” by the center sacral vertical line (CSVL), as a potential landmark vertebra & recommended lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) as well. We evaluated a large cohort of Lenke type 1 & 2 cases to determine if selecting the TV as the LIV will produce optimal positioning at a min. 5 yrs postoperative. Our hypothesis was that it would and that fusing short of the TV would...

  11. Comparison of 3DCRT,VMAT and IMRT techniques in metastatic vertebra radiotherapy: A phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Sonay; Tunc, Sema; Kahraman, Arda; Kahraman Cetintas, Sibel; Kurt, Meral

    2017-09-01

    Vertebra metastases can be seen during the prognosis of cancer patients. Treatment ways of the metastasis are radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. Three-dimensional conformal therapy (3D-CRT) is widely used in the treatment of vertebra metastases. Also, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) are used too. The aim of this study is to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the different radiotherapy techniques. In the aspect of this goal, it is studied with a randophantom in Uludag University Medicine Faculty, Radiation Oncology Department. By using a computerized tomography image of the phantom, one 3DCRT plan, two VMAT and three IMRT plans for servical vertebra and three different 3DCRT plans, two VMAT and two IMRT plans for lomber vertebra are calculated. To calculate 3DCRT plans, CMS XiO Treatment System is used and to calculate VMAT and IMRT plans Monaco Treatment Planning System is used in the department. The study concludes with the dosimetric comparison of the treatment plans in the spect of critical organ doses, homogeneity and conformity index. As a result of this study, all critical organ doses are suitable for QUANTEC Dose Limit Report and critical organ doses depend on the techniques which used in radiotherapy. According to homogeneity and conformity indices, VMAT and IMRT plans are better than one in 3DCRT plans in servical and lomber vertebra radiotherapy plans.

  12. Local anisotropic features method and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    The local anisotropic features method is based on the analysis of anisotropy direction of energy Fourier spectrum of image points local neighborhood. Numbers of discrete anisotropic directions are chosen as features. In the features space the measure of images nearness is set. Thanks to its properties local anisotropic features (LAF) are invariant to a wide class of input images bright transformations. This allows to identify images got by different observing channels, in different spectral ranges, within different external observation conditions. LAF method allows to perform multifunctional images processing: recognition, tracking, compression of data. LAF method may be adapted practically to any image receiver and used for multichannel information processing: channels complexing and scene integral image synthesis. The advantage of LAF method is that all kinds of processing may be realized in one computing device. Another advantage of this method is its high obstacles stability. Using the dynamic nearness measure as a constituent and integral part of the method allows to select dynamic objects and to mark them out against the underlying background. It is convenient to use LAF method in hierarchical and neuro-like structures, this makes it winning to use this method in automatic recognition system. The report considers apparatus realization and gives experimental results of images processing in multichannel optoelectronic systems in real time.

  13. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe(II) ions at pH 4.5 (acetate buffer). The reaction was monitored ...

  14. Scenistic Methods for Training: Applications and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to complement an earlier article (2010) in "Journal of European Industrial Training" in which the description and theory bases of scenistic methods were presented. This paper also offers a description of scenistic methods and information on theory bases. However, the main thrust of this paper is to describe, give suggested…

  15. Participation - Methods and application in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Ahlhorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The methods of participation used within coastal protection management projects in Germany are well established. The first part of this report summarizes the certain methods in a figure. The appendix comprises a list of certain projects. This report gives no detailed description and evaluation of

  16. Improvement in Scoliosis Top View: Evaluation of Vertebrae Localization in Scoliotic Spine-Spine Axial Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Główka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the scoliotic spine is based on two-dimensional X-rays: coronal and sagittal. The three-dimensional character of scoliosis has raised the necessity for analyzing scoliosis in three planes. We proposed a new user-friendly method of graphical presentation of the spine in the third plane–the Spine Axial Presentation (SAP. Eighty-five vertebrae of patients with scoliosis were analyzed. Due to different positions during X-rays (standing and computer tomography (CT (supine, the corresponding measurements cannot be directly compared. As a solution, a software creating Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs from CT scans was developed to replace regular X-rays with DRRs. Based on the measurements performed on DRRs, the coordinates of vertebral bodies central points were defined. Next, the geometrical centers of vertebral bodies were determined on CT scans. The reproducibility of measurements was tested with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, using p = 0.05. The intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability for vertebral body central point’s coordinates (x, y, z were high for results obtained based on DRRs and CT scans, as well as for comparison results obtained based on DRR and CT scans. Based on two standard radiographs, it is possible to localize vertebral bodies in 3D space. The position of vertebral bodies can be present in the Spine Axial Presentation.

  17. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J

    2006-01-01

    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  18. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing 100035 (China); Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  19. Population=stratified analysis of bone mineral density distribution in cervical and lumbar vertebrae of chinese from quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chen Xin [Dept. of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Dept. of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing (China); Tian, Wei [Dept. of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  20. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Zhuang; Wu, Cheng'ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2-7 and L2-4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2-5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62-0.94; males: r = 0.63-0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93-0.98; females: r = 0.82-0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen's kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen's kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be used alternatively to estimate patients' skeletal age or to predict

  2. Multi-loop calculations: numerical methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowka, S.; Heinrich, G.; Jahn, S.; Jones, S. P.; Kerner, M.; Schlenk, J.

    2017-11-01

    We briefly review numerical methods for calculations beyond one loop and then describe new developments within the method of sector decomposition in more detail. We also discuss applications to two-loop integrals involving several mass scales.

  3. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......; hydrochloric acid potential cycling; dimethylamine borane reducing agent solutions at 25 and 65 degrees C; and a dilute form of Aqua Regia. Peak-current potential-differences obtained from cyclic voltammetry and charge transfer resistance obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as X...

  4. Multigrid methods with applications to reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shengyou [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir simulation. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir simulator. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.

  5. Applications of a transonic wing design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.

  6. Role of Anatomical Landmarks in Identifying Normal and Transitional Vertebra in Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Devimeenal; Indiran, Venkatraman; Hithaya, Fouzal; Alamelu, M; Padmanaban, S

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective study. Identification of transitional vertebra is important in spine imaging, especially in presurgical planning. Pasted images of the whole spine obtained using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are helpful in counting vertebrae and identifying transitional vertebrae. Counting vertebrae and identifying transitional vertebrae is challenging in isolated studies of lumbar spine and in studies conducted in low-field MRI. An incorrect evaluation may lead to wrong-level treatment. Here, we identify the location of different anatomical structures that can help in counting and identifying vertebrae. Many studies have assessed the vertebral segments using various anatomical structures such as costal facets (CF), aortic bifurcation (AB), inferior vena cava confluence (IC), right renal artery (RRA), celiac trunk (CT), superior mesenteric artery root (SR), iliolumbar ligament (ILL) psoas muscle (PM) origin, and conus medullaris. However, none have yielded any consistent results. We studied the locations of the anatomical structures CF, AB, IC, RRA, CT, SR, ILL, and PM in patients who underwent whole spine MRI at our department. In our study, 81.4% patients had normal spinal segmentation, 14.7% had sacralization, and 3.8% had lumbarization. Vascular landmarks had variable origin. There were caudal and cranial shifts with respect to lumbarization and sacralization. In 93.8% of cases in the normal group, ILL emerged from either L5 alone or the adjacent disc. In the sacralization group, ILL was commonly seen in L5. In the lumbarization group, ILL emerged from L5 and the adjacent disc (66.6%). CFs were identified at D12 in 96.9% and 91.7% of patients in the normal and lumbarization groups, respectively. The PM origin was observed from D12 or D12-L1 in most patients in the normal and sacralization groups. CF, PM, and ILL were good identification markers for D12 and L5, but none were 100% accurate.

  7. Translational bioinformatics in psychoneuroimmunology: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine. It provides a powerful method to bridge the gaps between various knowledge domains in PNI and systems biology. Translational bioinformatics methods at various systems levels can facilitate pattern recognition, and expedite and validate the discovery of systemic biomarkers to allow their incorporation into clinical trials and outcome assessments. Analysis of the correlations between genotypes and phenotypes including the behavioral-based profiles will contribute to the transition from the disease-based medicine to human-centered medicine. Translational bioinformatics would also enable the establishment of predictive models for patient responses to diseases, vaccines, and drugs. In PNI research, the development of systems biology models such as those of the neurons would play a critical role. Methods based on data integration, data mining, and knowledge representation are essential elements in building health information systems such as electronic health records and computerized decision support systems. Data integration of genes, pathophysiology, and behaviors are needed for a broad range of PNI studies. Knowledge discovery approaches such as network-based systems biology methods are valuable in studying the cross-talks among pathways in various brain regions involved in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Applicable technical method for lower temperature freeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryo-fixation and freeze substitution followed by microscopy are commonly used sample preparation methods for visualizing the morphology of intracellular organelles. Freeze substitution is an especially important preparative step because it enables the preservation of intracellular structures in cryo-fixed cells close to the ...

  9. Quantum Imaging: New Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    higher-nonlinearity, periodically- poled 2nd-order nonlinear crystals (lithium niobate and potassium titanyl phosphate) together with off-the-shelf high...imaging for multi- layered and scattering media. Dispersion cancellation has been demonstrated experimentally. In conjunction with this, a method for

  10. Ensemble Machine Learning Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2012-01-01

    It is common wisdom that gathering a variety of views and inputs improves the process of decision making, and, indeed, underpins a democratic society. Dubbed “ensemble learning” by researchers in computational intelligence and machine learning, it is known to improve a decision system’s robustness and accuracy. Now, fresh developments are allowing researchers to unleash the power of ensemble learning in an increasing range of real-world applications. Ensemble learning algorithms such as “boosting” and “random forest” facilitate solutions to key computational issues such as face detection and are now being applied in areas as diverse as object trackingand bioinformatics.   Responding to a shortage of literature dedicated to the topic, this volume offers comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art ensemble learning techniques, including various contributions from researchers in leading industrial research labs. At once a solid theoretical study and a practical guide, the volume is a windfall for r...

  11. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  12. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Jen

    1992-01-01

    This monograph is intended for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course as well as for researchers, who want a compilation of developments in this rapidly growing field of operations research. This is a sequel to our previous works: "Multiple Objective Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A state-of-the-Art Survey" (No.164 of the Lecture Notes); "Multiple Attribute Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A State-of-the-Art Survey" (No.186 of the Lecture Notes); and "Group Decision Making under Multiple Criteria--Methods and Applications" (No.281 of the Lecture Notes). In this monograph, the literature on methods of fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been reviewed thoroughly and critically, and classified systematically. This study provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, their characteristics, and applicability to the analysis of fuzzy MADM problems. The basic concepts and algorithms from the classical MADM methods have been used in the development of the f...

  13. Application of a photoelastic coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cheng'ai; Fan, Guanghong; Li, Yajun; Li, Giangguo

    2002-05-01

    Some study results on photoelastic coating technique is presented in this paper. The study results include the manufacture method of photoelastic coating; the confection of adhesive, the design and integration of both the on site measure device and measure system with changeable wave length, as well as the system of data collection and process. The study results have been applied to practice test of the parts of mechanical products, for example, the integral structure analysis of the W67Y-63 sheet bend machine, the measure of residual stress due to welding of different steel.

  14. Application of DCI to the lipid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffi, J.; Lesgards, G.; Pouliquen, I.; Giamarchi, P.; Fakirian, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    At the end of the sixties it was proposed that a cleavage point on the triglycerides which can produce alkanes and alkenes with one or two carbons less, aldehydes and free fatty acids. The first results of work on pork were extended to chicken and poultry meats. The methodology involved extraction of the lipid fraction followed by vacuum distillation and analysis by gas chromatography (GC). Other extraction and fractionation procedures have been investigated by ADMIT and BCR groups which are more appropriate for the routine examination of large numbers of samples. In the present study, the radio-induced volatile compounds were analysed with a DI200 chromatograph, used with a head-space system, also called the DCI system (Desorption, Concentration, Injection). The main advantage of the method is that it avoids the soxhlet extraction of the lipid fraction from the foodstuffs. Several products were studied; oils, poultry meat, avocado pear. It appears that the DCI is a good and fast method provided that the temperature of the oven is controlled, which is not the case with the commercial apparatus used. (author).

  15. Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.

  16. XRSW method, its application and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheludeva, S.I.; Kovalchuk, M.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    X-Ray Standing Waves (XRSW) may be obtained under dynamical diffraction in periodic structures or under total external reflection conditions (TR) is stratified medium. As the incident angle varies, XRSW nodes and antinodes move in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting planes, leading to drastic variation of photoelectron interaction of X-ray with matter and resulting in specific angular dependencies of secondary radiation yields (photoelectrons, fluorescence, internal photoeffect, photoluminescence, Compton and thermal diffuse scattering). The structural information - the position of investigated atoms in the direction of XRSW movement (coherent position), the distribution of atoms about this position (coherent fraction) - is obtained with the accuracy about several percents from XRSW period D. The objects under investigation are: semiconductor surface layers, heterostructure, multicomponent crystals, interfaces, adsorbed layers. Besides the development of XRSW method allow to obtain structure, geometrical and optical parameters of ultrathin films (crystalline and disordered, organic and inorganic) and nanostructures on their base.

  17. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  18. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  19. The fractional - order controllers: Methods for their synthesis and application

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with fractional-order controllers. We outline mathematical description of fractional controllers and methods of their synthesis and application. Synthesis method is a modified root locus method for fractional-order systems and fractional-order controllers. In the next section we describe how to apply the fractional controller on control systems.

  20. expansion method and its application to Sharma–Tasso–Olver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The validity and advantage of the proposed method are illustrated by its application to the Sharma–Tasso–Olver equation. As a result, various ... method is introduced to construct exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The competitive point of this method is that there is no need to set a restriction to the function.

  1. Quantitative assessment of the normal adult spinal canal at the fourth lumbar vertebra by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senel, A. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Ondokuz Mayis Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)); Tanik, A. (Dept. of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis Univ., Samsun (Turkey)); Akan, H. (Dept. of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis Univ., Samsun (Turkey))

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 105 adults with various complaints. Spinal canal diameters were measured by CT using both the conventional and Jones-Thomson (JT) techniques at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The data were statistically assessed in an attempt to define spinal stenosis. (orig.)

  2. EX VIVO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGY VARIATIONS IN EQUINE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraa, Stefanie; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; van den Belt, Antoon Jan; Wijnberg, Inge; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is one of the pillars in the clinical workup of horses with clinical signs of cervical spinal disease. An improved awareness of morphologic variations in equine cervical vertebrae would be helpful for interpreting findings. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe CT

  3. Andreas Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Vanden Berghe, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Some remarkable statements made by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in his principal work De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) about the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae are discussed in the light of information from the literature. Their accuracy is evaluated on the basis of several pieces of anatomical evidence and clinical cases.

  4. A Late Cretaceous theropod caudal vertebra from the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Hanna, Samir S.; Hartman, Axel Frans; Jagt, John W M

    2000-01-01

    A caudal vertebra collected from conglomerates of the Al-Khod Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Al-Khod area, Sultanate of Oman, is assigned to a medium-sized theropod dinosaur. The Al-Khod discovery represents one of the very few dinosaur records from the Middle East.

  5. Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Amson, Eli; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-06-01

    Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae. Our findings reveal that the opposite allometric scaling of C1 and C2-C7 accommodate the increase of neck bending moment with body size. The internal organization of the neck skeleton exhibits surprisingly uniformity in the vast majority of mammals. Deviations from this general pattern only occur under extreme loading regimes associated with particular functional and allometric demands. Our results indicate that the main source of variation in the mammalian neck stems from the disparity of overall cervical spine length. The mammalian neck reveals how evolutionary disparity manifests itself in a structure that is otherwise highly restricted by meristic constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length

  7. An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Cynthia K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially introduced 'fixations' as an attempt to introduce a 'gold standard' has met with frustration and frequent mechanical failure. Because direct comparison against a 'gold standard' allows the validity, specificity and sensitivity of a test to be calculated, the identification of a realistic 'gold standard' against which motion palpation can be evaluated is essential. The objective of this study was to introduce a new, realistic, 'gold standard', the congenital block vertebra (CBV to assess the validity of motion palpation in detecting a true fixation. Methods Twenty fourth year chiropractic students examined the cervical spines of three subjects with single level congenital block vertebrae, using two commonly employed motion palpation tests. The examiners, who were blinded to the presence of congenital block vertebrae, were asked to identify the most hypomobile segment(s. The congenital block segments included two subjects with fusion at the C2–3 level and one with fusion at C5-6. Exclusion criteria included subjects who were frankly symptomatic, had moderate or severe degenerative changes in their cervical spines, or displayed signs of cervical instability. Spinal levels were marked on the subject's skin overlying the facet joints from C1 to C7 bilaterally and the motion segments were then marked alphabetically with 'A' corresponding to C1-2. Kappa coefficients (K were calculated to determine the validity of motion palpation to detect the congenitally fused segments as the 'most hypomobile' segments. Sensitivity

  8. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    methodes de calcul des coulements de gaz rarefies). RTO-EN-AVT-194 14. ABSTRACT Often, rareed ows of interest in aerospace applications are embedded...Many applications of MEMS/NEMS devices, which include micro- turbines [3, 4], micro-sensors for chemical con- centrations or gas ow properties [5, 6, 7

  9. Application of biasing techniques to the contributon Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubi, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, a new Monte Carlo Method called the Contribution Monte Carlo Method was developed. The method is based on the theory of contributions, and uses a new receipe for estimating target responses by a volume integral over the contribution current. The analog features of the new method were discussed in previous publications. The application of some biasing methods to the new contribution scheme is examined here. A theoretical model is developed that enables an analytic prediction of the benefit to be expected when these biasing schemes are applied to both the contribution method and regular Monte Carlo. This model is verified by a variety of numerical experiments and is shown to yield satisfying results, especially for deep-penetration problems. Other considerations regarding the efficient use of the new method are also discussed, and remarks are made as to the application of other biasing methods. 14 figures, 1 tables.

  10. Bayesian non- and semi-parametric methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews and develops Bayesian non-parametric and semi-parametric methods for applications in microeconometrics and quantitative marketing. Most econometric models used in microeconomics and marketing applications involve arbitrary distributional assumptions. As more data becomes available, a natural desire to provide methods that relax these assumptions arises. Peter Rossi advocates a Bayesian approach in which specific distributional assumptions are replaced with more flexible distributions based on mixtures of normals. The Bayesian approach can use either a large but fixed number

  11. Sex determination using anthropometric measurements from multi-slice computed tomography of the 12th thoracic and the first lumbar vertebrae among adult Egyptians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M.M. Badr El Dine

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the 12th thoracic vertebra is more accurate for sex determination than the first lumbar vertebra in the Egyptian population, which means that bone dimensions are population specific.

  12. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Tanderup, Kari [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Bergstrand, Eva Stabell [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Knutsen, Bjoern Helge [Department of Medical Physics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Roeislien, Jo [Section of Biostatistics, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Dag Rune [Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospital-Radiumhospital Medical Center, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-08-21

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the method of applicator reconstruction and/or the applicator orientation influence the dose calculation to points around the applicator for brachytherapy of cervical cancer with CT-based treatment planning. A phantom, containing a fixed ring applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR) (2) reconstruction in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the DR and MPR methods for all but two points. All applicator orientations had similar dose calculation reproducibility. Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator reconstruction the uncertainties for all methods are low compared to other factors influencing the accuracy of brachytherapy.

  13. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell

    2007-01-01

    in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method...... applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR), (2) reconstruction...

  14. Introduction to the geophysical methods applicable to coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter introduces a range of geophysical methods that may be applicable to coal mining and exploration problems. The focus of these discussions is on emphasising the link between geology and physics – and how the different geophysical methods...

  15. Effect of Fertilizer Type and Method of Application on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fertilizer types and methods of application on the nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of maize straw were assessed. The fertilizer types were; Low analysis fertilizer (LAF), with nutrient contents of less than 41% and High analysis fertilizer (HAF), with nutrient contents greater than 41%. The methods of ...

  16. Application of Lyapunov's Second Method in the Stability Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, Lyapunov's method for determining the stability of non-linear systems under dynamic states is presented. The paper highlights a practical application of the method to investigate the stability of crude oil/natural gas separation process. Mathematical state models for the separation process, used in the ...

  17. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  18. Viscous-Inviscid Coupling Methods for Advanced Marine Propeller Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Greve, Martin; Wöckner-Kluwe, Katja; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Rung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development of coupling strategies between an inviscid direct panel method and a viscous RANS method and their application to complex propeller ows. The work is motivated by the prohibitive computational cost associated to unsteady viscous flow simulations using geometrically resolved propellers to analyse the dynamics of ships in seaways. The present effort aims to combine the advantages of the two baseline methods in order to reduce the numerical effort without comprom...

  19. Nanoemulsions: the properties, methods of preparation and promising applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, M. Yu; Yurtov, Evgenii V.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of nanoemulsions and various methods for their preparation including the high-energy and low-energy emulsification methods and the combined methods are reviewed. Among the high-energy methods, the emphasis is placed on high-energy stirring, ultrasonic emulsification, high-pressure homogenization including microfluidics and membrane emulsification. Among the low-energy emulsification methods, the attention is focused on the phase inversion temperature method, the emulsion inversion point method and the spontaneous emulsification. Using a combined method, which includes the high-energy and low-energy emulsification, it is possible to prepare reverse nanoemulsions in highly viscous systems. Main advantages and limitations of different methods of nanoemulsion preparation are discussed and the potential fields of nanoemulsion applications are considered. The bibliography includes 255 references.

  20. Experimental dosimetric evaluation of inhomogeneity effects caused by thoracic vertebrae; Avaliacao dosimetrica experimental de efeitos de inomogeneidade causados por vertebras toracicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Andre L.S.; Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Radioterapia Sao Francisco, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The presence of tissue inhomogeneities alters the absorbed dose distribution, which magnitude depends on the physical properties of these tissues and the quality of the radiation. Incorrect assessment of dose distribution may affect local tumor control or increase the normal tissue complication probabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the thoracic vertebrae inhomogeneous effects on the dose absorbed by the surrounding soft tissue. The values predicted by the treatment planning system (TPS) were compared to the experimental measurements with EBT-2 radiochromic films positioned on a simulator consisting of only water and inserted axially into a thoracic phantom made of synthetic bone and water. There was a significant change in the dose distribution pattern, increased absorbed dose at the bone-soft tissue interface and high point doses adjacent to the bone compared to the results obtained for the films in homogeneous medium and TPS. The experimental measurements in the water agreed with the TPS within 1.0% with respect to the modal dose whereas the biggest difference found for the medium containing the vertebrae was of 4.6%, however, both values are within the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  1. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions about Mathematical Modeling Method and Applicability of This Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify prospective secondary mathematics teachers' opinions about the mathematical modeling method and the applicability of this method in high schools. The case study design, which is among the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The study was conducted with six prospective secondary mathematics…

  2. Vertebral fracture assessment: Current research status and application in patients with kyphoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drampalos, Efstathios; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Baltas, Christos; Balanika, Alexia; Galanos, Antonis; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Pneumaticos, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    intraobserver and interobserver reliability. Agreement was very good on the vertebral level, “vertebrae with kyphoplasty” level and “2 above and 1 below the kyphoplasty vertebrae” level. The application of Genant’s method to these patients also resulted in perfect agreement. We believe that the potential value of VFA in patients treated with kyphoplasty requires further evaluation, particularly comparing VFA with SR and performing a longitudinal follow-up. More research will help to adopt care processes that determine which patients require VFA and how often VFA should be performed, while also considering the impact of this technique on the cost of healthcare organizations. PMID:26495245

  3. Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0–6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form – as a chordacentrum – was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3–V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20–V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays – lepidotrichs – of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a

  4. Application of methods of experiential education in corporate trainings

    OpenAIRE

    Šneiderová, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor thesis discusses possible applications of the experiential learning method in adult education, mainly in professional training. The thesis defines the experiential pedagogy concept and covers the history of this area of pedagogy. It focuses on games as an important experiential learning tool as well as on conditions of their application in the development of adults. It explains how to prepare a game for adults and how to work with it to make it a real developmental tool. One sect...

  5. Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli

    2004-11-01

    Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism development was discussed in the article. Since 1990s, geo-information science methods, which take the 3S (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) as core techniques, has played an important role in resources reconnaissance, data management, environment monitoring, and regional planning. Geo-information science methods can easily analyze and convert geographic spatial data. The application of 3S methods is helpful to sustainable development in tourism. Various assignments are involved in the development of ecotourism, such as reconnaissance of ecotourism resources, drawing of tourism maps, dealing with mass data, and also tourism information inquire, employee management, quality management of products. The utilization of geo-information methods in ecotourism can make the development more efficient by promoting the sustainable development of tourism and the protection of eco-environment.

  6. Bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of the fourth lumbar vertebra: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a well known cause of low back pain, usually affects the pars interarticularis of a lower lumbar vertebra and rarely involves the articular processes. We report a rare case of bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4 vertebra that caused spinal canal stenosis with a significant segmental instability at L4/5 and scoliosis. A 31-year-old male who had suffered from low back pain since he was a teenager presented with numbness of the right lower leg and scoliosis. Plain X-rays revealed bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4, anterolisthesis of the L4 vertebral body, and right lateral wedging of the L4/5 disc with compensatory scoliosis in the cephalad portion of the spine. MR images revealed spinal canal stenosis at the L4/5 disc level. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion of the L4/5 was performed, and his symptoms were relieved.

  7. Grade 4 spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra associated with dural ectasia in neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, H N; Srinivasalu, S; Suh, S W; Yang, J H

    2009-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis associated with neurofibromatosis is rare, and only 12 cases have been reported so far. However, only one report of grade 4 spondylolisthesis with neurofibromatosis has been reported in the literature. A 15-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis was admitted for back pain and neurological claudication. Radiograph showed grade 4 spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra with scalloping of the L4-L5 vertebrae. L4-L5 laminectomy, reduction, L3-S1 posterior instrumentation and fusion were performed. The reduction of the spondylisthesis was done entirely from the posterior approach using pedicle screws. Radiography at four months showed a broken S1 screw with a loss of reduction. The patient was re-operated on, to provide additional stability with pelvic fixation. He was pain-free with a good fusion at the two-year follow-up. Adequate posterior stabilisation with fusion gives good results in grade 4 spondylolisthesis associated with neurofibromatosis and dural ectasia.

  8. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  9. Application of Maximum Entropy Method to Semiconductor Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Yonamoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy method (MEM is widely used in research fields such as linguistics, meteorology, physics, and chemistry. Recently, MEM application has become a subject of interest in the semiconductor engineering field, in which devices utilize very thin films composed of many materials. For thin film fabrication, it is essential to thoroughly understand atomic-scale structures, internal fixed charges, and bulk/interface traps, and many experimental techniques have been developed for evaluating these. However, the difficulty in interpreting the data they provide prevents the improvement of device fabrication processes. As a candidate for a very practical data analyzing technique, MEM is a promising approach to solve this problem. In this paper, we review the application of MEM to thin films used in semiconductor engineering. The method provides interesting and important information that cannot be obtained with conventional methods. This paper explains its theoretical background, important points for practical use, and application results.

  10. Multicomponent and multiscale systems theory, methods, and applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the latest research results from combined multi-component and multi-scale explorations. It provides theory, considers underlying numerical methods, and presents brilliant computational experimentation. Engineering computations featured in this monograph further offer particular interest to many researchers, engineers, and computational scientists working in frontier modeling and applications of multicomponent and multiscale problems. Professor Geiser gives specific attention to the aspects of decomposing and splitting delicate structures and controlling decomposition and the rationale behind many important applications of multi-component and multi-scale analysis. Multicomponent and Multiscale Systems: Theory, Methods, and Applications in Engineering also considers the question of why iterative methods can be powerful and more appropriate for well-balanced multiscale and multicomponent coupled nonlinear problems. The book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in theoretical and a...

  11. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Ramírez, J. Ramón, E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred.

  12. Asymmetric lumbosacral transitional vertebra and subsequent disc protrusion in a cocker spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Rebecca; Sissener, Thomas; Connery, Neil; Spotswood, Tim

    2010-03-01

    A 10-year-old cocker spaniel bitch presented with severe lumbosacral pain and acute onset left pelvic limb lameness. A diagnosis of asymmetric lumbosacral transitional vertebra with disc protrusion at L6-L7 was made by computed tomography. The cauda equina and left L6 nerve root were surgically decompressed with a dorsal laminectomy and lateral foraminotomy, which led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs.

  13. The Mammalian Cervical Vertebrae Blueprint Depends on the T (brachyury) Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Kromik, Andreas; Ulrich, Reiner; Kusenda, Marian; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M.; Hellige, Maren; Dziallas, Peter; Hadlich, Frieder; Widmann, Philipp; Goldammer, Tom; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Rehage, Jürgen; Segelke, Dierck; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa

    2015-01-01

    A key common feature of all but three known mammalian genera is the strict seven cervical vertebrae blueprint, suggesting the involvement of strong conserving selection forces during mammalian radiation. This is further supported by reports indicating that children with cervical ribs die before they reach reproductive age. Hypotheses were put up, associating cervical ribs (homeotic transformations) to embryonal cancer (e.g., neuroblastoma) or ascribing the constraint in cervical vertebral cou...

  14. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  15. 3rd Workshop on "Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The combination of different intelligent methods is a very active research area in Artificial Intelligence (AI). The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components.  The 3rd Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2012) was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners who are dealing with combining intelligent methods either based on first principles or in the context of specific applications. CIMA 2012 was held in conjunction with the 22nd European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2012).This volume includes revised versions of the papers presented at CIMA 2012.  .

  16. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  17. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  18. The J-Matrix Method Developments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, Abdulaziz D; Heller, Eric J; Abdelmonem, Mohamed S

    2008-01-01

    This volume aims to provide the fundamental knowledge to appreciate the advantages of the J-matrix method and to encourage its use and further development. The J-matrix method is an algebraic method of quantum scattering with substantial success in atomic and nuclear physics. The accuracy and convergence property of the method compares favourably with other successful scattering calculation methods. Despite its thirty-year long history new applications are being found for the J-matrix method. This book gives a brief account of the recent developments and some selected applications of the method in atomic and nuclear physics. New findings are reported in which experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations. Modifications, improvements and extensions of the method are discussed using the language of the J-matrix. The volume starts with a Foreword by the two co-founders of the method, E.J. Heller and H.A. Yamani and it contains contributions from 24 prominent international researchers.

  19. EMPLOYEE SELECTION METHODS IN ROMANIA: POPULARITY AND APPLICANT REACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Septimiu-Rare? SZABO

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of, and applicants’ reactions to 21 different employee selection methods. Past studies on this topic have focused mainly on countries in Western Europe. This research investigated a sample of 142 Romanian respondents using a postal survey. The most popular selection methods used by Romanian organizations were found to be CVs, ability tests and interviews. In contrast, applicants most favor work-samples, followed by ability tests, interviews, CVs and personal...

  20. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektnyj Inst. Alyuminievoj, magnievoj i ehlektrodnoj promyshlennosti (USSR))

    1984-12-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short.

  1. Selection of distal fusion level in posterior instrumentation and fusion of Scheuermann kyphosis: is fusion to sagittal stable vertebra necessary?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanik, Hakan Serhat; Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Coskun, Tamer; Ulusoy, Ayhan; Erdem, Sevki

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of DJK in relation to distal fusion level selection in SK surgery by investigating the relationship between the sagittal stable vertebra (SSV...

  2. Estado de maduracion osea de las vertebras cervicales en una poblacion colombiana con y sin labio y paladar fisurado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez Carrera, Maria Clara; Martinez, Claudia Marcela; Mora Diaz, Ingrid; Bautista Mendoza, Gloria Rocio; Palmet Orozco, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Proposito: Comparar el estado de maduracion osea en radiografias de perfil en una poblacion colombiana con y sin labio y paladar fisurado por medio del analisis de maduracion de vertebras cervicales (MVC). Metodos...

  3. Application of TOPSIS method in evaluation and prioritization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of TOPSIS method in evaluation and prioritization of social stability in rural areas (Case Study: Zidasht Basin) ... social sustainability serves as one of the sustainable development components along with qualitative aspects which are evaluated by some concepts like human life and welfare feeling in an ambient.

  4. An Overview of the Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, & Applications Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This report sketches the work of the Group to deliver first-principle Monte Carlo methods, production quality codes, and radiation transport-based computational and experimental assessments using the codes MCNP and MCATK for such applications as criticality safety, non-proliferation, nuclear energy, nuclear threat reduction and response, radiation detection and measurement, radiation health protection, and stockpile stewardship.

  5. Effects of tillage and fertilizer application methods on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons to evaluate the effects of tillage, fertilizer application method, and the interaction between these two factors on the performance of maize. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  6. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

      Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  7. Applications of non-linear methods in astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this review I discuss catastrophes, bifurcations and strange attractors in a non-mathematical manner by giving very simple examples that st ill contain the essence of the phenomenon. The salientresults of the applications of these non-linear methods in astrophysics are reviewed and include such

  8. How to save water by choice of irrigation application method

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  9. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the application of the New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method (NVHPM) for solving integro-differential equations. The advantage of the new Scheme is that it does not require discretization, linearization or any restrictive assumption of any form be fore it is applied. Several test problems are ...

  10. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the color effects of wood materials to coloring with different application methods (brush, roller sponge and spray gun) and waterborne varnishes were investigated according to ASTM-D 2244. For this purpose, the experimental samples of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and ...

  11. Application of maximum entropy method for the study of electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of maximum entropy method for the study of electron density distribution in ... the sulphide has been divided into 64 × 64 × 64 pixels), a supercomputing system is needed in most cases involving lower ..... predicting metallurgical behaviour of the elements in binary alloy systems, LA-2345. (Los Alamos Scientific ...

  12. Methods and applications for detecting structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Elizabeth A.

    The use of networks to represent systems of interacting components is now common in many fields including the biological, physical, and social sciences. Network models are widely applicable due to their relatively simple framework of vertices and edges. Network structure, patterns of connection between vertices, impacts both the functioning of networks and processes occurring on networks. However, many aspects of network structure are still poorly understood. This dissertation presents a set of network analysis methods and applications to real-world as well as simulated networks. The methods are divided into two main types: linear algebra formulations and probabilistic mixture model techniques. Network models lend themselves to compact mathematical representation as matrices, making linear algebra techniques useful probes of network structure. We present methods for the detection of two distinct, but related, network structural forms. First, we derive a measure of vertex similarity based upon network structure. The method builds on existing ideas concerning calculation of vertex similarity, but generalizes and extends the scope to large networks. Second, we address the detection of communities or modules in a specific class of networks, directed networks. We propose a method for detecting community structure in directed networks, which is an extension of a community detection method previously only known for undirected networks. Moving away from linear algebra formulations, we propose two methods for network structure detection based on probabilistic techniques. In the first method, we use the machinery of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to probe patterns of connection among vertices in static networks. The technique allows for the detection of a broad range of types of structure in networks. The second method focuses on time evolving networks. We propose an application of the EM algorithm to evolving networks that can reveal significant structural

  13. Fourier modal method and its applications in computational nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hwi

    2012-01-01

    Most available books on computational electrodynamics are focused on FDTD, FEM, or other specific technique developed in microwave engineering. In contrast, Fourier Modal Method and Its Applications in Computational Nanophotonics is a complete guide to the principles and detailed mathematics of the up-to-date Fourier modal method of optical analysis. It takes readers through the implementation of MATLAB(R) codes for practical modeling of well-known and promising nanophotonic structures. The authors also address the limitations of the Fourier modal method. Features Provides a comprehensive guid

  14. Application of the IPEBS method to dynamic contingency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.C.B. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A.S. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Dynamic contingency analysis is certainly a demanding task in the context of dynamic performance evaluation. This paper presents the results of a test for checking the contingency screening capability of the IPEBS method. A brazilian 1100-bus, 112-gen system was used in the test; the ranking of the contingencies based on critical clearing times obtained with IPEBS, was compared with the ranking derived from detailed time-domain simulation. The results of this comparison encourages us to recommended the use of the method in industry applications, in a complementary basis to the current method of time domain simulation. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Applications of alignment-free methods in epigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinello, Luca; Lo Bosco, Giosuè; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of cell type-specific gene activities, yet how epigenetic patterns are established and maintained remains poorly understood. Recent studies have supported a role of DNA sequences in recruitment of epigenetic regulators. Alignment-free methods have been applied to identify distinct sequence features that are associated with epigenetic patterns and to predict epigenomic profiles. Here, we review recent advances in such applications, including the methods to map DNA sequence to feature space, sequence comparison and prediction models. Computational studies using these methods have provided important insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

  16. Statistical disclosure control for microdata methods and applications in R

    CERN Document Server

    Templ, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    This book on statistical disclosure control presents the theory, applications and software implementation of the traditional approach to (micro)data anonymization, including data perturbation methods, disclosure risk, data utility, information loss and methods for simulating synthetic data. Introducing readers to the R packages sdcMicro and simPop, the book also features numerous examples and exercises with solutions, as well as case studies with real-world data, accompanied by the underlying R code to allow readers to reproduce all results. The demand for and volume of data from surveys, registers or other sources containing sensible information on persons or enterprises have increased significantly over the last several years. At the same time, privacy protection principles and regulations have imposed restrictions on the access and use of individual data. Proper and secure microdata dissemination calls for the application of statistical disclosure control methods to the data before release. This book is in...

  17. Physical methods of nucleic acid transfer: general concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemejane, Julien; Mir, Lluis M

    2009-05-01

    Physical methods of gene (and/or drug) transfer need to combine two effects to deliver the therapeutic material into cells. The physical methods must induce reversible alterations in the plasma membrane to allow the direct passage of the molecules of interest into the cell cytosol. They must also bring the nucleic acids in contact with the permeabilized plasma membrane or facilitate access to the inside of the cell. These two effects can be achieved in one or more steps, depending upon the methods employed. In this review, we describe and compare several physical methods: biolistics, jet injection, hydrodynamic injection, ultrasound, magnetic field and electric pulse mediated gene transfer. We describe the physical mechanisms underlying these approaches and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as well as its potential application in research or in preclinical and clinical trials. We also provide conclusions, comparisons, and projections for future developments. While some of these methods are already in use in man, some are still under development or are used only within clinical trials for gene transfer. The possibilities offered by these methods are, however, not restricted to the transfer of genes and the complementary uses of these technologies are also discussed. As these methods of gene transfer may bypass some of the side effects linked to viral or biochemical approaches, they may find their place in specific clinical applications in the future.

  18. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  19. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  20. Application Profile Matching Method for Employees Online Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti; Rangga, Rahmadian Y.; Marlim, Yulvia Nora

    2017-12-01

    Employees is one of the determinant factors of company’s success. Thus, reliable human resources are needed to support the survival of the company. This research takes case study at PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru Branch. Employee recruitment system at PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru Branch still uses manual system as seen in application letter files file so it needs long time to determine accepted and rejected the application. For that it needs to built a system or application that allows companies in determining employees who accepted or rejected easily. Pofile Matching Method is a process of competency assessment that is done by comparing the value of written, psychological and interview test between one applicationt with other. PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru branch set the percentage to calculate NCF (Core Factor Value) by 60% and NSF (Secondary Factor Value) by 40%, and set the percentage to calculate the total value of written test by 40%, the total value of psycho test by 30%, and the total value of interview 30%. The final result of this study is to determine the rank or ranking of each applicant based on the greater value which, the greater that score of final result of an application get, the greater the chance of the applicant occupy a position or vacancy. Online Recruitment application uses profile matching method can help employee selection process and employee acceptance decisions quickly. This system can be viewed by directors or owners anywhere because it is online and used for other company branch

  1. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/829 ] | View in 

  2. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  3. Probabilistic safety analysis of external floods. Method and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluegel, J.U. [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken (Switzerland)

    2013-05-15

    The events of Fukushima amplified the scientific interest in the improvement of methods for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of extreme external events. The assessment of consequences of external floods belongs to this group of events. The paper presents the key steps of methodology for probabilistic safety assessment of external floods and a recent application for a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. The presented methodology is an extension of earlier activities and provides more focus on the PSA methodology part that may be applicable also for other studies. (orig.)

  4. Application of direct tracking method for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ziabari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, direct tracking method as an image analysis based technique for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter has been presented and compared with distance transform method. Samples with known characteristics generated using a simulation scheme known as µ-randomness were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Electrospun webs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were also used to verify the applicability of the method on real samples. Since direct tracking as well as distance transform require binary input images, micrographs of the electrospun webs obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were first converted to black and white using local thresholding. Direct tracking resulted in more accurate estimations of fiber diameter for simulated images as well as electrospun webs suggesting the usefulness of the method for electrospun nanofiber diameter measurement.

  5. Spectral/hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris; Monteserin, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The spectral/hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation...... regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/hp...... element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/hp element...

  6. Application of the selected physical methods in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of acoustic emission (AE, which is a part of the non-destructive methods, currently having an extensive application. This method is used for measuring the internal defects of materials. AE has a high potential in further research and development to extend the application of this method even in the field of process engineering. For that matter, it is the most elaborate acoustic emission monitoring in laboratory conditions with regard to external stimuli. The aim of the project is to apply the acoustic emission recording the activity of bees in different seasons. The mission is to apply a new perspective on the behavior of colonies by means of acoustic emission, which collects a sound propagation in the material. Vibration is one of the integral part of communication in the community. Sensing colonies with the support of this method is used for understanding of colonies biological behavior to stimuli clutches, colony development etc. Simulating conditions supported by acoustic emission monitoring system the illustrate colonies activity. Collected information will be used to represent a comprehensive view of the life cycle and behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Use of information about the activities of bees gives a comprehensive perspective on using of acoustic emission in the field of biological research.

  7. Application of blended learning in teaching statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a hybrid method (blended learning - linking traditional education with on-line education to teach selected problems of mathematical statistics. This includes the teaching of the application of mathematical statistics to evaluate laboratory experimental results. An on-line statistics course was developed to form an integral part of the module ‘methods of statistical evaluation of experimental results’. The course complies with the principles outlined in the Polish National Framework of Qualifications with respect to the scope of knowledge, skills and competencies that students should have acquired at course completion. The paper presents the structure of the course and the educational content provided through multimedia lessons made accessible on the Moodle platform. Following courses which used the traditional method of teaching and courses which used the hybrid method of teaching, students test results were compared and discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid method of teaching when compared to the effectiveness of the traditional method of teaching.

  8. Analytical methods of laser spectroscopy for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyshkin, Dmitri V.

    Different aspects of the application of laser spectroscopy in biomedical research have been considered. A growing demand for molecular sensing techniques in biomedical and environmental research has led the introduction of existing spectroscopic techniques, as well as development of new methods. The applications of laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the monitoring of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hemoglobin levels, the study of the characteristics of light-curing dental restorative materials, and the environmental monitoring of levels of toxic metal ion is presented. The development of new solid-state tunable laser sources based on color center crystals for these applications is presented as well.

  9. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  10. The application of the dynamic programming method in investment optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of investment in Measuring Transformers Factory in Zajecar and the application of the dynamic programming method as one of the methods used in business process optimization. Dynamic programming is a special case of nonlinear programming that is widely applicable to nonlinear systems in economics. Measuring Transformers Factory in Zajecar was founded in 1969. It manufactures electrical equipment, primarily low and medium voltage current measuring transformers, voltage transformers, bushings, etc. The company offers a wide range of products and for this paper's needs the company's management selected three products for each of which optimal investment costing was made. The purpose was to see which product would be the most profitable and thus proceed with the manufacturing and selling of that particular product or products.

  11. Application of hydrothermal method derived titanate nanotubes as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Liu, Shin-Shou; Chen, Huang-Chi

    2009-01-01

    Titanate nanotubes (TNT) derived from alkaline hydrothermal method are characterized by high specific surface area, specific pore volume, and ion-exchange capacity. They may be a promising and important adsorbent in the environmental protection. Although their applications in the fields of lithium ion batteries, dye-sensitized solar cell, photocatalysis, catalysts support, gas and humidity sensors, and ion exchange have been intensely studied during recent years, however, the researches concerning their potential application as an adsorbent are seldom reported. In this mini-review, we first highlight the effects of hydrothermal temperature and sodium content on the microstructures of hydrothermal method derived TNT, because the morphology and microstructure of TNT are highly dependent on the preparation conditions. Effects of the alterations of microstructures induced by the variation of hydrothermal temperature and sodium content on the dyes, heavy metal ions, and organic vapors adsorption characteristics of TNT are then introduced citing recent patents.

  12. Fuzzy multiple objective decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Young-Jou

    1994-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the fuzzy set theory has been applied in many disciplines such as operations research, management science, control theory, artificial intelligence/expert system, etc. In this volume, methods and applications of crisp, fuzzy and possibilistic multiple objective decision making are first systematically and thoroughly reviewed and classified. This state-of-the-art survey provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, and their characteristics and applicability to analysis of fuzzy and possibilistic programming problems. To realize practical fuzzy modelling, it presents solutions for real-world problems including production/manufacturing, location, logistics, environment management, banking/finance, personnel, marketing, accounting, agriculture economics and data analysis. This book is a guided tour through the literature in the rapidly growing fields of operations research and decision making and includes the most up-to-date bibliographical listing of literature on the topi...

  13. Application of the taguchi method in change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Ivić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Taguchi methods results in efficient optimization of performance, quality and price, fast and accurate gathering of technical information, design and production of highly reliable products and processes at low prices, development of flexible technologies for designing of a whole group of high quality associated products. All this significantly reduces the duration of research, development and delivery. The most frequent use of the Taguchi methods is to improve existing products and production processes and to reduce the need for experiments. The Taguchi methods is a system of quality engineering which puts more emphasis on reduction of production costs and giving advantage to efficient use of engineering strategies than on the use of advanced statistical methods.

  14. Novel application of the kernel polynomial method to inhomogeneous superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaci, Lucian; Berciu, Mona

    2009-05-01

    Inhomogeneities (surface, interfaces, impurities, etc.) in superconductors give rise to interesting phenomena, like broken time-reversal states, bound states near surfaces, etc. Numerical solutions of the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes mean field equations become computationally intensive for systems whose translational symmetry is broken. We propose a new method of solving the mean-field equations based on the Kernel Polynomial Method by expanding the Green's functions in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and calculating the order parameters self-consistently. The benefits of this method are multiple: usage of large systems, easy implementation of symmetries, multiple bands. Although we apply this method to a specific example (formation of Andreev states in 2D superconductors), it is applicable to any mean-field calculation.

  15. New applications of renormalization group methods in nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R J; Hebeler, K

    2013-12-01

    We review recent developments in the use of renormalization group (RG) methods in low-energy nuclear physics. These advances include enhanced RG technology, particularly for three-nucleon forces, which greatly extends the reach and accuracy of microscopic calculations. We discuss new results for the nucleonic equation of state with applications to astrophysical systems such as neutron stars, new calculations of the structure and reactions of finite nuclei, and new explorations of correlations in nuclear systems.

  16. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  17. Handbook of Partial Least Squares Concepts, Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vinzi, Vincenzo Esposito; Henseler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods with specific reference to their use in marketing and with a discussion of the directions of current research and perspectives. It covers the broad area of PLS methods, from regression to structural equation modeling applications, software and interpretation of results. The handbook serves both as an introduction for those without prior knowledge of PLS and as a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners interested in the most recent advances in PLS methodology.

  18. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  19. Spinopelvic alignment and sagittal balance of asymptomatic adults with 6 lumbar vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kunio; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Yamada, Makoto; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Ito, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shinji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate total spinal alignment in asymptomatic individuals with 6 lumbar vertebrae (LVs). The present study comprised 167 Japanese adult volunteers with no spinal symptoms. In all individuals, standing radiographs of the entire spine were taken to measure the pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), C7 sagittal vertical axis (C7SVA), T1 slope, thoracic kyphosis (TK), C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2-C7 SVA), and C2-C7 lordosis (C2-C7L). We used these parameters to compare individuals with 5LVs to those with 6LVs. We performed additional investigations regarding the relationship between L6 morphological characteristics and parameters. Out of 167 individuals, 6LVs were present in 29 (17.4 %). PI was significantly greater in individuals with 6LVs (64.8° ± 9.54°) than in those with 5LVs (51.3° ± 10.1°, P < 0.0001). Individuals with 6LVs also had significantly larger SS, PT, and C7SVA values (SS: P = 0.0125, PT: P < 0.0001, C7SVA: P = 0.0172). LL tended to be nonsignificantly greater in individuals with 6LVs (P = 0.1588). All of these changes were more noticeable in individuals in whom the L6 vertebra was classified as type II and III according to the Castellvi classification. Meanwhile, the presence of 6LVs has little influence on the alignment of the superior lumber vertebrae. Asymptomatic individuals with 6LVs presented with different spinopelvic alignment compared to those with 5LVs. We need to establish a treatment strategy for symptomatic 6LV cases.

  20. The mammalian cervical vertebrae blueprint depends on the T (brachyury) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromik, Andreas; Ulrich, Reiner; Kusenda, Marian; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M; Hellige, Maren; Dziallas, Peter; Hadlich, Frieder; Widmann, Philipp; Goldammer, Tom; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Rehage, Jürgen; Segelke, Dierck; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa

    2015-03-01

    A key common feature all but three known mammalian genera is the strict seven cervical vertebrae blueprint, suggesting the involvement of strong conserving selection forces during mammalian radiation. This is further supported by reports indicating that children with cervical ribs die before they reach reproductive age. Hypotheses were put up, associating cervical ribs (homeotic transformations) to embryonal cancer (e.g., neuroblastoma) or ascribing the constraint in cervical vertebral count to the development of the mammalian diaphragm. Here, we describe a spontaneous mutation c.196A > G in the Bos taurus T gene (also known as brachyury) associated with a cervical vertebral homeotic transformation that violates the fundamental mammalian cervical blueprint, but does not preclude reproduction of the affected individual. Genome-wide mapping, haplotype tracking within a large pedigree, resequencing of target genome regions, and bioinformatic analyses unambiguously confirmed the mutant c.196G allele as causal for this previously unknown defect termed vertebral and spinal dysplasia (VSD) by providing evidence for the mutation event. The nonsynonymous VSD mutation is located within the highly conserved T box of the T gene, which plays a fundamental role in eumetazoan body organization and vertebral development. To our knowledge, VSD is the first unequivocally approved spontaneous mutation decreasing cervical vertebrae number in a large mammal. The spontaneous VSD mutation in the bovine T gene is the first in vivo evidence for the hypothesis that the T protein is directly involved in the maintenance of the mammalian seven-cervical vertebra blueprint. It therefore furthers our knowledge of the T-protein function and early mammalian notochord development. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, G; Dickholtz, M; Meyer, P M; Kravitz, G; Avery, E; Miller, M; Brown, J; Woodfield, C; Bell, B

    2007-05-01

    Anatomical abnormalities of the cervical spine at the level of the Atlas vertebra are associated with relative ischaemia of the brainstem circulation and increased blood pressure (BP). Manual correction of this mal-alignment has been associated with reduced arterial pressure. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that correcting mal-alignment of the Atlas vertebra reduces and maintains a lower BP. Using a double blind, placebo-controlled design at a single center, 50 drug naïve (n=26) or washed out (n=24) patients with Stage 1 hypertension were randomized to receive a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic (NUCCA) procedure or a sham procedure. Patients received no antihypertensive meds during the 8-week study duration. The primary end point was changed in systolic and diastolic BP comparing baseline and week 8, with a 90% power to detect an 8/5 mm Hg difference at week 8 over the placebo group. The study cohort had a mean age 52.7+/-9.6 years, consisted of 70% males. At week 8, there were differences in systolic BP (-17+/-9 mm Hg, NUCCA versus -3+/-11 mm Hg, placebo; Pdisplacement of Atlas vertebra (1.0, baseline versus 0.04 degrees week 8, NUCCA versus 0.6, baseline versus 0.5 degrees , placebo; P=0.002). Heart rate was not reduced in the NUCCA group (-0.3 beats per minute, NUCCA, versus 0.5 beats per minute, placebo). No adverse effects were recorded. We conclude that restoration of Atlas alignment is associated with marked and sustained reductions in BP similar to the use of two-drug combination therapy.

  2. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  3. Mechanomyographic parameter extraction methods: an appraisal for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Zuniga, Jorge M; Hasnan, Nazirah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul

    2014-12-03

    The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  4. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  5. [Wolff's law-based continuum topology optimization method and its application in biomechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Zhang, Hongwu; Luo, Yangjun; Chen, Biaosong

    2008-04-01

    A new method for the simulation of the mass distribution of cancellous bone is presented on the basis of finite element analysis (FEA). In this method,the process of bone remodelling is considered as a process of the topology optimization of a corresponding continuum structure. Fabric tensor is used to express the microstructure and the constitutive properties of cancellous bone. The effective volume fraction or the relative density of a point in the design domain is expressed by the invariables of the fabric tensor. A reference strain interval, which is corresponding to the strain dead zone of a bone in biomechanics, is applied to detect the the final topology of the structure. By the present approach, several numerical results are given, i. e., the simulation on the shape of the coronal plane of vertebrae, the predictions of the mass distributions of the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional proximal femurs. The validity and feasibility of this new method are verified by the comparison between the results of the present work and those in the published literatures.

  6. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged...... and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  7. Assessment of lumbar vertebrae morphology by magnetic resonance imaging in osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Oezguer [Near East University, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Faculty of Medicine, Lefkosa, Mersin (Turkey); Fidan, Fatma; Ardicoglu, Oezge [Ankara Atatuerk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara (Turkey); Erdil, Filiz; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa [Ankara Atatuerk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Ankara (Turkey); Tosun, Aliye [Near East University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Lefkosa, Mersin (Turkey)

    2012-12-15

    To investigate the lumbar spinal morphology in patients with and without osteoporosis by comparing the endplate changes, intervertebral disc changes, and vertebral heights. This is a retrospective study. Medical records of the 3,530 patients admitted to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics with low back pain between August 2010 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 64 patients of whom 57 were females (89.1 %) and seven were males (10.9 %) were included in the study. Participants were divided into an osteoporosis group, an osteopenia group, and a nonosteoporotic control group, according to bone mineral densities. In this study, mid heights of L3, L4, and L5 vertebrae were found to be higher in the normal group than in both the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups. Mid part heights of L1-2, L2-3, and L5-S1 intervertebral discs were significantly lower in the normal group when compared to the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups. End-plate marrow abnormality was detected in L1 lower end plate in 75 % of normal subjects, 40.6 % of osteopenics, and 25 % of osteoporotics. Statistically significant difference in the presence of Schmorl nodes in L5 vertebra lower end plates was present between groups; 58.3 % of normals, 34.4 % of osteopenics and 15 % of osteoporotics had Schmorl nodes in L5 vertebra lower end plates. There was a significant difference regarding disc degeneration and intradiscal gas presence in L5-S1 intervertebral discs between groups; 66.7 % of normals, 28.1 % of osteopenics, and 25 % of osteoporotics had severe disc degeneration and intradiscal gas was present in L5-S1 intervertebral discs. Significant changes in morphology of the lumbar spine and intervertebral discs were found. It was revealed that the effects of osteoporosis are not limited to the bone but also present in the intervertebral discs. Mid heights of intervertebral discs were higher in the osteoporotic and osteopenic groups when compared to normal

  8. Chondrosarcoma of T2 Vertebrae Treated by Combined Anterior and Posterior Approach: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Norazian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma of the spine is rare; it presents predominantly in very young males and presentation with neurological deficit is uncommon. Treatment of this type of tumour is mainly through surgery as adjuvant therapy is ineffective. En bloc resection of tumours in the spine are difficult although it remains the recommended treatment for chondrosarcoma. We report here presentation of a female with paresis (Frankel C whom was diagnosed with a large chondrosarcoma of the T2 vertebra extending to the right upper thoracic cavity. The patient underwent radical excision through an anterior and posterior approach to the spine.

  9. The application of statistical methods to assess economic assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dianov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration and evaluation of machinery, equipment and special equipment, methodological aspects of the use of standards for assessment of buildings and structures in current prices, the valuation of residential, specialized houses, office premises, assessment and reassessment of existing and inactive military assets, the application of statistical methods to obtain the relevant cost estimates.The objective of the scientific article is to consider possible application of statistical tools in the valuation of the assets, composing the core group of elements of national wealth – the fixed assets. Firstly, capital tangible assets constitute the basis of material base of a new value creation, products and non-financial services. The gain, accumulated of tangible assets of a capital nature is a part of the gross domestic product, and from its volume and specific weight in the composition of GDP we can judge the scope of reproductive processes in the country.Based on the methodological materials of the state statistics bodies of the Russian Federation, regulations of the theory of statistics, which describe the methods of statistical analysis such as the index, average values, regression, the methodical approach is structured in the application of statistical tools to obtain value estimates of property, plant and equipment with significant accumulated depreciation. Until now, the use of statistical methodology in the practice of economic assessment of assets is only fragmentary. This applies to both Federal Legislation (Federal law № 135 «On valuation activities in the Russian Federation» dated 16.07.1998 in edition 05.07.2016 and the methodological documents and regulations of the estimated activities, in particular, the valuation activities’ standards. A particular problem is the use of a digital database of Rosstat (Federal State Statistics Service, as to the specific fixed assets the comparison should be carried

  10. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  11. NEW BIOTESTING METHOD WITH THE APPLICATION OF MODERN IMPEDANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibirtsev V.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new concepts of biotesting method updating. Modern conductometric technologies and the analysis of microbial «growth curves» are used. The registration occurs in a real time mode for the set of parallel samples. Results are shown for comparison of the proposed impedance biotesting technique with standard cultural determination method for total amount of microorganismes in the tested samples. Results are presented for practical application of the proposed impedance biotesting technique to the analysis as inhibitory action of clorhexidine disinfectant on the vital activity of Escherichia coli, as milk ripening process at the presence of various microorganisms species and protein preparations. The impedance biotesting method, proposed in the present work, provides high level of its own data convergence with the data, being received as a result of application of standard cultural biotesting techniques. Thus, the proposed method has such advantages, as: an opportunity of the detailed information reception about dynamics change of magnitude of population and intensity of test microorganisms metabolism, significant reduction of the culture media amount used, as well as researcher's temporary and labor efforts while the analyses realization, and the growth of analysis objectivity.

  12. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  13. Evolutionary Computation Methods and their applications in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Battaglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A brief discussion of the genesis of evolutionary computation methods, their relationship to artificial intelligence, and the contribution of genetics and Darwin’s theory of natural evolution is provided. Then, the main evolutionary computation methods are illustrated: evolution strategies, genetic algorithms, estimation of distribution algorithms, differential evolution, and a brief description of some evolutionary behavior methods such as ant colony and particle swarm optimization. We also discuss the role of the genetic algorithm for multivariate probability distribution random generation, rather than as a function optimizer. Finally, some relevant applications of genetic algorithm to statistical problems are reviewed: selection of variables in regression, time series model building, outlier identification, cluster analysis, design of experiments.

  14. Standard test methods for vitrified ceramic materials for electrical applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 These test methods outline procedures for testing samples of vitrified ceramic materials that are to be used as electrical insulation. Where specified limits are mentioned herein, they shall not be interpreted as specification limits for completed insulators. 1.2 These test methods are intended to apply to unglazed specimens, but they may be equally suited for testing glazed specimens. The report section shall indicate whether glazed or unglazed specimens were tested. 1.3 The test methods appear as follows: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precaution statements are given in 11.3, 13.5, and 15.3.

  15. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  16. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  17. First Order Reliability Application and Verification Methods for Semistatic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderaime, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    Escalating risks of aerostructures stimulated by increasing size, complexity, and cost should no longer be ignored by conventional deterministic safety design methods. The deterministic pass-fail concept is incompatible with probability and risk assessments, its stress audits are shown to be arbitrary and incomplete, and it compromises high strength materials performance. A reliability method is proposed which combines first order reliability principles with deterministic design variables and conventional test technique to surmount current deterministic stress design and audit deficiencies. Accumulative and propagation design uncertainty errors are defined and appropriately implemented into the classical safety index expression. The application is reduced to solving for a factor that satisfies the specified reliability and compensates for uncertainty errors, and then using this factor as, and instead of, the conventional safety factor in stress analyses. The resulting method is consistent with current analytical skills and verification practices, the culture of most designers, and with the pace of semistatic structural designs.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarized agents: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Erin B.; Ludwig, Kai D.; Mummy, David G.; Fain, Sean B.

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, hyperpolarized (HP) contrast agents have been under active development for MRI applications to address the twin challenges of functional and quantitative imaging. Both HP helium (3He) and xenon (129Xe) gases have reached the stage where they are under study in clinical research. HP 129Xe, in particular, is poised for larger scale clinical research to investigate asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and fibrotic lung diseases. With advances in polarizer technology and unique capabilities for imaging of 129Xe gas exchange into lung tissue and blood, HP 129Xe MRI is attracting new attention. In parallel, HP 13C and 15N MRI methods have steadily advanced in a wide range of pre-clinical research applications for imaging metabolism in various cancers and cardiac disease. The HP [1-13C] pyruvate MRI technique, in particular, has undergone phase I trials in prostate cancer and is poised for investigational new drug trials at multiple institutions in cancer and cardiac applications. This review treats the methodology behind both HP gases and HP 13C and 15N liquid state agents. Gas and liquid phase HP agents share similar technologies for achieving non-equilibrium polarization outside the field of the MRI scanner, strategies for image data acquisition, and translational challenges in moving from pre-clinical to clinical research. To cover the wide array of methods and applications, this review is organized by numerical section into (1) a brief introduction, (2) the physical and biological properties of the most common polarized agents with a brief summary of applications and methods of polarization, (3) methods for image acquisition and reconstruction specific to improving data acquisition efficiency for HP MRI, (4) the main physical properties that enable unique measures of physiology or metabolic pathways, followed by a more detailed review of the literature describing the use of HP agents to study: (5) metabolic pathways in cancer and cardiac

  19. The Distinct Element Method - Application to Structures in Jointed Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.P.; Glen, L.; Blair, S.; Heuze, F.

    2001-11-30

    The Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a meshfree method with applications to rock mechanics, mining sciences, simulations of nuclear repositories, and the stability of underground structures. Continuum mesh-based methods have been applied successfully to many problems in geophysics. Even if the geology includes fractures and faults, when sufficiently large length scales are considered a continuum approximation may be sufficient. However, a large class of problems exist where individual rock joints must be taken into account. This includes problems where the structures of interest have sizes comparable with the block size. In addition, it is possible that while the structure may experience loads which do no measurable damage to individual blocks, some joints may fail. This may launch smaller blocks as dangerous projectiles or even cause total failure of a tunnel. Traditional grid-based continuum approaches are wholly unsuited to this class of problem. It is possible to introduce discontinuities or slide lines into existing grid-based methods, however, such limited approaches can break down when new contacts form between blocks. The distinct element method (DEM) is an alternative, meshfree approach. The DEM can directly approximate the block structure of the jointed rock using arbitrary polyhedra. Using this approach, preexisting joints are readily incorporated into the DEM model. In addition, the method detects all new contacts between blocks resulting from relative block motion. We will describe the background of the DEM and review previous application of the DEM to geophysical problems. Finally we present preliminary results from a investigation into the stability of underground structures subjected to dynamic loading.

  20. An application of OFDM method to optical disc recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimihiro

    2017-08-01

    An application of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) method to optical disc recording/readout is presented. OFDM has been widely used in the field of telecommunication owing to its highly efficient frequency usage. However OFDM has not been applied to optical disc recording because it is a multiple data transfer method and needs to record analog signals. Partial Response Maximum Likelihood (PRML) used in the current optical disc systems requires a certain kind of analog recording. Although optical recording usually creates binary marks, it is possible to obtain arbitrary analog readout signals by using PWM method. Another technique to generate analog signals using the oversampled binary recording is described and applied to multiple level recording. In addition, it is found that the level adjustment of multiple carriers for OFDM leads to the advantage when it is applied to the optical disc system. Using the simple transfer function model of the optical disc system, two types of readout signals using PRML and OFDM are calculated and then their qualities are compared. Since Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) method can be combined with OFDM, it is possible to increase the recoding density of optical disc systems. A method employing OFDM with 64-QAM and the pre-enhance method to the high frequency carrier shows an ability of 1.5 times recording density of the conventional Bru-ray Disc (BD).

  1. Osteoporosis affects both post-yield microdamage accumulation and plasticity degradation in vertebra of ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Niu, Guodong; Dong, Neil X.; Wang, Xiaodu; Liu, Zhongjun; Song, Chunli; Leng, Huijie

    2017-04-01

    Estrogen withdrawal in postmenopausal women increases bone loss and bone fragility in the vertebra. Bone loss with osteoporosis not only reduces bone mineral density (BMD), but actually alters bone quality, which can be comprehensively represented by bone post-yield behaviors. This study aimed to provide some information as to how osteoporosis induced by estrogen depletion could influence the evolution of post-yield microdamage accumulation and plastic deformation in vertebral bodies. This study also tried to reveal the part of the mechanisms of how estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis would increase the bone fracture risk. A rat bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) model was used to induce osteoporosis. Progressive cyclic compression loading was developed for vertebra testing to elucidate the post-yield behaviors. BMD, bone volume fraction, stiffness degradation, and plastic deformation evolution were compared among rats raised for 5 weeks (ovx5w and sham5w groups) and 35 weeks (ovx35w and sham35w groups) after sham surgery and OVX. The results showed that a higher bone loss in vertebral bodies corresponded to lower stiffness and higher plastic deformation. Thus, osteoporosis could increase the vertebral fracture risk probably through microdamage accumulation and plastic deforming degradation.

  2. Relevance of discrete traits in forensic anthropology: From the first cervical vertebra to the pelvic girdle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Adalian, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%. We examined 502 anonymous CT scans from polytraumatized individuals, aged 15 to 65 years, in order to detect the selected discrete traits. Age and sex were known for each subject. Thin sections in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes and 3D volume rendering images were created and examined for the visualization of the selected discrete traits. Supraclavicular foramina were found only in males and only on the left clavicle. Coracoclavicular joints were observed only in males. The majority of individuals with a suprascapular foramen were older than 50 years of age. Pubic spines were observed mostly in females. Other traits did not present significant association with sex, age and laterality. No association between traits was highlighted. Better knowledge of human skeletal variations will help anthropologists come closer to a positive identification, especially if these variations are rare, therefore making them more discriminant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Accuracy of Locating Lumbar Vertebrae When Using Palpation Versus Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Rune Mygind; Kawchuk, Gregory Neil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of locating lumbar vertebrae using palpation vs ultrasonography. In this study, ultrasonic imaging was used by 2 experienced clinicians to identify the third lumbar spinous process (target) of a female participant. The target was then located by 16 undergraduate chiropractic students using clinical palpation techniques learned in their academic program (with participant seated and prone) and ultrasonic imaging learned through a 5-minute training video. Presumed target locations identified by students were recorded by infrared motion capture equipment. The coordinates of the presumed target site were then compared statistically. There was no significant difference between the presumed target position identified by the students using sitting and prone palpation (P = .346). These positions were significantly different from the target location identified by expert clinicians using ultrasonic imaging (P palpation resulted in the students mistakenly identifying the L4 spinous process as the target vertebra. This study found that ultrasonography provided more accurate identification of a lumbar spinal landmark when compared with palpation. In addition, our data suggest that ultrasonic imaging to identify spinal landmarks can be learned easily and can improve accuracy of landmark detection. Although the time to use ultrasonic imaging was greater than with palpation, these results suggest that this procedure could potentially be used in clinical practice to identify spinal landmarks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. COMPLETE FUSION OF FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA WITH SACRUM: AN OSTEOLOGICAL CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiksha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral region of the body not only protects the spinal cord and related structures but also transmit the body weight to lower extremity and maintains the body posture. Sacralization of the 5 th lumbar vertebrae, is a congenital vertebral anomaly of the lumbosacral region and may be unilateral or bilateral. Although, sacralization is not a serious anomaly, perhaps no more than an anatomical variant, the fusion of the lumbrosacral joint may cause low back pain, disc herniation, cervical ribs, Bertollotti’ s syndrome and difficulty during labor. To highlight the complication of sacralization and its related impact on the body, we report a case of complete fusion of 5 th lumbar vertebra with sacrum ( sacralization . The relationship between incidence of sacrali zation with low back pain is debatable but still the present study may help anatomists, clinicians and surgeons to know the complications of sacralization and its impact on the body that in turn help in diagnostic and therapeutic management of illness arou nd lumbosacral region. Future studies need to focus on identifying other parameters that are relevant to distinguishing lumbosacral variations and associated disorders.

  5. Variable morphology of the axis vertebrae in 100 specimens: implications for clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Hong, Fan; Li-Ping, Wu; Yi-Kai, Li; Bo-Jin, Liang; Das, Manas; Xiao-Yong, Fu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and measure the variable morphologies of axis vertebrae and explore the clinical significance of variations as it may pertain to clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging. The common variable morphologies in 100 specimens of intact dry adult axis vertebrae (Chinese) were investigated and measured. The frequencies in deviation of odontoid processes, deviation of spinous processes, and presence of bifid spinous processes were observed. The distances between the apices of transverse processes and inferior articular facets were also measured. Variable morphologies of C2 that we observed were deviation of odontoid processes (14 cases, 14.0%), deviation of spinous processes (3 cases, 3.0%), and bifid spinous processes (95 cases, 95.0%). Of the bifid spinous processes, 56 had a process on the left side equal to the right side, 21 were longer on the left, and 18 were longer on the right. The distances between apices of transverse processes and inferior articular facets in the left side of C2 were 17.67 +/- 2.47 mm, and that of the right side were 17.81 +/- 2.55 mm. Because variable morphology of the axis is common, congenital deviation of the odontoid process, deviation of the spinous process, and asymmetrical bifid spinous processes should be taken into account during clinical palpation and diagnostic imaging. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

  7. Frontiers of biostatistical methods and applications in clinical oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art of biostatistical methods and their applications in clinical oncology. Many methodologies established today in biostatistics have been brought about through its applications to the design and analysis of oncology clinical studies. This field of oncology, now in the midst of evolution owing to rapid advances in biotechnologies and cancer genomics, is becoming one of the most promising disease fields in the shift toward personalized medicine. Modern developments of diagnosis and therapeutics of cancer have also been continuously fueled by recent progress in establishing the infrastructure for conducting more complex, large-scale clinical trials and observational studies. The field of cancer clinical studies therefore will continue to provide many new statistical challenges that warrant further progress in the methodology and practice of biostatistics. This book provides a systematic coverage of various stages of cancer clinical studies. Topics from modern cancer clinical ...

  8. Intelligent numerical methods II applications to multivariate fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    In this short monograph Newton-like and other similar numerical methods with applications to solving multivariate equations are developed, which involve Caputo type fractional mixed partial derivatives and multivariate fractional Riemann-Liouville integral operators. These are studied for the first time in the literature. The chapters are self-contained and can be read independently. An extensive list of references is given per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, stochastics, computer science and engineering. As such this short monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, to be used in graduate classes and seminars of the above subjects, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.

  9. Physical Activity Recognition with Mobile Phones: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Hong; Liu, Zhigang; Boda, Péter Pál

    In this book chapter, we present a novel system that recognizes and records the physical activity of a person using a mobile phone. The sensor data is collected by built-in accelerometer sensor that measures the motion intensity of the device. The system recognizes five everyday activities in real-time, i.e., stationary, walking, running, bicycling, and in vehicle. We first introduce the sensor's data format, sensor calibration, signal projection, feature extraction, and selection methods. Then we have a detailed discussion and comparison of different choices of feature sets and classifiers. The design and implementation of one prototype system is presented along with resource and performance benchmark on Nokia N95 platform. Results show high recognition accuracies for distinguishing the five activities. The last part of the chapter introduces one demo application built on top of our system, physical activity diary, and a selection of potential applications in mobile wellness, mobile social sharing and contextual user interface domains.

  10. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lughofer, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences.   Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...

  11. Allostery: An Overview of Its History, Concepts, Methods, and Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of allostery has evolved in the past century. In this Editorial, we briefly overview the history of allostery, from the pre-allostery nomenclature era starting with the Bohr effect (1904 to the birth of allostery by Monod and Jacob (1961. We describe the evolution of the allostery concept, from a conformational change in a two-state model (1965, 1966 to dynamic allostery in the ensemble model (1999; from multi-subunit (1965 proteins to all proteins (2004. We highlight the current available methods to study allostery and their applications in studies of conformational mechanisms, disease, and allosteric drug discovery. We outline the challenges and future directions that we foresee. Altogether, this Editorial narrates the history of this fundamental concept in the life sciences, its significance, methodologies to detect and predict it, and its application in a broad range of living systems.

  12. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-26

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  13. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-01

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  14. Advances in product family and product platform design methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support product family and product platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for product family and product platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of products based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent product family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based product development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for product family and product platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on product family and pro...

  15. Multi-level decision making models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangquan; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents new developments in multi-level decision-making theory, technique and method in both modeling and solution issues. It especially presents how a decision support system can support managers in reaching a solution to a multi-level decision problem in practice. This monograph combines decision theories, methods, algorithms and applications effectively. It discusses in detail the models and solution algorithms of each issue of bi-level and tri-level decision-making, such as multi-leaders, multi-followers, multi-objectives, rule-set-based, and fuzzy parameters. Potential readers include organizational managers and practicing professionals, who can use the methods and software provided to solve their real decision problems; PhD students and researchers in the areas of bi-level and multi-level decision-making and decision support systems; students at an advanced undergraduate, master’s level in information systems, business administration, or the application of computer science.  

  16. Comparison of unipedicular and bipedicular kyphoplasty on the stiffness and biomechanical balance of compression fractured vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, BaiLing; Li, YiQiang; Xie, DengHui; Yang, XiaoXi; Zheng, ZhaoMin

    2011-08-01

    Percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) has been used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures for over 10 years; however, clinically speaking it is still controversial as to whether the use of unipedicular PKP or bipedicular PKP is best. Our study aimed to compare the different effects of unipedicular PKP and bipedicular PKP on the stiffness of compression fractured vertebral bodies (VBs), as well as to assess how cement distribution affect the bilateral biomechanical balance of the VBs. During this study, 30 thoracic VBs were compressed, creating vertebral compression fracture models; then they were augmented by unipedicular (group A and B) PKP and bipedicular (group C) PKP. In group A (unipedicular PKP), the cement was injected into one side and the augmentation was limited to the same side of the VB. In group B (unipedicular PKP), the cement was injected at only one side but the augmentation extended across the midline and filled both sides of the VB. In group C (bipedicular PKP), the cement was injected into both sides and thus achieved the bilateral augmentation. For the unipedicular PKP, the amount of cement injected was 15% of the original VB volume; while in bipedicular PKP, the amount of cement injected was a total of 20% of the original VB volume (10% was injected into each side). Using a MTS-858, we examined three phases of the VBs (intact, pre-augmented, post-augmented), by applying loads axially to the total vertebra and bilateral sides of the vertebra for each of three cycles, respectively. The changes of force and displacement were then recorded and the stiffness of the total vertebra and bilateral sides of the vertebra were calculated. For the pre-augmentation stage, the total VB stiffness of groups A, B and C significantly decreased when the compression fracture models were established (P < 0.05). After the cement augmentation (the post-augmentation stage), both groups A and B, showed that the stiffness could be restored to the initial

  17. Anatomical differences in patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and implications for minimally invasive spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiah, Darnell T; Boo, SoHyun; Tarabishy, Abdul; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the neurovascular and anatomical differences in patients with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) and the associated risk of neurovascular injury in minimally invasive spine surgery. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine obtained at their institution between 2010 and 2014. The following characteristics were evaluated: level of the iliac crest in relation to the L4-5 disc space, union level of the iliac veins and arteries in relation to the L4-5 disc space, distribution of the iliac veins and inferior vena cava according to the different Moro zones (A, I, II, III, IV, P) at the L4-5 disc space, and the location of the psoas muscle at the L4-5 disc space. The findings were compared with findings on images obtained in 28 age- and sex-matched patients without LSTV who underwent imaging studies during the same time period. RESULTS Twenty-eight patients (12 male, 16 female) with LSTV and the required imaging studies were identified; 28 age- and sex-matched patients who had undergone CT and MRI studies of the thoracic and lumbar spine imaging but did not have LSTV were selected for comparison (control group). The mean ages of the patients in the LSTV group and the control group were 52 and 49 years, respectively. The iliac crest was located at a mean distance of 12 mm above the L4-5 disc space in the LSTV group and 4 mm below the L4-5 disc space in the controls. The iliac vein union was located at a mean distance of 8 mm above the L4-5 disc space in the LSTV group and 2.7 mm below the L4-5 disc space in the controls. The iliac artery bifurcation was located at a mean distance of 23 mm above the L4-5 disc space in the LSTV group and 11 mm below the L4-5 disc space in controls. In patients with LSTV, the distribution of iliac vein locations was as follows: Zone A, 7.1%; Zone I only, 78.6%; Zone I encroaching into Zone II, 7.1%; and Zone II only, 7.1%. In the

  18. Stamping Techniques for Micro and Nanofabrication: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.

    This chapter highlights some recent advances in high resolution printing methods, in which a "stamp" forms a pattern of "ink" on the surface it contacts. It focuses on two approaches whose capabilities, level of development, and demonstrated applications indicate a strong potential for widespread use, especially in areas where conventional methods are unsuitable. The first of these, known as microcontact printing, uses a high resolution rubber stamp to print patterns of chemical inks, mainly those that lead to the formation of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). These printed SAMs can be used either as resists in selective wet etching, or as templates in selective deposition to form structures of a variety of materials. The other approach, referred to as nanotransfer printing, uses similar high resolution stamps, but ones inked with solid thin film materials. In this case, SAMs, or other types of surface chemistries, bond these films to a substrate that the stamp contacts. The material transfer that results upon removal of the stamp forms a pattern in the geometry of the relief features, in a purely additive fashion. In addition to providing detailed descriptions of these micro/nanoprinting techniques, this chapter illustrates their use in some areas where these methods may provide attractive alternatives to more established lithographic methods. The demonstrator applications span fields as diverse as biotechnology (intravascular stents), fiber optics (tunable fiber devices), nanoanalytical chemistry (high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance), plastic electronics (paper-like displays), and integrated optics (distributed feedback lasers). The growing interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology motivates research and the development of new methods that can be used for nanofabricating the relevant test structures or devices. The attractive capabilities of the techniques described here, together with the interesting and subtle materials science, chemistry, and

  19. Selected asymptotic methods with applications to electromagnetics and antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Fikioris, George; Bakas, Odysseas N

    2013-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates the application of several asymptotic methods that have proved useful in the authors' research in electromagnetics and antennas. We first define asymptotic approximations and expansions and explain these concepts in detail. We then develop certain prerequisites from complex analysis such as power series, multivalued functions (including the concepts of branch points and branch cuts), and the all-important gamma function. Of particular importance is the idea of analytic continuation (of functions of a single complex variable); our discussions here include som

  20. Statistical methods for longitudinal data with agricultural applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha

    The PhD study focuses on modeling two kings of longitudinal data arising in agricultural applications: continuous time series data and discrete longitudinal data. Firstly, two statistical methods, neural networks and generalized additive models, are applied to predict masistis using multivariate...... continuous time series data obtained from robotic milking of cows, and their performance is compared. Secondly, the use of acyclic probabilistic finite automata /APFA) to model univariate discret longitudinal data is studied from a statistical modeling perspective, leading to a modified model selection...

  1. TRIZ method application for improving the special vehicles maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIZ methodology provides an opportunity for improving the classical engineering approach based on personal knowledge and experience. This paper presents the application of TRIZ methods for improving vehicle maintenance where special equipment is installed. A specific problem is the maintenance of the periscopes with heating system. Protective glass panels with heating system are rectangular glass elements. Their purpose is to perform mechanical protection of built-in prisms and provide heating of the prisms. Aging and long-term use leads to failure of these elements. The practice requires solutions in order to extend the lifetime of the system. New solution is evaluated by simulation and experiment.

  2. Application of the Smart method on the Picrocol data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostoiu-Marin, I.; Delprat-Jannaud, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 64 - Pau (France)

    1995-12-31

    For the velocity model estimation in the case of complex geological structures, the PSI team has proposed the SMART method based on reflection tomography and pre-stack depth access to travel-times. Although theoretically very appealing, the feasibility of the method has not yet been proved. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of the method by applying it on a 2D synthetic data set. In particular, we test the possibility of retrieving additional kinematical information in the pre-stack depth migrated domain. We use a synthetic data set obtained from a saliferous structure: the PICROCOL data set. We show in detail the practical application of the method, enlightening the difficult stages (pre-stack depth interpretation, tuning of tomography parameters) and the possible pitfalls. Starting from picked travel-times in the pre-stack depth migration. We then show that the depth interpretation gives access to travel-times that were hardly interpretable in time. Carrying out 2 iterations (depth access to travel-times followed by tomography) of the SMART method, we finally obtain flat events in coherence panels that allow us to perform a post migration stack. The result is satisfactory since it is very close to the one obtained with the exact PICROCOL velocity model. (authors) 16 refs.

  3. RF tunable devices and subsystems methods of modeling, analysis, and applications methods of modeling, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Qizheng

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a hands-on guide to RF tunable devices, circuits and subsystems. An innovative method of modeling for tunable devices and networks is described, along with a new tuning algorithm, adaptive matching network control approach, and novel filter frequency automatic control loop.  The author provides readers with the necessary background and methods for designing and developing tunable RF networks/circuits and tunable RF font-ends, with an emphasis on applications to cellular communications. ·      Discusses the methods of characterizing, modeling, analyzing, and applying RF tunable devices and subsystems; ·      Explains the necessary methods of utilizing RF tunable devices and subsystems, rather than discussing the RF tunable devices themselves; ·      Presents and applies methods for MEMS tunable capacitors, which can be used for any RF tunable device; ·      Uses analytic methods wherever possible and provides numerous, closed-form solutions; ·      Includ...

  4. Application of Qualitative Methods in Health Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Upadhyaya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have often been conducted to answer the question “why” rather than “what”. A purpose of qualitative research is the construction of new understanding. Here, we present an overview of application of qualitative methods in health research. We have discussed here the different types of qualitative methods and how we and others have used them in different settings/scenarios; sample size and sampling techniques; analysis of qualitative data; validity in qualitative research; and ethical issues.

  5. Statistical methods for active pharmacovigilance, with applications to diabetes drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lan; Farrell, Patrick J; McNair, Doug; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify adverse drug reactions using postmarket surveillance data under real-world conditions of use. Unlike passive pharmacovigilance, which is based on largely voluntary (and hence incomplete) spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions with limited information on patient characteristics, active pharmacovigilance is based on electronic health records containing detailed information about patient populations, thereby allowing consideration of modifying factors such as polypharmacy and comorbidity, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. With the present shift toward active pharmacovigilance, statistical methods capable of addressing the complexities of such data are needed. We describe four such methods here, and demonstrate their application in the analysis of a large retrospective cohort of diabetics taking anti-hyperglycemic medications that may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

  6. Application of Target Costing method in the Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andor Pajrok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to managing costs are based on the costs that are the result of existing capabilities and resources in the company. Adding to these costs a specified margin or profit, leads to the sales price. If the market is not ready to accept such a selling price, managers need to find opportunities for rationalization and cost reduction. Target cost management begins the process of managing the sales price and the planned profit that the market can accept, and only then is it possible to determine the cost of the product. In the planning phase of the product and the manufacturing process the approach is to finding a method to lower costs and to reduce them as much as possible. The aim this of study is to investigate the application of target (strategy cost accounting methods in the Hospitality Industry.

  7. Statistical methods with applications to demography and life insurance

    CERN Document Server

    Khmaladze, Estáte V

    2013-01-01

    Suitable for statisticians, mathematicians, actuaries, and students interested in the problems of insurance and analysis of lifetimes, Statistical Methods with Applications to Demography and Life Insurance presents contemporary statistical techniques for analyzing life distributions and life insurance problems. It not only contains traditional material but also incorporates new problems and techniques not discussed in existing actuarial literature. The book mainly focuses on the analysis of an individual life and describes statistical methods based on empirical and related processes. Coverage ranges from analyzing the tails of distributions of lifetimes to modeling population dynamics with migrations. To help readers understand the technical points, the text covers topics such as the Stieltjes, Wiener, and Itô integrals. It also introduces other themes of interest in demography, including mixtures of distributions, analysis of longevity and extreme value theory, and the age structure of a population. In addi...

  8. Theoretical physics 7 quantum mechanics : methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to methods and applications in quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the understanding of quantized states further on. The first part of the book introduces the quantum theory of angular momentum and approximation methods. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes multiple particle systems and scattering theory. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in the basics of quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets.  About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this seri...

  9. Time series analysis methods and applications for flight data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianye

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on different facets of flight data analysis, including the basic goals, methods, and implementation techniques. As mass flight data possesses the typical characteristics of time series, the time series analysis methods and their application for flight data have been illustrated from several aspects, such as data filtering, data extension, feature optimization, similarity search, trend monitoring, fault diagnosis, and parameter prediction, etc. An intelligent information-processing platform for flight data has been established to assist in aircraft condition monitoring, training evaluation and scientific maintenance. The book will serve as a reference resource for people working in aviation management and maintenance, as well as researchers and engineers in the fields of data analysis and data mining.

  10. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  11. Piezoelectric Materials Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT thin film was applied to a micro ultrasonic motor, and an epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3 thin film was estimated as a ferroelectric data storage medium. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were successfully obtained for epitaxial PbTiO3 films. As lead-free piezoelectric powders, KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and sintered together to form (K,NaNbO3 ceramics, from which reasonable piezoelectric performance was achieved.

  12. The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.

  13. SECTIONING METHOD APPLICATION AT ELLIPSOMETRY OF INHOMOGENEOUS REFLECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  14. Machine Learning-Empowered Biometric Methods for Biomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervasive computing technologies are paving a promising way for advanced smart health applications. However, a key impediment faced by wide deployment of these assistive smart devices, is the increasing privacy and security issue, such as how to protect access to sensitive patient data in the health record. Focusing on this challenge, biometrics are attracting intense attention in terms of effective user identification to enable confidential health applications. In this paper, we take special interest in two bio-potential-based biometric modalities, electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG, considering that they are both unique to individuals, and more reliable than token (identity card and knowledge-based (username/password methods. After extracting effective features in multiple domains from ECG/EEG signals, several advanced machine learning algorithms are introduced to perform the user identification task, including Neural Network, K-nearest Neighbor, Bagging, Random Forest and AdaBoost. Experimental results on two public ECG and EEG datasets show that ECG is a more robust biometric modality compared to EEG, leveraging a higher signal to noise ratio and also more distinguishable morphological patterns. Among different machine learning classifiers, the random forest greatly outperforms the others and owns an identification rate as high as 98%. This study is expected to demonstrate that properly selected biometric empowered by an effective machine learner owns a great potential, to enable confidential biomedicine applications in the era of smart digital health.

  15. Application of Computational Methods in Planaria Research: A Current Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamasree

    2017-07-06

    Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes. The complexity of receptors and signalling mechanisms, immune system network, biology of repair, responses to injury are yet to be understood in Planaria. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have generated a vast repository of data, but their availability and analysis is a challenging task. Data mining, computational approaches of gene curation, bioinformatics tools for analysis of transcriptomic data, designing of databases, application of algorithms in deciphering changes of morphology by RNA interference (RNAi) approaches, understanding regeneration experiments is a new venture in Planaria research that is helping researchers across the globe in understanding the biology. We highlight the applications of Hidden Markov models (HMMs) in designing of computational tools and their applications in Planaria decoding their complex biology.

  16. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  17. CRKSPH: A new meshfree hydrodynamics method with applications to astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John Michael; Raskin, Cody; Frontiere, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    The study of astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae, accretion disks, galaxy formation, and large-scale structure formation requires computational modeling of, at a minimum, hydrodynamics and gravity. Developing numerical methods appropriate for these kinds of problems requires a number of properties: shock-capturing hydrodynamics benefits from rigorous conservation of invariants such as total energy, linear momentum, and mass; lack of obvious symmetries or a simplified spatial geometry to exploit necessitate 3D methods that ideally are Galilean invariant; the dynamic range of mass and spatial scales that need to be resolved can span many orders of magnitude, requiring methods that are highly adaptable in their space and time resolution. We have developed a new Lagrangian meshfree hydrodynamics method called Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, or CRKSPH, in order to meet these goals. CRKSPH is a conservative generalization of the meshfree reproducing kernel method, combining the high-order accuracy of reproducing kernels with the explicit conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy necessary to study shock-driven hydrodynamics in compressible fluids. CRKSPH's Lagrangian, particle-like nature makes it simple to combine with well-known N-body methods for modeling gravitation, similar to the older Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Indeed, CRKSPH can be substituted for SPH in existing SPH codes due to these similarities. In comparison to SPH, CRKSPH is able to achieve substantially higher accuracy for a given number of points due to the explicitly consistent (and higher-order) interpolation theory of reproducing kernels, while maintaining the same conservation principles (and therefore applicability) as SPH. There are currently two coded implementations of CRKSPH available: one in the open-source research code Spheral, and the other in the high-performance cosmological code HACC. Using these codes we have applied

  18. [Therapeutic effect of conservative treatment of refracture in cemented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Min; DU, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of conservative treatment of refracture in cemented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in elderly patients. Between January, 2012 and August, 2014, a total of 324 elderly patients (381 vertebrae) received percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Of these patients, 12 patients (14 vertebrae) complained of recurrence of back pain and were confirmed to have refracture in the cemented vertebrae by imaging examination. Seven of these 12 patients (9 vertebrae), who were all female with an average refracture time of 8±6.7 weeks (range 2-20 weeks), received conservative treatments with analgesics, osteoporosis medication, bracing and physical therapy, and their visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Oswestry disability index (ODI) at 7 days and 1, 3 and 12 months after the treatment were measured. The 7 patients were followed up for 21.3±11.2 months (range 13-29 months) after conservative treatments. Their VAS score and ODI decreased significantly over time after the treatment (P0.05). The average VAS score and ODI before treatments were 8.3±0.8 and (88.3±3.2)%, 3.1±1.2 and (56.3±7.7)% at 1 month, and 0.8±0.7 and (5.9±2.8)% at 3 months during the follow-up, respectively.No such complications as phlebothrombosis of the leg, decubitus, or hypostatic pneumonia occurred in these cases. Though with a relatively low incidence rate, refracture in the cemented vertebrae is one of the important causes of recurrence of back pain following percutaneous vertebroplasty. Conservative treatment is effective in relieving pain and improving the spine function in such cases without obvious complications.

  19. The effect of intraosseous injection of calcium sulfate on microstructure and biomechanics of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of calcium sulfate (CS on improvement of microstructure and biomechanical performance of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in sheep. Methods Osteoporosis model was reproduced in 8 female sheep by bilateral ovariectomy and methylprednisolone administration. Then the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4 in each sheep were randomly divided into CS group and blank group (2 vertebrae in each sheep. CS was injected into the vertebral bodies through the pedicle in CS group, and no treatment was given in blank group. All of the animals were sacrificed 3 months later, and vertebrae L1-L4 were harvested. The microstructure and biomechanical performance of vertebral bodies were assessed by micro-CT scanning, histological observation and biomechanical test. Results After ovariectomy and methylprednisolone administration, the mean bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae in the sheep was significantly decreased (>25% compared with that before induction (P<0.05, demonstrating a successful reproduction of osteoporosis model. Three months after injection, it was shown that CS was completely degraded without any remnant in the bone tissue. The quality of the bone tissue (trabecular number and tissue mineral density in CS group was significantly better than that in blank group (P<0.05, and the biomechanical performance in CS group was significantly superior to that in blank group (P<0.05. Conclusions  Local injection of CS could significantly improve the microstructure and biomechanical performance of osteoporotic vertebrae, and it may decrease the risk of fracture of patients with osteoporosis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.02

  20. [Methods and applications of population viability analysis (PVA): a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Kou, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Ming; Smith, Andrew T; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    With the accelerating human consumption of natural resources, the problems associated with endangered species caused by habitat loss and fragmentation have become greater and more urgent than ever. Conceptually associated with the theories of island biogeography, population viability analysis (PVA) has been one of the most important approaches in studying and protecting endangered species, and this methodology has occupied a central place in conservation biology and ecology in the past several decades. PVA has been widely used and proven effective in many cases, but its predictive ability and accuracy are still in question. Also, its application needs expand. To overcome some of the problems, we believe that PVA needs to incorporate some principles and methods from other fields, particularly landscape ecology and sustainability science. Integrating landscape pattern and socioeconomic factors into PVA will make the approach theoretically more comprehensive and practically more useful. Here, we reviewed the history, basic conception, research methods, and modeling applications and their accuracies of PVA, and proposed the perspective in this field.

  1. Aggregate Interview Method of ranking orthopedic applicants predicts future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Jacqueline; VanHeest, Ann; Tatman, Penny; Gioe, Terence

    2013-07-01

    This article evaluates and describes a process of ranking orthopedic applicants using what the authors term the Aggregate Interview Method. The authors hypothesized that higher-ranking applicants using this method at their institution would perform better than those ranked lower using multiple measures of resident performance. A retrospective review of 115 orthopedic residents was performed at the authors' institution. Residents were grouped into 3 categories by matching rank numbers: 1-5, 6-14, and 15 or higher. Each rank group was compared with resident performance as measured by faculty evaluations, the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE), and American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) test results. Residents ranked 1-5 scored significantly better on patient care, behavior, and overall competence by faculty evaluation (Porthopedic resident candidates who scored highly on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident core competencies as measured by faculty evaluations, performed above the national average on the OITE, and passed the ABOS part 1 examination at rates exceeding the national average. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Application of nonlinear systems in nanomechanics and nanofluids analytical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ganji, Davood Domairry

    2015-01-01

    With Application of Nonlinear Systems in Nanomechanics and Nanofluids the reader gains a deep and practice-oriented understanding of nonlinear systems within areas of nanotechnology application as well as the necessary knowledge enabling the handling of such systems. The book helps readers understand relevant methods and techniques for solving nonlinear problems, and is an invaluable reference for researchers, professionals and PhD students interested in research areas and industries where nanofluidics and dynamic nano-mechanical systems are studied or applied. The book is useful in areas suc

  3. Application of a thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, S.; Osuna, I.; Melendrez, R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.; Barboza-Flores, M

    2002-07-01

    Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and dose determination methods for food subjected previously to irradiation. The present work deals with the application of the thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon to detect irradiated spices. The process is based upon the thermoluminescence properties exhibited by the polymineral content of the irradiated specimen. After separating the organic material, it is possible to extract some polymineral substances that are suitable for thermoluminescence analysis due to interaction of the spice to ionising radiation. The method was successfully applied to examine irradiated and non-irradiated paprika of Mexican origin. The spice was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The separated thermoluminescent polymineral was found to be composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated specimen shows a side band peaked 228, 268 and 336 deg. C, resembling pretty much the combined TL of quartz and feldspars. The method allows for the determination of the retrospective dose exposure. (author)

  4. Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmel Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.

  5. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C S [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  6. Practical Aspects of Finite Element Method Applications in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbović Aleksandar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of numerical methods, such as finite element method (FEM, has been widely adopted in solving structural problems with complex geometry under external loads when analytical solutions are unachievable. Basic idea behind FEM is to divide the complex body geometry into smaller and simpler domains, called finite elements, and then to formulate solution for each element instead of seeking a solution for the entire domain. After finding the solutions for all elements they can be combined to obtain a solution for the whole domain. This numerical method is mostly used in engineering, but it is also useful for studying the biomechanical properties of materials used in medicine and the influence of mechanical forces on the biological systems. Since its introduction in dentistry four decades ago, FEM became powerful tool for the predictions of stress and strain distribution on teeth, dentures, implants and surrounding bone. FEM can indicate aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo and can predict the stress distribution in the contact areas which are not accessible, such as areas between the implant and cortical bone, denture and gingiva, or around the apex of the implant in trabecular bone. Aim of this paper is to present - using results of several successful FEM studies - the usefulness of this method in solving dentistry problems, as well as discussing practical aspects of FEM applications in dentistry. Some of the method limitations, such as impossibility of complete replication of clinical conditions and need for simplified assumptions regarding loads and materials modeling, are also presented. However, the emphasis is on FE modelling of teeth, bone, dentures and implants and their modifications according to the requirements. All presented studies have been carried out in commercial software for FE analysis ANSYS Workbench.

  7. The Benefits of the ABC Method Application in Croatian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Pekanov-Starčević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New business environment has changed the structure and behaviour of company costs. The changes are primarily reflected in the increasing share of overhead costs in the total costs. Given that competitiveness is reflected in the unit product cost, the exact determination of unit costs by cost drivers, primarily the precise allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers, have become crucial to the survival of companies in a turbulent market environment. The biggest problem in determining the exact product costs is incorrect allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers. In the 1980s, a new method of allocating overhead costs was developed – activity-based costing (ABC method. Advocates of this method claim that it allows a more accurate determination of product costs and identification and elimination of activities that do not add value to the company, thereby reducing costs and increasing profits, and ultimately creating and sustaining a competitive advantage. Using a sample of Croatian companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, we investigated to which extent they applied activity-based costing; its benefits to the cost management system, and which factors influenced the application of this methodology. This study provides a new insight into the development of cost management systems in Croatian companies.

  8. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  9. On the Application of the Energy Method to Stability Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerre, Karl

    1947-01-01

    Since stability problems have come into the field of vision of engineers, energy methods have proved to be one of the most powerful aids in mastering them. For finding the especially interesting critical loads special procedures have evolved that depart somewhat from those customary in the usual elasticity theory. A clarification of the connections seemed desirable,especially with regard to the post-critical region, for the treatment of which these special methods are not suited as they are. The present investigation discusses this question-complex (made important by shell construction in aircraft) especially in the classical example of the Euler strut, because in this case - since the basic features are not hidden by difficulties of a mathematical nature - the problem is especially clear. The present treatment differs from that appearing in the Z.f.a.M.M. (1938) under the title "Uber die Behandlung von Stabilittatsproblemen mit Hilfe der energetischen Methode" in that, in order to work out the basic ideas still more clearly,it dispenses with the investigation of behavior at large deflections and of the elastic foundation;in its place the present version gives an elaboration of the 6th section and (in its 7 th and 8th secs.)a new example that shows the applicability of the general criterion to a stability problem that differs from that of Euler in many respects.

  10. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Mizuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Hori, Mayuka; Kusuda, Kayo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iseri, Toshie; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger.

  11. Repair of a mandibular defect with a free vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, L S; Hou, S M

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral mandibular defects in a male mongrel dog were repaired. On the left side, a free vascularized coccygeal bone graft that included the median caudal artery and caudal vein was used to correct the defect. On the right side, the defect was bridged with a bone plate and screws. For further immobilization, the muzzle was temporarily taped for 3 weeks and a pharyngostomy tube was used for nutritional support. The dog was able to eat dry commercial food satisfactorily within 2 months of surgery despite mild malocclusion. Radiographs taken 2 months and 18 months postoperatively showed bony union with graft hypertrophy in the left mandible, whereas the right mandibular defect showed protracted nonunion. The results indicate that vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer provides an alternative for the management of canine mandibular defects.

  12. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL IMPAIRED FORMATION OF VERTEBRAE IN THE LUMBAR SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vissarionov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the surgical correction technology and the results of surgical treatment of 26 patients with an isolated violation of the vertebrae formation (lateral and posterolateral hemivertebra at the lumbar spine in Russia and Kazakhstan are presented. The age of patients ranged from 1 year 6 months to 8 years 4 months. After instrumental correction of spinal deformity on the background of the lateral hemivertebrae scoliosis angle ranged from 0 to 6°. The degree of correction ranged from 94 to 100%. After extirpation of the posterolateral hemivertebrae the residual angle of scoliotic deformity ranged from 0 to 4° (average 2,5°, the degree of correction ranged from 95 to 100%, the kyphotic angle of the component from 9 to -6° (average 2,2°. Results were studied in terms from 2 to 7 years after surgery.

  13. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P

    2017-03-20

    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  14. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-08

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  15. Segmentation anomalies of the vertebras and ribs: a developmental field defect: epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Urioste, M

    1994-01-01

    Opitz has defined developmental field defects (DFD) as "any dysmorphogenetically reactive unit of the developing organism that leads to final structure." We have incorporated in our coding system specific codes to identify individual DFDs in each child, irrespective of the cause or type of the MCA pattern (i.e., chromosomal, mendelian, environmental, or unknown). Using this approach, we can analyze the group of defects included in the expression of each DFD as a discrete unit. To confirm our hypothesis that vertebral and rib anomalies constitute a DFD, we have studied all of our cases with segmentation anomalies of the spine and ribs, including hemivertebrae, fused or absent vertebrae, and "crab-like" thorax, all of which fall into the loosely defined groups of spondylothoracic dysplasia, costovertebral dysplasia, Jarcho-Levin syndrome, and others. The study was performed using the 18,743 malformed children from the ECEMC data files, 110 of them having vertebral/rib anomalies.

  16. Singular perturbations introduction to system order reduction methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepakina, Elena; Mortell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a fresh approach to investigating singularly perturbed systems using asymptotic and geometrical techniques. It gives many examples and step-by-step techniques, which will help beginners move to a more advanced level. Singularly perturbed systems appear naturally in the modelling of many processes that are characterized by slow and fast motions simultaneously, for example, in fluid dynamics and nonlinear mechanics. This book’s approach consists in separating out the slow motions of the system under investigation. The result is a reduced differential system of lesser order. However, it inherits the essential elements of the qualitative behaviour of the original system. Singular Perturbations differs from other literature on the subject due to its methods and wide range of applications. It is a valuable reference for specialists in the areas of applied mathematics, engineering, physics, biology, as well as advanced undergraduates for the earlier parts of the book, and graduate stude...

  17. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikami Hideharu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur “fast” in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  18. Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan

    1998-01-01

    The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.

  19. Single Molecule Detection in Solution: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Christoph; Enderlein, Jorg; Keller, Richard A.

    2002-07-01

    The detection of single molecules opens up new horizons in analytical chemistry, biology and medicine. This discipline, which belongs to the expanding field of nanoscience, has been rapidly emerging over the last ten years. This handbook provides a thorough overview of the field. It begins with basics of single molecule detection in solution, describes methods and devices (fluorescense correlation spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman scattering, sensors, especially dyes, screening techniques, especially confocal laser scanning microscopy). In the second part, various applications in life sciences and medicine provide the latest research results. This modern handbook is a highly accessible reference for a broad community from advanced researchers, specialists and company professionals in physics, spectroscopy, biotechnology, analytical chemistry, and medicine. Written by leading authorities in the field, it is timely and fills a gap - up to now there exists no handbook concerning this theme.

  20. Semantic Model Driven Architecture Based Method for Enterprise Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Ying, Jing; Yan, Hui

    Enterprise applications have the requirements of meeting dynamic businesses processes and adopting lasted technologies flexibly, with to solve the problems caused by the nature of heterogeneous characteristic. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is becoming a leading paradigm for business process integration. This research work focuses on business process modeling, proposes a semantic model-driven development method named SMDA combined with the Ontology and Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technologies. The architecture of SMDA is presented in three orthogonal perspectives. (1) Vertical axis is the MDA 4 layers, the focus is UML profiles in M2 (meta-model layer) for ontology modeling, and three abstract levels: CIM, PIM and PSM modeling respectively. (2) Horizontal axis is different concerns involved in the development: Process, Application, Information, Organization, and Technology. (3) Traversal Axis is referred to aspects that have influence on other models of the cross-cutting axis: Architecture, Semantics, Aspect, and Pattern. The paper also introduces the modeling and transformation process in SMDA, and describes dynamic service composition supports briefly.

  1. Three-dimensional cardiac computational modelling: methods, features and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, Alejandro; Sebastian, Rafael; Ferrero, Jose M

    2015-04-17

    The combination of computational models and biophysical simulations can help to interpret an array of experimental data and contribute to the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias. For this reason, three-dimensional (3D) cardiac computational modelling is currently a rising field of research. The advance of medical imaging technology over the last decades has allowed the evolution from generic to patient-specific 3D cardiac models that faithfully represent the anatomy and different cardiac features of a given alive subject. Here we analyse sixty representative 3D cardiac computational models developed and published during the last fifty years, describing their information sources, features, development methods and online availability. This paper also reviews the necessary components to build a 3D computational model of the heart aimed at biophysical simulation, paying especial attention to cardiac electrophysiology (EP), and the existing approaches to incorporate those components. We assess the challenges associated to the different steps of the building process, from the processing of raw clinical or biological data to the final application, including image segmentation, inclusion of substructures and meshing among others. We briefly outline the personalisation approaches that are currently available in 3D cardiac computational modelling. Finally, we present examples of several specific applications, mainly related to cardiac EP simulation and model-based image analysis, showing the potential usefulness of 3D cardiac computational modelling into clinical environments as a tool to aid in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiac diseases.

  2. Bayesian statistic methods and theri application in probabilistic simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian statistic methods are facing a rapidly growing level of interest and acceptance in the field of health economics. The reasons of this success are probably to be found on the theoretical fundaments of the discipline that make these techniques more appealing to decision analysis. To this point should be added the modern IT progress that has developed different flexible and powerful statistical software framework. Among them probably one of the most noticeably is the BUGS language project and its standalone application for MS Windows WinBUGS. Scope of this paper is to introduce the subject and to show some interesting applications of WinBUGS in developing complex economical models based on Markov chains. The advantages of this approach reside on the elegance of the code produced and in its capability to easily develop probabilistic simulations. Moreover an example of the integration of bayesian inference models in a Markov model is shown. This last feature let the analyst conduce statistical analyses on the available sources of evidence and exploit them directly as inputs in the economic model.

  3. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in a population-based study of 5860 individuals: Prevalence and relationship to low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Min; Yang, Xian-feng; Yang, Shang-wen; Han, Peng; Ma, Yi-ming; Yu, Hui; Zhu, Bin, E-mail: zhubinradio@163.com

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) within the Chinese Han population, and to determine whether LSTV correlates with low back pain (LBP) and gluteal pain. Materials and methods: Typical standing pelvic radiographs were obtained for 5860 volunteers between 18 to 60 years of age. The lumbosacral region of each spine was evaluated to identify LSTV, which was classified into types I, II, III, and IV based on Castellvi's method. Histories of low back symptoms were obtained using a questionnaire. The association of different subtypes of LSTV with LBP and gluteal pain was explored. Results: LSTV was found in 15.8% (928 of 5860) of our study population. Of the 928 individuals with LSTV, 44.8% were type I (dysplastic transverse process with height >19 mm), 43.2% were type II (pseudoarticulation), 7.2% were type III (fusion), and 4.8% were type IV (a unilateral type II transition with a type III fusion on the contralateral side). Type II LSTV were closely associated with LBP and gluteal pain, with respective odds ratios (ORs) of 2.56 (95% CI: 2.17–3.89) and 5.38 (95% CI: 4.29–8.43). Similarly, types IV LSTV also demonstrated a significant correlation with LBP and gluteal pain, with respective ORs of 4.28 (95% CI: 3.21–6.35) and 6.82 (95% CI: 5.17–16.59). Conclusions: In this population-based study, the prevalence of LSTV was 15.8%, with type I being the most common. Importantly, LSTV types II and IV were significantly associated with LBP and gluteal pain.

  4. Application of Finite Layer Method in Pavement Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite element (FE method has been widely used in predicting the structural responses of asphalt pavements. However, the three-dimensional (3D modeling in general-purpose FE software systems such as ABAQUS requires extensive computations and is relatively time-consuming. To address this issue, a specific computational code EasyFEM was developed based on the finite layer method (FLM for analyzing structural responses of asphalt pavements under a static load. Basically, it is a 3D FE code that requires only a one-dimensional (1D mesh by incorporating analytical methods and using Fourier series in the other two dimensions, which can significantly reduce the computational time and required resources due to the easy implementation of parallel computing technology. Moreover, a newly-developed Element Energy Projection (EEP method for super-convergent calculations was implemented in EasyFEM to improve the accuracy of solutions for strains and stresses over the whole pavement model. The accuracy of the program is verified by comparing it with results from BISAR and ABAQUS for a typical asphalt pavement structure. The results show that the predicted responses from ABAQUS and EasyFEM are in good agreement with each other. The EasyFEM with the EEP post-processing technique converges faster compared with the results derived from ordinary EasyFEM applications, which proves that the EEP technique can improve the accuracy of strains and stresses from EasyFEM. In summary, the EasyFEM has a potential to provide a flexible and robust platform for the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements and can easily be post-processed with the EEP technique to enhance its advantages.

  5. A Sequential Developmental Field Defect of the Vertebrae, Ribs, and Sternum, in a Young Woman of the 12th Century AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Nørregaard; Usher, Bethany

    2000-01-01

    . These extra elements in turn led to problems in union and differentiation, and later chondrification and ossification of the vertebra. The malformations of the vertebrae also induced changes in the ribs and sternum. The initial error of segmentation is identified as a developmental field defect...

  6. Reconstructing Age Distribution, Season of Capture and Growth Rate of Fish from Archaeological Sites Based on Otoliths and Vertebrae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, van W.; Lougas, L.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The growth increments of otoliths and vertebrae of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) derived from a 15th century single depositional event at Raversijde (Belgium) are analysed with the aim of reconstructing (a) the age distribution of the population, (b) the season of capture, and (c) the growth rate.

  7. Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the reduced freshwater supplies across the world, seawater desalination is one of the appropriate methods available for producing freshwater. Selecting an optimal location is crucial in the installation of these plants owing to the environmental problems they cause. The present study was conducted to identify optimal locations for installing desalination Plants in the coastal areas of southern Iran (Hormozgan Province with application of Delphi method. To implement this technique and identify, screen and prioritize effective criteria and sub-criteria, ten experts were surveyed through questionnaires and eight criteria and 18 sub-criteria were identified. All these sub-criteria were evaluated and classified in ArcGIS into five classes as input layers. The maps were then integrated based on the modulation importance coefficient and the identified priorities using a linear Delphi model and the final map was reclassified into five categories. Environmentally sensitive areas and seawater quality were respectively the criterion and sub-criterion that received the highest importance. After combining the layers and obtaining the final map, 63 locations were identified for installing desalination plants in the coastal areas on the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in Hormozgan Province.  At the end, 27 locations were high important and had optimal environmental conditions for establishing desalination plants. Of the 27 locations, six were located in the coastal area of the Oman Sea, one in the coastal area of the Strait of Hormuz and 20 others in the coastal area of the Persian Gulf.

  8. Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.

  9. MRI Segmentation of the Human Brain: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotović, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important tasks in medical image analysis and is often the first and the most critical step in many clinical applications. In brain MRI analysis, image segmentation is commonly used for measuring and visualizing the brain's anatomical structures, for analyzing brain changes, for delineating pathological regions, and for surgical planning and image-guided interventions. In the last few decades, various segmentation techniques of different accuracy and degree of complexity have been developed and reported in the literature. In this paper we review the most popular methods commonly used for brain MRI segmentation. We highlight differences between them and discuss their capabilities, advantages, and limitations. To address the complexity and challenges of the brain MRI segmentation problem, we first introduce the basic concepts of image segmentation. Then, we explain different MRI preprocessing steps including image registration, bias field correction, and removal of nonbrain tissue. Finally, after reviewing different brain MRI segmentation methods, we discuss the validation problem in brain MRI segmentation. PMID:25945121

  10. Adaptive two-regime method: Application to front propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Martin, E-mail: martin.robinson@maths.ox.ac.uk; Erban, Radek, E-mail: erban@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Flegg, Mark, E-mail: mark.flegg@monash.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Monash University Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-03-28

    The Adaptive Two-Regime Method (ATRM) is developed for hybrid (multiscale) stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion problems. It efficiently couples detailed Brownian dynamics simulations with coarser lattice-based models. The ATRM is a generalization of the previously developed Two-Regime Method [Flegg et al., J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859 (2012)] to multiscale problems which require a dynamic selection of regions where detailed Brownian dynamics simulation is used. Typical applications include a front propagation or spatio-temporal oscillations. In this paper, the ATRM is used for an in-depth study of front propagation in a stochastic reaction-diffusion system which has its mean-field model given in terms of the Fisher equation [R. Fisher, Ann. Eugen. 7, 355 (1937)]. It exhibits a travelling reaction front which is sensitive to stochastic fluctuations at the leading edge of the wavefront. Previous studies into stochastic effects on the Fisher wave propagation speed have focused on lattice-based models, but there has been limited progress using off-lattice (Brownian dynamics) models, which suffer due to their high computational cost, particularly at the high molecular numbers that are necessary to approach the Fisher mean-field model. By modelling only the wavefront itself with the off-lattice model, it is shown that the ATRM leads to the same Fisher wave results as purely off-lattice models, but at a fraction of the computational cost. The error analysis of the ATRM is also presented for a morphogen gradient model.

  11. Application of the case method in medical student radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Felix S; Ochoa, E Ricardo; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie

    2005-06-01

    Our goal is to design, implement, and evaluate a rich educational activity to engage medical students in learning the importance of providing clinical histories when ordering radiological examinations. We adapted the format of the case method commonly used in business schools. In the setting of a 1-week required radiology course offered during the third year of medical school, we created an unknown case assignment consisting of two chest radiographs and a concise history for three- to four-person study teams. Unknown to students, each team received the same images, but different patient histories. After turning in their written analyses, students had a classroom opportunity to discuss their conclusions. A written evaluation of the entire experience using both Likert items and unstructured response items was conducted at the end of each session. The evaluation was conducted during a 17-month period, and 141 evaluations were received from students. The response rate was 100%. Most teams met several times and worked on the assignment for 2 or 3 hours. Students agreed that the learning experience was worthwhile (95%), content was appropriate (93%), and the activity should be continued for subsequent classes (94%). Unstructured responses indicated that students learned the importance of clinical histories in the interpretation of radiological studies. An educational activity based on the case method was well received by students and met its educational objectives. Activities of this type have potential for widespread application in radiology education.

  12. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  13. Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-09-01

    There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Polarization Remote Sensing Physical Mechanism, Key Methods and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Wu, T.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Knjazihhin, J.; Asundi, A.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1) Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2) Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3) Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  15. Troubled waters: Environmental applications of electrical and electromagnetic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, David C.

    1996-07-01

    existing technology has lead to the development of fresh instruments, such as electrode arrays towed across the ground, resistivity logging while drilling, fast-rise time TEM, NMR combined with TEM, electric quadripole, et cetera. The applications of E & EM methods cover a wide range of geographic areas and groundwater problems, but have had particularly wide use for groundwater exploration in arid and semi-arid regions, for mapping and monitoring salt-water incursion in susceptible aquifers, and for mapping and monitoring contaminants.

  16. CT morphometric analysis to determine the anatomical basis for the use of transpedicular screws during reconstruction and fixations of anterior cervical vertebrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population. METHODS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images were performed for 80 cases. The anatomic data and screw fixation parameters for ATPS fixation were measured using the Mimics software. FINDINGS: The overall mean OPW, OPH and PAL ranged from 5.81 to 7.49 mm, 7.77 to 8.69 mm, and 33.40 to 31.13 mm separately, and SPA was 93.54 to 109.36 degrees from C3 to C6, 104.99 degrees at C7, whereas, 49.00 to 32.26 degrees from C4 to C7, 46.79 degrees at C3 (TPA. Dl/rSIP had an increasing trend away from upper endplate with mean value from 1.87 to 5.83 mm. Dl/rTIP was located at the lateral portion of the anterior cortex of vertebrae for C3 to C5 and ipsilateral for C6 to C7 with mean value from -2.70 to -3.00 mm, and 0.17 to 3.18 mm. The entrance points for pedicular screw insertion for C3 to C5 and C6 to C7 were recommended -2∼-3 mm and 0-4 mm from the median sagittal plane, respectively, 1-4 mm and 5-6 mm from the upper endplate, with TPA being 46.79-49.00 degrees and 40.89-32.26 degrees, respectively, and SPA being 93.54-106.69 degrees and 109.36-104.99 degrees, respectively. The pedicle screw insertion diameter was recommended 3.5 mm (C3 and C4, 4.0 mm (C5 to C7, and the pedicle axial length was 21-24 mm for C3 to C7 for both genders. However, the ATPS insertion in C3 should be individualized given its relatively small anatomical dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided a morphometric basis for the ATPS fixation technique in lower cervical fixation. It will help in preoperative planning and execution of this surgery.

  17. The status and prediction of EOR methods application in the USSR. [Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, S.A.; Surguchov, M.L. (All-Union Oil and Gas Scientific Research Inst. (VNII), Moscow (SU))

    1991-01-01

    Summarized results of EOR methods application in the USSR are presented in the paper. On the basis of comparative analysis of actual data, the probability of successful EOR methods application has been evaluated for specific conditions, and the most preferable geologic parameters have been highlighted. Some peculiarities of EOR methods application in domestic oil fields have been considered, including those in Western Siberia. The results of multivariant prediction of EOR methods application in the USSR are presented. (author).

  18. Optical and Transport Properties of Organic Molecules: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, David Alan

    Organic molecules are versatile and tunable building blocks for technology, in nanoscale and bulk devices. In this dissertation, I will consider some important applications for organic molecules involving optical and transport properties, and develop methods and software appropriate for theoretical calculations of these properties. Specifically, we will consider second-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical process; photoisomerization, in which absorption of light leads to mechanical motion; charge transport in junctions formed of single molecules; and optical excitations in pentacene, an organic semiconductor with applications in photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and flexible electronics. In the Introduction (Chapter 1), I will give an overview of some phenomenology about organic molecules and these application areas, and discuss the basics of the theoretical methodology I will use: density-functional theory (DFT), time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), and many-body perturbation theory based on the GW approximation. In the subsequent chapters, I will further discuss, develop, and apply this methodology. 2. I will give a pedagogical derivation of the methods for calculating response properties in TDDFT, with particular focus on the Sternheimer equation, as will be used in subsequent chapters. I will review the many different response properties that can be calculated (dynamic and static) and the appropriate perturbations used to calculate them. 3. Standard techniques for calculating response use either integer occupations (as appropriate for a system with an energy gap) or fractional occupations due to a smearing function, used to improve convergence for metallic systems. I will present a generalization which can be used to compute response for a system with arbitrary fractional occupations. 4. Chloroform (CHCl3) is a small molecule commonly used as a solvent in measurements of nonlinear optics. I computed its hyperpolarizability for second

  19. expansion method and its applications to nonlinear evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (NLEEs) are widely used as ... formation method [3], Hirota bilinear method [4], the tanh method [5], symmetry method. [6], Painlevé ... recent years, due to the availability of symbolic computation systems like Mathematica or Maple, direct ...

  20. Application of impedance spectroscopy method for analysis of benzanol fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamykin A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed a method for express control of three component «gasoline-alcohol-water» fuel mixtures based on the spectral impedance investigation of benzanol mixture in the frequency range of 500 Hz — 10 kHz. A correlation dependence between the dielectric constant and the specific resistance of the fuel mixture on content of ethanol and water in the mixture has been found. On the basis of this dependence a calibration nomogram to quantify the gasoline and water-alcohol components content in the test benzanol fuel in the actual range of concentrations has been formed. The nomogram allows determining the water-alcohol and gasoline parts in the analyzed fuel with an error of no more than 1% vol., while the strength of water-alcohol solution is determined with an error of no more than 0.8% vol. The obtained nomogram can also give information about critical water content in the benzanol fuel to prevent its eventual phase separation. It is shown that the initial component composition of different gasoline brands has no significant effect on the electrical characteristics of the studied benzanol fuels, which makes the evaluation of alcohol and water content in the fuel sufficiently accurate. for practical applications.

  1. IMPLEMENTING NDN USING SDN: A REVIEW ON METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Rowshanrad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many claims about the limitations of todays’ network architecture, its lack of flexibility and ability to response to ongoing changes and increasing users demands. In this regard, new network architectures are proposed. Software Defined Networking (SDN is one of these new architectures which centralizes the control of network by separating control plane from data plane. This separation leads to intelligence, flexibility and easier control in computer networks. One of the advantages of this framework is the ability to implement and test new protocols and architectures in actual networks without any concern of interruption.Named Data Networking (NDN is another paradigm for future network architecture. With NDN the network becomes aware of the content that is providing, rather than just transferring it among end-points. NDN attracts researchers’ attention and known as the potential future of networking and internet. Providing NDN functionalities over SDN is an important requirement to enable the innovation and optimization of network resources. In this paper first we describe about SDN and NDN, and then we introduce methods for implementing NDN using SDN. We also point out the advantages and applications of implementing NDN over SDN.

  2. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  3. Application of Monte Carlo methods in tomotherapy and radiation biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Yun

    Helical tomotherapy is an attractive treatment for cancer therapy because highly conformal dose distributions can be achieved while the on-board megavoltage CT provides simultaneous images for accurate patient positioning. The convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation methods typically used for Tomotherapy treatment planning may overestimate skin (superficial) doses by 3-13%. Although more accurate than C/S methods, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are too slow for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the computational requirements of MC can be reduced by developing a source model for the parts of the accelerator that do not change from patient to patient. This source model then becomes the starting point for additional simulations of the penetration of radiation through patient. In the first section of this dissertation, a source model for a helical tomotherapy is constructed by condensing information from MC simulations into series of analytical formulas. The MC calculated percentage depth dose and beam profiles computed using the source model agree within 2% of measurements for a wide range of field sizes, which suggests that the proposed source model provides an adequate representation of the tomotherapy head for dose calculations. Monte Carlo methods are a versatile technique for simulating many physical, chemical and biological processes. In the second major of this thesis, a new methodology is developed to simulate of the induction of DNA damage by low-energy photons. First, the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to estimate the spectrum of initial electrons produced by photons. The initial spectrum of electrons are then combined with DNA damage yields for monoenergetic electrons from the fast Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) developed earlier by Semenenko and Stewart (Purdue University). Single- and double-strand break yields predicted by the proposed methodology are in good agreement (1%) with the results of published

  4. Simulation of secondary fault shear displacements - method and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fälth, Billy; Hökmark, Harald; Lund, Björn; Mai, P. Martin; Munier, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    We present an earthquake simulation method to calculate dynamically and statically induced shear displacements on faults near a large earthquake. Our results are aimed at improved safety assessment of underground waste storage facilities, e.g. a nuclear waste repository. For our simulations, we use the distinct element code 3DEC. We benchmark 3DEC by running an earthquake simulation and then compare the displacement waveforms at a number of surface receivers with the corresponding results obtained from the COMPSYN code package. The benchmark test shows a good agreement in terms of both phase and amplitude. In our application to a potential earthquake near a storage facility, we use a model with a pre-defined earthquake fault plane (primary fault) surrounded by numerous smaller discontinuities (target fractures) representing faults in which shear movements may be induced by the earthquake. The primary fault and the target fractures are embedded in an elastic medium. Initial stresses are applied and the fault rupture mechanism is simulated through a programmed reduction of the primary fault shear strength, which is initiated at a pre-defined hypocenter. The rupture is propagated at a typical rupture propagation speed and arrested when it reaches the fault plane boundaries. The primary fault residual strength properties are uniform over the fault plane. The method allows for calculation of target fracture shear movements induced by static stress redistribution as well as by dynamic effects. We apply the earthquake simulation method in a model of the Forsmark nuclear waste repository site in Sweden with rock mass properties, in situ stresses and fault geometries according to the description of the site established by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The target fracture orientations are based on the Discrete Fracture Network model developed for the site. With parameter values set to provide reasonable upper bound estimates of target fracture

  5. Leveraging Transcultural Enrollments to Enhance Application of the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Continued growth of transcultural academic programs presents an opportunity for all of the students involved to improve utilization of the scientific method. Our own business success depends on how effectively we apply the scientific method, and so it is unsurprising that our hiring programs focus on three broad areas of capability among applicants which are strongly related to the scientific method. These are 1) ability to continually learn up-to-date earth science concepts, 2) ability to effectively and succinctly communicate in the English language, both oral and written, and 3) ability to employ behaviors that are advantageous with respect to the various phases of the scientific method. This third area is often the most difficult to develop, because neither so-called Western nor Eastern cultures encourage a suite of behaviors that are ideally suited. Generally, the acceptance of candidates into academic programs, together with subsequent high performance evidenced by grades, is a highly valid measure of continuous learning capability. Certainly, students for whom English is not a native language face additional challenges, but succinct and effective communication is an art which requires practice and development, regardless of native language. The ability to communicate in English is crucial, since it is today's lingua franca for both science and commerce globally. Therefore, we strongly support the use of frequent English written assignments and oral presentations as an integral part of all scientific academic programs. There is no question but that this poses additional work for faculty; nevertheless it is a key ingredient to the optimal development of students. No one culture has a monopoly with respect to behaviors that promote effective leveraging of the scientific method. For instance, the growing complexity of experimental protocols argues for a high degree of interdependent effort, which is more often associated with so-called Eastern than Western

  6. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  7. [A comparative study on treatment of thoracolumbar fracture with injured vertebra pedicle instrumentation and cross segment pedicle instrumentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Zhenzhong; Yin, Qudong; Liu, Jun; Gu, Sanjun; Zhang, Shaodong

    2014-02-01

    To compare the effective of short-segment pedicle instrumentation with bone grafting and pedicle screw implanting in injured vertebra and cross segment pedicle instrumentation with bone grafting in injured vertebra for treating thoracolumbar fractures. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed in 40 patients with thoracolumbar fracture who were in accordance with the inclusive criteria between June 2010 and June 2012. Of 40 patients, 20 received treatment with short-segment pedicle screw instrumentation with bone grafting and pedicle screw implanting in injured vertebra in group A, and 20 received treatment with cross segment pedicle instrumentation with bone grafting in injured vertebra in group B. There was no significant difference in gender, age, affected segment, disease duration, Frankel grade, Cobb angle, compression rate of anterior verterbral height, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score between 2 groups before operation (P > 0.05). The operation time, blood loss, Cobb angle, compression rate of anterior vertebral height, loss of disc space height, Frankel grade, VAS and JOA scores were compared between 2 groups. There was no significant difference in the operation time and blood loss between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and no early complication of infection or lower limb vein thrombus occurred. Forty patients were followed up 12-16 months (mean, 14.8 months). No breaking or displacement of internal fixation was observed. The improvement of Frankel grading score was 0.52 +/- 0.72 in group A and 0.47 +/- 0.63 in group B, showing no significant difference (t = 0.188, P = 0.853) at 12 months after operation. The Cobb angle, compression rate of anterior verterbral height, and VAS score at 1 week and 12 months, and JOA score at 12 months were significantly improved when compared with preoperative ones in 2 groups (P 0.05), but the compression rate of

  8. Morfologia das 3ª e 4ª vértebras cervicais representativa do surto de crescimento puberal Morphology of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae representative of the adolescent growth spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Silva Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a morfologia das 3ª e 4ª vértebras cervicais representativa dos estágios de pré-pico, pico e pós-pico de velocidade de crescimento estatural, definidos previamente pelos centros de ossificação do primeiro dedo em radiografias carpais ou do dedo polegar. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 120 telerradiografias em norma lateral de 106 pacientes selecionados da clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva e Interceptiva da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba-UNESP e Profis/HRAC-USP que apresentavam as correspondentes radiografias carpais ou do dedo polegar. As telerradiografias foram divididas em três grupos de 40 radiografias, de acordo com os estágios maturacionais pré-pico, pico e pós-pico, definidos pela imagem do primeiro dedo. A morfologia dos corpos das 3ª e 4ª vértebras cervicais foi determinada por dois examinadores devidamente calibrados em dois tempos diferentes. CONCLUSÕES: concluiu-se que o formato retangular horizontal com borda inferior reta foi representativo do estágio de pré-pico, independentemente da vértebra analisada. Já o formato retangular horizontal com borda inferior curva, especialmente se encontrado em C4, ou o formato quadrado com borda inferior reta caracterizaram o pico de velocidade de crescimento. O formato quadrado ou, principalmente, o retangular vertical com borda inferior curva determinaram o estágio de pós-pico de velocidade de crescimento da adolescência.AIM: To determine the morphology of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae which represent the pre-peak, peak and post-peak stages of statural growth, previously defined by ossification centers of the thumb in hand-wrist or thumb periapical radiographs. METHODS: The sample was comprised of 120 lateral cephalometric radiographs of 106 patients from the Interceptive Orthodontics Clinic of the School of Dentistry of Araçatuba/UNESP and from PROFIS /Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies/USP. All patients had hand

  9. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    and wishes of all stakeholders. For instance, the local geoscientists are most interested in conservation and scientific interests whereas managers aim to develop and promote the tourist (and economic) dimension. The definition and application of the assessment method is the outcome of constant discussion with both local key players; it therefore reflects and moderates the - sometimes antagonistic - interests. All the discussions around geosites assessment can be considered as the prime mover at local scale of the geopark construction process. This example shows that geosites assessment can not be considered only as an academic operation, but also as an essential step to initiate a local dynamic and consensus that help to achieve some of the objectives of a geopark defined by EGN like local involvement, sustainable development, or cooperation with local communities.

  10. Methods and applications of radio frequency geophysics in glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Nicholas

    Simple radar systems of the past were used primarily for radar depth sounding, the process of using reflection travel times and electromagnetic velocities to determine the ice thickness. Modern radioglaciology uses both the travel times and reflection amplitudes to make inferences about the englacial and subglacial environments; however, non-uniqueness in geophysical data, combined with the large number of physical parameters that control reflection amplitude, have led to significant uncertainties in this type of analysis. In this set of studies, I improve on data collection, processing, and assimilation methods, with a focus on radar reflection amplitudes and internal layers. The first two studies are devoted to radar survey methods, in which I examine the impact of reflector geometry on amplitude (2), and investigate an independent measure of radar attenuation using variable-offset data, in an effort to eliminate the effects of ice chemistry and temperature on reflection amplitudes (3). These studies emphasize the fact that radar data are a product of both the physical system and the imaging process, and caution glaciologists from over-interpreting processing artifacts common in radar data collected in areas of complex glacial flow. In the following two chapters, I go on to provide glaciological applications of processed radar data, interpreting the record of complex flow left behind in englacial reflector slopes (4), and applying improved boundary conditions to better predict the maximum extent of West Antarctic collapse (5). These studies use geometric information from the bed reflector and englacial reflectors to describe the flow regime present in Antarctica today. Chapter 4 examines how boundary conditions that are difficult to observe directly (the geothermal heat flux, as well as the frictional and deformation characteristics of the ice-sheet substrate) manifest through internal layer deformation. Chapter 5 focuses on Marie Byrd Land (MBL), where

  11. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers based on the second cervical vertebra measured using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess correlations between measurements of the second cervical vertebra (C2) and stature using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images, and to develop regression equations for estimating stature in a Japanese population. Measurements were performed on 216 Japanese subjects (116 males and 100 females) who underwent postmortem CT between May 2011 and November 2013. Sagittal images through the center of the C2 were used for assessment. The length from the top of the dens to the anteroinferior point of the vertebral body (DA), the length from the anteroinferior point of the vertebral body to the posterior point of the spinous process (AS), and the length from the top of the dens to the posterior point of the spinous process (DS) were measured. The correlation between stature and each parameter (DA, AS, and DS) was assessed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and regression analysis was performed for stature estimation. All measurements of the C2 were positively correlated with stature regardless of sex. The highest correlation was observed for the DA in all cases, and the lowest correlation was observed for AS in all cases. However, the standard errors of estimate were large. Thus, our study concludes that the size of the C2 as measured with MDCT images may be useful for stature estimation only when better predictors, such as long bones, are unavailable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Simple Bone Cyst in Cervical Vertebrae of an Adolescent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruges Boude

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spinal simple bone cysts, also known as solitary cysts, are extremely unusual benign primary bone tumors with few cases reported in the literature. Case Presentation. Incidental Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI finding of a C2 Simple bone cyst in a 13-year-old female patient is reported. Complementary studies suggested the benign nature of the lesion. Patient underwent cervical curettage followed by tumor excision. A lateral submandibular approach to the upper cervical spine was used and careful bone resection was possible with a radiofrequency assisted burr and no instrumentation or fixation was required. The stability of the defect was ensured by filling it with bone allograft and by prescribing a postsurgical plastic cervical collar to maintain neck immobilization. Histological examination supported the diagnosis of simple bone cyst. At 6–12-month follow-up the patient presented no recurrence or symptomatology. Conclusions. Solitary bone cysts are infrequent entities in the cervical vertebrae and preservation of spine stability without instrumentation to avoid neurological complications is often challenging. In this case, the proximity of the cyst to the right vertebral artery and the risk of injury were high; however the surgical approach used was successful and no recurrence or instability was evidenced on postoperative MRI.

  13. Applicability of Demirjian's four methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nursel; Yilanci, Hümeyra Özge; Göksülük, Dinçer

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of five dental methods including Demirjian's original, revised, four teeth, and alternate four teeth methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children. Panoramic radiographs of 799 children (412 females, 387 males) aged between 2.20 and 15.99years were examined by two observers. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to compare dental methods among gender and age groups. All of the five methods overestimated the chronological age on the average. Among these, Willems method was found to be the most accurate method, which showed 0.07 and 0.15years overestimation for males and females, respectively. It was followed by Demirjian's four teeth methods, revised and original methods. According to the results, Willems method can be recommended for dental age estimation of Turkish children in forensic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tune measurement at GSI SIS-18. Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul

    2014-05-15

    parameters,thus leaving out no ''free parameters''. Several important results were established in course of these experiments. Coherent tune shifts in dependence of intensity gave direct measurements of transverse machine impedances. The high resolution tune spectrum allowed identification of higher order head-tail modes. The relative spectral positions of these head-tail modes when compared with the analytical theory based on the ''square well airbag model'' gave a direct measurement of the incoherent tune spread in bunched beams. The measurements agreed well with the perturbative treatment applied in the theory only for space charge parameter in the range q{sub sc} method is demonstrated using temporal separation of each head-tail mode using chirp excitation. Other applications of the parallel tune measurement systems such as linear betatron coupling measurements or tune measurements during acceleration ramps are demonstrated. This work forms a basis for understanding beam dynamics at GSI SIS-18 for high beam currents.

  15. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... proposed method is very efficient, simple and is more user friendly. Keywords: Variational Iteration Method, Homotopy Perturbation Method, New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method, Integro-Differential Equations Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 497 – 504 ...

  16. The Inverse Method Application for Non-Classical Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, V.; Paky, V.

    2015-01-01

    Maslov’s inverse method is an automated theorem proving method: it can be used to develop computer programs that prove theorems automatically (such programs are called theorem provers). The inverse method can be applied to a wide range of logical calculi: propositional logic, first-order logic, intuitionistic logic, modal logics etc. We give a brief historical background of the inverse method, then discuss existing modifications and implementations of the inverse method for non-classical logics...

  17. THE CORRELATION DEPENDENCE OF THE CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND BIOMECHANICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE SPONDYLOLISTHESIS L4 VERTEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Krut’Ko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 59 operated patients with spondylolisthesis L4 vertebra of I degree. All the patients were held clinical-anamnestic, neurological, radiological, radiopaque and biomechanical studies, MRI, CT, as well as puncture performed provocative tests. Revealed correlation of clinical manifestations of degenerative spondylolisthesis L4 and biomechanical parameters of the shape and orientation of the lumbar spine. The most pronounced clinical and morphological changes detected at the level of spondylolisthesis and adjacent segments in the group with hyperlordosis and excessive tilt angle of the chord forward, which is confirmed by MRI, CT, and carried out a disco-puncture provocative tests. A variety of pathological changes of the lumbar spine at L4 vertebra degenerative spondylolisthesis correlated with the biomechanical parameters violation of the shape and orientation of the spine in the sagittal plane.

  18. Surgical management of giant cell tumor of axis vertebra: review of fourteen cases in literature with a case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal giant cell tumor (PSGCT considered as rare primary neoplasm, with predilection for subarticular location and commonly located at knee joint region, sacrum or distal radius, however, spinal involvent is uncommon and comparatively much rarer in the cervical spine. Further occurrence of giant cell tumor in the Axis vertebra is extremely uncommon and easily misdiagnosed and, thus, treatment is still debated and various treatment modalities and different surgical approaches were utilized during evolution of surgical management. Authors could collect only 14 cases of primary giant cell tumor affecting Axis vertebra in a detailed Pubmed and Medline search, out of which 12 cases were primary and rest two case was recurrent. So authors reviewed in total thirteen cases primary giant cell tumor of Axis managed surgically, including our case. Out of 13 PSGCT, twelve cases were managed with surgical resection and the rest one case was managed with monoclonal antibody using Denosomab monotherapy without any surgical intervention. In the surgical group (n=12, nine cases had two staged surgical procedure, first being posterior fixation followed by anterior approach with resection of tumor while, the rest three had one stage surgical resection including current case. Authors reports a unique case of spinal giant cell tumor developing in a- 38 - year male with history of renal transplant, presented with neck pain and difficulty in walking, neuroimaging revealed a osteolytic mass lesion involving body of axis vertebra with extension into right sided lamina, underwent two stage complete surgical intervention. Authors describes management of such rare locally recurring primary bony pathology affecting axis vertebra as it is not only interesting and challenging and different management modalities, various, surgical approaches and issue of renal osteodystrophy along with pertinent literature is also reviewed briefly.

  19. Validity and reliability of a thoracic kyphotic assessment tool measuring distance of the seventh cervical vertebra from the wall

    OpenAIRE

    Amatachaya, Pipatana; Wongsa, Sawitree; Sooknuan, Thanat; Thaweewannakij, Thiwabhorn; Laophosri, Maneepan; Manimanakorn, Nuttaset; Amatachaya, Sugalya

    2016-01-01

    Background: In primary healthcare (PHC) service, community residents, village health volunteers (VHVs), and healthcare professionals need to work in partnership to facilitate universal and equitable healthcare services. However, these partnerships may need an appropriate tool helping them to execute an effective health-related activity. Objectives: To investigate the reliability and validity of a simple kyphosis measure using a perpendicular distance from the seventh cervical vertebra (C7)...

  20. Osteology of the dorsal vertebrae of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn K. Voegele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many titanosaurian dinosaurs are known only from fragmentary remains, making comparisons between taxa difficult because they often lack overlapping skeletal elements. This problem is particularly pronounced for the exceptionally large-bodied members of this sauropod clade. Dreadnoughtus schrani is a well-preserved giant titanosaurian from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian–Maastrichtian Cerro Fortaleza Formation of southern Patagonia, Argentina. Numerous skeletal elements are known for Dreadnoughtus, including seven nearly complete dorsal vertebrae and a partial dorsal neural arch that collectively represent most of the dorsal sequence. Here we build on our previous preliminary description of these skeletal elements by providing a detailed assessment of their serial positional assignments, as well as comparisons of the dorsal vertebrae of Dreadnoughtus with those of other exceptionally large-bodied titanosaurians. Although the dorsal elements of Dreadnoughtus probably belong to two individuals, they exhibit substantial morphological variation that suggests that there is minimal, if any, positional overlap among them. Dreadnoughtus therefore preserves the second-most complete dorsal vertebral series known for a giant titanosaurian that has been described in detail, behind only that of Futalognkosaurus. The dorsal sequence of Dreadnoughtus provides valuable insight into serial variation along the vertebral column of these enormous sauropods. Such variation includes the variable presence of divided spinodiapophyseal laminae and associated spinodiapophyseal fossae. Given that dorsal vertebrae are the only elements that overlap between known remains of most giant titanosaurian taxa, the dorsal series of Dreadnoughtus provides a means to directly compare the morphologies of these sauropods. The dorsal vertebrae of Dreadnoughtus and Futalognkosaurus have dorsoventrally narrow transverse processes, unlike the condition in Puertasaurus. Further

  1. Dirichlet and Related Distributions Theory, Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Kai Wang; Tang, Man-Lai

    2011-01-01

    The Dirichlet distribution appears in many areas of application, which include modelling of compositional data, Bayesian analysis, statistical genetics, and nonparametric inference. This book provides a comprehensive review of the Dirichlet distribution and two extended versions, the Grouped Dirichlet Distribution (GDD) and the Nested Dirichlet Distribution (NDD), arising from likelihood and Bayesian analysis of incomplete categorical data and survey data with non-response. The theoretical properties and applications are also reviewed in detail for other related distributions, such as the inve

  2. Introducing Students to the Application of Statistics and Investigative Methods in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic D.; Nemire, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    This exercise introduces students to the application of statistics and its investigative methods in political science. It helps students gain a better understanding and a greater appreciation of statistics through a real world application.

  3. Multi-scale finite element modelling at the posterior lumbar vertebra: analysis of pedicle stresses due to pars fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inceoğlu, Serkan; Mageswaran, Prasath

    2014-05-01

    Multi-scale finite element (FE) model is a cost-effective way to analyse stress response of micro-level structures to the changes in loading at macro-level. This study deals with the development of a multi-scale model of a human vertebra and stress changes in the pedicle at high resolution after a gross fracture at the posterior neural arch. Spondylolysis (pars fracture) is a painful condition occurring in the vertebral neural arch and common especially among the athletic young population. The fracture of the pars significantly alters load distribution and load transfer characteristics at the neural arch. Structural changes in the posterior vertebra due to the new loading patterns can trigger secondary complications. Clinical reports have shown the association of pedicle hypertrophy or pedicle fracture with unilateral pars fractures. However, the biomechanical consequences of pars fracture and its effect on the pedicle have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we prepared a multi-scale model of posterior vertebra with continuum laminar complex model combined with micro-FE model of a pedicle section. The results showed that stress at the contralateral pars and pedicle increased after unilateral pars fracture simulation. High-stress regions were found around the outer boundaries of the pedicle. This model and information are helpful in understanding the stress changes in the pedicle and can be used for adaptive remodelling studies.

  4. Exclusion of oxygen from modified atmosphere packages limits beef rib and lumbar vertebrae marrow discoloration during display and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, R A; Hunt, M C; Hachmeister, K A; Kropf, D H; Johnson, D E

    2005-03-01

    Visual and instrumental color (L*a*b* and reflectance from 400 to 700 nm) were used to evaluate packaging atmosphere as a way of minimizing beef marrow discoloration. In experiment 1, rib ends (n=24) packaged in 80% O(2)/20% CO(2) discolored more than ribs packaged in 100% N(2), which resulted in a relatively stable purplish marrow color through a 7-day display at 1 °C. In experiment 2, lumbar vertebrae (n=10) packaged in 80% O(2)/20% CO(2) had a rapid and significant discoloration within 24 h after packaging, likely because of the formation of methemoglobin. Conversely, vertebrae packaged in 80% N(2)/20% CO(2) and 0.4% CO/30% CO(2)/69.6% N(2) remained color stable during 2 and 6 weeks of storage at 4 °C, respectively. Exclusion of oxygen from MAP packages and the addition of low concentrations of CO minimized beef rib and lumbar vertebrae discoloration compared with high-oxygen MAP.

  5. 4th Workshop on Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile; Prentzas, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes extended and revised versions of the papers presented at the 4th Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2014) which was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners dealing with combinations of different intelligent methods in Artificial Intelligence. The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components. Some of the existing presented efforts combine soft computing methods (fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms). Another stream of efforts integrates case-based reasoning or machine learning with soft-computing methods. Some of the combinations have been more widely explored, like neuro-symbolic methods, neuro-fuzzy methods and methods combining rule-based and case-based reasoning. CIMA 2014 was held in conjunction with the 26th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI 2014). .

  6. Multibody Finite Element Method and Application in Hydraulic Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multibody finite element method is proposed for analysis of contact problems in hydraulic structure. This method is based on the block theory of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA method and combines advantages of finite element method (FEM and the displacement compatibility equation in classical elastic mechanics. Each single block is analyzed using FEM in corresponding local coordinate system and all contacting blocks need to satisfy the displacement compatibility requirement between any two blocks in a blocky system. It is proved that this method is very efficient and practical to overcome the limitations in DDA method when tackling contact problems, such as the overlap problem and the equal strain assumption. In this paper, detailed theoretical basis and formulations are given. Two numerical examples are performed to verify the proposed method successfully. Furthermore, this method is adopted to study the stability issues of underground houses of a large hydropower station.

  7. Application of finite-element-methods in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Presentation of the possible use of finite-element-methods in food processing. Examples from diffusion studies are given.......Presentation of the possible use of finite-element-methods in food processing. Examples from diffusion studies are given....

  8. Lattice Boltzmann method fundamentals and engineering applications with computer codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamad, A A

    2014-01-01

    Introducing the Lattice Boltzmann Method in a readable manner, this book provides detailed examples with complete computer codes. It avoids the most complicated mathematics and physics without scarifying the basic fundamentals of the method.

  9. Some remarks on exp-function method and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, İsmail; Marinakis, Vangelis

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many important nonlinear partial differential equations arising in the applied physical and mathematical sciences have been tackled by a popular approach, the so-called Exp-function method. In this paper, we present some shortcomings of this method by analyzing the results of recently published papers. We also discuss the possible improvement of the effectiveness of the method.

  10. An irrational trial equation method and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An irrational trial equation method was proposed to solve nonlinear differ- ential equations. By this method, a number of exact travelling wave solutions to the. Burgers–KdV equation and the dissipative double sine-Gordon equation were obtained. A more general irrational trial equation method was discussed, and ...

  11. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical comparisons are made between VIM/HPM and NVHPM results. Keywords: Painlevé Equations, Variational Iteration Method, Homotopy Perturbation Method, New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method, Ordinary Differential Equations Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 ...

  12. Fluid mechanics and the SPH method theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Violeau, Damien

    2012-01-01

    This text presents the SPH method for fluid modelling from a theoretical and applied viewpoint. It explains the foundations of the method, from physical principles, and will help researchers, students, and engineers to understand how the method should be used and why it works well.

  13. An irrational trial equation method and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An irrational trial equation method was proposed to solve nonlinear differential equations. By this method, a number of exact travelling wave solutions to the Burgers–KdV equation and the dissipative double sine-Gordon equation were obtained. A more general irrational trial equation method was discussed, and many ...

  14. A review of level-set methods and some recent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibou, Frederic; Fedkiw, Ronald; Osher, Stanley

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent advances in level-set methods and their applications. In particular, we discuss how to impose boundary conditions at irregular domains and free boundaries, as well as the extension of level-set methods to adaptive Cartesian grids and parallel architectures. Illustrative applications are taken from the physical and life sciences. Fast sweeping methods are briefly discussed.

  15. A Comparison of Iterative 2D-3D Pose Estimation Methods for Real-Time Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel; Krüger, Volker; Petersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This work compares iterative 2D-3D Pose Estimation methods for use in real-time applications. The compared methods are available for public as C++ code. One method is part of the openCV library, namely POSIT. Because POSIT is not applicable for planar 3Dpoint congurations, we include the planar P...

  16. Time series analysis time series analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Tata Subba; Rao, C R

    2012-01-01

    The field of statistics not only affects all areas of scientific activity, but also many other matters such as public policy. It is branching rapidly into so many different subjects that a series of handbooks is the only way of comprehensively presenting the various aspects of statistical methodology, applications, and recent developments. The Handbook of Statistics is a series of self-contained reference books. Each volume is devoted to a particular topic in statistics, with Volume 30 dealing with time series. The series is addressed to the entire community of statisticians and scientists in various disciplines who use statistical methodology in their work. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on applications-oriented techniques, with the applied statistician in mind as the primary audience. Comprehensively presents the various aspects of statistical methodology Discusses a wide variety of diverse applications and recent developments Contributors are internationally renowened experts in their respect...

  17. Continuum mechanics using Mathematica fundamentals, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This textbook's methodological approach familiarizes readers with the mathematical tools required to correctly define and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Covering essential principles and fundamental applications, this second edition of Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica® provides a solid basis for a deeper study of more challenging and specialized problems related to nonlinear elasticity, polar continua, mixtures, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, magneto-fluid mechanics, and state changes (see A. Romano, A. Marasco, Continuum Mechanics: Advanced Topics and Research Trends, Springer (Birkhäuser), 2010, ISBN 978-0-8176-4869-5). Key topics and features: * Concise presentation strikes a balance between fundamentals and applications * Requisite mathematical background carefully collected in two introductory chapters and one appendix * Recent developments highlighted through coverage of more significant applications to areas such as wave propagation, fluid mechanics, porous media, linear elasticity....

  18. The cervical spine of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the vertebrae and regionalization in their S-shaped arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S; Wagner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning...

  19. Application of modern SHM methods in electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasior, Pawel; Kaleta, Jerzy [Wroclaw Univ. of Technolgy (Poland); Przygoda, Aleksander [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper an application of up-to-date Structural Health Monitoring systems based mainly on optical fibre sensors for various applications in power plants is presented. Real working solutions and ideas of the SHM systems were applied to fluid power boilers, installations of environmental protection (the so called desulphurisation systems) and main frames of construction (130m high). The measured values were compared with the design ones, as well as with the calculated values. It enabled evaluation of the inhomogeneous loads distribution and increased safety of the construction during its repair and operation. (orig.)

  20. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are spinal or paraspinal anatomic makers helpful for vertebral numbering and diagnosing lumbosacral transitional vertebrae?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Killic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide [Dept. of Radiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels.

  2. Evaluation of porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites for repair of lumbar vertebra defect in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong-Xue; Quan, Ren-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Tuo; Xie, Shang-Ju; Gao, Huan-Huan; Wei, Xi-Cheng; Yang, Di-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of porous gradient composites with hydroxyapatite/zirconia and autologous iliac in repair of lumbar vertebra body defects in dogs. (1) New porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites were prepared using foam immersion, gradient compound and high temperature sintering; (2) A total of 18 adult beagle dogs, aged five to eight months and weighted 10-13 kg, were randomly assigned into two subgroups, which were implanted with new porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites (subgroup A in 12) or autologous iliac bone (subgroup B in 6); (3) The post-operative data were analyzed and compared between the subgroups to repair the vertebral body defect by roentgenoscopy, morphology and biomechanics. The porosity of new porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites is at 25 poles per inch, and the size of pores is at between 150 and 300 µm. The post-operative roentgenoscopy displayed that new-bone formation is increased gradually, and the interface between composites and host-bone becomes became blur, and the new-bone around the composites were integrated into host-bone at 24 weeks postoperatively in subgroup A. As to subgroup B, the resorption and restructure were found at six weeks after the surgery, and the graft-bone and host-bone have been integrated completely without obvious boundary at 24 weeks postoperatively. Histomorphologic study showed that the amount of bone within pores of the porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites increased continuously with a prolonged implantation time, and that partial composites were degradated and replaced by new-bone trabeculae. There was no significant difference between subgroups (P > 0.05) in the ultimate compressive strengths. New porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites can promote the repair of bony defect, and induce bone tissue to ingrow into the pores, which may be applied widely to the treatment of bony defect in the future. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Spinal deformity in aged zebrafish is accompanied by degenerative changes to their vertebrae that resemble osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Hayes

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral

  4. A New Material Mapping Procedure for Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based, Continuum Finite Element Analyses of the Vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.; Morgan, Elise F.

    2011-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the estimation of material properties and errors in the assignment of these properties into finite element models limit the reliability, accuracy, and precision of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element analyses of the vertebra. In this work, a new mesh-independent, material mapping procedure was developed to improve the quality of predictions of vertebral mechanical behavior from QCT-based finite element models. In this procedure, an intermediate step, called the material block model, was introduced to determine the distribution of material properties based on bone mineral density, and these properties were then mapped onto the finite element mesh. A sensitivity study was first conducted on a calibration phantom to understand the influence of the size of the material blocks on the computed bone mineral density. It was observed that varying the material block size produced only marginal changes in the predictions of mineral density. Finite element (FE) analyses were then conducted on a square column-shaped region of the vertebra and also on the entire vertebra in order to study the effect of material block size on the FE-derived outcomes. The predicted values of stiffness for the column and the vertebra decreased with decreasing block size. When these results were compared to those of a mesh convergence analysis, it was found that the influence of element size on vertebral stiffness was less than that of the material block size. This mapping procedure allows the material properties in a finite element study to be determined based on the block size required for an accurate representation of the material field, while the size of the finite elements can be selected independently and based on the required numerical accuracy of the finite element solution. The mesh-independent, material mapping procedure developed in this study could be particularly helpful in improving the accuracy of finite element analyses of

  5. Selection of the optimal distal fusion level in posterior instrumentation and fusion for thoracic hyperkyphosis: the sagittal stable vertebra concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Sides, Brenda

    2009-04-15

    Retrospective study. To determine the appropriate distal fusion level in posterior instrumentation and fusion for thoracic hyperkyphosis by investigating the relationship between the sagittal stable vertebra ([SSV]-the most proximal lumbar vertebral body touched by the vertical line from the posterior-superior corner of the sacrum), first lordotic vertebra (just caudal to the first lordotic disc), and selected lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV). It has been recommended that the distal end vertebra and the first lordotic disc beyond the transitional zone distally be included in distal fusion for thoracic hyperkyphosis; however, we have seen distal junctional breakdown even when these rules have been followed. Thirty-one patients (mean age: 18 years, range: 13-38) who underwent long posterior instrumentation and fusion for thoracic hyperkyphosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. Preoperative diagnoses included Scheuermann kyphosis (n = 29), post-traumatic kyphosis (n = 1), and postlaminectomy kyphosis (n = 1). According to the distal fusion level, patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I (n = 24): LIV included the SSV; group II (n = 7): the LIV was proximal to the SSV. Patients were evaluated using standing radiographs and chart review. Preoperative mean thoracic kyphosis was 86.6 +/- 8.5 degrees and 53.0 +/- 10.4 degrees at final follow-up with a correction rate of 39%. Preoperative average sagittal balance was slightly negative (-0.24 +/- 3.8 cm), and became slightly more negative (-1.33 +/- 2.8 cm) by final follow-up. There were no statistical differences in thoracic kyphosis between the 2 groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference with group II having a more posterior translation of the center of the LIV from the posterior sacral vertical line before surgery and at final follow-up (P = 0.003). In group I, distal junctional problems developed in 2 of 24 (8%) patients and in group II, problems occurred in 5 of 7 (71

  6. Lumbar vertebrae fracture injury risk in finite element reconstruction of CIREN and NASS frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Derek A; Gaewsky, James P; Kelley, Mireille E; Weaver, Ashley A; Miller, Anna N; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to reconstruct 4 real-world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), 2 with lumbar vertebral fractures and 2 without vertebral fractures in order to elucidate the MVC and/or restraint variables that increase this injury risk. A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was used in conjunction with a previously developed semi-automated tuning method to arrive at 4 SVMs that were tuned to mimic frontal crash responses of a 2006 Chevrolet Cobalt, 2012 Ford Escape, 2007 Hummer H3, and 2002 Chevrolet Cavalier. Real-world crashes in the first 2 vehicles resulted in lumbar vertebrae fractures, whereas the latter 2 did not. Once each SVM was tuned to its corresponding vehicle, the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations in each SVM by varying 5 parameters using a Latin hypercube design (LHD) of experiments: seat track position, seatback angle, steering column angle, steering column telescoping position, and d-ring height. For each case, the event data recorder (EDR) crash pulse was used to apply kinematic boundary conditions to the model. By analyzing cross-sectional vertebral loads, vertebral bending moments, and maximum principal strain and stress in both cortical and trabecular bone, injury metric response as a function of posture and restraint parameters was computed. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models produced close matches between the simulated and experimental crash test responses for head, T6, and pelvis resultant acceleration; left and right femur loads; and shoulder and lap belt loads. Though vertebral load in the THUMS simulations was highly similar between injury cases and noninjury cases, the amount of bending moment was much higher for the injury cases. Seatback angle had a large effect on the maximum compressive load and bending moment in the lumbar spine, indicating the upward tilt of the seat pan in conjunction with precrash positioning may increase the likelihood of

  7. The effective index method and its application to semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Jens

    1982-01-01

    By the effective index method a two-dimensional field problem is transformed to a problem for a one-dimensional effective waveguide. This method is applied to semiconductor lasers having a gradual lateral variation in the complex permittivity. For the special case of a parabolic variation...... as evidence for the validity of results obtained using the effective index method for analysis of semiconductor laser structures....

  8. Application of the Characteristic Basis Function Method Using CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio Pérez; Eliseo García; de Frutos, José A.; Felipe Cátedra

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic basis function method (CBFM) is a popular technique for efficiently solving the method of moments (MoM) matrix equations. In this work, we address the adaptation of this method to a relatively new computing infrastructure provided by NVIDIA, the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), and take into account some of the limitations which appear when the geometry under analysis becomes too big to fit into the Graphics Processing Unit’s (GPU’s) memory.

  9. Application of the Characteristic Basis Function Method Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic basis function method (CBFM is a popular technique for efficiently solving the method of moments (MoM matrix equations. In this work, we address the adaptation of this method to a relatively new computing infrastructure provided by NVIDIA, the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, and take into account some of the limitations which appear when the geometry under analysis becomes too big to fit into the Graphics Processing Unit’s (GPU’s memory.

  10. Variable Costs Method. Application Variants Adapted to Romanian Accounting Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe V. Lepadatu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the variable costs method and its adaptation possibilities to the Romanian general accounting plan. There are described the three variants of the variable costs method and presented the methodological stages that are passing through managerial accounting using the 9th class “Management accounts”. The article is ending with the advantages and disadvantages of adaptation of variable costs method to the Romanian general accounting plan.

  11. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; Ślęzak, Dominik; Yao, Yiyu

    2012-01-01

    Introduced in the early 1980s, Rough Set Theory has become an important part of soft computing in the last 25 years. This book provides a practical, context-based analysis of rough set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets.

  12. Applications and Methods for Continuous Monitoring of Physiological Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    carried out on glutamate oxidase, nicotine oxidase and putrescine oxidase. We hypothesize that this approach will be applicable to most oxidase enzymes...simultaneous amperometric determination of histamine and putrescine . Food Chem, 2016. 190: p. 818-23. Page 65 Pinnacle Technology, Inc. 15. Rubenwolf, S

  13. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems - Models, methods, and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    , it has been analysed how the Balmorel model can be used to create inputs related to transmissions and/or prices to a more detailed production scheduling model covering a subsystem of the one represented in the Balmorel model. As an example of application of the Balmorel model, the dissertation presents...

  14. Methods for eigenvalue problems with applications in model order reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, J.

    2007-01-01

    Physical structures and processes are modeled by dynamical systems in a wide range of application areas. The increasing demand for complex components and large structures, together with an increasing demand for detail and accuracy, makes the models larger and more complicated. To be able to simulate

  15. Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: Methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Jacob; Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown remarkable potential for a wide range of applications over the past decades. Particularly, the biological compatibilities and functions of NPs have been extensively studied for expanding their potential in areas of biomedical application such as bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. In doing so, surface functionalization of NPs by introducing synthetic ligands and/or natural biomolecules has become a critical component in regards to the overall performance of the NP system for its intended use. Among known examples of surface functionalization, the construction of an artificial cell membrane structure, based on phospholipids, has proven effective in enhancing biocompatibility and has become a viable alternative to more traditional modifications, such as direct polymer conjugation. Furthermore, certain bioactive molecules can be immobilized onto the surface of phospholipid platforms to generate displays more reminiscent of cellular surface components. Thus, NPs with membrane-mimetic displays have found use in a range of bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery applications. This review herein describes recent advances in the preparations and characterization of integrated functional NPs covered by artificial cell membrane structures and their use in various biomedical applications. PMID:23688632

  16. Nodal Discontinuous Element Methods: Formulations, Analysis, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, Jan

    Part of concluding summary and outlook: "The focus of this thesis has been on the formulation, analysis, and application of high-order accurate computational techniques for solving rather general initial boundary value problems, emphasizing an analysis driven theoretical foundation. As such...

  17. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  18. Application of Experimental Design Method for the Optimisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthan gum is a major biopolymer which finds a lot of applications industrially and domestically. Biotechnological production of xanthan gum from waste biomass has been reported to be sustainable in terms of economics and viability. In this study, xanthan gum was produced from pineapple peels using Xanthomonas ...

  19. Analysis of formal methods for specification of e-Commerce applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Sadiq Ali; Jamshed, Huma

    2016-01-01

    .... Significant research articles reveal that, applying formal methods addressing challenges incumbent with E-commerce based applications, contribute towards reliability and robustness obliging the system...

  20. Application of Model-Based Signal Processing Methods to Computational Electromagnetics Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling, Hao

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific progress on the research grant "Application of Model-Based Signal Processing Methods to Computational Electromagnetics Simulators" during the period 1 December...

  1. Annual Report on Application of Model-Based Signal Processing Methods to Computational Electromagnetics Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling, Hao

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific progress on the research grant "Application of Model-Based Signal Processing Methods to Computational Electromagnetics Simulators" during the period 1 December...

  2. Application of Model-Based Signal Processing Methods to Computational Electromagnetics Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling, Hao

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific progress on the research grant "Application of Model-Based Signal Processing Methods to Computational Electromagnetics Simulators" during the period 1 December...

  3. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solution of the many-body system in a Bose condensate containing interacting bosons. Unlike commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling two-body correlation properly. We disregard three- and higher-body correlations.

  4. Application of meshless EFG method in fluid flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The finite element method (FEM) has been established as a very powerful numerical technique for the analysis of space domain problems having arbitrary shapes. It has been observed that in the finite element method, mesh generation is a far more time-consuming and expensive task than the assembly and solution of the ...

  5. Vorticity determination in a hydraulic jump by application of method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method of characteristics for solving systems of partial differential equations coupled with jump conditions is used in analysing flow downstream of a hydraulic jump instead of the normal analytical approach adopted in Hornung [1]. It is shown that the method of characteristics together with the jump conditions can ...

  6. Application of the Lake Habitat Survey method on the tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lake Habitat Survey (LHS) method was developed to assess the ecological integrity of the physical habitat around lake and reservoir ecosystems, as well as to determine the magnitude of human pressure on lake systems. The LHS method has not previously been applied to tropical lakes but could potentially be a ...

  7. An improved 4-step commutation method application for matrix converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Guo, Yougui; Deng, Wenlang

    2014-01-01

    A novel four-step commutation method is proposed for matrix converter cell, 3 phase inputs to 1 phase output in this paper, which is obtained on the analysis of published commutation methods for matrix converter. The first and fourth step can be shorter than the second or third one. The discussed...

  8. Application Of Prony's Method To Data On Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.

    1988-01-01

    Prony coefficients found by computer program, without trial and error. Computational method and computer program developed to exploit full potential of Prony's interpolation method in analysis of experimental data on relaxation modules of viscoelastic material. Prony interpolation curve chosen to give least-squares best fit to "B-spline" interpolation of experimental data.

  9. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  10. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Aramaki, Shingo; Kitazono, Yuhki; Mu, Shenglin; Tanaka, Kanya; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2016-10-12

    The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  11. Dermatoglyphics: Correlation between software and traditional method in kineanthropometric application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Nodari-Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These results significantly correlate the computerized and traditional methods, which qualifies M1 as the instrument for the capture, structuration of the design and analysis of the digital fingerprints through a dermatoglyphic method using the digital fingerprint marker, which is the essential condition to acceptance and scientific recognition of new instruments.

  12. An advanced Gibbs-Duhem integration method : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van 't Hof, A.; Peters, C.J.; De Leeuw, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Gibbs-Duhem integration method is very convenient for the prediction of phase equilibria of both pure components and mixtures. However, it turns out to be inefficient. The method requires a number of lengthy simulations to predict the state conditions at which phase coexistence

  13. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S

    2006-01-01

    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  14. Development and Application of Ligand-Exchange Reaction Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This paper presents an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for determining clonazepam (CZP) in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Methods: The method is based on ligand-exchange reaction. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of ...

  15. Data analysis for mass spectrometry imaging : methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmoula, Walid Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation we developed a number of automatic methods for multi-modal data registration, mainly between mass spectrometry imaging, imaging microscopy, and the Allen Brain Atlas. We have shown the importance of these methods for performing large scale preclinical biomarker discovery

  16. Application of the trial equation method for solving some nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper some exact solutions including soliton solutions for the KdV equation with dual power law nonlinearity and the (, ) equation with generalized evolution are obtained using the trial equation method. Also a more general trial equation method is proposed.

  17. Multi-spectral lifetime imaging: methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fereidouni, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project is to further develop multispectral life time imaging hardware and analyses methods. The hardware system, Lambda-Tau, generates a considerable amount of data at high speed. To fully exploit the power of this new hardware, fast and reliable data analyses methods are

  18. Numerical methods for partial differential equations an Overview and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jaun, A

    This is the web edition of the 3-4 weeks course F2A5076 taught 1997-2001 at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (Sweden). The main target is to provide a robust introduction in computational methods to graduate- and lifelong learning students, using a distance learning method that can easily be tailored to professional schedules.

  19. A method for articulating and displaying the human spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive and effective method for articulating a dry human spine is described. By constructing a Styrofoam spine tray, analysts can now accurately position and align each vertebra in correct anatomical order, allow for gaps because of missing vertebrae, and lay out the spine for documentation and photography. The spine tray provides analysts with a quick, easy, and professional quality method for aligning and orienting the human spine in the field and laboratory.

  20. Nonconforming mortar element methods: Application to spectral discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maday, Yvon; Mavriplis, Cathy; Patera, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    Spectral element methods are p-type weighted residual techniques for partial differential equations that combine the generality of finite element methods with the accuracy of spectral methods. Presented here is a new nonconforming discretization which greatly improves the flexibility of the spectral element approach as regards automatic mesh generation and non-propagating local mesh refinement. The method is based on the introduction of an auxiliary mortar trace space, and constitutes a new approach to discretization-driven domain decomposition characterized by a clean decoupling of the local, structure-preserving residual evaluations and the transmission of boundary and continuity conditions. The flexibility of the mortar method is illustrated by several nonconforming adaptive Navier-Stokes calculations in complex geometry.

  1. Ion-conducting ceramic apparatus, method, fabrication, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Matthew [Penfield, NY; Liu, Dongxia [Rochester, NY

    2012-03-06

    A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively high proton conductivity under hydrogen atmosphere and high temperature conditions. The c-axis oriented films may be integrated into fuel cells for application in the intermediate temperature range of 200-600.degree. C. The electrochemical-hydrothermal deposition technique may be applied to create other oriented crystal materials having optimized properties, useful for separations and catalysis as well as electronic and electrochemical applications, electrochemical membrane reactors, and in chemical sensors.

  2. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  3. Novel fabrication method of conductive polymer nanowires for sensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Castillo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new, quiek and low cost fabrication of PEDOT:TsO nanowires using self-assembled peptide nanotubes as a masking material. The peptide nanotubes show a remarkably stability during reactive ion etching and can be dissolved in water afterwards. We have shown that the imp...... that the impedance of the nanowire is changing with backgating the wire, this gives promising possibility for application as a sensor....

  4. Fault Diagnosis Methods and their Applications in the Process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jämsä-Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa; Kolemisevska-Gugulovska, Tatjana; Stankovski, Mile

    2011-01-01

    Global competition is forcing the process industry to optimize the production processes. One key factor in optimization is effective process state monitoring and fault diagnosis. Another motivator to improve process monitoring systems is the substantial losses of revenue resulting from abnormal process conditions. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in applying different process monitoring and fault diagnosis systems and as a result a large number of successful applications ...

  5. Risk assessment of power systems models, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Risk Assessment of Power Systems addresses the regulations and functions of risk assessment with regard to its relevance in system planning, maintenance, and asset management. Brimming with practical examples, this edition introduces the latest risk information on renewable resources, the smart grid, voltage stability assessment, and fuzzy risk evaluation. It is a comprehensive reference of a highly pertinent topic for engineers, managers, and upper-level students who seek examples of risk theory applications in the workplace.

  6. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  7. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  8. arXiv Multi-loop calculations: numerical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Borowka, S.; Jahn, S.; Jones, S.P.; Kerner, M.; Schlenk, J.

    2017-11-09

    We briefly review numerical methods for calculations beyond one loop and then describe new developments within the method of sector decomposition in more detail. We also discuss applications to two-loop integrals involving several mass scales.

  9. Development and application of a statistical quality assessment method for dense-graded mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the development of the statistical quality assessment method and the procedure for mapping the measures obtained from the quality assessment method to a composite pay factor. The application to dense-graded mixes is demonstrated...

  10. Application and comparison of stability analysis of slope using circular arc method and strength reduction method

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Bin Bin; Xie Lin Bo; Si Wei

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the accuracy of strength reduction method using FEM, the safety factors of the uniform clay slope and sand slope are investigated by Fellenius’s method, Bishop’s method using traditional limit equilibrium method and strength reduction method respectively. The limit equilibrium method is carried out based on the code for foundations in port engineering and the FE analysis is based on Plaxis3D. The results show that the safety coefficient obtained by strength reduction meth...

  11. APPLICATION OF BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR THERMOELASTICITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Yu.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boundary Integral Equation Method is used for solving analytically the problems of coupled thermoelastic spherical wave propagation. The resulting mathematical expressions coincide with the solutions obtained in a conventional manner.

  12. Application of the maximum entropy method to electron density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Wendo

    1985-12-01

    The principle of maximum entropy is adopted to derive a procedure for obtaining the electron density distribution in crystals from incomplete X-ray diffraction data. This method was applied to cementite and the result proved to be better than the conventional Fourier inversion in resolution as well as in the absence of ripples. The potential advantages of this method are: (1) the amount of subjective judgment imposed on unavailable data is significantly limited, and (2) the result of this method is consistent with the known information and maximally noncommittal with regard to the unknowns. It is shown that the method is especially well suited to the problem of the determination of a high-resolution electron density map from insufficient experimental data. (orig.).

  13. Application of comprehensive geophysical prospecting method in groundwater exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Pengju; Li, Dong; Ma, Hanwen; Cheng, Guoliang

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of shortage of water resources in northern Shaanxi, we selected rectangular large loop source transient electromagnetic method with high water affinity, and radioactive α measurement method which can delineate the water storage structure, comprehensive geophysical prospecting methods to look for groundwater. Algorithm has established a forward model, and compared all-time apparent resistivity in late-time apparent resistivity is better than late. We can find out the exact location of the groundwater and thus improving wells rate by comparatively using these two kinds of geophysical prospecting method. Hydrogeology drilling confirmed water inflow of a single well can be up to 40 m 3/h, it can fully cover native Domestic and Agricultural water, and provide an important basis for groundwater exploration.

  14. COGORT METHOD AND OTS APPLICATIONS TO INSURANCE STATICTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. F. Kasimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the so-called cohort method of accounting aggregates insurance portfolios. In insurance statistics systematization and processing of aggregate data on the issued policies, premiums and insurance payments are often made with gross errors, because ones don't set the criteria written policies and related payments to the analyzed statistical universe. Besides, it is often not clearly specify the scheme of calculation of aggregate statistical associated with these policies. The study gives a detailed and rigorous presentation as a method of formation of different cohorts data for a specified period of assessment the aggregated characteristics and methods of calculation of interest to insurance of indicators (absolute and relative for these cohorts. The knowledge of these methods is necessary for a correct assessment of insurance premiums and reserves.

  15. Decision Making Methods and Applications in Civil Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Antucheviciene; Zdeněk Kala; Mohamed Marzouk; Egidijus Rytas Vaidogas

    2015-01-01

    Articles published in this special issue prove that useful information for making construction related decisions can be obtained by methods which do not belong to a formal DM, for instance, sensitivity analysis, stochastic analysis, mathematical optimization, occupational safety, and risk assessment. Classical disciplines of engineering are also useful tool for facilitating decisions in civil engineering. However, all of these methods can be seen as means of providing input information for a ...

  16. A Modified Cooling Method and Its Application in "Drosophila" Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-hui; Zhu, Tong-bo; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chilling is a cost-effective and safe method of immobilising flies in "Drosophila" experiments. However, should condensation form on the plate, it would be fatal to the flies. Here we describe a modified cooling method using reusable commercial ice pack(s) (ca. 400 ml, 2-3 cm tall) rather than crushed ice. The ice pack is covered with a…

  17. Biclustering methods: biological relevance and application in gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Oghabian

    Full Text Available DNA microarray technologies are used extensively to profile the expression levels of thousands of genes under various conditions, yielding extremely large data-matrices. Thus, analyzing this information and extracting biologically relevant knowledge becomes a considerable challenge. A classical approach for tackling this challenge is to use clustering (also known as one-way clustering methods where genes (or respectively samples are grouped together based on the similarity of their expression profiles across the set of all samples (or respectively genes. An alternative approach is to develop biclustering methods to identify local patterns in the data. These methods extract subgroups of genes that are co-expressed across only a subset of samples and may feature important biological or medical implications. In this study we evaluate 13 biclustering and 2 clustering (k-means and hierarchical methods. We use several approaches to compare their performance on two real gene expression data sets. For this purpose we apply four evaluation measures in our analysis: (1 we examine how well the considered (biclustering methods differentiate various sample types; (2 we evaluate how well the groups of genes discovered by the (biclustering methods are annotated with similar Gene Ontology categories; (3 we evaluate the capability of the methods to differentiate genes that are known to be specific to the particular sample types we study and (4 we compare the running time of the algorithms. In the end, we conclude that as long as the samples are well defined and annotated, the contamination of the samples is limited, and the samples are well replicated, biclustering methods such as Plaid and SAMBA are useful for discovering relevant subsets of genes and samples.

  18. Application of econometric and ecology analysis methods in physics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Cheol; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Grazia Pia, Maria; Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Saracco, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Some data analysis methods typically used in econometric studies and in ecology have been evaluated and applied in physics software environments. They concern the evolution of observables through objective identification of change points and trends, and measurements of inequality, diversity and evenness across a data set. Within each analysis area, various statistical tests and measures have been examined. This conference paper summarizes a brief overview of some of these methods.

  19. Application of the holistic methods in analysis of organic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Popović-Vranješ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has advantages in terms of environmental protection, biodiversity, soil quality, animal welfare and pesticide residues. Unlike conventional production “organic chain” means that healthy soil leads to healthy animal feed, leading to healthy cows with normal milk, which eventually leads to healthy consumers. Since this must be scientifically proven, there is an increasing need for scientific methods that will reveal the benefits of organic food. For this purpose holistic methods such as biocrystallization and methods of rising picture are introduced. Biocrystallization shows that organic milk is systematically more “balanced” and that there is more “ordered structure” and better “integration and coordination.” Previous studies using biocrystallization method were performed on the raw milk produced in different conditions, differently treated milk (heat treatment and homogenization and on butter. Pictures of biocrystallization are firstly visually assessed and then by the computer analysis of texture images, which are used to estimate the density of images. Rising picture method which normally works in parallel with biocrystallization can differentiate samples of Demeter, and organic milk from conventional production and milk treated differently during processing. Organic milk in relation to conventional shows better result in terms of impact on the health of consumers when using both the conventional and holistic methods.

  20. [A modified method of ecological footprint and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yu; Bian, Xin-Min

    2007-09-01

    The Wackernagel's method of ecological footprint assumes that arable lands are cropped only once a year in a country or a region, which does not accord with the conception of ecological footprint referring to the area of productive land. In this paper, the method of cropland footprint was modified by regulating with multi-cropping index, and the ecological footprint calculated with the new method was for the area of cropland but not that of multi-cropping. The ecological economic systems in Binhai and Funing counties of Jiangsu Province from 1995 to 2003 were analyzed by the modified method, and the results showed that when calculated with conventional Wackernagel's method, the ecological footprints of Binhai and Funing were from 1.79 hm2 to 2.22 hm2 and from 1.38 hm2 to 2.81 hm2, and the percentages of cropland ecological footprint in total ecological footprints decreased from 42.65% to 38.81% and from 45.73% to 38.85%, respectively, while calculated with the modified method, the ecological footprints and the percentage of cropland ecological footprint in total ecological footprints were from 1.43 hm2 to 1.88 hm2 and from 1.12 hm2 to 2.43 hm2, and decreased from 28.45% to 22.89% and from 32.94% to 29.42%, respectively. It was indicated that the ecological footprint calculated with the new method was for the area of cropland, which more accorded with the eco-capacity and changed the size and composition of ecological footprints, being able to reflect the use of natural resources more precisely.

  1. Modelling and simulation of diffusive processes methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, SK

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the key issues in the modeling and simulation of diffusive processes from a wide spectrum of different applications across a broad range of disciplines. Features: discusses diffusion and molecular transport in living cells and suspended sediment in open channels; examines the modeling of peristaltic transport of nanofluids, and isotachophoretic separation of ionic samples in microfluidics; reviews thermal characterization of non-homogeneous media and scale-dependent porous dispersion resulting from velocity fluctuations; describes the modeling of nitrogen fate and transport

  2. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  3. Time-of-flight cameras principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansard, Miles; Choi, Ouk; Horaud, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour came

  4. Application of the Bootstrap Statistical Method in Deriving Vibroacoustic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; Paez, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Bootstrap Method for specification of vibroacoustic test specifications. Vibroacoustic test specifications are necessary to properly accept or qualify a spacecraft and its components for the expected acoustic, random vibration and shock environments seen on an expendable launch vehicle. Traditionally, NASA and the U.S. Air Force have employed methods of Normal Tolerance Limits to derive these test levels based upon the amount of data available, and the probability and confidence levels desired. The Normal Tolerance Limit method contains inherent assumptions about the distribution of the data. The Bootstrap is a distribution-free statistical subsampling method which uses the measured data themselves to establish estimates of statistical measures of random sources. This is achieved through the computation of large numbers of Bootstrap replicates of a data measure of interest and the use of these replicates to derive test levels consistent with the probability and confidence desired. The comparison of the results of these two methods is illustrated via an example utilizing actual spacecraft vibroacoustic data.

  5. Application of Conjugate Gradient methods to tidal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragy, E.; Carey, G.F.; Walters, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A harmonic decomposition technique is applied to the shallow water equations to yield a complex, nonsymmetric, nonlinear, Helmholtz type problem for the sea surface and an accompanying complex, nonlinear diagonal problem for the velocities. The equation for the sea surface is linearized using successive approximation and then discretized with linear, triangular finite elements. The study focuses on applying iterative methods to solve the resulting complex linear systems. The comparative evaluation includes both standard iterative methods for the real subsystems and complex versions of the well known Bi-Conjugate Gradient and Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared methods. Several Incomplete LU type preconditioners are discussed, and the effects of node ordering, rejection strategy, domain geometry and Coriolis parameter (affecting asymmetry) are investigated. Implementation details for the complex case are discussed. Performance studies are presented and comparisons made with a frontal solver. ?? 1993.

  6. Applications of the Trojan Horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, Claudio, E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    The study of the energy production in stars and related nucleosyntesis processes requires increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction cross section and reaction rates at interaction energy. In order to overcome the experimental difficulties, arising from small cross-sections involved in charge particle induced reactions at astrophysical energies, and from the presence of electron screening, it was necessary to introduce indirect methods. Trough these methods it is possible to measure cross sections at very small energies and retrieve information on electron screening effect when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect technique to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S-factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic theory of the THM is discussed in the case of non-resonant.

  7. Application of Method of Multicriteria Alternatives for Land Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Grigorev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the multicriteria alternatives method for the assessment of a real estate object taking into account the concept of a system of standards, rules and requirements in the field of valuation activities, considering international standards for valuation. The main means for work and costs associated with allotment and development of the built-up area are indicated. In the work, the assessment of four sites is carried out taking into account three parameters: the distance from the construction site to the center by car; cost of 1 ha of land of each of the plots; deterioration of the centralized heat supply networks. The results show that the method of multicriteria alternatives is objective and optimal when comparing land sites on the criteria with different units of measurements. The advantage of this method is the possibility to apply it to evaluation in different areas of the economy.

  8. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  9. Application of the boundary element method to transient heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced boundary element method (BEM) is presented for the transient heat conduction analysis of engineering components. The numerical implementation necessarily includes higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and a multiregion capability. Planar, three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses are all addressed with a consistent time-domain convolution approach, which completely eliminates the need for volume discretization for most practical analyses. The resulting general purpose algorithm establishes BEM as an attractive alternative to the more familiar finite difference and finite element methods for this class of problems. Several detailed numerical examples are included to emphasize the accuracy, stability and generality of the present BEM. Furthermore, a new efficient treatment is introduced for bodies with embedded holes. This development provides a powerful analytical tool for transient solutions of components, such as casting moulds and turbine blades, which are cumbersome to model when employing the conventional domain-based methods.

  10. Development of a Magnetic Attachment Method for Bionic Eye Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Burns, Owen; Abbott, Carla J; Allen, Penelope J; Opie, Nicholas L; McGowan, Ceara; Yeoh, Jonathan; Ahnood, Arman; Luu, Chi D; Cicione, Rosemary; Saunders, Alexia L; McPhedran, Michelle; Cardamone, Lisa; Villalobos, Joel; Garrett, David J; Nayagam, David A X; Apollo, Nicholas V; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Stacey, Alastair; Escudie, Mathilde; Lichter, Samantha; Shepherd, Robert K; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Successful visual prostheses require stable, long-term attachment. Epiretinal prostheses, in particular, require attachment methods to fix the prosthesis onto the retina. The most common method is fixation with a retinal tack; however, tacks cause retinal trauma, and surgical proficiency is important to ensure optimal placement of the prosthesis near the macula. Accordingly, alternate attachment methods are required. In this study, we detail a novel method of magnetic attachment for an epiretinal prosthesis using two prostheses components positioned on opposing sides of the retina. The magnetic attachment technique was piloted in a feline animal model (chronic, nonrecovery implantation). We also detail a new method to reliably control the magnet coupling force using heat. It was found that the force exerted upon the tissue that separates the two components could be minimized as the measured force is proportionately smaller at the working distance. We thus detail, for the first time, a surgical method using customized magnets to position and affix an epiretinal prosthesis on the retina. The position of the epiretinal prosthesis is reliable, and its location on the retina is accurately controlled by the placement of a secondary magnet in the suprachoroidal location. The electrode position above the retina is less than 50 microns at the center of the device, although there were pressure points seen at the two edges due to curvature misalignment. The degree of retinal compression found in this study was unacceptably high; nevertheless, the normal structure of the retina remained intact under the electrodes. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Meshless element-free Galerkin method in NDT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, L.; Zeng, Z.; Shanker, B.; Udpa, L.

    2002-05-01

    Finite element methods (FEM) are widely used for modeling a variety of problems in Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). For example, in the modeling of multilayer aircraft geometry with third layer cracks under fasteners, the reliance of FEM on a mesh leads to several problems, particularly when tight cracks have to be introduced into the sample. Furthermore remeshing is often required in handling probe motion can be time consuming. This paper presents a meshless element-free Galerkin method (EFG), where the approximation is entirely constructed in terms of a set of nodes. The model is validated and applied to two dimensional magneto-static and eddy current NDT problems.

  12. PCR IN TRAUMATOLOGY AND ORTHOPAEDICS: METHOD DESCRIPTION AND APPLICABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Polyakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review brief presents description of polymerase chain reaction method (PCR and its most common variants. Three PCR-based lines of research, carried out in the traumatology and orthopaedics, include identifying a causative agents of the implant-associated infection after orthopaedic surgery; detection of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm forming genes. It was shown that PCR can be used as additional method for detection of genetic disorders, significant for traumatology and orthopaedics, and for investigation of cartilage and bone regeneration.

  13. Monte Carlo methods: Application to hydrogen gas and hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewing, Mark Douglas

    2001-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most accurate for computing ground state properties of quantum systems. The two major types of QMC we use are Variational Monte Carlo (VMC), which evaluates integrals arising from the variational principle, and Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC), which stochastically projects to the ground state from a trial wave function. These methods are applied to a system of boson hard spheres to get exact, infinite system size results for the ground state at several densities. The kinds of problems that can be simulated with Monte Carlo methods are expanded through the development of new algorithms for combining a QMC simulation with a classical Monte Carlo simulation, which we call Coupled Electronic-Ionic Monte Carlo (CEIMC). The new CEIMC method is applied to a system of molecular hydrogen at temperatures ranging from 2800K to 4500K and densities from 0.25 to 0.46 g/cm3. VMC requires optimizing a parameterized wave function to find the minimum energy. We examine several techniques for optimizing VMC wave functions, focusing on the ability to optimize parameters appearing in the Slater determinant. Classical Monte Carlo simulations use an empirical interatomic potential to compute equilibrium properties of various states of matter. The CEIMC method replaces the empirical potential with a QMC calculation of the electronic energy. This is similar in spirit to the Car-Parrinello technique, which uses Density Functional Theory for the electrons and molecular dynamics for the nuclei. The challenges in constructing an efficient CEIMC simulation center mostly around the noisy results generated from the QMC computations of the electronic energy. We introduce two complementary techniques, one for tolerating the noise and the other for reducing it. The penalty method modifies the Metropolis acceptance ratio to tolerate noise without introducing a bias in the simulation of the nuclei. For reducing the noise, we introduce the two-sided energy

  14. Pavement Management Systems Application with Geographic Information System Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance models were developed. Software in Visual Basic programming language was used for the developed model. Using the software, both the present condition of the pavement can be examined and future performance based on expected traffic values can be predicted. So, the software can be used at both network and project level. Cost and benefit values taken from the literature were used in determining the cost-benefit ratio. Using the genetic algorithm approach, a computer program in Visual Basic programming language was written. Using the model developed, a five-year maintenance and rehabilitation program can be planned for a given database considering budget restraints. The developed models were merged by writing Geographic Information System (GIS software in order to show the effectiveness of models and adopt the models into a GIS. For this purpose, a case study of GIS was exposed. The control of the overall system can be applied in addition to the application of the model at network level. The developed software allows data to be transferred to the database, analyses and different scenario applications for showing GIS results.

  15. Kinesin and Dynein Mechanics: Measurement Methods and Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zachary; Hawley, Emma; Hayosh, Daniel; Webster-Wood, Victoria A; Akkus, Ozan

    2018-02-01

    Motor proteins play critical roles in the normal function of cells and proper development of organisms. Among motor proteins, failings in the normal function of two types of proteins, kinesin and dynein, have been shown to lead many pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. As such, it is critical to researchers to understand the underlying mechanics and behaviors of these proteins, not only to shed light on how failures may lead to disease, but also to guide research toward novel treatment and nano-engineering solutions. To this end, many experimental techniques have been developed to measure the force and motility capabilities of these proteins. This review will (a) discuss such techniques, specifically microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical trapping, and magnetic tweezers, and (b) the resulting nanomechanical properties of motor protein functions such as stalling force, velocity, and dependence on adenosine triphosophate (ATP) concentrations will be comparatively discussed. Additionally, this review will highlight the clinical importance of these proteins. Furthermore, as the understanding of the structure and function of motor proteins improves, novel applications are emerging in the field. Specifically, researchers have begun to modify the structure of existing proteins, thereby engineering novel elements to alter and improve native motor protein function, or even allow the motor proteins to perform entirely new tasks as parts of nanomachines. Kinesin and dynein are vital elements for the proper function of cells. While many exciting experiments have shed light on their function, mechanics, and applications, additional research is needed to completely understand their behavior.

  16. GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

    2013-02-01

    When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

  17. Unilateral and bilateral lumbosacral transitional vertebrae : comparison of the incidence of combined diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Yong; Kwon, Soon Tae; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Se Hyo; Han, Ki Tae; An, Jae Sung; Yang, Jun Young; Lee, Jun Kyu [College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jeong [Eulji College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic findings of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV), as seen on plain radiographs and MRI, and to compare the incidence of combined diseases between unilateral and bilateral groups. We retrospectively evaluated the plain radiographs and MR images of 63 patients with LSTV, classifying its type according to Castellvi's criteria, and evaluated disc herniations, facet joint osteoarthritic change, scoliosis, and spondylolisthesis. We then compared the incidence of each combined diseases between unilateral and bilateral groups, and as a control group, 63 patients without LSTV were also evaluated. Forty of 63 cases of LSTV (63.5%) were bilateral, and 23 (36.5%) unilateral. According to Castellvi's criteria, the incidence of type I was 41.3% (unilateral 7 cases, bilateral 19), type III 30.2% (unilateral 8 cases, bilateral 11), type II 23.8% (unilateral 8 cases, bilateral 7), and type IV 4.8% (unilateral 0 cases, bilateral 3). With combined diseases, the incidence of disc herniation was 66.7% (unilateral 15 cases, bilateral 27), moderate to severe facet joint osteoarthritic change 28.6% (unilateral 11 cases, bilateral 7), scoliosis 27.0% (unilateral 9 cases, bilateral 8), and spondylolisthesis 9.5% (unilateral 2 cases, bilateral 4). The incidence of facet joint osteoarthritic change was significantly higher in the unilateral group (47.8%) than in the bilateral group (17.5%) (p =3D0.02), and scoliosis occurred at a higher rate in the unilateral group (39.1%) than in the bilateral group (20.0%) (p=3D0.18). There was, however, no significant difference in the incidence of disc herniation and spondylolisthesis between the two groups (unilateral group: 65.2% and 8.7%; bilateral group: 67.5% and 10.0%, respectively). With LSTV, the incidence of facet joint osteoarthritic change was significantly higher in the unilateral group than in the bilateral group, and scoliosis also showed a higher rate of occurrence in

  18. The effect of different fluoride application methods on the remineralization of initial carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Mi; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of single and combined applications of fluoride on the amount of fluoride release, and the remineralization and physical properties of enamel. Each of four fluoride varnish and gel products (Fluor Protector, FP, Ivoclar Vivadent; Tooth Mousse Plus, TM, GC; 60 Second Gel, A, Germiphene; CavityShield, CS, 3M ESPE) and two fluoride solutions (2% sodium fluoride, N; 8% tin(ii) fluoride, S) were applied on bovine teeth using single and combined methods (10 per group), and then the amount of fluoride release was measured for 4 wk. The electron probe microanalysis and the Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted to assess the effect of fluoride application on the surface properties of bovine teeth. The amount of fluoride release was higher in combined applications than in single application (p < 0.05). Microhardness values were higher after combined applications of N with FP, TM, and CS than single application of them, and these values were also higher after combined applications of S than single application of A (p < 0.05). Ca and P values were higher in combined applications of N with TM and CS than single application of them (p < 0.05). They were also increased after combined applications of the S with A than after single application (p < 0.05). Combined applications of fluoride could be used as a basis to design more effective methods of fluoride application to provide enhanced remineralization.

  19. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  20. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.