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Sample records for vertebrae applications methods

  1. Cervical vertebrae maturation method morphologic criteria: poor reproducibility.

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    Nestman, Trenton S; Marshall, Steven D; Qian, Fang; Holton, Nathan; Franciscus, Robert G; Southard, Thomas E

    2011-08-01

    The cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method has been advocated as a predictor of peak mandibular growth. A careful review of the literature showed potential methodologic errors that might influence the high reported reproducibility of the CVM method, and we recently established that the reproducibility of the CVM method was poor when these potential errors were eliminated. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the reproducibility of the individual vertebral patterns. In other words, the purpose was to determine which of the individual CVM vertebral patterns could be classified reliably and which could not. Ten practicing orthodontists, trained in the CVM method, evaluated the morphology of cervical vertebrae C2 through C4 from 30 cephalometric radiographs using questions based on the CVM method. The Fleiss kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement when evaluating each cervical vertebrae morphology question for each subject. The Kendall coefficient of concordance was used to assess the level of interobserver agreement when determining a "derived CVM stage" for each subject. Interobserver agreement was high for assessment of the lower borders of C2, C3, and C4 that were either flat or curved in the CVM method, but interobserver agreement was low for assessment of the vertebral bodies of C3 and C4 when they were either trapezoidal, rectangular horizontal, square, or rectangular vertical; this led to the overall poor reproducibility of the CVM method. These findings were reflected in the Fleiss kappa statistic. Furthermore, nearly 30% of the time, individual morphologic criteria could not be combined to generate a final CVM stage because of incompatible responses to the 5 questions. Intraobserver agreement in this study was only 62%, on average, when the inconclusive stagings were excluded as disagreements. Intraobserver agreement was worse (44%) when the inconclusive stagings were included as disagreements. For the group of subjects

  2. Identification and classification of spine vertebrae by automated methods

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    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2001-07-01

    We are currently working toward developing computer-assisted methods for the indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images by biomedical content. These images were collected as part of a nationwide health survey and form a research resource for osteoarthitis and bone morphometry. This task requires the development of algorithms to robustly analyze the x-ray contents for key landmarks, to segment the vertebral bodies, to accurately measure geometric features of the individual vertebrae and inter-vertebral areas, and to classify the spine anatomy into normal or abnormal classes for conditions of interest, including anterior osteophytes and disc space narrowing. Subtasks of this work have been created and divided among collaborators. In this paper, we provide a technical description of the overall task, report on progress made by collaborators, and provide the most recent results of our own research into obtaining first-order location of the spine region of interest by automated methods. We are currently concentrating on images of the cervical spine, but will expand the work to include the lumbar spine as well. Development of successful image processing techniques for computer-assisted indexing of medical image collections is expected to have a significant impact within the medical research and patient care systems.

  3. Validity of the assessment method of skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Bittencourt, M A V; Paranhos, L R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to answer the question: is the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) effective to replace hand–wrist radiograph (gold standard) in determining the pubertal growth spurt in patients undergoing bone growth? Methods: A search in three databases was performed, in which studies were selected that compared one of the two main assessment methods for cervical vertebrae (Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 58–66, or Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72: 316–23) to a carpal assessment method. The main methodological data from each of the texts were collected and tabulated after. Later, the meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients obtained was performed. Results: 19 articles were selected from an initial 206 articles collected. Regardless of the method used, the results of the meta-analysis showed that every article selected presented a positive correlation between skeletal maturation assessment performed by cervical vertebrae and carpal methods, with discrepancy of values between genders indicating higher correlation for the female gender (0.925; 0.878) than for the male (0.879; 0.842). When the assessment was performed without gender separation, correlation was significant (0.592; 0.688) but lower in the cases when genders were separated. Conclusions: With the results of this meta-analysis, it is safe to affirm that both CVMIs used in the present study are reliable to replace the hand–wrist radiograph in predicting the pubertal growth spurt, considering that the highest values were found in female samples, especially in the method by Hassel and Farman. PMID:25521202

  4. Validity of the assessment method of skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cericato, G O; Bittencourt, M A V; Paranhos, L R

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to answer the question: is the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) effective to replace hand-wrist radiograph (gold standard) in determining the pubertal growth spurt in patients undergoing bone growth? A search in three databases was performed, in which studies were selected that compared one of the two main assessment methods for cervical vertebrae (Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 58-66, or Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72: 316-23) to a carpal assessment method. The main methodological data from each of the texts were collected and tabulated after. Later, the meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients obtained was performed. 19 articles were selected from an initial 206 articles collected. Regardless of the method used, the results of the meta-analysis showed that every article selected presented a positive correlation between skeletal maturation assessment performed by cervical vertebrae and carpal methods, with discrepancy of values between genders indicating higher correlation for the female gender (0.925; 0.878) than for the male (0.879; 0.842). When the assessment was performed without gender separation, correlation was significant (0.592; 0.688) but lower in the cases when genders were separated. With the results of this meta-analysis, it is safe to affirm that both CVMIs used in the present study are reliable to replace the hand-wrist radiograph in predicting the pubertal growth spurt, considering that the highest values were found in female samples, especially in the method by Hassel and Farman.

  5. Establishment and evaluation of sex determination method from 12 th thoracic vertebrae based on three-dimensional reconstructed models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ming; Hou Weibin; Jing Yue; Li Youqiong; Zhou Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of using the 12 th vertebrae for sex determination of adult Chinese and evaluate its effect. Methods: The 12 th thoracic vertebrae were developed by the clinic abdomen CT images. A total of 25 linear measurements on 7 aspects of the vertebrae were measured and 4 ratios were calculated. The items were selected which had the significant difference to establish the sex determination equation and its effect was evaluated. Results: Of the total 29 traits, 27 were sexually dimorphic (P<0.05), the accuracy was 56.3% - 89.2%, 8 traits had the accuracies mean or over 80.0%. The trait iVL had the highest accuracy of 89.2%. A function with four variables predicting sex with 90.8% accuracy was derived by using stepwise method of discriminant function analysis: Y=2.98 x iBDsm + 1.97 x PH + 3.37 x BHp + 3.27 x sVL/BHa - 32.80 (mean centroids= -7.69). Conclusion: The method of using the selected traits for sex determination of adult Chinese is practicable and it has a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  6. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

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    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  7. Fem Modelling of Lumbar Vertebra System

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    Rimantas Kačianauskas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modeling of human lumbar vertebra and it‘sdeformation analysis using finite elements method. The problemof tissue degradation is raised. Using the computer aided modelingwith SolidWorks software the models of lumbar vertebra(L1 and vertebra system L1-L4 were created. The article containssocial and medical problem analysis, description of modelingmethods and the results of deformation test for one vertebramodel and for model of 4 vertebras (L1-L4.

  8. Determining skeletal maturation stage using cervical vertebrae: evaluation of three diagnostic methods

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    Luci Mara Fachardo Jaqueira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the use of three cervical vertebral evaluation methods (Hassel-Farman, Baccetti et al., and Seedat-Forsberg for determinating skeletal maturation stage in orthodontic patients. Twenty-three radiographs were randomly selected from a private orthodontic practice. Each radiograph was analyzed on three separate occasions by four evaluators (one radiologist and three orthodontists, who determined the skeletal maturation stage using the references established by each of the three methods. Intraevaluator and interevaluator comparisons were performed, and the degree of agreement was established using the weighted Kappa coefficient (95% CI. Good agreement (Kappa between 0.61 and 0.80 was observed between the determinations of most of the evaluators. The three methods demonstrated clinical applicability. However, the method proposed by Baccetti et al. achieved the best results, followed by the Hassel-Farman and the Seedat-Forsberg methods.

  9. Three Dimensional (3D Lumbar Vertebrae Data Set

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    H. Bennani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D modelling can be used for a variety of purposes, including biomedical modelling for orthopaedic or anatomical applications. Low back pain is prevalent in society yet few validated 3D models of the lumbar spine exist to facilitate assessment. We therefore created a 3D surface data set for lumbar vertebrae from human vertebrae. Models from 86 lumbar vertebrae were constructed using an inexpensive method involving image capture by digital camera and reconstruction of 3D models via an image-based technique. The reconstruction method was validated using a laser-based arm scanner and measurements derived from real vertebrae using electronic callipers. Results show a mean relative error of 5.2% between image-based models and real vertebrae, a mean relative error of 4.7% between image-based and arm scanning models and 95% of vertices’ errors are less than 3.5 millimetres with a median of 1.1 millimetres. The accuracy of the method indicates that the generated models could be useful for biomechanical modelling or 3D visualisation of the spine.

  10. Application of statistical shape analysis for the estimation of bone and forensic age using the shapes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in a young Japanese population.

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    Rhee, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang Min; Choi, Yong-Seok; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-12-01

    From computed tomographic images, the dentocentral synchondrosis can be identified in the second cervical vertebra. This can demarcate the border between the odontoid process and the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra and serve as a good model for the prediction of bone and forensic age. Nevertheless, until now, there has been no application of the 2nd cervical vertebra based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. In this study, statistical shape analysis was used to build bone and forensic age estimation regression models. Following the principles of statistical shape analysis and principal components analysis, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate a Japanese population (35 males and 45 females, from 5 to 19 years old). The narrowest prediction intervals among the multivariate regression models were 19.63 for bone age and 2.99 for forensic age. There was no significant difference between form space and shape space in the bone and forensic age estimation models. However, for gender comparison, the bone and forensic age estimation models for males had the higher explanatory power. This study derived an improved objective and quantitative method for bone and forensic age estimation based on only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervical vertebral shapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion...

  12. Variations in Transverse Foramina of Cervical Vertebrae: Morphology & Clinical Importance

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    Vaishakhi Gonsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate variations in transverse foramina in the cervical vertebrae and its morphological and clinical importance. Materials and Method : The variations in the number and size of transverse foramina was studied in total 200 human dried cervical vertebrae, which were taken from the Department of Anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad. All the vertebrae were observed for variation in number and size of transverse foramina. Results: Out of 200 cervical vertebrae, complete double transverse foramina were observed in 40 vertebrae (20%, among them unilateral double foramina were found in 31 vertebrae (15.5% and the bilateral double foramina were found in 9 vertebrae (4.5%. Incomplete double transverse foramina were observed in 22 vertebrae (11%, among them unilateral double foramina were found in 16 vertebrae (8% and bilateral double foramina were observed in 6 vertebrae (3%. Conclusion: Complete unilateral double transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae were more common than bilateral. Also unilateral small size transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae were also common. This variation is important for the neurosurgeon during cervical surgery. Under such condition the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted. It is also useful for Radiologist during CT and MRI scan.

  13. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

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    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  14. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  15. Chondroblastoma of the lumbar vertebra

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    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S. [Dept. of Radiology and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2001-12-01

    Chondroblastoma of the vertebra is a very rare condition. To our knowledge fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the world literature. We report a 54-year-old man with chondroblastoma of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The clinical and radiological aspects of the tumor are discussed, emphasizing the presence of an extraosseous mass suggestive of locally aggressive behavior. (orig.)

  16. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

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    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  17. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hetao; Hu Zhenmin; Shi Yuxin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  18. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

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    Hetao, Cao; Zhenmin, Hu; Yuxin, Shi [Affiliated Hosptial of Nantong Medical College, JS, Nantong (China). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  19. Chondrosarcoma of a thoracic vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Casden, A.M.; Klein, M.J.; Spollman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Central chondrosarcoma is an uncommon primary malignancy of the axial skeleton which usually affects the posterior elements or the posterior part of a vertebral body. The authors present an unusual case of chondrosarcoma involving the anterior part of a thoracic vertebra with massive extravertebral extension into the posterior mediastinum. The roles of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this pathology are emphasized

  20. PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA

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    CAPPETTI Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.

  1. Vertebra identification using template matching modelmp and K-means clustering.

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    Larhmam, Mohamed Amine; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2014-03-01

    Accurate vertebra detection and segmentation are essential steps for automating the diagnosis of spinal disorders. This study is dedicated to vertebra alignment measurement, the first step in a computer-aided diagnosis tool for cervical spine trauma. Automated vertebral segment alignment determination is a challenging task due to low contrast imaging and noise. A software tool for segmenting vertebrae and detecting subluxations has clinical significance. A robust method was developed and tested for cervical vertebra identification and segmentation that extracts parameters used for vertebra alignment measurement. Our contribution involves a novel combination of a template matching method and an unsupervised clustering algorithm. In this method, we build a geometric vertebra mean model. To achieve vertebra detection, manual selection of the region of interest is performed initially on the input image. Subsequent preprocessing is done to enhance image contrast and detect edges. Candidate vertebra localization is then carried out by using a modified generalized Hough transform (GHT). Next, an adapted cost function is used to compute local voted centers and filter boundary data. Thereafter, a K-means clustering algorithm is applied to obtain clusters distribution corresponding to the targeted vertebrae. These clusters are combined with the vote parameters to detect vertebra centers. Rigid segmentation is then carried out by using GHT parameters. Finally, cervical spine curves are extracted to measure vertebra alignment. The proposed approach was successfully applied to a set of 66 high-resolution X-ray images. Robust detection was achieved in 97.5 % of the 330 tested cervical vertebrae. An automated vertebral identification method was developed and demonstrated to be robust to noise and occlusion. This work presents a first step toward an automated computer-aided diagnosis system for cervical spine trauma detection.

  2. Determination of calcium in foot, hand and vertebrae of man by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajchik, V.E.; Kondrashev, A.E.; Dubrovin, A.P.; Korelo, A.M.; Morukov, B.V.; Orlov, O.I.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and devices for in vivo neutron activation determination of calcium content in human foot, hand and vertebrae were developed. It is ascertained that calcium content in skeleton is subjected to seasonal cyclicity. Bones of foot have the minimum content of the element in winter-spring period and the maximum one in summer-autumn period. For vertebrae and hand the inverse dependence is characteristic. Average level of seasonal variations in calcium content in the bones of hand and vertebrae is 10-11%, that of foot - 18-19%. Amplitudes of seasonal variations in the content of calcium in vertebrae, hand and foot are interrelated. 5 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Automatic labeling and segmentation of vertebrae in CT images

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    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Labeling and segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image- guided interventions. State-of-the art techniques have focused either on image feature extraction or template matching for labeling of the vertebrae followed by segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi- object models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics among several anatomies. In particular, we have created models for segmentation of the lumbar spine which are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae pose+shape model and utilize it in a novel framework for labeling and segmentation of the vertebra in a CT image. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the labeling and segmentation of CT images acquired from 56 subjects. The method correctly labels all vertebrae in 70% of patients and is only one level off for the remaining 30%. The mean distance error achieved for the segmentation is 2.1 +/- 0.7 mm.

  4. Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a "bumpy" boat ride.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chukwunyerenwa, C K

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during a boat ride while on holiday. One individual had fracture of the T8, while the other fractured the L1 vertebrae. Both injuries were treated conservatively with Taylor braces. CONCLUSION: We highlight one of the potential hazards of this recreational activity, and the almost identical fracture pattern in this couple.

  5. Block vertebra: fusion of axis with the third cervical vertebra – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar VV; Kulkarni RR

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal abnormalities at the craniocervical junction or cervical region may result in severe neck pain and sudden unexpected death. During the osteology demonstration of cervical vertebrae for the MBBS Phase I students at M. S. Ramaiah Medical College, it was observed that the axis vertebra is fused with the 3rd cervical vertebra. In this case, the vertebral bodies, vertebral arches and spines were completely fused. This is a condition of block vertebra which has embryological importance and...

  6. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... it can yield similar correction while preserving more lumbar mobility and growth potential....

  7. GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE VERTEBRA SIMULATING VERTEBRA PLANA

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    B. Aalami-Harandi

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of g iant cell tumor of t he vertebra simulat ing vert ebra plana was reported . t he d i agnos i s o f t he vertebra plana should not be confirmed by t he history of the patient and radiologica l manifestation alone . it can onlybe confirmed by biopsy ."nBone l esions of the spine i s one of the most di fficul t problems t o diagnosis and t r eat . Spinal tumors a r e either primary or metastatic . Ilos t bone tumors of the spine i n t he first two decade of l i f e are primary and benign;where as a majority of the bone lesions in old people ar e me tast at1,c and rna I 1' 9n ant . 5- 11 The rnaI1' 9~ant Lee Ss 1i 0ns 0f t h e Sp1' - ne can wi t hout very great risk be excl uded f r om diagnostic considerati on in chi ldren and adoles cence (She r r a r d . 1969 12 . From 34 casps of bone l esions of the spine and the pelvis i n the f irst two decade of l i f e, reported by Thommes on and 1 3 , Paulsen (1967 ni ne were histiochtosis X, two anevr ysma l bone cyst,nine Ewi ng sar coma , two reticul um cell sar c ~ma. None were g i ant cel l tumor ."nGiant cell tumor of the spine is r a re; mo s t of t he report ed cases were in t he sacrum. J affe (1958 17repor t ed only two c ases of giant cell t umo r, one of which o c c ur r e d in the por t e d s a c r um.Of the 218 cases of the g i an t ce l l tumor re6 by Goldenbe rg and Carnpbell( 1970 there were 13 cases of g i ant c e l l tumor o f the ver t ebra , one in the cervical r e g i o n , o ne in the l umbar spi ne , and e l e ven in t he sacrum. Of '08 giant ce l l t umors studied by Coley( 19604 ,one was i n the lumba r ver t ebra and one in the s a c rum. al In a r e view of 413 tumors i nc l uding t he spine(Cohen et 3 1964 tr.ere were sixteen cases o f g i ant c e l l tumor ,one  n the c e r vica l spine , one in the l umbar r e gion and f ourte61 n the sacrum. I n thi s a r t i c l e we are going to report a case of giant cel l t umor of the s i xth thor a ci

  8. Determination of isoniazid concentration in rabbit vertebrae by isotope tracing technique in conjunction with HPLC.

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    Liu, Peng; Fu, Zhaozong; Jiang, Jianming; Yuan, Liang; Lin, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Medications compounded with isoniazid (INH) are usually applied to surgical sites at the completion of surgery to locally kill postoperative residual tubercle bacilli. However, the distribution and elimination of INH in the vertebrae in vivo are not known. In this study, isotope tracing was used in conjunction with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to address this. INH and technetium-99 m-labeled INH were applied to the vertebrae of rabbits. After 2 and 6 h, osseous tissues containing INH, as determined by radionuclide imaging, were collected for detection with HPLC. The results showed that INH mainly stayed around the vertebrae 6 h after its application and did not permeate widely into the blood or other organs, except for the kidneys. The standard deviations of INH concentrations in the technetium-99 m-INH group were approximately four-fold smaller than those in the INH group. This method of coupling isotope tracing and HPLC can effectively limit experimental error during sample collection, allowing accurate and reliable identification of the concentration levels of INH in osseous tissues in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

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    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  10. Assessment of dose in cervical vertebrae radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owrnasir, Wafa Fadol Orsud

    2014-12-01

    Reference dose levels provide a framework to reduce doses variability and aid in the optimization of radiation protection.This study was performed in Khartoum Teaching Hospital in period of January to June 2014. This study performed to assess the entrance surface dose ( ESD) received in Cervical Vertebrae radiographic examination and to analyze effective dose distributions among radiological departments under study. The study was performed in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, covering two x-ray units and a sample of 64 patients. The following parameter were recorded; age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) derived from weight (kg) and height (m) and exposure factors. The dose was measured for Cervical Vertebrae x-ray examinations, the entrance surface dose (ESD) values were estimated from the x-ray tube output parameters for Cervical Vertebrae AP and lateral examinations. The ESD values were then calculated using IAEA calculation methods. The results of ESD values calculated showed than patient exposure were within the normal range of exposure. The mean ED values calculated were ( 3.85 ±0.04) and (4.02 ±0.05) mGy for Cervical Vertebrae AP and lateral examinations, respectively in department Na1 and (3.99± 0.15) and (4.23± 0.34) mGy, for Cervical Vertebrae Ap and lateral examinations respectively in department Na2, the IAEA standard value of ESD for cervical equal (7), (20) mGy AP and LAT, Further studies are recommended with more number of patients and using more than two modalities for comparison. (Author)

  11. Assessment of skeletal maturation based on cervical vertebrae in CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jocelyne J; Heo, Giseon; Lagravère, Manuel O

    2012-12-01

    Diagnosis of skeletal age in adolescents helps orthodontists select and time treatments. Currently this is done using lateral cephalometric radiographs. This study evaluates the application of the conventional method in cone-beam computer tomographic (CBCT) images to bring forth assessment of skeletal maturation in three-dimensions. Ninety-eight lateral cephalometric radiographs and CBCT scans were collected from orthodontic patients between 11 to 17 years of age over an 18-month period. CBCT scans were examined in seven sagittal slices based on cervical vertebral maturation staging (CVMS). Collected CVMS values were compared with those from corresponding lateral cephalometric radiograph. CVMS measured from CBCT and lateral cephalometric radiographs were the same on average. However, they were not consistent with each other and scored interclass correlation coefficient of 0.155 in validity test. Interoperator reliability was weak (0.581). Adaptation of cervical vertebrae maturation staging in CBCT requires further clarifications or modifications to become consistent with lateral cephalometric examinations and to become a reliable method. Alternatively, a completely new method may be developed consisting of maturational indicators or landmarks unique to CBCT imaging. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Congenital lumbar vertebrae agenesis in a lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajli Abbasi, Mohammad; Shojaei, Bahador; Azari, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae was diagnosed in a day-old female lamb based on radiology and clinical examinations. There was no neurological deficit in hindlimb and forelimb associated with standing disability. Radiography of the abdominal region revealed absence of lumbar vertebrae. Necropsy confirmed clinical and radiographic results. No other anomaly or agenesis was seen macroscopically in the abdominal and thoracic regions as well as vertebral column. Partial absence of vertebral column has been reported in human and different animal species, as an independent occurrence or associated with other organs anomalies. The latter has been designated as caudal regression syndrome. Vertebral agenesis may arise from irregularity in the differentiation of somites to the sclerotome or sclerotome to the vertebral primordium. Most of the previously reported cases of agenesis were related to the lumbosacral region, lonely or along with other visceral absences. This case was the first report of congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae in a lamb.

  13. Prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Chang; Bae, Geum Dong; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang

    1990-01-01

    Controversy exists about the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae(LSTV) causing low back pain and lumbar disk abnormalities such as herniated nucleus pulposus(HNP), early disk degeneration or annulus bulging. The prevalence of the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae were evaluated. The classification of LSTV is presented based upon the radiomorphological changes of transverse process of the last presacral vertebra. The type I is dysplastic transverse process, type II is incomplete lumbarization/ sacralization, type III is complete lumbarization/ sacralization, and type IV is mixed is mixed (type II and type III). Simple radiographic findings of (804 patients including) 300 patients without low back pain. 400 patients with low back pain and 104 patients with disk abnormalities on CT scan have been analyzed. The prevalence of LSTV were 51.5% in normal control group, 40.8% in low back pain group and 46.2% in disk abnormality group. The type I is regarded as the forerunner of a true transitional vertebra and the prevalence of the true LSTB (type II, III, IV) were 11.6%, 18.3% and 13.5% on each groups. The type II and III in low back pain group and type II in disk abnormality group were relatively increased in incidence of LSTV than in normal control group. A patient with the type II or III of the LSTV may show low back pain more frequently than a patient without such a LSTV. The type II of LSTV may cause lumbar disk abnormalities more frequently

  14. Observation on the role of osteoporotic vertebra augmented with calcium sulfate cement in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuesong; Shi Qin; Zhang Zhiming; Geng Dechun; Mao Haiqing; Chen Chunmao; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biomechanical and histological performance of calcium sulfate cement (CSC) in osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Methods: Bone voids were created in L 2 ∼ L 5 vertebras of twelve female osteoporotic mature sheep. CSC and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were injected into one bone voids randomly, L 1 and L 6 vertebrae served as the normal control. Six sheep were sacrificed at the 2nd week and the 24th week after operation respectively. Overall observation,biomechanical test and undecalcified bone histology analyses were performed. Results: Biomechanical analysis showed that the vertebrae could be augmented by CSC and PMMA. The biomechanical properties of the vertebrae augmented with CSC were weakened more than that in the PMMA and normal group at the 2nd week, increased significantly at the 24th week. Histological observation showed that CSC was mostly absorbed at the 24th week, mature bone trabecula was seen in the defect area. Conclusion: The osteoporotic vertebrae can be augmented instantly by CSC. As time goes on, CSC can promote bone remodeling, and enhance the vertebrae. It is an alternation for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. (authors)

  15. Comparison of vertebrae and otoliths measured directly and from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    It is general practice among fish ecologists to use indigestible remains such as vertebrae and otoliths in fish stomachs to determine the nature and size of their prey. However, estimation of the relationship between fish length and vertebrae size is a time consuming process when using vertebrae...

  16. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  17. Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD, diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10-L2 were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation; b screw with medial cortical perforation; and c screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra ( P = 0.105, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD ( P = 0.901. Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.

  18. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  19. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andreas Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  20. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros, E-mail: braunrich@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Institutlo de Radiologia

    2016-03-15

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  1. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández-Pérez

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method. Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89 that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88 and males (r = 0.89. CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation.

  2. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; Alarcón, José Antonio; McNamara, James A; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation.

  3. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism. PMID:19801376

  4. Effect analysis of percutaneous osteoplasty for the treatment of malignant osteolytic lesions outside the vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Wu Chungen; Cheng Yongde; Li Minghua; Gu Yifeng; Wang Jue; Zhang Peilei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of percutaneous osteoplasty (POP) in treating malignant osteolytic lesions outside the vertebrae. Methods: From Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2008, POP was performed in 11 patients with malignant osteolytic lesions outside the vertebrae. Biopsy was carried out before POP when the lesion's pathology was undefined. A follow-up was made for at least 6 months. Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used to evaluate the clinical efficacy, and a statistic analysis was made with the help of software SAS 6.12. Results: POPS were successfully performed in all 11 patients, with the technical successful rate of 100%. Cement leakage was found in 3 patients, but did not cause serious complications. Obvious pain relief was revealed clinically with a significant difference in BPI before and after POP (P 0.05). Conclusion: POP is an effective and safe technique in treating malignant osteolytic lesions outside the vertebrae. (authors)

  5. Sparse Classification - Methods & Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Gudmundur

    for analysing such data carry the potential to revolutionize tasks such as medical diagnostics where often decisions need to be based on only a few high-dimensional observations. This explosion in data dimensionality has sparked the development of novel statistical methods. In contrast, classical statistics...

  6. Kriging : Methods and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we present Kriging— also known as a Gaussian process (GP) model— which is a mathematical interpolation method. To select the input combinations to be simulated, we use Latin hypercube sampling (LHS); we allow uniform and non-uniform distributions of the simulation inputs. Besides

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, B.O.; Hansson, T.H.; Skoeldborn, H.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with determination of the bone mineral content in the third lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry, the fat in the adipose capsules of the kidneys is assumed to cause erroneous positioning of the baseline, leading to overestimation of the bone mineral content. The bone mineral content in L3 was measured in situ (BMC 1 ) and vitro (BMC 2 ) in 14 cadavers. The difference between BMC 1 and BMC 2 was significantly greater than zero, the median value being 0.32 g/cm at the confidence level of 94.4 per cent. It is concluded that at correlation between bone mineral content and compressive strength in vitro, the in vivo strength is overestimated by about 250 N. (Auth.)

  8. Comparison of vertebral morphometry in the lumbar vertebrae by T1-weighted sagittal MRI and radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the usefulness of T1-weighted sagittal MR images at the lumbar vertebrae in the vertebral morphometry, in comparison with lateral radiographs. Subjects and methods: The subjects were 42 men (mean age: 53.0 years) and 41 women (mean age: 57.9 years). Both MRI and radiography of the lumbar spine were performed within 1 month. The vertebral body heights and their ratios were measured by the semi-automatic measuring system. The frequency of a vertebral fracture and the absolute value of vertebral body height in both morphometry were compared. Results: Based on the criteria for prevalent vertebral fracture using vertebral height ratios, the vertebrae were classified into four groups. Group 1 was defined as the vertebrae without fracture (n = 347 vertebrae). Groups 2-4 were defined as the vertebrae with fracture; Group 2 by both MRI and X-ray morphometry (n = 17), Group 3 by MRI morphometry alone (n = 17), and Group 4 by X-ray morphometry alone (n = 4). The rate of prevalent vertebral fracture diagnosed by MRI morphometry (8.8%) was higher than that by X-ray morphometry (5.5%). In Group 1, the values of anterior and posterior vertebral height obtained by MRI morphometry were greater than those obtained by X-ray morphometry. On the other hand, the values of central vertebral height obtained by MRI morphometry were smaller than those obtained by X-ray morphometry. Conclusion: Severe biconcave deformity of vertebra can be detected by both MRI and X-ray morphometry, although mild biconcave deformity can be detected only by MRI morphometry

  9. Numbering of vertebrae on MRI using a PACS cross-referencing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Nam Chull; Lim, Chun Soo; Jang, Ho Suk

    2012-01-01

    Background: For the detection and documentation of numeric variations on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different techniques have previously been introduced. However, these methods require additional special imaging algorithms, software, or devices. We intend to introduce a vertebral numbering method using the existing picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and MRI system. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of a method for numbering presacral vertebrae based on the cross-referencing of two sagittal MRI series. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective review of 224 consecutive patients who underwent both lumbar MRI with cervicothoracic scan and whole spine radiographic examinations. A radiologist and a neurosurgeon independently counted the number of presacral vertebrae in a cranial-to-caudal approach with cross-referencing of cervicothoracic and lumbar MRI sagittal series on the PACS workstation. Radiographic numbering from the cervical through the thoracic to the lumbar vertebrae, as a reference standard, was completed independently by the two reviewers. An analysis of the inter-observer and intermodality agreements of radiography and MRI was done. Results: In all cases except one, concordant numbering existed between the two modalities of MRI cross-referencing and radiographs combination. Both observers agreed completely, with no inter-observer discordance. Conclusion: The number of vertebrae could be identified consistently by counting caudally from C2 with cross-referencing cervicothoracic and lumbosacral sagittal MRI scans on the PACS workstation

  10. Numbering of vertebrae on MRI using a PACS cross-referencing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull [Dept. of Radiology, Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: srsna@freechal.com; Lim, Chun Soo; Jang, Ho Suk [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Background: For the detection and documentation of numeric variations on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different techniques have previously been introduced. However, these methods require additional special imaging algorithms, software, or devices. We intend to introduce a vertebral numbering method using the existing picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and MRI system. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of a method for numbering presacral vertebrae based on the cross-referencing of two sagittal MRI series. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective review of 224 consecutive patients who underwent both lumbar MRI with cervicothoracic scan and whole spine radiographic examinations. A radiologist and a neurosurgeon independently counted the number of presacral vertebrae in a cranial-to-caudal approach with cross-referencing of cervicothoracic and lumbar MRI sagittal series on the PACS workstation. Radiographic numbering from the cervical through the thoracic to the lumbar vertebrae, as a reference standard, was completed independently by the two reviewers. An analysis of the inter-observer and intermodality agreements of radiography and MRI was done. Results: In all cases except one, concordant numbering existed between the two modalities of MRI cross-referencing and radiographs combination. Both observers agreed completely, with no inter-observer discordance. Conclusion: The number of vertebrae could be identified consistently by counting caudally from C2 with cross-referencing cervicothoracic and lumbosacral sagittal MRI scans on the PACS workstation.

  11. Cervical vertebrae staging in pre-orthodontic patients in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The first six cervical vertebrae of 105 untreated orthodontic patients attending the clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were assessed on the cephalometric radiograph to determine the stages of maturation. Correlations between age, gender, type of malocclusion and skeletal maturation stages were ...

  12. Bertolotti's syndrome revisited. Transitional vertebrae of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, A D

    1989-12-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome refers to the association of back pain with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. Such vertebrae were observed in 140 of 2,000 adults with back pain over a 4-year period of study. Each patient had radiographic evaluation of the lumbar spine by plain films as well as a sectional imaging modality (magnetic resonance [MR] or computed tomography [CT]). The overall incidence of structural pathology (eg, spinal stenosis and disc protrusion) detected by CT or MR was not apparently higher in patients with transitional vertebrae, but the distribution of these lesions was significantly different. Disc bulge or herniation, when it occurred, was nearly nine times more common at the interspace immediately above the transitional vertebra than at any other level. Spinal stenosis and nerve root canal stenosis were more common at or near the interspace above the transitional vertebra than at any other level. Degenerative change at the articulation between the transverse process of the transitional vertebra and the pelvis was an uncommon occurrence; when seen there was no significant correlation with the reported side of pain. It is postulated that hypermobility and altered stresses become concentrated in the spine at the level immediately above a lumbar transitional vertebra. Accelerated disc and facet joint degeneration at this level may then result.

  13. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bifulco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  14. Recent advances in computational methods and clinical applications for spine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Glocker, Ben; Klinder, Tobias; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2014 workshop on Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together scientists and clinicians in the field of computational spine imaging. The chapters included in this book present and discuss the new advances and challenges in these fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modeling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis. The book also includes papers and reports from the first challenge on vertebra segmentation held at the workshop.

  15. Combinatorial methods with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial Methods with Computer Applications provides in-depth coverage of recurrences, generating functions, partitions, and permutations, along with some of the most interesting graph and network topics, design constructions, and finite geometries. Requiring only a foundation in discrete mathematics, it can serve as the textbook in a combinatorial methods course or in a combined graph theory and combinatorics course.After an introduction to combinatorics, the book explores six systematic approaches within a comprehensive framework: sequences, solving recurrences, evaluating summation exp

  16. ''Tower vertebra'': a new observation in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, T.J.; Brunson, C.Y.; Jackson, S.; Schabel, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Skeletal abnormalities are common in sickle cell anemia. Ischemia, infarction, and growth disturbance of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies are among the most common abnormalities, and can suggest the diagnosis radiographically. Design and patients. We recently encountered two adult patients in whom vertebrae had grown abnormally in height adjacent to infarcted short vertebrae. We then reviewed the thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 54 more adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Results and conclusion. A total of eight patients (14%) displayed infarcted vertebrae with compensatory vertical growth of at least one adjacent vertebrae. These resemble the elongated vertebral bodies associated with other conditions. We can find no prior report of this finding in association with sickle cell anemia. (orig.)

  17. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  18. SU-F-T-642: Sub Millimeter Accurate Setup of More Than Three Vertebrae in Spinal SBRT with 6D Couch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Zhao, Z; Yang, J; Yang, J; McAleer, M; Brown, P; Li, J; Ghia, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the initial setup accuracy in treating more than 3 vertebral body levels in spinal SBRT using a 6D couch. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed last 20 spinal SBRT patients (4 cervical, 9 thoracic, 7 lumbar/sacrum) treated in our clinic. These patients in customized immobilization device were treated in 1 or 3 fractions. Initial setup used ExacTrac and Brainlab 6D couch to align target within 1 mm and 1 degree, following by a cone beam CT (CBCT) for verification. Our current standard practice allows treating a maximum of three continuous vertebrae. Here we assess the possibility to achieve sub millimeter setup accuracy for more than three vertebrae by examining the residual error in every slice of CBCT. The CBCT had a range of 17.5 cm, which covered 5 to 9 continuous vertebrae depending on the patient and target location. In the study, CBCT from the 1st fraction treatment was rigidly registered with the planning CT in Pinnacle. The residual setup error of a vertebra was determined by expanding the vertebra contour on the planning CT to be large enough to enclose the corresponding vertebra on CBCT. The margin of the expansion was considered as setup error. Results: Out of the 20 patients analyzed, initial setup accuracy can be achieved within 1 mm for a span of 5 or more vertebrae starting from T2 vertebra to inferior vertebra levels. 2 cervical and 2 upper thoracic patients showed the cervical spine was difficult to achieve sub millimeter accuracy for multi levels without a customized immobilization headrest. Conclusion: If the curvature of spinal columns can be reproduced in customized immobilization device during treatment as simulation, multiple continuous vertebrae can be setup within 1 mm with the use of a 6D couch.

  19. SU-F-T-642: Sub Millimeter Accurate Setup of More Than Three Vertebrae in Spinal SBRT with 6D Couch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Zhao, Z; Yang, J; Yang, J; McAleer, M; Brown, P; Li, J; Ghia, A [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the initial setup accuracy in treating more than 3 vertebral body levels in spinal SBRT using a 6D couch. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed last 20 spinal SBRT patients (4 cervical, 9 thoracic, 7 lumbar/sacrum) treated in our clinic. These patients in customized immobilization device were treated in 1 or 3 fractions. Initial setup used ExacTrac and Brainlab 6D couch to align target within 1 mm and 1 degree, following by a cone beam CT (CBCT) for verification. Our current standard practice allows treating a maximum of three continuous vertebrae. Here we assess the possibility to achieve sub millimeter setup accuracy for more than three vertebrae by examining the residual error in every slice of CBCT. The CBCT had a range of 17.5 cm, which covered 5 to 9 continuous vertebrae depending on the patient and target location. In the study, CBCT from the 1st fraction treatment was rigidly registered with the planning CT in Pinnacle. The residual setup error of a vertebra was determined by expanding the vertebra contour on the planning CT to be large enough to enclose the corresponding vertebra on CBCT. The margin of the expansion was considered as setup error. Results: Out of the 20 patients analyzed, initial setup accuracy can be achieved within 1 mm for a span of 5 or more vertebrae starting from T2 vertebra to inferior vertebra levels. 2 cervical and 2 upper thoracic patients showed the cervical spine was difficult to achieve sub millimeter accuracy for multi levels without a customized immobilization headrest. Conclusion: If the curvature of spinal columns can be reproduced in customized immobilization device during treatment as simulation, multiple continuous vertebrae can be setup within 1 mm with the use of a 6D couch.

  20. Fish vertebra from Miocene beds at Govce, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a vertebra and a small shark tooth found in the Miocene Govce sandstone near Govce west of Laško in central Slovenia. The vertebra belongs to a shark of the superorder Galeomorphii but we could not determine it with greater precision. The small tooth was assigned to Carcharias cf. taurus Rafinesque, 1810. The nannofossils in the sample are scarce and did not allow dating at biozone precision.

  1. Deformation Measurement Of Lumbar Vertebra By Holographic Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Kojima, Arata; Ogawa, Ryoukei; Iwata, Koichi; Nagata, Ryo

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of normal lumbar vertebra and one with the interarticular part cut off to simulate hemi-spondylolysis were measured by the double exposure holographic interferometry. In the normal lumbar vertebra, displacement due to the load applied to the inferior articular process was greater than that of superior articular process under the same load. The interarticular part was subjected to the high stress. From these points, one of the valuable data to consider the cause of spondylolysis was obtained.

  2. Informetrics theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Junping; Yang, Siluo; Dong, Ke

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to the history, theory and techniques of informetrics. Divided into 14 chapters, it develops the content system of informetrics from the theory, methods and applications; systematically analyzes the six basic laws and the theory basis of informetrics and presents quantitative analysis methods such as citation analysis and computer-aided analysis. It also discusses applications in information resource management, information and library science, science of science, scientific evaluation and the forecast field. Lastly, it describes a new development in informetrics- webometrics. Providing a comprehensive overview of the complex issues in today's environment, this book is a valuable resource for all researchers, students and practitioners in library and information science.

  3. Chronologic age and skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Sari, Zafer

    2006-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between chronologic age and maturation of cervical vertebrae, (2) to identify the relationship between chronologic age and maturation stage evaluated by hand-wrist radiographs, and (3) to determine whether the maturation of cervical vertebrae correlates with maturation indicated by hand-wrist radiographs in a Turkish population. The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 503 subjects (213 male, 290 female; ages, 5.3-24.1 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman. Skeletal maturation of each hand-wrist radiograph was determined according to the method described by Björk and Grave, and Brown's system. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were estimated separately for males and females to measure the relationships among chronologic age, cervical vertebral maturation, and the skeletal maturation measured at the hand-wrist. The Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.72 (P cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and 0.79 (P maturation via hand-wrist radiographs. The correlation coefficient between hand-wrist and cervical-vertebrae maturation was 0.86 (P cervical-vertebrae maturation stages are clinically useful maturity indicators of the pubertal growth period Turkish subjects.

  4. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  5. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  6. Phenotypic integration of the cervical vertebrae in the Hominoidea (Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Catalina I

    2018-03-01

    Phenotypic integration and modularity represent important factors influencing evolutionary change. The mammalian cervical vertebral column is particularly interesting in regards to integration and modularity because it is highly constrained to seven elements, despite widely variable morphology. Previous research has found a common pattern of integration among quadrupedal mammals, but integration patterns also evolve in response to locomotor selective pressures like those associated with hominin bipedalism. Here, I test patterns of covariation in the cervical vertebrae of three hominoid primates (Hylobates, Pan, Homo) who engage in upright postures and locomotion. Patterns of integration in the hominoid cervical vertebrae correspond generally to those previously found in other mammals, suggesting that integration in this region is highly conserved, even among taxa that engage in novel positional behaviors. These integration patterns reflect underlying developmental as well as functional modules. The strong integration between vertebrae suggests that the functional morphology of the cervical vertebral column should be considered as a whole, rather than in individual vertebrae. Taxa that display highly derived morphologies in the cervical vertebrae are likely exploiting these integration patterns, rather than reorganizing them. Future work on vertebrates without cervical vertebral number constraints will further clarify the evolution of integration in this region. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. EDGE DETECTION OF THE SCOLIOTIC VERTEBRAE USING X-RAY IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MOHANKUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bones act as a mineral storage reservoir for calcium and phosphorus. Proper well grown bones give a perfect posture to the human body. In other case, if the bone has an improper growth, it might lead to an abnormal posture or an awkward posture. Scoliosis is a condition where the scoliotic vertebrae are wedge shaped and differ with the shape of normal vertebrae. Treatment for scoliosis depends on Cobb angle which can be measured using spine X-rays. Recent development in the medical imaging techniques brought us to a new research area in image processing which includes medical image enhancement, detailed visualization of internal organs & tissues and edge detection. Bone edges are important feature in an X-ray image. The purpose of application of segmentation in medical imaging is to develop a detailed framework on human anatomy, whose primary objective is to outline the anatomical structures. Whereas edge detection is a technique which extracts vital features like corners, lines, angles and curves from an image. In this study, we are going to deal with the edge detection technique on scoliotic vertebrae. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of edge detectors using filters and operators.

  8. Relationship between transitional lumbosacral vertebrae and eight lumbar vertebrae in a breeding colony of Labrador Retrievers and Labrador Crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, C F; Wade, C M

    2017-01-01

    Transitional lumbosacral vertebrae (TLSV) is a hereditary malformation of the spinal column diagnosed in various dog breeds. The aim of this study was to explore whether different lumbosacral phenotypes have an inherited basis. Radiographs of all dogs within a breeding colony were performed and assessed. A comparison of the incidence of TLSV, eight lumbar vertebrae (8LV), and fusion of the first caudal vertebrae to the sacrum or near fusion of this area was made between litters of normal parentage and litters where one or both of the parents had an anomaly. Of the 119 puppies included in the study, 69 had normal conformation, 9 had 8LV, 9 had TLSV and 32 had fusion of the first caudal vertebra (Ca1) to the caudal sacral segment or a reduced joint space in this area. Results indicated that all the abnormal types likely had common underlying genetic causes. Compared with the population as a whole, significantly more progeny were observed to have abnormalities of the sacral region when both parents were affected by either fusion of Ca1 to the third sacral vertebra (S3) and/or had 8LV. Significantly more progeny were normal compared with the entire study population when both parents were normal. Strong similarity between parental and progeny phenotypes suggested that the characteristics were heritable and likely influenced by major gene effects. When performing screening radiographs for TLSV, assessment for 8LV and fusion of Ca1 to S3 should be included. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. The transitional vertebra and sacroiliac joint dysfunction association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeez, Ozge Gulsum; Atıcı, Arzu; Ulger, Esra Bahadır; Kulcu, Duygu Geler; Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Aktas, Ilknur

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transitional vertebrae contribute to the development of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The prevalence of transitional vertebrae in patients with lumbar pain was determined during this process, and the prevalence of sacroiliac dysfunction was compared between patients with low back pain and healthy volunteers. 700 subjects, 500 with low back pain and 200 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Five tests were applied to all participants to determine sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Positivity in three tests was regarded as dysfunction. Lateral lumbosacral and Ferguson angle X-rays were taken from the group with low back pain. The patient was evaluated a specialist radiologist in terms of presence or absence of transitional vertebrae, and if identified, what type. Transitional vertebrae were determined in 26% (n = 130) of the patients with low back pain. Type 1a was determined in 20%, type 1b in 10%, type 2a in 26.9%, type 2b in 30.8%, type 3a in 0.8%, type 3b in 4.6% and type 4 in 6.9%. The prevalence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in the low back pain group (15.4%) and the prevalence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in cases of transitional vertebra (28.5%) were significantly higher compared to the control groups (p Sacroiliac joint dysfunction must be considered when investigating the etiology of low back pain. Particular sensitivity must be exhibited on this subject in patients with transitional vertebrae.

  10. Chondroblastoma of thoracic vertebra in young adult causing paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Pramod J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma of spine is very rare condition. To best of our knowledge, fewer than 30 cases have been reported in the world literature. Almost all of them involved both anterior & posterior component of vertebra. There are only few reports with isolated posterior element involvement. Clinical presentation of paraparesis because of vertebral chondroblastoma is very rare. This case report presents 17 yr old male with chondroblastoma involving posterior thoracic vertebra presenting with quadriparesis which improved after successful treatment. Early diagnosis and complete excision with periodic follow up is necessary for treatment of this disease.

  11. Quantification of fat fraction in lumbar vertebrae: correlation with age and implications for bone marrow dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Maikol; Tran-Gia, Johannes; Kesenheimer, Christian; Weng, Andreas Max; Kosmala, Aleksander; Heidemeier, Anke; Köstler, Herbert; Lassmann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Absorbed dose to active bone marrow is a predictor of hematological toxicity in molecular radiotherapy. Due to the complex composition of bone marrow tissue, the necessity to improve the personalized dosimetry has led to the application of non-conventional imaging methods in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is to apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of the fat fraction in lumbar vertebrae and to analyze its implications for bone marrow dosimetry. First, a highly accelerated two-point Dixon MRI sequence for fat-water separation was validated in a 3T system against the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) gold standard. The validation was performed in a fat-water phantom composed of 11 vials with different fat fractions between 0% and 100%, and subsequently repeated in the lumbar vertebrae of three healthy volunteers. Finally, a retrospective study was performed by analyzing the fat fraction in five lumbar vertebrae of 44 patients scanned with the two-point Dixon sequence. The two-point Dixon phantom acquisition showed a good agreement (maximum difference  =  2.9%) between the nominal fat fraction and MRS. In the volunteers, a statistical analysis showed a non-significant difference (p  =  0.19) between MRI and MRS. In the patients, gender-specific linear fits for female and male data indicated that the age-dependent marrow conversion (red  →  yellow marrow) is slower in males (0.3% per year) than in females (0.5% per year). Lastly, the fat fraction values showed a considerable variability in patients of similar ages and the same gender. Two-point Dixon MRI enables a non-invasive and spatially resolved quantification of the fat fraction in bone marrow. Our study provides important evidence on the differences in marrow conversion between females and males. In addition, differences were observed in the cellularity values of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference man (0.7) and the

  12. The distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies among dental malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kamak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of our study were to investigate the distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVAs among dental Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions in Turkish population and whether a correlation between CVA and dental malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University. The final sample of 318 orthodontic patients was included in the study. Dental malocclusions were performed according to Angle classification. CVAs were categorized: (1 fusion and (2 posterior arch deficiency (PAD. The Chi-square test was used to the analysis of the potential differences among dental malocclusions. Results: The final sample of 318 patients was examined. CVA was observed in 42 individuals (of 26 [8.17%] had fusion and 16 [5.03%] had PAD, with a frequency of 13.2%. Of the 26 fusion defect, 8 (30.7% had Angle Class I, 8 (30.7% had Angle Class II, and 10 (38.4% had Angle Class III malocclusion. Of the 16 PAD, 8 (50% had Angle Class I, 8 (50% had Angle Class II but no patients with Angle Class III malocclusion was observed. The distribution of dental malocclusions regarding CVA was not statistically significant (P = 0.076. Of these 42 individuals with CVA, 52.3% (15 fusions and 7 PAD were females and 47.7% (11 fusions and 9 PAD were males. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of fusion and PAD were found 8.1% and 5.0% in Turkish population, respectively. Besides, no statistically significant correlation between CVA and Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions were found. Our findings support the studies showing no gender dimorphism.

  13. Influence of patient position and implant material on the stress distribution in an artificial intervertebral disc of the lumbar vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the effect of using cobalt and titanium-based alloys as implant materials for the lumbar vertebrae with an artificial intervertebral disc on the stress distribution. The lumbar vertebrae were chosen for the study because they carry considerably higher loads, especially while standing or sitting. Finite element method (FEM simulations were conducted for three standard loads reflecting three patient's positions: recumbent, standing and sitting. The FEM analysis was performed using the SolidWorks Simulation module. Artificial units containing a pair of vertebrae with a prosthesis between them were designed by the Solid Edge software, based on micro-computed tomography CT scans of the patient's spine. The implant model was designed with its shape based on the geometry of surrounding vertebrae, consisting of an upper pad, a bottom pad and an insert (intervertebral disc. Two implant material configurations were studied. One involved the use of titanium alloy for the upper and bottom pads, while in the other, these pads were made of cobalt alloy. In both cases, a polyethylene insert was used. The FEM results demonstrate that both material configurations meet the requirements for prosthesis design. In both material configurations, the maximum stresses in each prosthesis element are almost twice higher in a sitting posture than in a recumbent position.

  14. Dorsal and ventral changes of the occipital vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banki, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Based on his own observation and on the literature, the author discusses various types of calcification in the occipital-cervical region, beginning with those situated dorsally and followed by ventral forms. An attempt is made to classify these changes, depending on their morphology and situation, from an embryological point of view. The pro-atlantal and ante pro-atlanto origin of the occipital vertebrae is discussed. Differentiation depends on appearances. (orig.) [de

  15. Chondroblastoma of the Lumbar Vertebra Associated with Cauda Equina Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewe-Juan Yeap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a benign tumour, most often affecting the epiphyses of long tubular bones such as the proximal end of the humerus, femur, and tibia, as well as the distal end of the femur. Vertebral involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of chondroblastoma of the second lumbar vertebra associated with cauda equina compression. Complete excision is necessary to relieve the compression and ensure surgical clearance.

  16. A Review of Symptomatic Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Bertolotti's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancuska, Jeffrey M; Spivak, Jeffrey M; Bendo, John A

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are increasingly recognized as a common anatomical variant associated with altered patterns of degenerative spine changes. This review will focus on the clinical significance of LSTV, disruptions in normal spine biomechanics, imaging techniques, diagnosis, and treatment. A Pubmed search using the specific key words "LSTV," "lumbosacral transitional vertebrae," and "Bertolotti's Syndrome" was performed. The resulting group of manuscripts from our search was evaluated. LSTV are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTV are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard AP radiographs and MRI. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increase accuracy. Uncertainty regarding the cause, clinical significance, and treatment of LSTV persists. Some authors suggest an association between LSTV types II and IV and low back pain. Pseudoarticulation between the transverse process and the sacrum creates a "false joint" susceptible to arthritic changes and osteophyte formation potentially leading to nerve root entrapment. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history, imaging studies, and diagnostic injections. A positive radionuclide study along with a positive effect from a local injection helps distinguish the transitional vertebra as a significant pain source. Surgical resection is reserved for a subgroup of LSTV patients who fail conservative treatment and whose pain is definitively attributed to the anomalous pseudoarticulation. Due to the common finding of low back pain and the wide prevalence of LSTV in the general population, it is essential to differentiate between symptoms originating from an anomalous psuedoarticulation from other potential sources of low back pain. Further studies with larger

  17. Vertebroplasty reduces progressive ׳creep' deformity of fractured vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Pollintine, P; Annesley-Williams, D J; Dolan, P; Adams, M A

    2016-04-11

    Elderly vertebrae frequently develop an "anterior wedge" deformity as a result of fracture and creep mechanisms. Injecting cement into a damaged vertebral body (vertebroplasty) is known to help restore its shape and stiffness. We now hypothesise that vertebroplasty is also effective in reducing subsequent creep deformations. Twenty-eight spine specimens, comprising three complete vertebrae and the intervening discs, were obtained from cadavers aged 67-92 years. Each specimen was subjected to increasingly-severe compressive loading until one of its vertebrae was fractured, and the damaged vertebral body was then treated by vertebroplasty. Before and after fracture, and again after vertebroplasty, each specimen was subjected to a static compressive force of 1kN for 1h while elastic and creep deformations were measured in the anterior, middle and posterior regions of each adjacent vertebral body cortex, using a 2D MacReflex optical tracking system. After fracture, creep in the anterior and central regions of the vertebral body cortex increased from an average 4513 and 885 microstrains, respectively, to 54,107 and 34,378 microstrains (both increases: Pcreep in the anterior and central cortex by 61% (P=0.006) and 66% (P=0.017) respectively. Elastic strains were reduced by less than half this amount. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of vertebroplasty on the vertebral body continue long after the post-operative radiographs. Injected cement not only helps to restore vertebral shape and elastic properties, but also reduces subsequent creep deformation of the damaged vertebra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymptotic Expansions - Methods and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, R.

    1999-01-01

    Different viewpoints on the asymptotic expansion of Feynman diagrams are reviewed. The relations between the field theoretic and diagrammatic approaches are sketched. The focus is on problems with large masses or large external momenta. Several recent applications also for other limiting cases are touched upon. Finally, the pros and cons of the different approaches are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Prevalence of extraforaminal nerve root compression below lumbosacral transitional vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Neil A; Lalam, Radhesh K; Tins, Bernhard J; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; Singh, Jaspreet; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N

    2014-01-01

    Although pathology at the first mobile segment above a lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) is a known source of spinal symptoms, nerve root compression below an LSTV, has only sporadically been reported. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of nerve root entrapment below an LSTV, review the causes of entrapment, and correlate with presenting symptoms. A retrospective review of MR and CT examinations of the lumbar spine was performed over a 5.5-year period in which the words "transitional vertebra" were mentioned in the report. Nerve root compression below an LSTV was assessed as well as the subtype of transitional vertebra. Correlation with clinical symptoms at referral was made. MR and CT examinations were also reviewed to exclude any other cause of symptoms above the LSTV. One hundred seventy-four patients were included in the study. Neural compression by new bone formation below an LSTV was demonstrated in 23 patients (13%). In all of these patients, there was a pseudarthrosis present on the side of compression due to partial sacralization with incomplete fusion. In three of these patients (13%), there was symptomatic correlation with no other cause of radiculopathy demonstrated. A further 13 patients (57%) had correlating symptoms that may in part be attributable to compression below an LSTV. Nerve root compression below an LSTV occurs with a prevalence of 13% and can be symptomatic in up to 70% of these patients. This region should therefore be carefully assessed in all symptomatic patients with an LSTV.

  20. Statistical methods and computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, PN

    2009-01-01

    Some of the exclusive features of the book are: Every concept has been explained with the help of solved examples. Working rules showing the various steps for the applications of formulae have also been given. The diagrams and graphs have been neatly and correctly drawn in such a way that the students have the complete understanding of the problem by simply looking at them. Efforts have been made to make the subject throughly exhaustive and nothing important has been omitted. Answer to all the problems have been throughly checked. It is a user-friendly book containing many, solved problems and

  1. Data mining methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Kenneth D; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2007-01-01

    With today's information explosion, many organizations are now able to access a wealth of valuable data. Unfortunately, most of these organizations find they are ill-equipped to organize this information, let alone put it to work for them. Gain a Competitive Advantage Employ data mining in research and forecasting Build models with data management tools and methodology optimization Gain sophisticated breakdowns and complex analysis through multivariate, evolutionary, and neural net methodsLearn how to classify data and maintain qualityTransform Data into Business Acumen Data Mining Methods and

  2. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2017-05-01

    Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. N/A.

  3. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Carinhena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. METHODS: The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS, 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance.

  4. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinhena, Glauber; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. Methods The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS), 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. Results and Conclusions Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance. PMID:25279522

  5. Electrodeposition: Principles, Applications and Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Ying, K.K.; Khuan, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique has been around for a very long time. It is a process of coating a thin layer of one metal on top of a different metal to modify its surface properties, by donating electrons to the ions in a solution. This bottom-up fabrication technique is versatile and can be applied to a wide range of potential applications. Electrodeposition is gaining popularity in recent years due to its capability in fabricating one-dimensional nano structures such as nano rods, nao wires and nano tubes. In this paper, we present an overview on the fabrication and characterization of high aspect ratio nano structures prepared using the nano electrochemical deposition system set up in our laboratory. (author)

  6. Radiological anatomy of the C7 vertebra: Clinical implications in spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Fatih; Erdi, Fatih; Nayman, Alaaddin; Babaoglu, Ozan; Erdal, Kalkan; Ozer, Ali Fahir

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study was designed to understand and define the special radio-anatomic morphometry of C7 vertebra by using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Aims: The major aim of the study was to detect the gender- and side-related morphometric differences of C7 vertebra among subjects. Setting and design: Our radiology unit database scanned for MDCT sections of the C7 vertebra. Materials and Methods: A total of 214 patients (134 men, 80 women) were selected. A detailed morphometric evaluation of C7 was done. Statistical analysis used: T test, ANOVA. Lamina length (P < 0.001), pedicle length (P < 0.001), outer cortical (P = 0.01) and inner cancellous pedicle (P < 0.001) width, pedicle angle to sagittal plane (P < 0.001) values were statistically significantly different on the right versus left side. When the results were stratified by gender, lamina length, inner cancellous lamina height, pedicle length, inner cancellous pedicle height, outer cortical pedicle width, lateral mass anteroposterior length, anteroposterior length of C7 corpus, height of C7 corpus (P < 0.001), C6-7 (P = 0.013) and C7-T1disc height (P = 0.04), transverse foramina perpendicular width at C7 (P = 0.046) values were found to be statistically significantly different. Vertebral artery most commonly enters into the transverse foramina at C6 level. Conclusions: Gender and side differences are important factors for preoperative planning and showed significant differences among subjects. MDCT is a practical option for investigating the exact anatomical features of osseous structures. PMID:25788818

  7. Radiological anatomy of the C7 vertebra: Clinical implications in spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study was designed to understand and define the special radio-anatomic morphometry of C7 vertebra by using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. Aims: The major aim of the study was to detect the gender- and side-related morphometric differences of C7 vertebra among subjects. Setting and design: Our radiology unit database scanned for MDCT sections of the C7 vertebra. Materials and Methods: A total of 214 patients (134 men, 80 women were selected. A detailed morphometric evaluation of C7 was done. Statistical analysis used: T test, ANOVA. Lamina length (P < 0.001, pedicle length (P < 0.001, outer cortical (P = 0.01 and inner cancellous pedicle (P < 0.001 width, pedicle angle to sagittal plane (P < 0.001 values were statistically significantly different on the right versus left side. When the results were stratified by gender, lamina length, inner cancellous lamina height, pedicle length, inner cancellous pedicle height, outer cortical pedicle width, lateral mass anteroposterior length, anteroposterior length of C7 corpus, height of C7 corpus (P < 0.001, C6-7 (P = 0.013 and C7-T1disc height (P = 0.04, transverse foramina perpendicular width at C7 (P = 0.046 values were found to be statistically significantly different. Vertebral artery most commonly enters into the transverse foramina at C6 level. Conclusions: Gender and side differences are important factors for preoperative planning and showed significant differences among subjects. MDCT is a practical option for investigating the exact anatomical features of osseous structures.

  8. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das

  9. Applications of the reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, W.

    1987-01-01

    A renoramalizable model of quantum field theory involving several independent coupling parameters, λ 0 , ..., λ n and a normalization mass K is considered. If the model involves massive particles a formulation of the renormalization group should be used in which the β-functions are independent of the masses. The aim of the reduction method is to reduce the model to a description in terms of a single coupling parameter. Although the reduction method does not work for the gauge couplings it leads to reasonable mass constraints if applied to the Yukawa and the Higgs couplings. The underlying idea is that - whatever the fundamental interaction if going to be - eventually there is only one coupling which determines all parameters of the standard model. However, one should be skeptical about numerical results in the standard model. For the standard model is only an effective theory, its β-functions are only approximate and change on their lowest order coefficients may have large effects on the reduction solutions

  10. Differential equations methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a variety of techniques for solving ordinary differential equations analytically and features a wealth of examples. Focusing on the modeling of real-world phenomena, it begins with a basic introduction to differential equations, followed by linear and nonlinear first order equations and a detailed treatment of the second order linear equations. After presenting solution methods for the Laplace transform and power series, it lastly presents systems of equations and offers an introduction to the stability theory. To help readers practice the theory covered, two types of exercises are provided: those that illustrate the general theory, and others designed to expand on the text material. Detailed solutions to all the exercises are included. The book is excellently suited for use as a textbook for an undergraduate class (of all disciplines) in ordinary differential equations. .

  11. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  12. The SIESTA method; developments and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artacho, Emilio; Anglada, E; Dieguez, O; Gale, J D; Garcia, A; Junquera, J; Martin, R M; Ordejon, P; Pruneda, J M; Sanchez-Portal, D; Soler, J M

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in and around the SIESTA method of first-principles simulation of condensed matter are described and reviewed, with emphasis on (i) the applicability of the method for large and varied systems (ii) efficient basis sets for the standards of accuracy of density-functional methods (iii) new implementations, and (iv) extensions beyond ground-state calculations

  13. Finite element method - theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baset, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the mathematical basis of the finite element method. Attention is drawn to the natural development of the method from an engineering analysis tool into a general numerical analysis tool. A particular application to the stress analysis of rubber materials is presented. Special advantages and issues associated with the method are mentioned. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  15. Advanced computational electromagnetic methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenxing; Elsherbeni, Atef; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This new resource covers the latest developments in computational electromagnetic methods, with emphasis on cutting-edge applications. This book is designed to extend existing literature to the latest development in computational electromagnetic methods, which are of interest to readers in both academic and industrial areas. The topics include advanced techniques in MoM, FEM and FDTD, spectral domain method, GPU and Phi hardware acceleration, metamaterials, frequency and time domain integral equations, and statistics methods in bio-electromagnetics.

  16. Prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fialová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral transitional vertebra is a common congenital anomaly of the spine in dogs. It is a predisposing factor for degeneration of the lumbosacral spine and development of cauda equina syndrome or hip dysplasia in affected dogs. The aim of the study was to determine breed predisposition, types, and prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in the canine population in the Czech Republic. The value of laterolateral radiographs of the lumbosacral junction in the diagnosis of LTV was also evaluated. Prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae was determined by reviewing ventrodorsal radiographs of pelvis with an extended hip of 1,878 dogs. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae were detected in 188 dogs (10%. German Shepherd, Alaskan Malamute and Bohemian Shepherd were found to be highly predisposed breeds. The most common type of lumbosacral transitional vertebra was type II with separation of the first sacral vertebra from sacrum and presence of rudimentary intervertebral space between S1 and the sacral median crest (37.8% of the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. Type I was detected in 29.2% and the asymmetric type of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (type III in 33%. Laterolateral radiograph of the lumbosacral spine was evaluated in 126 dogs from 188 with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. Rudimentary intervertebral disc space between S1 and S2 in laterolateral radiographs was detected in 100% of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae with type II and III, and was not detected in type I. The findings on lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in the Czech Republic will extend knowledge about the disease. Both ventrodorsal hip-extended and laterolateral radiographs should be recommended for routine screening and reliable differentiation among the three different types of lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

  17. Butterfly vertebra. A case report and a short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, S; Giovannopoulou, E; Nastoulis, E; Demetriou, T

    2016-01-01

    A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly, encountered as isolated finding or as part of syndromic diseases. We report a case of a 40-year- old female presenting with low back pain and sciatica due to 'butterfly' dysplasia of the first sacral vertebra. This novel case includes posterolateral displacement of the completely separated hemivertebrae, causing left lateral recess stenosis and compression of S1 nerve root. Additionally, we conducted a short review of the literature. Few cases are reported in literature. Only one refers to a sacral vertebra. There is no previous case of a butterfly vertebra that accounts for narrowing of the lateral recess and associated radiculopathy.

  18. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  19. Application of nuclear gamma methods in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Bosak, J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of basic physical characteristics of laboratory, field and operating gamma methods, of their classifications and principles. The measuring instrumentation used and the current state of applications of nuclear gamma methods in coal and ore mining and related branches are described in detail. Principles and practical recommendations are given for safety at work when handling gamma sources. (B.S.)

  20. Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

  1. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  2. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade do método de determinação da maturação esquelética por meio das vértebras cervicais Evaluation of the reproducibility of the method of determination of the skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Almada Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os diversos meios de se determinar o grau de maturação esquelética do paciente destaca-se o Método de Lamparski modificado por Hassel e Farman, em 1995, que propuseram a identificação do estágio da maturação por meio das modificações anatômicas das 2ª, 3ª e 4ª vértebras cervicais. Cientes das qualidades advogadas ao método citado surgiu o interesse em avaliar sua reprodutibilidade com o intuito de divulgá-lo e incorporá-lo como um elemento no diagnóstico e auxiliar no prognóstico dos tratamentos das más oclusões. A amostra constou de 100 telerradiografias em norma lateral de pacientes triados para tratamento ortodôntico na Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba - UNESP nos períodos de 2000 e 2001. Foram incluídos pacientes de ambos os gêneros na faixa etária de 6 a 16 anos e a média de 9 anos e 7 meses. Três examinadores devidamente calibrados realizaram a avaliação das radiografias classificando-as em escores de 1 a 6. Após a análise dos resultados, os mesmos foram tabulados e submetidos ao coeficiente Kappa de concordância para avaliação inter e intra-examinador concluindo, dessa forma, a reprodutibilidade do referido método. O método de determinação da maturação esquelética por meio das vértebras cervicais mostrou-se reproduzível na avaliação do estágio em que o indivíduo se encontra na curva de crescimento.Among the different ways to determine the degree of the skeletal maturation of the patient, the Lamparski method stands out modified by Hassel e Farman that proposed the identification of the maturation stage throught anatomic changes of the 2nd, 3rd and 4rth cervical vertebrae. Awere of the qualities conferred to the quoted method emerged the interest about evaluating its reprodutictibility with the aim of divulge and incorporate it as an element in diagnoses and as an auxiliary in the prognoses of the malocclusion treatment. The sample presented 100 teleradiographs in lateral norm

  3. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  4. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  5. MRI in patients with tuberculous spondylitis presenting as vertebra plana: A retrospective analysis and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sureka, J.; Samuel, S.; Keshava, S.N.; Venkatesh, K.; Sundararaj, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 10 patients with histopathologically proven tuberculous spondylitis (TS) presenting as vertebra plana (VP) on radiographs. Material and methods: Radiographs of 451 adult TS patients were reviewed. In this consecutive series, there were 11 patients who presented as VP. MRI of 10 of these patients was available for review. Results: VP-like collapse of a single vertebral body of the dorsal spine with preserved endplates and disc was seen in all cases. Epidural, pre- and para-vertebral soft tissue was found in all patients. Epidural soft tissue presenting on sagittal images as a convexity of the posterior longitudinal ligament was also found in all the signal of which was different from the involved vertebra on axial images. All patients showed posterior element involvement, which was characterized by preserved cortical outline without expansion. Conclusion: TS presenting with VP-like collapse of the bone is rare, accounting for 2.4% of the cases in the present series. MRI may show a collapsed vertebra with preserved endplates and disc. MRI findings that are suggestive of TS include: (1) signal intensity of the epidural soft-tissue mass on axial images, which is different from the vertebral body; (2) presence of a thin, T2-weighted hypointense capsule of the para-vertebral soft tissue; (3) posterior element involvement characterized by intact hypointense cortical outline without expansion; and (4) involvement of the costovertebral joint.

  6. Solitary myofibroma of the lumbar vertebra: adult case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, E.; Yanagisawa, A.; Mazaki, T.; Urata, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Kanoe, H.; Ikenaga, M.; Hayakawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first known adult case of solitary myofibroma of bone, which affected a lumbar vertebra in a 33-year-old male. Radiography identified a purely lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim in the right pedicle of L1. CT showed an expansile lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim. MRI of the lesion revealed an isointense signal on T1-weighted images, an inhomogeneously hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, and marked enhancement with gadolinium. Pathological study showed a mixed picture of nodular proliferation of spindle-shaped myoid cells and hemangiopericytomatous proliferation of short spindle/small round cells. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin and immunonegative for desmin. This case of solitary myofibroma of bone is exceptionally rare because of its occurrence in an adult older than 20 years of age and its location at an extra-craniofacial site. (orig.)

  7. Solitary myofibroma of the lumbar vertebra: adult case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, E.; Yanagisawa, A. [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicne, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Mazaki, T.; Urata, Y. [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Kanoe, H.; Ikenaga, M. [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kyoto (Japan); Hayakawa, K. [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We present the first known adult case of solitary myofibroma of bone, which affected a lumbar vertebra in a 33-year-old male. Radiography identified a purely lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim in the right pedicle of L1. CT showed an expansile lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim. MRI of the lesion revealed an isointense signal on T1-weighted images, an inhomogeneously hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, and marked enhancement with gadolinium. Pathological study showed a mixed picture of nodular proliferation of spindle-shaped myoid cells and hemangiopericytomatous proliferation of short spindle/small round cells. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin and immunonegative for desmin. This case of solitary myofibroma of bone is exceptionally rare because of its occurrence in an adult older than 20 years of age and its location at an extra-craniofacial site. (orig.)

  8. Case report 351: Aggressive osteoblastoma of the third lumbar vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Frankel, V.H.; Klein, M.J.

    1986-02-01

    In summary, a case is presented of an aggressive osteoblastoma affecting the third lumbar vertebra in a 65-year-old man. Because of the age of the patient, the aggressive, destructive nature of the tumor and the extensive involvement of the vertebral body, metastatic carcinoma as well as several primary malignancies were entertained in the differential diagnosis (e.g. plasmacytoma, chordoma, primary lymphoma of bone). However, the destructive, expanding nature of the lesion, the focal calcification within the area of destroyed bone, the production of new bone with dense sclerosis, raised the possibility of an osteoblastoma, despite the advanced age of the patient. Without the histological material, the type of osteoblastoma (aggressive) could not be diagnosed. (orig./SHA).

  9. Case report 351: Aggressive osteoblastoma of the third lumbar vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Frankel, V.H.; Klein, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, a case is presented of an aggressive osteoblastoma affecting the third lumbar vertebra in a 65-year-old man. Because of the age of the patient, the aggressive, destructive nature of the tumor and the extensive involvement of the vertebral body, metastatic carcinoma as well as several primary malignancies were entertained in the differential diagnosis (e.g. plasmacytoma, chordoma, primary lymphoma of bone). However, the destructive, expanding nature of the lesion, the focal calcification within the area of destroyed bone, the production of new bone with dense sclerosis, raised the possibility of an osteoblastoma, despite the advanced age of the patient. Without the histological material, the type of osteoblastoma (aggressive) could not be diagnosed. (orig./SHA)

  10. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-01-01

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics

  11. Particle methods: An introduction with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral Piere Del

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interacting particle methods are increasingly used to sample from complex high-dimensional distributions. They have found a wide range of applications in applied probability, Bayesian statistics and information engineering. Understanding rigorously these new Monte Carlo simulation tools leads to fascinating mathematics related to Feynman-Kac path integral theory and their interacting particle interpretations. In these lecture notes, we provide a pedagogical introduction to the stochastic modeling and the theoretical analysis of these particle algorithms. We also illustrate these methods through several applications including random walk confinements, particle absorption models, nonlinear filtering, stochastic optimization, combinatorial counting and directed polymer models.

  12. Geometrical properties of the human child cervical spine with a focus on the C1 vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Lew, Sean M; Rao, Raj D

    2014-01-01

    Child dummies and injury criteria used in automotive crashworthiness environments are based on scaling from the adult and/or between children of different ages. Cartilage-to-bone ossification, spinal canal and joint developments of the spine, and strength attainments do not grow linearly from birth to maturity. Though this is known to medical professionals, age-based quantitative analyses are needed to accurately model the pediatric spine. The objective of this study was to quantify longitudinal growths of various regions of the first cervical vertebrae, responsible for transmitting the axial load from the base of the skull through the condyles to the neck/torso. Computed tomography (CT) images of 54 children from one day to 18 years of age were retrospectively used to determine the following geometrical properties: bilateral neurocentral synchondroses widths, the width of posterior synchondrosis, outer and inner anteroposterior and transverse diameters, spinal canal area, and depths of the anterior and posterior arches of the C1 vertebra. Both axial and sagittal CT images were used in the analysis. Sagittal images were used to quantify data for the anterior and posterior arches and axial images were used for all described cross-sectional parameters. Geometrical properties were extracted and reported for the various parameters at 6 months; one year; 18 months; and 3, 6, and 10 years of age corresponding to the dummy family ages routinely used in motor vehicle crashworthiness research and other applications. The outer transverse diameter ranged from 4.97 to 7.08 cm; outer and inner antero-posterior diameters ranged from 2.99 to 4.18 and 2.19 to 3.03 mm; and spinal canal area ranged from 4.34 to 6.68 mm(2). Other data are given in the body of the article. The growths of the first cervical vertebra quantified in terms of the above variables occurred nonlinearly with age and the degree of nonlinearity depended on the type of the geometrical parameter. Growths did not

  13. The effect of saline coolant on temperature levels during decortication with a Midas Rex: An in vitro model using sheep cervical vertebrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher eLivingston

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Decortication of bone with a high speed burr in the absence of coolant may lead to local thermal necrosis and decreased healing ability which may negatively impact clinical outcome. Little data is available on the impact of applying a coolant during the burring process. This study aims to establish an in vitro model to quantitatively assess peak temperatures during endplate preparation with a high speed burr.Six sheep cervical vertebrae were dissected and mounted. Both end plates were used to give a total of 12 sites. Two thermocouples were inserted into each vertebra, 2mm below the end plate surface and a thermal-camera set up to measure surface temperature. A high speed burr (Midas Rex, Medtronic, Fort Worth, TX was used to decorticate the bone in a side to side sweeping pattern, using a matchstick burr (M-8/9MH30 with light pressure. This procedure was repeated while dripping saline onto the burr and bone. Data was compared between groups using a student t-test.Application of coolant at the bone-burr interface during decortication resulted in a significant decrease in final temperature. Without coolant, maximum temperatures 2mm from the surface were not sufficient to cause thermal osteonecrosis, although peak surface temperatures would cause local damage. The use of a high speed burr provides a quick and effective method of vertebral end plate preparation. Thermal damage to the bone can be minimised through the use of light pressure and saline coolant. This has implications for any bone preparation performed with a high speed burr.

  14. The Effect of Saline Coolant on Temperature Levels during Decortication with a Midas Rex: An in Vitro Model Using Sheep Cervical Vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Asher; Wang, Tian; Christou, Chris; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2015-01-01

    Decortication of bone with a high-speed burr in the absence of coolant may lead to local thermal necrosis and decreased healing ability, which may negatively impact clinical outcome. Little data are available on the impact of applying a coolant during the burring process. This study aims to establish an in vitro model to quantitatively assess peak temperatures during endplate preparation with a high-speed burr. Six sheep cervical vertebrae were dissected and mounted. Both end plates were used to give a total of 12 sites. Two thermocouples were inserted into each vertebra, 2 mm below the end plate surface and a thermal camera set up to measure surface temperature. A 3 mm high-pneumatic speed burr (Midas Rex, Medtronic, Fort Worth, TX, USA) was used to decorticate the bone in a side to side sweeping pattern, using a matchstick burr (M-8/9MH30) with light pressure. This procedure was repeated while dripping saline onto the burr and bone. Data were compared between groups using a Student's t-test. Application of coolant at the bone-burr interface during decortication resulted in a significant decrease in final temperature. Without coolant, maximum temperatures 2 mm from the surface were not sufficient to cause thermal osteonecrosis, although peak surface temperatures would cause local damage. The use of a high-speed burr provides a quick and an effective method of vertebral end plate preparation. Thermal damage to the bone can be minimized through the use of light pressure and saline coolant. This has implications for any bone preparation performed with a high-speed burr.

  15. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  16. Preconditioning of iterative methods - theory and applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Neytcheva, M.; Pultarová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 901-902 ISSN 1070-5325 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : preconditioning * iterative methods * applications Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nla.2016/epdf

  17. Fat-containing lesions in vertebrae and spinal canal: a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong A; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Ja; Sung, Mi Sook; Chung, Myung Hee; Lee, Hae Giu

    2007-01-01

    The recent development of image techniques, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of spinal disease. A variety of lesions in the spine may contain fat tissue, and these lesions have the possibility of being benign or malignancy. The principle of treatment varies depending on the characteristics of the lesions. The purpose of this pictorial assay is to document the radiologic findings to help physicians make the correct diagnosis, to confirm the characteristics and the extent of the lesion, to anticipate the prognosis and to select and decide upon the therapeutic method when a fat-containing lesion is located in the spinal vertebrae and/or spinal canal

  18. Clinical validation of coronal and sagittal spinal curve measurements based on three-dimensional vertebra vector parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoskeöy, Szabolcs; Tunyogi-Csapó, Miklós; Bogyó, Csaba; Illés, Tamás

    2012-10-01

    For many decades, visualization and evaluation of three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformities have only been possible by two-dimensional (2D) radiodiagnostic methods, and as a result, characterization and classification were based on 2D terminologies. Recent developments in medical digital imaging and 3D visualization techniques including surface 3D reconstructions opened a chance for a long-sought change in this field. Supported by a 3D Terminology on Spinal Deformities of the Scoliosis Research Society, an approach for 3D measurements and a new 3D classification of scoliosis yielded several compelling concepts on 3D visualization and new proposals for 3D classification in recent years. More recently, a new proposal for visualization and complete 3D evaluation of the spine by 3D vertebra vectors has been introduced by our workgroup, a concept, based on EOS 2D/3D, a groundbreaking new ultralow radiation dose integrated orthopedic imaging device with sterEOS 3D spine reconstruction software. Comparison of accuracy, correlation of measurement values, intraobserver and interrater reliability of methods by conventional manual 2D and vertebra vector-based 3D measurements in a routine clinical setting. Retrospective, nonrandomized study of diagnostic X-ray images created as part of a routine clinical protocol of eligible patients examined at our clinic during a 30-month period between July 2007 and December 2009. In total, 201 individuals (170 females, 31 males; mean age, 19.88 years) including 10 healthy athletes with normal spine and patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (175 cases), adult degenerative scoliosis (11 cases), and Scheuermann hyperkyphosis (5 cases). Overall range of coronal curves was between 2.4 and 117.5°. Analysis of accuracy and reliability of measurements was carried out on a group of all patients and in subgroups based on coronal plane deviation: 0 to 10° (Group 1; n=36), 10 to 25° (Group 2; n=25), 25 to 50° (Group 3; n=69), 50 to 75

  19. Photogrammetric methods of measurement in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godding, R.; Groene, A.; Heinrich, G.; Schneider, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for 3D measurement are required for very varied applications in the industrial field. This includes tasks of quality assurance and plant monitoring, among others. It should be possible to apply the process flexibly it should require as short interruptions of production as possible and should meet the required accuracies. These requirements can be met by photogrammetric methods of measurement. The article introduces these methods and shows their capabilities from various selected examples (eg: the replacement of large components in a pressurized water reactor, and aircraft measurements (orig./DG) [de

  20. Application of reliability methods in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, R.; Ravishankar, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ontario Hydro have established a reliability program in support of its substantial nuclear program. Application of the reliability program to achieve both production and safety goals is described. The value of such a reliability program is evident in the record of Ontario Hydro's operating nuclear stations. The factors which have contributed to the success of the reliability program are identified as line management's commitment to reliability; selective and judicious application of reliability methods; establishing performance goals and monitoring the in-service performance; and collection, distribution, review and utilization of performance information to facilitate cost-effective achievement of goals and improvements. (orig.)

  1. Structural equation modeling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan

    2012-01-01

    A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a

  2. Application of cybernetic methods in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkov, Aleksandr L [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-28

    Basic aspects of the subject and methodology for a new and rapidly developing area of research that has emerged at the intersection of physics and control theory (cybernetics) and emphasizes the application of cybernetic methods to the study of physical systems are reviewed. Speed-gradient and Hamiltonian solutions for energy control problems in conservative and dissipative systems are presented. Application examples such as the Kapitza pendulum, controlled overcoming of a potential barrier, and controlling coupled oscillators and molecular systems are presented. A speed-gradient approach to modeling the dynamics of physical systems is discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Application of cybernetic methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkov, Aleksandr L

    2005-01-01

    Basic aspects of the subject and methodology for a new and rapidly developing area of research that has emerged at the intersection of physics and control theory (cybernetics) and emphasizes the application of cybernetic methods to the study of physical systems are reviewed. Speed-gradient and Hamiltonian solutions for energy control problems in conservative and dissipative systems are presented. Application examples such as the Kapitza pendulum, controlled overcoming of a potential barrier, and controlling coupled oscillators and molecular systems are presented. A speed-gradient approach to modeling the dynamics of physical systems is discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Finite Element Methods and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhangxin

    2005-01-01

    This book serves as a text for one- or two-semester courses for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students and as a professional reference for people who want to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) using finite element methods. The author has attempted to introduce every concept in the simplest possible setting and maintain a level of treatment that is as rigorous as possible without being unnecessarily abstract. Quite a lot of attention is given to discontinuous finite elements, characteristic finite elements, and to the applications in fluid and solid mechanics including applications to porous media flow, and applications to semiconductor modeling. An extensive set of exercises and references in each chapter are provided.

  5. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C.; Thomsen, Felix; Campbell, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm 3 corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  6. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C., E-mail: glueer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118 (Germany); Thomsen, Felix [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000 (Argentina); Campbell, Graeme M. [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118, Germany and Institut für Biomechanik, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), Hamburg 21073 (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm{sup 3} corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  7. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  8. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  9. Microautoradiographic methods and their applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, L.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of microautoradiographic methods and of their application in biology is given. The current state of biological microautoradiography is shown, focusing on the efficiency of techniques and on special problems proceeding in autoradiographic investigations in biology. Four more or less independent fields of autoradiography are considered. In describing autoradiographic techniques two methodological tasks are emphasized: The further development of the labelling technique in all metabolic studies and of instrumentation and automation of autoradiograph evaluation. (author)

  10. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  11. Harmony Search Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Harmony Search (HS method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem.

  12. Partial lumbosacral transitional vertebra resection for contralateral facetogenic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, J S; Smith, J; Currier, B L

    2001-01-15

    Case report of surgically treated mechanical low back pain from the facet joint contralateral to a unilateral anomalous lumbosacral articulation (Bertolotti's syndrome). To describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of facet-related low back pain in a 17-year-old cheerleader and its successful surgical treatment with resection of a contralateral anomalous articulation. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae are common in the general population. Bertolotti's syndrome is mechanical low back pain associated with these transitional segments. Little is known about the pathophysiology and mechanics of these vertebral segments and their propensity to be pain generators. Treatment of this syndrome is controversial, and surgical intervention has been infrequently reported. A retrospective chart analysis and radiographic review were performed. Repeated fluoroscopically guided injections implicated a symptomatic L6-S1 facet joint contralateral to an anomalous lumbosacral articulation. Eventually, a successful surgical outcome was achieved with resection of the anomalous articulation. Clinicians should consider the possibility that mechanical low back pain may occur from a facet contralateral to a unilateral anomalous lumbosacral articulation, even in a young patient. Although reports of surgical treatment of Bertolotti's syndrome are infrequent, resection of the anomalous articulation provided excellent results in this patient, presumably because of reduced stresses on the symptomatic facet.

  13. Effects of C5/C6 Intervertebral Space Distraction Height on Pressure on the Adjacent Intervertebral Disks and Articular Processes and Cervical Vertebrae Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingsheng; Luo, Chunshan; Ouyang, Beiping; Chen, Qiling; Deng, Zhongliang

    2018-04-25

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the association between range of motion of the cervical vertebrae and various C5/C6 intervertebral space distraction heights. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cervical vertebrae from 6 fresh adult human cadavers were used to prepare the models. Changes in C4/C5 and C6/C7 intervertebral disk pressures, articular process pressure, and range of motion of the cervical vertebrae before and after the distraction of the C5/C6 intervertebral space at benchmark heights of 100%, 120%, 140%, and 160% were tested under different exercise loads. RESULTS The pressure on the adjacent intervertebral disks was highest with the standing upright position before distraction, varied with different positions of the specimens and distraction heights after distraction, and was closest to that before distraction at a distraction height of 120% (Particular processes was highest with left and right rotations before distraction, varied with different positions of the specimens and distraction heights after distraction, and was lowest under the same exercise load with different positions at a distraction height of 120% (Pdistraction and at a distraction height of 120% after distraction, respectively (Particular processes and range of motion of the cervical vertebrae and is therefore an appropriate intervertebral space distraction height.

  14. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  15. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  16. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  17. Restricted Kalman Filtering Theory, Methods, and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzinga, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In statistics, the Kalman filter is a mathematical method whose purpose is to use a series of measurements observed over time, containing random variations and other inaccuracies, and produce estimates that tend to be closer to the true unknown values than those that would be based on a single measurement alone. This Brief offers developments on Kalman filtering subject to general linear constraints. There are essentially three types of contributions: new proofs for results already established; new results within the subject; and applications in investment analysis and macroeconomics, where th

  18. Exergy method technical and ecological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Szargut, J

    2005-01-01

    The exergy method makes it possible to detect and quantify the possibilities of improving thermal and chemical processes and systems. The introduction of the concept ""thermo-ecological cost"" (cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural exergy resources) generated large application possibilities of exergy in ecology. This book contains a short presentation on the basic principles of exergy analysis and discusses new achievements in the field over the last 15 years. One of the most important issues considered by the distinguished author is the economy of non-renewable natural exergy.

  19. Automatic segmentation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amruta; Raina, Akshita; Sharifi Sarabi, Mona; Ahn, Christine S.; Babayan, Diana; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Macyszyn, Luke; Raghavendra, Cauligi

    2017-03-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent disorders in the developed/developing world. However, its etiology is poorly understood and treatment is often determined subjectively. In order to quantitatively study the emergence and evolution of back pain, it is necessary to develop consistently measurable markers for pathology. Imaging based measures offer one solution to this problem. The development of imaging based on quantitative biomarkers for the lower back necessitates automated techniques to acquire this data. While the problem of segmenting lumbar vertebrae has been addressed repeatedly in literature, the associated problem of computing relevant biomarkers on the basis of the segmentation has not been addressed thoroughly. In this paper, we propose a Random-Forest based approach that learns to segment vertebral bodies in CT images followed by a biomarker evaluation framework that extracts vertebral heights and widths from the segmentations obtained. Our dataset consists of 15 CT sagittal scans obtained from General Electric Healthcare. Our main approach is divided into three parts: the first stage is image pre-processing which is used to correct for variations in illumination across all the images followed by preparing the foreground and background objects from images; the next stage is Machine Learning using Random-Forests, which distinguishes the interest-point vectors between foreground or background; and the last step is image post-processing, which is crucial to refine the results of classifier. The Dice coefficient was used as a statistical validation metric to evaluate the performance of our segmentations with an average value of 0.725 for our dataset.

  20. The relationship determination between menarche and the peak of skeletal maturation using hand wrist and cervical vertebrae index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mardiati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menarche and skeletal maturation indices are physiological maturation indicators that can be used to establish the maturation stage of individual patient in orthodontic treatment, especially in orthodontic growth modification and orthognatic surgery. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between menarche and the peak of skeletal maturation using hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae indexes. Methods: This was an observational diagnostic research with 220 female of Deutero-Malay Indonesian subjects aged 8-17 years from Dental Hospital Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, and some privates orthodontic practice in Bandung. All subjects had hand-wrist radiograph and lateral cephalogram. Menarche data were collected through interview with the subjects and their parents. There were 89 subjects who already had menarche but only 84 of them remembered the month and year of their menarche. The stage of hand-wrist skeletal maturation was analyzed using Fishman method and cervical vertebrae maturation was analyzed using Baccetty et.al., method. Results: The result indicates that the menarche age of Indonesian DeuteroMalay subject were 12.47 ± 0.73 year. The youngest age of were 10.92 ± 0.0 year and the oldest were 13.83 ± 0.23 year. Conclusion: Menarche could be used as an indicator that the pubertal growth peak has been exceeded and to predict the end of the pubertal growth. This study showed that 0.49 years after MP3cap stage of hand-wrist skeletal maturation index and 0.69 years after CVMS2 stage of cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation index, the subject of Indonesian Deutero-Malay will have their menarche. Latar belakang: Menarke dan indeks maturasi skeletal merupakan indikator maturasi fisologis yang dapat digunakan untuk menentukan tahap maturasi pasien pada perawatan ortodonti modifikasi pertumbuhan dan bedah ortognati. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara menarke dengan

  1. Intelligent numerical methods applications to fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph the authors present Newton-type, Newton-like and other numerical methods, which involve fractional derivatives and fractional integral operators, for the first time studied in the literature. All for the purpose to solve numerically equations whose associated functions can be also non-differentiable in the ordinary sense. That is among others extending the classical Newton method theory which requires usual differentiability of function. Chapters are self-contained and can be read independently and several advanced courses can be taught out of this book. An extensive list of references is given per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, stochastics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.

  2. Sex determination based on a thoracic vertebra and ribs evaluation using clinical chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shun; Morishita, Junji; Usumoto, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Kyoko; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Kawazoe, Yusuke; Okumura, Miki; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether sex can be determined from a combination of geometric features obtained from the 10th thoracic vertebra, 6th rib, and 7th rib. Six hundred chest radiographs (300 males and 300 females) were randomly selected to include patients of six age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s). Each group included 100 images (50 males and 50 females). A total of 14 features, including 7 lengths, 5 indices for the vertebra, and 2 types of widths for ribs, were utilized and analyzed for sex determination. Dominant features contributing to sex determination were selected by stepwise discriminant analysis after checking the variance inflation factors for multicollinearity. The accuracy of sex determination using a combination of the vertebra and ribs was evaluated from the selected features by the stepwise discriminant analysis. The accuracies in each age group were also evaluated in this study. The accuracy of sex determination based on a combination of features of the vertebra and ribs was 88.8% (533/600). This performance was superior to that of the vertebra or ribs only. Moreover, sex determination of subjects in their 20s demonstrated the highest accuracy (96.0%, 96/100). The features selected in the stepwise discriminant analysis included some features in both the vertebra and ribs. These results indicate the usefulness of combined information obtained from the vertebra and ribs for sex determination. We conclude that a combination of geometric characteristics obtained from the vertebra and ribs could be useful for determining sex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE FRACTURES OF THE VERTEBRAE IN THE THORACIC SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vissarionov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented an example of a complex treatment of pediatric patient with multiple fractures of the vertebrae in the thoracic spine. The child was operated on the burst fracture of a Th5 vertebra. Due to the presence of vertebral compression fractures Th8 a course of conservative treatment by the orthosis in hyperextension brace. Follow-up was 15 months.

  4. Novel applications of fast neutron interrogation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1994-01-01

    The development of non-intrusive inspection methods for contraband consisting primarily of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen requires the use of fast neutrons. While most elements can be sufficiently well detected by the thermal neutron capture process, some important ones, e.g., carbon and in particular oxygen, cannot be detected by this process. Fortunately, fast neutrons, with energies above the threshold for inelastic scattering, stimulate relatively strong and specific gamma ray lines from these elements. The main lines are: 6.13 for O, 4.43 for C, and 5.11, 2.31 and 1.64 MeV for N. Accelerator-generated neutrons in the energy range of 7 to 15 MeV are being considered as interrogating radiations in a variety of non-intrusive inspection systems for contraband, from explosives to drugs and from coal to smuggled, dutiable goods. In some applications, mostly for inspection of small items such as luggage, the decision process involves a rudimentary imaging, akin to emission tomography, to obtain the localized concentration of various elements. This technique is called FNA - Fast Neutron Analysis. While this approach offers improvements over the TNA (Thermal Neutron Analysis), it is not applicable to large objects such as shipping containers and trucks. For these challenging applications, a collimated beam of neutrons is rastered along the height of the moving object. In addition, the neutrons are generated in very narrow nanosecond pulses. The point of their interaction inside the object is determined by the time of flight (TOF) method, that is measuring the time elapsed from the neutron generation to the time of detection of the stimulated gamma rays. This technique, called PFNA (Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis), thus directly provides the elemental, and by inference, the chemical composition of the material at every volume element (voxel) of the object. The various neutron-based techniques are briefly described below. ((orig.))

  5. Application of Cocktail method in vegetation classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to assess the application of Cocktail method in the classification of large vegetation databases. For this purpose, Buxus hyrcana dataset consisted of 442 relevés with 89 species were used and by the modified TWINSPAN. For running the Cocktail method, first primarily classification was done by modified TWINSPAN, and by performing phi analysis in the groups resulted five species were selected which had the highest fidelity value. Then sociological species groups were formed by examining co-occurrence of these 5 species with other species in the database. 21 plant communities belongs to 6 variant, 17 sub associations, 11 associations, 4 alliance, 1 order and 1 class were recognized by assigning 379 releves to the sociological species groups by using logical formulas. Also, 63 releves by the logical formula were not assigned to any sociological species groups, by FPFI index were assigned to the sociological species groups which had the most index value. According to 91% classification agreement with Brown-Blanquet classification and Cocktail classification, we suggest Cocktail method to vegetation scientists as an efficient alternative of Braun-Blanquet method to classify large vegetation databases.

  6. Partial differential equations methods, applications and theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This volume is an introductory level textbook for partial differential equations (PDE's) and suitable for a one-semester undergraduate level or two-semester graduate level course in PDE's or applied mathematics. Chapters One to Five are organized according to the equations and the basic PDE's are introduced in an easy to understand manner. They include the first-order equations and the three fundamental second-order equations, i.e. the heat, wave and Laplace equations. Through these equations we learn the types of problems, how we pose the problems, and the methods of solutions such as the separation of variables and the method of characteristics. The modeling aspects are explained as well. The methods introduced in earlier chapters are developed further in Chapters Six to Twelve. They include the Fourier series, the Fourier and the Laplace transforms, and the Green's functions. The equations in higher dimensions are also discussed in detail. This volume is application-oriented and rich in examples. Going thr...

  7. Application of radiotracer methods in streamflow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.

    1967-01-01

    An attempt is made to evaluate methods using radiotracers in streamflow measurements. The basic principles of the tracer method are explained and background information given. Radiotracers used in stream discharge measurements are discussed and measurements made by different research workers are described. Problems such as adsorption of the tracer and the mixing length are discussed and the potential use of the radioisotopes as tracer in the routine stream-gauging work is evaluated. It is concluded that, at the present stage of development, radiotracer methods do not seem to be ready for routine use in stream-gauging work, and can only be used in some special cases. For gamma-emitting radioisotopes there are problems related to safety, transport and injection which should be solved. Tritium, though a very attractive tracer in some respects, has the disadvantages of having a relatively long half-life and of disturbing the natural tritium levels in the region. Finally, an attempt is made to define the objectives of the research in the field of application of radioisotopes in hydrometry. (author)

  8. Complex networks principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Russo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Networks constitute the backbone of complex systems, from the human brain to computer communications, transport infrastructures to online social systems and metabolic reactions to financial markets. Characterising their structure improves our understanding of the physical, biological, economic and social phenomena that shape our world. Rigorous and thorough, this textbook presents a detailed overview of the new theory and methods of network science. Covering algorithms for graph exploration, node ranking and network generation, among the others, the book allows students to experiment with network models and real-world data sets, providing them with a deep understanding of the basics of network theory and its practical applications. Systems of growing complexity are examined in detail, challenging students to increase their level of skill. An engaging presentation of the important principles of network science makes this the perfect reference for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in physics, ...

  9. Innovative Methods and Applications in Mucoadhesion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Alan; Goycoolea, Francisco M.; Menchicchi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    The present review is aimed at elucidating relatively new aspects of mucoadhesion/mucus interaction and related phenomena that emerged from a Mucoadhesion workshop held in Munster on 2–3 September 2015 as a satellite event of the ICCC 13th—EUCHIS 12th. After a brief outline of the new issues......, the focus is on mucus description, purification, and mucus/mucin characterization, all steps that are pivotal to the understanding of mucus related phenomena and the choice of the correct mucosal model for in vitro and ex vivo experiments, alternative bio/mucomimetic materials are also presented....... Then a selection of preparative techniques and testing methods are described (at molecular as well as micro and macroscale) that may support the pharmaceutical development of mucus interactive systems and assist formulators in the scale-up and industrialization steps. Recent applications of mucoadhesive systems...

  10. Nuclear methods: applications to Earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of radioactivity phenomenon occurred almost 100 years ago, in 1896, and constituted the base for new perspectives in many disciplines, including the Earth sciences. The initial works in this field, during the first quarter of the Century, established that the series of radioactive decay of long lifetime Uranium 238, Uranium 235 and Thorium 232 present radioactive isotopes of several elements which are physically and chemically different. The chemical differentiation of the Earth during its evolution has concentrated in the crust the major part of the radioactive materials. The application of radioactive in balance which occur as a consequence of chemical and physical differences, has evolve quickly, and the utilization of natural radioactive isotopes can be detach in two major headings: geologic clocks and tracers. The applications cover a wide spectra of geological, oceanographical, volcanic, hydrological, paleoclimatic and archaeological problems. In this paper, a description of radioactive phenomenon is presented, as well as the chemical and physical properties of the natural radioactive elements, the measurement methods and, finally, some examples of the uses in chronology and as radioactive tracers will be presented, doing an emphasis of some results obtained in Mexico. (Author)

  11. Comparison of methods for intestinal histamine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, S; Søondergaard, I; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast ...... conclude that oral administration of enterosoluble capsules is an easy and appropriate method for intestinal histamine challenge. Fast and histamine-restrictive diets are not necessary, but subjects should record unexpected responses in a food and symptom diary.......The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast...... all other intervals did not differ significantly between the two challenge regimens. Fast (water only) and histamine-restrictive diet versus non-restrictive diet did not affect the urinary MIAA. MIAA was significantly higher overall during the first 24 h after challenge than in any other fraction. We...

  12. Environmental applications of manometric respirometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roppola, K.

    2009-07-01

    decomposition rates was studied in order to evaluate the applicable peat types that can be used in landfill structures. Only minor (BOD/ThOD < 0.4%) biodegradation was observed with compaction peat samples, and the stable state, in which biodegradation stopped, was achieved during a two month period. The manometric respirometric method was also applied for the biodegradation studies in which the effect of the modification of soil properties on biodegradation rates of bio-oils was tested. Modified properties were the nutrient content and the pH of the soil. Fertiliser addition and pH adjustment increased both the BOD/ThOD% values of the model substances and the precision of the measurement. The manometric respirometric method was proved to be an advanced method for simulating biodegradation processes in soil and water media. (orig.)

  13. Experimental study of pedicle screw stability on low BMD vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Yang Huilin; Tang Tiansi; Wu Yiwei; Wang Yijin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To conduct biomechanical study of different pedicle screws stability on spinal specimen, discuss the relationship between design parameter of screw, insertion torgue and BMD, establish the theoretical foundation for application of pedicle screw on osteoporotic patients. Methods: Six fixed lumbar cadavers were collected, the effects of design parameter, insertion torque and etc on fixation stability were determined under various BMD by using biomechanical ways. Results: According to in vitro study: (1) There was a significant difference among pullout strength of all screws (P 2 >U 1 >SF 1 >SF 2 >RF. Conclusions: There is a close correlated between type of screw, BMD and stability. The U-type screw displays the best fixation effect on specimen of low BMD. (authors)

  14. Comparison of middle phalanx of the middle finger and cervical vertebrae as skeletal maturity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavitra Tripura Javangula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the relationship between chronological age and the stages of maturation of cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI and the middle phalanx of the middle finger (MP3 and to determine the correlation between CVMI and MP3. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study included 100 children (boys - 50, girls - 50 aged 8–14 years based on nonprobability quota sampling. The study included digital radiographs of the MP3 of the right hand and conventional lateral cephalograms. Chronological age was assessed by the date of birth, MP3 maturation by Rajagopal and Kansal's criteria, and CVMI development by Hassel and Farman's method. Statistical Analysis: Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient was applied to measure the association between stages of MP3 and CVMI. Results: Progressive stages of MP3 and CVMI were seen as chronological age advanced. Girls showed an advanced trend than boys in both MP3 and CVMI stages. MP3 and CVMI stages showed a strong positive correlation (r + 0.836, P < 0.01. Conclusions: MP3 and CVMI both are equally good indicators of skeletal maturity. Assessment of skeletal maturity on lateral cephalogram (CVMI is advantageous as it avoids the need for an additional radiograph.

  15. The skeletal maturation status estimated by statistical shape analysis: axial images of Japanese cervical vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S M; Kim, Y-I; Choi, Y-S; Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Cho, B-H; Park, S-B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate axial cervical vertebral (ACV) shape quantitatively and to build a prediction model for skeletal maturation level using statistical shape analysis for Japanese individuals. The sample included 24 female and 19 male patients with hand-wrist radiographs and CBCT images. Through generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components (PCs) analysis, the meaningful PCs were extracted from each ACV shape and analysed for the estimation regression model. Each ACV shape had meaningful PCs, except for the second axial cervical vertebra. Based on these models, the smallest prediction intervals (PIs) were from the combination of the shape space PCs, age and gender. Overall, the PIs of the male group were smaller than those of the female group. There was no significant correlation between centroid size as a size factor and skeletal maturation level. Our findings suggest that the ACV maturation method, which was applied by statistical shape analysis, could confirm information about skeletal maturation in Japanese individuals as an available quantifier of skeletal maturation and could be as useful a quantitative method as the skeletal maturation index.

  16. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  17. Nanoscale thermal transport: Theoretical method and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Jia; Liu, Yue-Yang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2018-03-01

    With the size reduction of nanoscale electronic devices, the heat generated by the unit area in integrated circuits will be increasing exponentially, and consequently the thermal management in these devices is a very important issue. In addition, the heat generated by the electronic devices mostly diffuses to the air in the form of waste heat, which makes the thermoelectric energy conversion also an important issue for nowadays. In recent years, the thermal transport properties in nanoscale systems have attracted increasing attention in both experiments and theoretical calculations. In this review, we will discuss various theoretical simulation methods for investigating thermal transport properties and take a glance at several interesting thermal transport phenomena in nanoscale systems. Our emphasizes will lie on the advantage and limitation of calculational method, and the application of nanoscale thermal transport and thermoelectric property. Project supported by the Nation Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB0701602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11674092).

  18. Evaluation of bone mineral density measurement of lumbar vertebrae by volumetric quantitative CT in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuezeng; Wang Liying; Lan Jing; Li Jingxue; Wu Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the validity of volumetric QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and compare the difference in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Methods: One hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women [mean age (62.1±7.0) years] who received thoracolumbar radiographic examination were enrolled and divided into four groups (normal, osteopenia, osteoporotic and osteoporotic fractured group) also based on their BMD value of lumbar vertebra(AP-SPINE) measured by DXA: >(x-bar)-1s, (x-bar)-1s-(x-bar)-2s, 3 . Apparent bone volume to total volume ratio (App BV/TV% ) was calculated on the base of trabecular bone whose CT values were among 60 HU, 80 HU, 100 HU, 120- 400 HU, respectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and calculation of coefficient of determination (R 2 ) were performed for each parameter among the 4 groups. Results: The values of 2D-TRAB, 3D-INT, 3D-TRAB, App 60 BV/TV%, App 80 BV/TV%, App 100 BV/TV% and App 120 BV/TV% in osteoporotic fractured group [(48.8 ± 24.9) mg/cm 3 , (94.4 ± 20.2) mg/cm 3 , (59.3 ± 28.0) mg/cm 3 , (56.1 ± 22.8)%, (43.2 ± 22.2)%, (31.3 ± 19.4)%, (21.3 ± 15.6)%] were significantly lower than those in osteoporotic group [(74.9 ± 21.0) mg/cm 3 , (115.0 ± 14.3) mg/cm 3 , (82.0 ± 23.7) mg//cm 3 , (75.2 ± 16.8)%, (62.6 ± 20.5)%, (48.8 ± 21.7)%, (35.5 ± 20.1)%], osteopenia group [(89.2 ± 23.8) mg/cm 3 , (126.9 ± 12.9)mg/cm 3 , (97.8 ± 25.2) mg/cm 3 , (85.1 ± 13.7)%, (75.1 ± 17.9)%, (62.8 ± 20.9)%, (49.2 ± 21.9)%], and normal group [(120.6 ± 19.4) mg/cm 3 , (154.0 ± 16.3) mg/cm 3 , (131.1 ± 21.1)mg/cm 3 , (95.6 ± 5.3)%, (91.4 ± 8.7)%, (84.7 ± 12.4)% (75.2 ± 15.5)%], P 2 ] and osteoporotic groups [(0.85 ± 0.06) g//cm 2 , P>0.05]. In osteoporotic groups, AP-SPINE was not correlated significantly with other variables except 3D-CORT (R 2 =0.189, P 60,80,100,120 BV/TV% were correlated significantly with 3D

  19. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  20. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... methods. Key words: Waterborne varnishes, application methods, wood materials, color change. ... rate in open air conditions (Anderson et al., 1991). .... for topcoat application and they were held for drying for 3 weeks. Finally ...

  1. Adolescent Scoliosis 1A001: Radiographic Results of Selecting the Touched Vertebra as the Lowest Instrumented Vertebra in Lenke Type 1 (Main Thoracic) & Type 2 (Double Thoracic) Curves at a Minimum 5-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Lenke, Lawrence; Newton, Peter; Lehman, Ronald; Kelly, Michael; Clements, David; Errico, Thomas; Betz, Randall; Samdani, Amer; Blanke, Kathy; Oggiano, Leonardo; Sessa, Sergio; Rosa, Guido La; Guler, Umit Ozgur; Ozalay, Metin; Eyvazov, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A prior study showed the touched vertebra (TV), defined as the most cephalad thoracolumbar/lumbar vertebra “touched” by the center sacral vertical line (CSVL), as a potential landmark vertebra & recommended lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) as well. We evaluated a large cohort of Lenke type 1 & 2 cases to determine if selecting the TV as the LIV will produce optimal positioning at a min. 5 yrs postoperative. Our hypothesis was that it would and that fusing short of the TV would...

  2. Determination of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in kidney urinary bladder x-ray films in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid G. Khashoggi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigated the rate of occurrence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV, spinal variant, in kidney urinary bladder (KUB plain radiographs in a Saudi population. Methods: Between January 2012 to January 2015, KUB plain films obtained from patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed, and the presence or absence of LSTV was documented and classified as incomplete or complete. Patients who had evidence of spinal surgery that would obscure the view were excluded. Results: A total of 2078 patients underwent KUB examinations during the study period; LSTV anomalies were detected in 158 of these. Sacralization was present in 153 (96.8% of this cohort, while lumbarization was present in 5 (3.2%. A total of 136 (86.1% of the sacralized segments were of the incomplete type, whereas 17 (10.7% were complete. Of the lumbarized vertebrae, 3 (1.8% were incomplete, and 2 (1.2% were complete. The most frequent type in men was type Ib (28.5% for sacralized segments, and type IIb for lumbarized segments (0.6%. In women, type Ia was the most common form of sacralized segments (11.3% and type IIb was the most common form of lumbarized segments (2.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of LSTV in Saudi patients is 7.6%, with a higher incidence of sacralization than lumbarization. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up time are needed to demonstrate the clinical significance thereof.

  3. The role of fat in the prediction of bone strength of porcine lumbar vertebrae by quanititative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, G.L.; Tsai, K.H.; Yu, C.Y.; Lin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to prevent cancellous bone fractures, and understanding of the strength characteristics of cancellous bone must be achieved. Although there is a definite relationship between the strengt and relative ash content of the vertebrae, the well-known relationship is not practical in clinical use. As we know, QCT was regarded as an ideal method because it is a cross-sectional tecnique. However, no matter what kind of CT machine was used, the physiological factor must be influencing the accuracy in QCT measurement. Because a given region of the vertebrae contains bone mineral, bone matrix, fatty marrow and red marrow. In words, the role of fat content in bony strength and QCT measurement remained obscure. If QCT can reflect the bone strength to a reliable level and the influence of fat on QCT can be clarified, then QCT may become more useful. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among fat content, bone strength and QCT. Six freshly female porcine lumbar spinal semgemts were used in this study. Poster 182. (author)

  4. Retrospective Cohort Study of the Prevalence of Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebra in a Wide and Well-Represented Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Uçar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV in a well-represented general population. Methods. For a retrospective cohort study, abdominal radiographs of adult subjects were queried with clear visibility of the vertebral body articulation of the last rib, all lumbar transverse processes, and complete sacral wings. Exclusion criteria included any radiologic evidence of previous lumbosacral surgery that would block our view. A total of 6200 abdominal films were reviewed, and 3607 were identified as being suitable for the measurement of the desired parameters. Results. A total of 3607 subjects were identified as eligible for the study, and 683 (18.9% were classified as positive for a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. The prevalence of sacralization and lumbarization was found as 17.2% and 1.7%, respectively. The average age at the time of the study was 39.5±15.2 years (18–86 years. Conclusions. As a result of different opinions, LSTV retains its controversial status. Our prevalence study of the general population will provide assistance for resolution of the controversy. Prevalence studies of the general population with a wide participation will shed light on comparative studies.

  5. Axial compressive strength of human vertebrae trabecular bones classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic by quantitative ultrasonometry of calcaneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Biomechanical assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture contributes to the evaluation of fractures risk associated with osteoporosis and plays a crucial role in planning preventive strategies. One of the most widely clinical technics used for osteoporosis diagnosis by health professionals is bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. However, doubts about its accuracy motivate the introduction of congruent technical analysis such as calcaneal ultrasonometry (Quantitative Ultrasonometry - QUS. Methods Correlations between Bone Quality Index (BQI, determined by calcaneal ultrasonometry of thirty (30 individuals classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic, and elastic modulus (E and ultimate compressive strength (UCS from axial compression tests of ninety (90 proof bodies from human vertebrae trabecular bone, which were extracted from cadavers in the twelfth thoracic region (T12, first and fourth lumbar (L1 and L4. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant differences for E (p = 0.001, for UCS (p = 0.0001 and BQI. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rho between BQI and E (r = 0.499 and BQI and UCS (r = 0.508 were moderate. Discussion Calcaneal ultrasonometry technique allowed a moderate estimate of bone mechanical strength and fracture risk associated with osteoporosis in human vertebrae.

  6. Reassessment of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias age and growth using vertebrae and dorsal-fin spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubley, W J; Kneebone, J; Sulikowski, J A; Tsang, P C W

    2012-04-01

    Male and female spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias were collected in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the Gulf of Maine between July 2006 and June 2009. Squalus acanthias ranged from 25 to 102 cm stretch total length and were caught during all months of the year except January. Age estimates derived from banding patterns visible in both the vertebrae and second dorsal-fin spines were compared. Vertebral growth increments were visualized using a modified histological staining technique, which was verified as appropriate for obtaining age estimates. Marginal increment analysis of vertebrae verified the increment periodicity, suggesting annual band deposition. Based on increased precision and accuracy of age estimates, as well as more biologically realistic parameters generated in growth models, the current study found that vertebrae provided a more reliable and accurate means of estimating age in S. acanthias than the second dorsal-fin spine. Age estimates obtained from vertebrae ranged from acanthias. The two-parameter von Bertalanffy growth model fit to vertebrae-derived age estimates produced parameters of L∞ = 94·23 cm and k = 0·11 for males and L∞ = 100·76 cm and k = 0·12 for females. While these growth parameters differed from those previously reported for S. acanthias in the western North Atlantic Ocean, the causes of such differences were beyond the scope of the current study and remain to be determined. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Localized zinc distribution in shark vertebrae suggests differential deposition during ontogeny and across vertebral structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Vincent; Howell, Nicholas; Zahra, David; Peddemors, Victor M; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Buchan, Benjamin L; Williamson, Jane E

    2018-01-01

    The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders. Zinc was mostly localised within the intermedialis and was generally detected at levels an order of magnitude lower in the corpus calcareum. In most species, zinc concentrations were higher pre-birth mark, indicating a high rate of pre-natal zinc deposition. These results suggest there are inter-specific differences in elemental deposition within vertebrae. Since the deposition of zinc is physiologically-driven, these differences suggest that the processes of growth and deposition are potentially different in the intermedialis and corpus calcareum, and that caution should be taken when extrapolating information such as annual growth bands from one structure to the other. Together these results suggest that the high inter-specific variation in vertebral zinc deposition and associated physiologies may explain the varying effectiveness of ageing methodologies applied to elasmobranch vertebrae.

  8. A case of marked short-neck with fusion of cervical vertebrae in a Holstein cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, J.; Ando, T.; Otsuka, H.; Paku, T.; Yoshioka, I.; Saruyama, Y.; Yamada, H.; Iso, H.; Oyamada, T.; Watanabe, D.

    2007-01-01

    An 11-month old Holstein cow with congenitally shortened neck was subjected to clinical, radiographic and myelographic examination, and also autopsy and histopathological examination. Skeletal preparations of the cervical region were made to investigate the abnormality of the vertebrae. The cow was growing normally, and no critical neurological signs were observed. Radiographic examination showed marked kyphosis of the cervical spine, and fusion of posterior cervical vertebrae was suspected. Myelographic examination showed curvature of the spinal cord, but no narrowing at any part. Atrophy, hyaline degeneration, and hydropic degeneration of muscle fibers were seen in the dorsal part of the cervical region in the histopathological examination, but there was no abnormality in the cervical spinal cord. Deformation, fusion, and hypoplasia of the cervical vertebrae and posterior thoracic vertebrae were observed. It is suggested that in the organ system-wise classification of congenital abnormalities, this may be classified as a case of defective vertebrae with the coexisting congenital anomalies of kyphosis, scoliosis and vertebral fusion. The cause of this defect was not clear, but the observed vertebral fusion and hypoplasia indicated defective development of the vertebral segment during the early fetal stage

  9. Localized zinc distribution in shark vertebrae suggests differential deposition during ontogeny and across vertebral structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Raoult

    Full Text Available The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders. Zinc was mostly localised within the intermedialis and was generally detected at levels an order of magnitude lower in the corpus calcareum. In most species, zinc concentrations were higher pre-birth mark, indicating a high rate of pre-natal zinc deposition. These results suggest there are inter-specific differences in elemental deposition within vertebrae. Since the deposition of zinc is physiologically-driven, these differences suggest that the processes of growth and deposition are potentially different in the intermedialis and corpus calcareum, and that caution should be taken when extrapolating information such as annual growth bands from one structure to the other. Together these results suggest that the high inter-specific variation in vertebral zinc deposition and associated physiologies may explain the varying effectiveness of ageing methodologies applied to elasmobranch vertebrae.

  10. Comparison of 3DCRT,VMAT and IMRT techniques in metastatic vertebra radiotherapy: A phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedik Sonay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebra metastases can be seen during the prognosis of cancer patients. Treatment ways of the metastasis are radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. Three-dimensional conformal therapy (3D-CRT is widely used in the treatment of vertebra metastases. Also, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT and Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT are used too. The aim of this study is to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the different radiotherapy techniques. In the aspect of this goal, it is studied with a randophantom in Uludag University Medicine Faculty, Radiation Oncology Department. By using a computerized tomography image of the phantom, one 3DCRT plan, two VMAT and three IMRT plans for servical vertebra and three different 3DCRT plans, two VMAT and two IMRT plans for lomber vertebra are calculated. To calculate 3DCRT plans, CMS XiO Treatment System is used and to calculate VMAT and IMRT plans Monaco Treatment Planning System is used in the department. The study concludes with the dosimetric comparison of the treatment plans in the spect of critical organ doses, homogeneity and conformity index. As a result of this study, all critical organ doses are suitable for QUANTEC Dose Limit Report and critical organ doses depend on the techniques which used in radiotherapy. According to homogeneity and conformity indices, VMAT and IMRT plans are better than one in 3DCRT plans in servical and lomber vertebra radiotherapy plans.

  11. Radiologic-anatomic correlation of thoracic vertebrae and rib shadows in chest digital radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Itoh, Harumi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an introduction to parsing the radiologic appearance of thoracic vertebrae and ribs. In the study, the radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was applied to promote further understanding of normal chest radiographs. The thoracic vertebrae and ribs of chest radiographs were compared with each macroscopic radiologic and computed tomography (CT) image. The rib parsed the linear shadow of the body of the rib. The macroscopic and radiologic images of thoracic vertebrae and ribs were evaluated to explain their normal radiologic findings. The results of such correlation were summarized as follows: The lamina of the vertebral arch was visualized due to anterior rotation of the upper thoracic vertebrae. The density ratio of the thoracic-vertebrae shadow was almost the same in the vertebral body and vertebral arch. The linear shadow superimposed on the rib corresponded to the inferior margin of the rib. The radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was useful to evaluate normal radiologic findings, and the study was useful to radiological technologists. (author)

  12. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. Objectives This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen’s kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. Results In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen’s kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. Conclusion The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be

  13. Improvement in Scoliosis Top View: Evaluation of Vertebrae Localization in Scoliotic Spine-Spine Axial Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Główka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the scoliotic spine is based on two-dimensional X-rays: coronal and sagittal. The three-dimensional character of scoliosis has raised the necessity for analyzing scoliosis in three planes. We proposed a new user-friendly method of graphical presentation of the spine in the third plane–the Spine Axial Presentation (SAP. Eighty-five vertebrae of patients with scoliosis were analyzed. Due to different positions during X-rays (standing and computer tomography (CT (supine, the corresponding measurements cannot be directly compared. As a solution, a software creating Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs from CT scans was developed to replace regular X-rays with DRRs. Based on the measurements performed on DRRs, the coordinates of vertebral bodies central points were defined. Next, the geometrical centers of vertebral bodies were determined on CT scans. The reproducibility of measurements was tested with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, using p = 0.05. The intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability for vertebral body central point’s coordinates (x, y, z were high for results obtained based on DRRs and CT scans, as well as for comparison results obtained based on DRR and CT scans. Based on two standard radiographs, it is possible to localize vertebral bodies in 3D space. The position of vertebral bodies can be present in the Spine Axial Presentation.

  14. A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution.

  15. Methods and applications of analytical perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgraber, U.; Stiefel, E.

    1978-01-01

    This monograph on perturbation theory is based on various courses and lectures held by the authors at the ETH, Zurich and at the University of Texas, Austin. Its principal intention is to inform application-minded mathematicians, physicists and engineers about recent developments in this field. The reader is not assumed to have mathematical knowledge beyond what is presented in standard courses on analysis and linear algebra. Chapter I treats the transformations of systems of differential equations and the integration of perturbed systems in a formal way. These tools are applied in Chapter II to celestial mechanics and to the theory of tops and gyroscopic motion. Chapter III is devoted to the discussion of Hamiltonian systems of differential equations and exposes the algebraic aspects of perturbation theory showing also the necessary modifications of the theory in case of singularities. The last chapter gives the mathematical justification for the methods developed in the previous chapters and investigates important questions such as error estimations for the solutions and asymptotic stability. Each chapter ends with useful comments and an extensive reference to the original literature. (HJ) [de

  16. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seil JT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Justin T Seil, Thomas J WebsterLaboratory for Nanomedicine Research, School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles, the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤100 nm as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.Keywords: nanomaterial, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, bacteria, antibacterial, biofilm

  17. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles), the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.

  18. Biomechanical comparative study of the stability of injectable pedicle screws with different lateral holes augmented with different volumes of polymethylmethacrylate in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Yang; Huang, Chen; Wu, Hong-Hua; Zhou, Jiang-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Wei

    2018-03-19

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporosis. Until now, there had been no studies of the relationship between screw stability and the distribution and volume of PMMA. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between screw stability and the distribution pattern and injected volume of PMMA. This is a biomechanical comparison of injectable pedicle screws with different lateral holes augmented with different volumes of PMMA in cadaveric osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae. Forty-eight osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae were randomly divided into Groups A, B, and C with different pedicle screws (16 vertebrae in each group), and then each group was randomly divided into Subgroups 0, 1, 2, and 3 with different volumes of PMMA (four vertebra with eight pedicles in each subgroup). A pilot hole was prepared in advance using the same method in all samples. Type A and type B pedicle screws were directly inserted into vertebrae in Groups A and B, respectively, and then different volumes of PMMA (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mL) were injected through the screws and into vertebrae in Subgroups 0, 1, 2, and 3. The pilot holes were filled with different volumes of PMMA (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mL), and then the screws were inserted in Groups C0, C1, C2, and C3. Screw position and distribution of PMMA were evaluated radiographically, and axial pullout tests were performed to measure maximum axial pullout strength (F max ). Polymethylmethacrylate surrounded the anterior one-third of screws in the vertebral body in Groups A1, A2, and A3; the middle one-third of screws in the junction area of the vertebral body and the pedicle in Groups B1, B2, and B3; and the full length of screws evenly in both the vertebral body and the pedicle in Groups C1, C2, and C3. There was no malpositioning of screws or leakage of PMMA in any sample. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that two factors-distribution and volume of PMMA-significantly influenced

  19. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing 100035 (China); Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  20. Population=stratified analysis of bone mineral density distribution in cervical and lumbar vertebrae of chinese from quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chen Xin [Dept. of Radiology, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhuang [Dept. of Orthopedic Oncology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Wu, Cheng' ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao [Beijing Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Beijing (China); Tian, Wei [Dept. of Spine Surgery, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan.

  1. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Dalili

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method is one of them. At first the detection of the peak in mandibular growth was based on the analysis of the second through sixth cervical vertebrae in six developmental stages. But a few improvements of the original CVM analysis were still needed. In this method, the peak in mandibular growth was determined based on the analysis of the second through fourth cervical vertebrae in five developmental stages. This method is easy, applicable and more valid than hand-wrist analysis method.

  2. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  3. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra causing Bertolotti’s syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutras, Georgios; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lumbosacral transitional vertebra is an anatomical variation of the fifth lumbar vertebra in which an enlarged transverse process can form a joint or fusion with the sacrum or ilium. The association of that variant with low back pain and the change in the biomechanical properties of the lumbar spine is called Bertolotti’s syndrome. Case presentation We report a case of a 40-year-old male patient with chronic low back pain extending to the left buttock, just above the ipsilateral sacroiliac joint. Radiographic investigation revealed an anomalous enlargement of the left transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra forming a pseudarthrosis with the infrajacent ala of the sacrum. Conclusion In young patients with back pain the possibility of Bertolotti’s syndrome should always be taken in account. PMID:19830065

  4. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra causing Bertolotti's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Georgios; Tzaveas, Alexandros; Koutras, Georgios; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2009-07-06

    Lumbosacral transitional vertebra is an anatomical variation of the fifth lumbar vertebra in which an enlarged transverse process can form a joint or fusion with the sacrum or ilium. The association of that variant with low back pain and the change in the biomechanical properties of the lumbar spine is called Bertolotti's syndrome. We report a case of a 40-year-old male patient with chronic low back pain extending to the left buttock, just above the ipsilateral sacroiliac joint. Radiographic investigation revealed an anomalous enlargement of the left transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra forming a pseudarthrosis with the infrajacent ala of the sacrum. In young patients with back pain the possibility of Bertolotti's syndrome should always be taken in account.

  5. Study on bone mineral density and bone structure of lumbar vertebrae in osteoporotic elderly women with multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengyong; Qi Ji; Wang Bin; Wen Lianqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) parameters of lumbar vertebrae in differentiating osteoporotic fractured from nonfractured elderly women with vQCT technique, and to compare the bony structural conditions of osteoporotic elderly women with healthy elderly women. Methods: Multi-slice CT spinal scans of L1 and L2 were acquired in 26 osteoporotic vertebral fractured elderly women (group one) and 30 nonfractured osteoporotic subjects (group two). All the retro-reconstructed images of L1 and L2 were sent to the workstation and processed by volume rendering (VR) technique to measure volumetric BMD (3D-INTGL, 3D-CORT, 3D-TRAB) and trabecular and integral BMD (2D-TRAB, 2D-INTGL) by conventional QCT technique. BMD indexes in DXA were AP-SPINE and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in anteroposterior position. The seven parameters between the two group s were compared. Ten healthy elderly women were selected as normal group to reformate 3D-VR images from MSCT images to analyze the bony structure and calculate the ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) in the center of L1 vertebrae, and to compare the index between the normal group and tenpatients randomly selected from the 56 osteoporotic women. Results: DXA measurements in group one: AP-SPINE and BMAD were (0.796±0.170)g/cm 2 and (272.7±27.7) mg/cm 3 , respectively, showing no statistically significant differences comparing with (0.817±0.140) g/cm 2 and (249.5 ± 26.5) mg/cm 3 in group two. Volumetric BMD in group one included 2D-TRAB (70.4 ± 22.2) mg/cm 3 , 2D-INTGL (138.3±35.1) mg/cm 3 , 3D-INTGL (139.4±34.9 ) mg/cm 3 , 3D-CORT (133.8±26.9) mg/cm 3 , and 3D-TRAB (69.9 ±18.6) mg/cm 3 , respectively, showing statistically differences with (89.1±21.8) mg/cm 3 , (170.6±34.5) mg/cm 3 , (180.5±28.2) mg/cm 3 , (163.2±27.5) mg/cm 3 , and (83.8 ± 17.1) mg/cm 3 in group two (the decrements 18%-23%). The mean value of BV/TV of L1 vertebrae was (8.12 ± 1.96)% in

  6. Morphometrical investigation of radiographs of lumbar vertebrae of boxers with and without spondylosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelberg, H.; Veit, C.; Loeffler, K.; Brehm, H.

    1989-01-01

    Length and height measurement of the third lumbar vertebra in 286 radiographs of 140 male and 146 female Boxers was carried out to defect differences between dogs with and dogs without spondylosis. No differences could be established. However, there were statistically significant differences in the length of the vertebra between male and female dogs within the age groups (below two years and above 5 years) and between bitches younger than two years and bitches older than 5 years. Length-height-proportions did not change. Female Boxers were more often affected with spondylosis than males

  7. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  8. Stability by Liapunov's direct methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salle, Joseph La

    1961-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  9. Radionuclide methods application in cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotina, E.D.; Ploskikh, V.A.; Babin, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide methods are one of the most modern methods of functional diagnostics of diseases of the cardio-vascular system that requires the use of mathematical methods of processing and analysis of data obtained during the investigation. Study is carried out by means of one-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Mathematical methods and software for SPECT data processing are developed. This software allows defining physiologically meaningful indicators for cardiac studies

  10. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  11. Application of machine learning methods in bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoyu; An, Zheng; Zhou, Haotian; Hou, Yawen

    2018-05-01

    Faced with the development of bioinformatics, high-throughput genomic technology have enabled biology to enter the era of big data. [1] Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary, including the acquisition, management, analysis, interpretation and application of biological information, etc. It derives from the Human Genome Project. The field of machine learning, which aims to develop computer algorithms that improve with experience, holds promise to enable computers to assist humans in the analysis of large, complex data sets.[2]. This paper analyzes and compares various algorithms of machine learning and their applications in bioinformatics.

  12. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  13. Numerical methods for differential equations and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ixaru, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons who, without being professionals in applied mathematics, are often faced with the problem of numerically solving differential equations. In each of the first three chapters a definite class of methods is discussed for the solution of the initial value problem for ordinary differential equations: multistep methods; one-step methods; and piecewise perturbation methods. The fourth chapter is mainly focussed on the boundary value problems for linear second-order equations, with a section devoted to the Schroedinger equation. In the fifth chapter the eigenvalue problem for the radial Schroedinger equation is solved in several ways, with computer programs included. (Auth.)

  14. Chlorinated Cyanurates: Method Interferences and Application Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate method interferences, residual stability, regulated DBP formation, and a water chemistry model associated with the use of Dichlor & Trichlor in drinking water.

  15. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs: classification, prevalence, and association with sacroiliac morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damur-Djuric, Natascha; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joe P; Flückiger, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LTV) was determined by reviewing the pelvic radiographs of 4000 medium- and large-breed dogs of 144 breeds routinely screened for canine hip dysplasia. An LTV was seen in 138 (3.5%) dogs. The prevalence was higher in German Shepherd dogs and Greater Swiss Mountain dogs than in the other breeds, suggesting a genetic predisposition. There was no gender predisposition. The transverse processes of the LTV were divided into three types based on their morphological characteristics: lumbar type or type 1; intermediate type or type 2; and sacral type or type 3. In a symmetric LTV, both transverse processes are of the same type, while in an asymmetric LTV they are not. The frequency of occurrence of symmetric and asymmetric LTV was similar. In symmetric LTV, intermediate-type transverse processes predominated. Most of the asymmetric LTV had an intermediate-type transverse process combined with a lumbar or sacral type, respectively. Highly asymmetric LTV were often angled relative to the adjacent vertebrae. We hypothesize that an LTV is not the result of transformation of a lumbar into a sacral vertebra or vice versa, but rather is an autonomous intermediate type of vertebra. It occurs when the point of contact of the pelvis with the vertebral column is slightly cranial or caudal to its normal position. The resulting formative stimulus on the vertebral ossification centers, sagittally still separated, causes the various morphologies seen in LTV including the asymmetric variations.

  16. Lordotic vertebrae in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are adapted to increased loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Waarsing, J.H.; Muller, M.; Weinans, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Lordosis in fish is an abnormal ventral curvature of the vertebral column, accompanied by abnormal calcification of the afflicted vertebrae. Incidences of lordosis are a major problem in aquaculture and often correlate with increased swimming activity. To understand the biomechanical causes and

  17. Primary spondylolysis of the axis vertebra (C2) in the children, including one with pyknodysostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX

    1989-01-01

    This report describes 3 children with a cleft in the pedicles of the second cervical vertebra of uncertain cause. One of these patients had pyknodysostosis. Previous instances of such defects in the literature are reviewed with some considerations on the possible nature of the lesion. (orig.)

  18. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  19. Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Amson, Eli; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-06-01

    Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae. Our findings reveal that the opposite allometric scaling of C1 and C2-C7 accommodate the increase of neck bending moment with body size. The internal organization of the neck skeleton exhibits surprisingly uniformity in the vast majority of mammals. Deviations from this general pattern only occur under extreme loading regimes associated with particular functional and allometric demands. Our results indicate that the main source of variation in the mammalian neck stems from the disparity of overall cervical spine length. The mammalian neck reveals how evolutionary disparity manifests itself in a structure that is otherwise highly restricted by meristic constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. A Late Cretaceous theropod caudal vertebra from the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Hanna, Samir S.; Hartman, Axel Frans; Jagt, John W M

    2000-01-01

    A caudal vertebra collected from conglomerates of the Al-Khod Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Al-Khod area, Sultanate of Oman, is assigned to a medium-sized theropod dinosaur. The Al-Khod discovery represents one of the very few dinosaur records from the Middle East.

  1. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications Theoretical Developments and Numerical Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrates the application of DSM to solve a broad range of operator equations The dynamical systems method (DSM) is a powerful computational method for solving operator equations. With this book as their guide, readers will master the application of DSM to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear problems as well as ill-posed and well-posed problems. The authors offer a clear, step-by-step, systematic development of DSM that enables readers to grasp the method's underlying logic and its numerous applications. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications begins with a general introduction and

  2. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja; Han, Beon Hee

    2012-01-01

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length of

  3. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length

  4. Scenistic Methods for Training: Applications and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to complement an earlier article (2010) in "Journal of European Industrial Training" in which the description and theory bases of scenistic methods were presented. This paper also offers a description of scenistic methods and information on theory bases. However, the main thrust of this paper is to describe, give suggested…

  5. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe(II) ions at pH 4.5 (acetate buffer). The reaction was monitored ...

  6. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide ... optimum operating conditions for reagent concentrations and temperature were ... 1-yl) ethanol] is an amebicide, antiprotozoal and .... The dependence of reaction rate on concentration of.

  7. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of infected herniated nucleus material in lumbar disc herniations and to determine if patients with an anaerobic infected disc are more likely to develop Modic change (MC) (bone oedema) in the adjacent vertebrae after the disc herniation. MCs (bone oedema...... due to cytokine and propionic acid production. METHODS: Patients undergoing primary surgery at a single spinal level for lumbar disc herniation with an MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation, where the annular fibres were penetrated by visible nuclear tissue, had the nucleus material removed. Stringent...... antiseptic sterile protocols were followed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included, mean age 46.4 years (SD 9.7), 27 % female. All patients were immunocompetent. No patient had received a previous epidural steroid injection or undergone previous back surgery. In total, microbiological cultures were...

  8. Advanced photon counting applications, methods, instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Kapusta, Peter; Erdmann, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), a powerful tool allowing luminescence lifetime measurements to be made with high temporal resolution, even on single molecules. Combining spectrum and lifetime provides a "fingerprint" for identifying such molecules in the presence of a background. Used together with confocal detection, this permits single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy in addition to ensemble measurements, opening up an enormous range of hot life science applications such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and measurement of Förster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) for the investigation of protein folding and interaction. Several technology-related chapters present both the basics and current state-of-the-art, in particular of TCSPC electronics, photon detectors and lasers. The remaining chapters cover a broad range of applications and methodologies for experiments and data analysis, including the life sciences, defect centers in diamonds, super-resolution micr...

  9. Primary osteopathy of vertebrae in a neurofibromatosis type 1 murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rhodes, Steven D; Zhao, Liming; He, Yongzheng; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong; Yang, Dalong; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xianlin; Park, Su-Jung; Chen, Shi; Turner, Charles; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2011-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Spinal deformities are common skeletal manifestations in patients with NF1. To date, the mechanism of vertebral abnormalities remains unclear because of the lack of appropriate animal models for the skeletal manifestations of NF1. In the present study, we report a novel murine NF1 model, Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice. These mice display short vertebral segments. In addition, a significant reduction in cortical and trabecular bone mass of the vertebrae was observed in Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Peak stress and peak load were also significantly reduced in Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice as compared to controls. Furthermore, the lumbar vertebrae showed enlargement of the inter-vertebral canal, a characteristic feature of lumbar vertebrae in NF1 patients. Finally, histologic analysis demonstrated increased numbers of osteoclasts and decreased numbers of osteoblasts in the vertebrae of Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice in comparison to controls. In summary, Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice demonstrate multiple structural and functional abnormalities in the lumbar vertebrae which recapitulate the dystrophic vertebral changes in NF1 patients. This novel murine model provides a platform to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of spinal deficits in NF1 patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. L5 vertebrectomy for the surgical treatment of tumoral and traumatic lesions of L5 vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kaner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and the surgical results of seven patients treated with L5 vertebrectomy. The pathologies, clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative radiological findings, surgical techniques, and instrumentation for seven patients operated on between 1998 and 2009 are presented in this article. Biopsies were performed on all patients except those involving trauma. Patients were followed up at three-month intervals in the first year, at 6- month intervals in the second year, and on a regular basis afterward. One patient had a traumatic L5 burst fracture; the other six had tumoral pathologies in the L5 vertebrae. One tumoral lesion was a chordoma, another was a hemangioma, and the remaining four were metastatic lesions. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed for the metastatic tumor patients during the postoperative period. Patients with renal cancer and chordoma survived for 3 years; patients with lung cancer and bladder cancer survived for 1 year; and patients with breast cancer survived for 16 months. The lumbosacral region presents significant stabilization problems because of the presence of sacral slope. In our opinion, if the lesion involves only the L5 vertebra, anterior cage-filled bone cement or bone graft should be performed, as dictated by the pathology and posterior transpedicular instrumentation. If the lesion involves the L4 vertebra or the sacrum and the L5 vertebra, the instrumentation can be extended to cover other segments with sacral attachments. The present cases involved only L5 vertebra and treatment with short-segment stabilization covering the anterior and posterior columns.

  11. An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Cynthia K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially introduced 'fixations' as an attempt to introduce a 'gold standard' has met with frustration and frequent mechanical failure. Because direct comparison against a 'gold standard' allows the validity, specificity and sensitivity of a test to be calculated, the identification of a realistic 'gold standard' against which motion palpation can be evaluated is essential. The objective of this study was to introduce a new, realistic, 'gold standard', the congenital block vertebra (CBV to assess the validity of motion palpation in detecting a true fixation. Methods Twenty fourth year chiropractic students examined the cervical spines of three subjects with single level congenital block vertebrae, using two commonly employed motion palpation tests. The examiners, who were blinded to the presence of congenital block vertebrae, were asked to identify the most hypomobile segment(s. The congenital block segments included two subjects with fusion at the C2–3 level and one with fusion at C5-6. Exclusion criteria included subjects who were frankly symptomatic, had moderate or severe degenerative changes in their cervical spines, or displayed signs of cervical instability. Spinal levels were marked on the subject's skin overlying the facet joints from C1 to C7 bilaterally and the motion segments were then marked alphabetically with 'A' corresponding to C1-2. Kappa coefficients (K were calculated to determine the validity of motion palpation to detect the congenitally fused segments as the 'most hypomobile' segments. Sensitivity

  12. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (3) Introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the third issue showing the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Spectral methods and multi-interface calculation methods in fluid dynamics are reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Morrison, H.F.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs

  14. Sex determination using anthropometric measurements from multi-slice computed tomography of the 12th thoracic and the first lumbar vertebrae among adult Egyptians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M.M. Badr El Dine

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the 12th thoracic vertebra is more accurate for sex determination than the first lumbar vertebra in the Egyptian population, which means that bone dimensions are population specific.

  15. Application of fuzzy methods in tunnelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Tréfová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-face tunnelling machines were used for the tunnel construction in Slovakia for boring of the exploratory galleries of highwaytunnels Branisko and Višňové-Dubná skala. A monitoring system of boring process parameters was installed on the tunnelling machinesand the acquired outcomes were processed by several theoretical approaches. Method IKONA was developed for the determination ofchanges in the rock mass strength characteristics in the line of exploratory gallery. Individual geological sections were evaluated bythe descriptive statistics and the TBM performance was evaluated by the fuzzy method. The paper informs on the procedure of the designof fuzzy models and their verification.

  16. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles.

  17. Application of numerical analysis methods to thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ros, J. M.; Delgado, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the application of numerical methods to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), showing the advantages obtained over conventional evaluation systems. Different configurations of the analysis method are presented to operate in specific dosimetric applications of TLD, such as environmental monitoring and mailed dosimetry systems for quality assurance in radiotherapy facilities. (Author) 10 refs

  18. Industrial applications of neutron physics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.

    1994-01-01

    Three areas where nuclear based techniques have significant are briefly described. These are: Nuclear material control and non-proliferation, on-line elemental analysis of coal and minerals, and non- detection of explosives and other contraband. The nuclear physics and the role of reactor physics methods are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Molecular Combing of DNA: Methods and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazari, Zeniab Esmail; Gurevich, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    studies to nanoelectronics. While molecular combing has been applied in a variety of DNA-related studies, no comprehensive review has been published on different combing methods proposed so far. In this review, the underlying mechanisms of molecular combing of DNA are described followed by discussion...

  20. Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.

  1. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  2. Ensemble Machine Learning Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2012-01-01

    It is common wisdom that gathering a variety of views and inputs improves the process of decision making, and, indeed, underpins a democratic society. Dubbed “ensemble learning” by researchers in computational intelligence and machine learning, it is known to improve a decision system’s robustness and accuracy. Now, fresh developments are allowing researchers to unleash the power of ensemble learning in an increasing range of real-world applications. Ensemble learning algorithms such as “boosting” and “random forest” facilitate solutions to key computational issues such as face detection and are now being applied in areas as diverse as object trackingand bioinformatics.   Responding to a shortage of literature dedicated to the topic, this volume offers comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art ensemble learning techniques, including various contributions from researchers in leading industrial research labs. At once a solid theoretical study and a practical guide, the volume is a windfall for r...

  3. Application of Software Safety Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G. Y.; Hur, S.; Cheon, S. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, S. J.; Koo, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    A fully digitalized reactor protection system, which is called the IDiPS-RPS, was developed through the KNICS project. The IDiPS-RPS has four redundant and separated channels. Each channel is mainly composed of a group of bistable processors which redundantly compare process variables with their corresponding setpoints and a group of coincidence processors that generate a final trip signal when a trip condition is satisfied. Each channel also contains a test processor called the ATIP and a display and command processor called the COM. All the functions were implemented in software. During the development of the safety software, various software safety analysis methods were applied, in parallel to the verification and validation (V and V) activities, along the software development life cycle. The software safety analysis methods employed were the software hazard and operability (Software HAZOP) study, the software fault tree analysis (Software FTA), and the software failure modes and effects analysis (Software FMEA)

  4. Rhenium-osmium geochemistry: method and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental methods for chemical separation and isotopic analysis of rhenium-osmium are described. Accurate determinations are obtained for a quantity ratio around 10 -6 -10 -7 g. Development as a geochemical tracer is examined. Study of rhenium-osmium in meteorites allows the determination of solar system chronology and age of the galaxy. Rhenium-osmium chronology in meteorites is improved and osmium isotopes are used as petrogenetic and geological tracers. Molybdenites are studied through 187 Re- 187 Os dating [fr

  5. Multivariate methods in nuclear waste remediation: Needs and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1992-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a strategy for nuclear waste remediation and environmental restoration at several major sites across the country. Nuclear and hazardous wastes are found in underground storage tanks, containment drums, soils, and facilities. Due to the many possible contaminants and complexities of sampling and analysis, multivariate methods are directly applicable. However, effective application of multivariate methods will require greater ability to communicate methods and results to a non-statistician community. Moreover, more flexible multivariate methods may be required to accommodate inherent sampling and analysis limitations. This paper outlines multivariate applications in the context of select DOE environmental restoration activities and identifies several perceived needs

  6. Applications of the Monte Carlo method in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Prasad, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the application of the Monte Carlo method in radiation protection. It may be noted that an exhaustive review has not been attempted. The special advantage of the Monte Carlo method has been first brought out. The fundamentals of the Monte Carlo method have next been explained in brief, with special reference to two applications in radiation protection. Some sample current applications have been reported in the end in brief as examples. They are, medical radiation physics, microdosimetry, calculations of thermoluminescence intensity and probabilistic safety analysis. The limitations of the Monte Carlo method have also been mentioned in passing. (author)

  7. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Jen

    1992-01-01

    This monograph is intended for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course as well as for researchers, who want a compilation of developments in this rapidly growing field of operations research. This is a sequel to our previous works: "Multiple Objective Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A state-of-the-Art Survey" (No.164 of the Lecture Notes); "Multiple Attribute Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A State-of-the-Art Survey" (No.186 of the Lecture Notes); and "Group Decision Making under Multiple Criteria--Methods and Applications" (No.281 of the Lecture Notes). In this monograph, the literature on methods of fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been reviewed thoroughly and critically, and classified systematically. This study provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, their characteristics, and applicability to the analysis of fuzzy MADM problems. The basic concepts and algorithms from the classical MADM methods have been used in the development of the f...

  8. Analytical chromatography. Methods, instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashin, Ya I; Yashin, A Ya

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art and the prospects in the development of main methods of analytical chromatography, viz., gas, high performance liquid and ion chromatographic techniques, are characterised. Achievements of the past 10-15 years in the theory and general methodology of chromatography and also in the development of new sorbents, columns and chromatographic instruments are outlined. The use of chromatography in the environmental control, biology, medicine, pharmaceutics, and also for monitoring the quality of foodstuffs and products of chemical, petrochemical and gas industries, etc. is considered.

  9. MORPHOMETRY OF THE PEDICLE OF FIRST SACRAL VERTEBRAE AND ITS APPLICATION IN POSTERIOR TRANSPEDICULAR SCREW FIXATION. Morfometría del pedículo de la primera vértebra sacra y su aplicación en la fijación posterior con tornillo transpedicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala M Pai

    2016-03-01

    were 27.2±4.0 mms and 23.9±3.7 mms for the male and female respectively. The anteroposterior width of S1 pedicle was 7.5± 1.3 mms, 7.5± 1.7 mms in males and females respectively. The anteroposterior distances of S1, from the sacral promontory to the spinous process of S1 were 52.9± 5.2 mms and 50.4± 6.8 mms respectively for the male and female genders. The present study observed that the mean S1 pedicle length and the cephalocaudal height were higher (p<0.05 for the males than that of females. The data (male vs female were not found statistically different (p>0.05, with respect to the anteroposterior width of the S1 pedicle and the anteroposterior distances of S1 from the sacral promontory to the spinous process of S1. The present study has provided important morphometric data onto the pedicle of the first sacral vertebrae, from the anatomical samples of the South Indian population. The knowledge of pedicle diameters of S1 is crucial to the safe placement of screws in the posterior transpedicular screw fixation.

  10. Application of DCI to the lipid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.; Lesgards, G.; Pouliquen, I.; Giamarchi, P.; Fakirian, A.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the sixties it was proposed that a cleavage point on the triglycerides which can produce alkanes and alkenes with one or two carbons less, aldehydes and free fatty acids. The first results of work on pork were extended to chicken and poultry meats. The methodology involved extraction of the lipid fraction followed by vacuum distillation and analysis by gas chromatography (GC). Other extraction and fractionation procedures have been investigated by ADMIT and BCR groups which are more appropriate for the routine examination of large numbers of samples. In the present study, the radio-induced volatile compounds were analysed with a DI200 chromatograph, used with a head-space system, also called the DCI system (Desorption, Concentration, Injection). The main advantage of the method is that it avoids the soxhlet extraction of the lipid fraction from the foodstuffs. Several products were studied; oils, poultry meat, avocado pear. It appears that the DCI is a good and fast method provided that the temperature of the oven is controlled, which is not the case with the commercial apparatus used. (author)

  11. Application of DCI to the lipid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffi, J.; Lesgards, G.; Pouliquen, I.; Giamarchi, P.; Fakirian, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    At the end of the sixties it was proposed that a cleavage point on the triglycerides which can produce alkanes and alkenes with one or two carbons less, aldehydes and free fatty acids. The first results of work on pork were extended to chicken and poultry meats. The methodology involved extraction of the lipid fraction followed by vacuum distillation and analysis by gas chromatography (GC). Other extraction and fractionation procedures have been investigated by ADMIT and BCR groups which are more appropriate for the routine examination of large numbers of samples. In the present study, the radio-induced volatile compounds were analysed with a DI200 chromatograph, used with a head-space system, also called the DCI system (Desorption, Concentration, Injection). The main advantage of the method is that it avoids the soxhlet extraction of the lipid fraction from the foodstuffs. Several products were studied; oils, poultry meat, avocado pear. It appears that the DCI is a good and fast method provided that the temperature of the oven is controlled, which is not the case with the commercial apparatus used. (author).

  12. Experimental dosimetric evaluation of inhomogeneity effects caused by thoracic vertebrae; Avaliacao dosimetrica experimental de efeitos de inomogeneidade causados por vertebras toracicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Andre L.S.; Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Radioterapia Sao Francisco, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The presence of tissue inhomogeneities alters the absorbed dose distribution, which magnitude depends on the physical properties of these tissues and the quality of the radiation. Incorrect assessment of dose distribution may affect local tumor control or increase the normal tissue complication probabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the thoracic vertebrae inhomogeneous effects on the dose absorbed by the surrounding soft tissue. The values predicted by the treatment planning system (TPS) were compared to the experimental measurements with EBT-2 radiochromic films positioned on a simulator consisting of only water and inserted axially into a thoracic phantom made of synthetic bone and water. There was a significant change in the dose distribution pattern, increased absorbed dose at the bone-soft tissue interface and high point doses adjacent to the bone compared to the results obtained for the films in homogeneous medium and TPS. The experimental measurements in the water agreed with the TPS within 1.0% with respect to the modal dose whereas the biggest difference found for the medium containing the vertebrae was of 4.6%, however, both values are within the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  13. XRSW method, its application and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheludeva, S I; Kovalchuk, M V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    X-Ray Standing Waves (XRSW) may be obtained under dynamical diffraction in periodic structures or under total external reflection conditions (TR) is stratified medium. As the incident angle varies, XRSW nodes and antinodes move in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting planes, leading to drastic variation of photoelectron interaction of X-ray with matter and resulting in specific angular dependencies of secondary radiation yields (photoelectrons, fluorescence, internal photoeffect, photoluminescence, Compton and thermal diffuse scattering). The structural information - the position of investigated atoms in the direction of XRSW movement (coherent position), the distribution of atoms about this position (coherent fraction) - is obtained with the accuracy about several percents from XRSW period D. The objects under investigation are: semiconductor surface layers, heterostructure, multicomponent crystals, interfaces, adsorbed layers. Besides the development of XRSW method allow to obtain structure, geometrical and optical parameters of ultrathin films (crystalline and disordered, organic and inorganic) and nanostructures on their base.

  14. Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.

  15. Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0–6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form – as a chordacentrum – was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3–V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20–V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays – lepidotrichs – of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a

  16. Methods and applications of HPLC-AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dueker, Stephen R.; Lin, Yumei; Clifford, Andrew J.; Vogel, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of physiologic doses of nutrients, pesticides, and herbicides can easily be traced in humans using a 14 C-labeled compound. Basic kinetics can be monitored in blood or urine by measuring the elevation in the 14 C content above the control predose tissue and converting to equivalents of the parent compound. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an excellent method for the chemical separation of complex mixtures whose profiles afford estimation of biochemical pathways of metabolism. Compounds elute from the HPLC systems with characteristic retention times and can be collected in fractions that can then be graphitized for AMS measurement. Unknowns are tentatively identified by co-elution with known standards and chemical tests that reveal functional groupings. Metabolites are quantified with the 14 C signal. Thoroughly accounting for the carbon inventory in the LC solvents, ion-pairing agents, samples, and carriers adds some complexity to the analysis. In most cases the total carbon inventory is dominated by carrier. Baseline background and stability need to be carefully monitored. Limits of quantitation near 10 amol of 14 C per HPLC fraction are typically achieved. Baselines are maintained by limiting injected 14 C activity <0.17 Bq (4.5 pCi) on the HPLC column

  17. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  18. Clustering Methods Application for Customer Segmentation to Manage Advertisement Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Kutera; Mirosława Lasek

    2010-01-01

    Clustering methods are recently so advanced elaborated algorithms for large collection data analysis that they have been already included today to data mining methods. Clustering methods are nowadays larger and larger group of methods, very quickly evolving and having more and more various applications. In the article, our research concerning usefulness of clustering methods in customer segmentation to manage advertisement campaign is presented. We introduce results obtained by using four sel...

  19. Chondromyxoid Fibroma of Two Cervical Vertebrae with Involvement of Surrounding Soft Tissue: Radiologic Diagnostic Dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour Zahir, Shokouh; Sefidrokh Sharahjin, Naser; Sadlu Parizi, Farzad; Rahmani, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign cartilaginous neoplasm that mostly affects the metaphyseal region of the long bones. The tibia, small tubular bones of the foot, the distal femur and pelvis are common locations, but involvement of the vertebral bones, especially the cervical vertebra, is very rare. Radiographic features show typical characteristics and this tumor often presents as a lobulated, eccentric radiolucent lesion with no periosteal reaction. In addition, geographic bone destruction is seen in all cases. We present an adult female with a one-year history of neck pain, and ultrasound findings that suggest a right paravertebral muscular lesion due to inflammatory or neoplastic origins. The histopathological studies confirmed that the biopsied specimen was a chondromyxoid fibroma of the cervical vertebrae laminae and spinous processes (C3 and C4) with abutting soft tissue. Despite the unusual location and soft tissue presentation, a chondromyxoid fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cervical bone lesion

  20. Bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of the fourth lumbar vertebra: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a well known cause of low back pain, usually affects the pars interarticularis of a lower lumbar vertebra and rarely involves the articular processes. We report a rare case of bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4 vertebra that caused spinal canal stenosis with a significant segmental instability at L4/5 and scoliosis. A 31-year-old male who had suffered from low back pain since he was a teenager presented with numbness of the right lower leg and scoliosis. Plain X-rays revealed bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4, anterolisthesis of the L4 vertebral body, and right lateral wedging of the L4/5 disc with compensatory scoliosis in the cephalad portion of the spine. MR images revealed spinal canal stenosis at the L4/5 disc level. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion of the L4/5 was performed, and his symptoms were relieved.

  1. Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2007-08-01

    Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

  2. Studies on the methods of inorganic nutrient application in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, R.S.; Ray, P.K.; Ninan, S.

    1981-01-01

    Using carrier free 32 P, tagged single superphosphate and 86 Rb, the efficiency of different methods of plant injection and soil placement techniques for fertilizer applications was examined. In the plant injection techniques the radioactivity was fed to the palms through growing roots tips, cut ends of roots, stem injection and leaf axils. The application of radioactivity through the cut ends of roots was most efficient since 32 P was detected in 10 m tall palms, four hours after application. In stem, leaf axil and growing roots tips injection the 32 P was detected after 8, 12 and 18 h. Out of four methods of soil application, the quickest recovery of 32 P in the palms was detected after 7 days of placement when applied by the hole method. The 32 P activity in the palms through circular trenches, strips and basin methods was recorded after 8, 8 and 11 days of application respectively. The accumulation of 86 Rb was significantly higher than 32 P. With plant injection technique the accumulation of activity was found to be significantly higher than with soil placement methods. The rate of radioactivity absorption was 10 to 60 time faster in the former technique as compared to that of the latter. The application of radioactivity through cut ends of roots and circular trench methods, were found to be better and may recommended for nutrient application in coconut. (orig.)

  3. Morphometry of lower lumbar vertebrae as seen on CT scans: newly recognized characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Schaik, J.J.P.; Verbiest, H.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Transaxial computed tomographic (CT) sections represent a new approach to vertebral morphometry, allowing certain measurements to be made in vivo for the first time. The cross-sectional morphology of the bodies and pedicles of L3, L4, and L5 was studied in a series of 213 vertebrae. This revealed that the pedicles of L5 arise more laterally from the body of L5 than from L3. Further, the lateral surfaces of the L5 body are inclined obliquely, unlike those of L3. L4 is transitional in form between L3 and L5, more closely resembling the former. This morphology explains the fact, hitherto unnoticed, that the lateral outlines of the pedicles and the lateral borders of the body of L5 are not normally imaged on plain anteroposterior radiographs. It is evident that pathologic changes of the lateral borders of the body of L5 may be invisible also. In cases of transitional vertebrae in the lumbosacral region the presence or absence of the lateral outlines of the pedicles and of the lateral borders of the vertebral body may be of help in identifying the vertebrae on conventional projections

  4. Identification of apical vertebra for grading of idiopathic scoliosis using image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K

    2012-02-01

    Scoliosis is a 3-D deformity of spinal column, characterized by both lateral curvature and vertebral rotation. The disease can be caused by congenital, developmental, or degenerative problems; but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause, and this is known as idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral rotation has become increasingly prominent in the study of scoliosis and the most deformed vertebra is named as apical vertebra. Apical vertebral deformity demonstrates significance in both preoperative and postoperative assessment, providing better appreciation of the impact of bracing or surgical interventions. Precise measurement of apical vertebral rotation in terms of grading is most valuable for the determination of reference value in normal and pathological conditions for better understanding of scoliosis. Routine quantitative evaluation of vertebral rotation is difficult and error prone due to limitations of observer characteristic and specific imaging property. This paper proposes automatic identification of the apical vertebra and its parameter that depends on the objective criteria of measurement using active contour models. The proposed technique is more accurate and is a reliable measurement compared to manual and computer-assisted system.

  5. Morphometric variations of the 7th cervical vertebrae of Zulu, White, and Colored South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibii, Job M; Pan, Rualing; Tobias, Phillip V

    2010-05-01

    The 7th cervical vertebrae of 240 cadavers of South African Zulu, White, and Colored population groups were examined to determine morphometric variation. White and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical anteroposterior diameters than their male counterparts, whereas no statistically significant difference between sexes of the Zulu population group was observed in this variable. In addition, although Zulu and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical transverse diameters than their male counterparts, there was no statistically significant variation between South African white males and females in this respect. The findings indicate that sexual dimorphism is more apparent in the vertebral centrum, across the three population groups, where males had significantly larger dimensions in centrum anteroposterior diameter, height, and width than their female counterparts. The study further reveals that sexual dimorphism is more apparent when one compares aspects of the 7th cervical vertebra between sexes within the same population group. Overall, the dimensions of the various variates of the vertebra are substantially smaller in women than in men. The smaller dimensions, particularly of the centrum, may be the result of lower skeletal mass in women and render them more vulnerable to fractures resulting from compression forces. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Inverse operator theory method and its applications in nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    1993-01-01

    Inverse operator theory method, which has been developed by G. Adomian in recent years, and its applications in nonlinear physics are described systematically. The method can be an unified effective procedure for solution of nonlinear and/or stochastic continuous dynamical systems without usual restrictive assumption. It is realized by Mathematical Mechanization by us. It will have a profound on the modelling of problems of physics, mathematics, engineering, economics, biology, and so on. Some typical examples of the application are given and reviewed

  7. Bayesian non- and semi-parametric methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews and develops Bayesian non-parametric and semi-parametric methods for applications in microeconometrics and quantitative marketing. Most econometric models used in microeconomics and marketing applications involve arbitrary distributional assumptions. As more data becomes available, a natural desire to provide methods that relax these assumptions arises. Peter Rossi advocates a Bayesian approach in which specific distributional assumptions are replaced with more flexible distributions based on mixtures of normals. The Bayesian approach can use either a large but fixed number

  8. Disk degenerative disease in childhood: Scheuermann's disease, Schmorl's nodes, and the limbus vertebra: MRI findings in 12 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swischuk, L.E.; John, S.D.; Allbery, S.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve pediatric patients were studied with MRI. All had various disk problems including Scheuermann's disease, Schmorl's nodes and limbus vertebrae. All patients shared loss of disk height, altered disk hydration and variable herniation of nuclear material. (orig.)

  9. Effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy in primary liver cancer patients with secondary malignant tumor of vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Jing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in primary liver cancer (PLC patients with secondary malignant tumor of vertebra. MethodsA total of 49 PLC patients with secondary metastatic tumor of vertebra, who were treated in our hospital from December 2011 to January 2014, were enrolled and divided into group A (20 patients treated with SBRT and group B (29 patients treated with IMRT. The prescribed dose was 35 Gy in 5 fractions in group A and 35 Gy in 10 fractions in group B. The time to pain relief, imaging findings, and survival analysis were used to evaluate pain-relieving effect, the condition of lesions, and survival time. The t-test was used to compare continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used to compare categorical data between groups. The K-M method was used to plot survival curves for both groups, and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. ResultsThe proportion of patients who achieved complete or partial remission and stable disease shown by radiological examination after radiotherapy showed no significant difference between group A and group B (P=0.873. The pain relief rate also showed no significant difference between group A and group B (P=0.908. The time of pain relief showed a significant difference between group A and group B (t=-3.353, P<0.01. The overall survival showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.346. ConclusionRadiotherapy has a definite therapeutic effect in PLC patients with secondary malignant tumor of vertebra. SBRT and IMRT have similar pain-relieving effects. However, with the same prescribed dose, SBRT has a short time to pain relief and does not lead to serious intolerable acute or late toxic and side effects in surrounding fast-response tissues.

  10. A Modified Homogeneous Balance Method and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping

    2011-01-01

    A modified homogeneous balance method is proposed by improving some key steps in the homogeneous balance method. Bilinear equations of some nonlinear evolution equations are derived by using the modified homogeneous balance method. Generalized Boussinesq equation, KP equation, and mKdV equation are chosen as examples to illustrate our method. This approach is also applicable to a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations. (general)

  11. Anatomical landmarks and skin markers are not reliable for accurate labeling of thoracic vertebrae on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabshin, Nogah; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Carrino, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Numbering of the thoracic spine on MRI can be tedious if C2 and L5-S1 are not included and may lead to errors in lesion level. Purpose: To determine whether anatomic landmarks or external markers are reliable as an aid for accurate numbering of thoracic vertebrae on MRI. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven thoracic spine MR studies of 67 patients (30 males, 37 females, age range 18-83 years) were studied, composed of 52 consecutive MR studies and an additional 15 MRI in which vitamin E markers were placed over the skin. In the 52 thoracic MR examinations potential numbering aids such as the level of the sternal apex, pulmonary artery, aortic arch, and osseous or disc abnormalities were numbered on both cervical localizer (standard of reference) and thoracic sagittal images. The additional 15 examinations in which vitamin E markers were placed over the skin were evaluated for consistency in the level of the markers on different sequences in the same exam. Results: The sternal apex level ranged from T2 to T5 [T3 in 28/51 patients (55%), T2 in 10/51 (20%)]. The aortic arch level ranged from T2 to T4 [T4 in 18/48 (38%) and T3 in 17 (35%)]. Pulmonary artery level ranged from T4 to T6-7 disc [T5 in 20/52 patients (38%) and T6 in 14/52 (27%)]. In 3 of 12 patients who had abnormalities in a vertebral body or disc as definite point reference, the non-localizer image mislabelled the level. In 11/15 (73%) patients with vitamin E markers that were placed over the upper thoracic spine, the results showed consistency in the level of the markers in relation to the reference points or consistent inter-marker gap between the sequences. Conclusion: There are only two reliable ways to accurately define the levels if no landmarking feature is available on the magnet. The first is by including C2 in the thoracic sequence of a diagnostic quality, and the second is by using an abnormality in the discs or vertebral bodies as a point of reference

  12. Anatomical landmarks and skin markers are not reliable for accurate labeling of thoracic vertebrae on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel)), e-mail: shabshin@gmail.com; Schweitzer, Mark E. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa Hospital and Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada)); Carrino, John A. (Dept. of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    2010-11-15

    Background: Numbering of the thoracic spine on MRI can be tedious if C2 and L5-S1 are not included and may lead to errors in lesion level. Purpose: To determine whether anatomic landmarks or external markers are reliable as an aid for accurate numbering of thoracic vertebrae on MRI. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven thoracic spine MR studies of 67 patients (30 males, 37 females, age range 18-83 years) were studied, composed of 52 consecutive MR studies and an additional 15 MRI in which vitamin E markers were placed over the skin. In the 52 thoracic MR examinations potential numbering aids such as the level of the sternal apex, pulmonary artery, aortic arch, and osseous or disc abnormalities were numbered on both cervical localizer (standard of reference) and thoracic sagittal images. The additional 15 examinations in which vitamin E markers were placed over the skin were evaluated for consistency in the level of the markers on different sequences in the same exam. Results: The sternal apex level ranged from T2 to T5 [T3 in 28/51 patients (55%), T2 in 10/51 (20%)]. The aortic arch level ranged from T2 to T4 [T4 in 18/48 (38%) and T3 in 17 (35%)]. Pulmonary artery level ranged from T4 to T6-7 disc [T5 in 20/52 patients (38%) and T6 in 14/52 (27%)]. In 3 of 12 patients who had abnormalities in a vertebral body or disc as definite point reference, the non-localizer image mislabelled the level. In 11/15 (73%) patients with vitamin E markers that were placed over the upper thoracic spine, the results showed consistency in the level of the markers in relation to the reference points or consistent inter-marker gap between the sequences. Conclusion: There are only two reliable ways to accurately define the levels if no landmarking feature is available on the magnet. The first is by including C2 in the thoracic sequence of a diagnostic quality, and the second is by using an abnormality in the discs or vertebral bodies as a point of reference

  13. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell; Knutsen, Bjoern Helge; Roeislien, Jo; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the method of applicator reconstruction and/or the applicator orientation influence the dose calculation to points around the applicator for brachytherapy of cervical cancer with CT-based treatment planning. A phantom, containing a fixed ring applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR) (2) reconstruction in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the DR and MPR methods for all but two points. All applicator orientations had similar dose calculation reproducibility. Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator reconstruction the uncertainties for all methods are low compared to other factors influencing the accuracy of brachytherapy

  14. The variation of cancellous bones at lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Qi; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Zhou, Hong; Niu, Qiang; Shen, Mingming; Liu, Baolin; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the variation of cancellous bones at four skeletal sites: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep. Sixteen adult sheep were randomly divided into two groups: eight sheep were ovariectomized served as experimental group; the other eight untreated sheep were served as control group. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and twelve months after ovariectomy. After 12 months, lumbar vertebrae L3 and L4, femoral necks, mandibular angles and the fourth ribs were harvested for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The results showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra decreased significantly in twelfth month (pbone volume/total volume decreased by 45.6%, 36.1% 21.3% and 18.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks, mandibular angles and ribs in experimental group (pbones to oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized sheep was site-specific on a pattern as follows: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A process for application of ATHEANA - a new HRA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.W.; Bley, D.C.; Cooper, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical process for the application of ATHEANA, a new approach to the performance of human reliability analysis as part of a PRA. This new method, unlike existing methods, is based upon an understanding of the reasons why people make errors, and was developed primarily to address the analysis of errors of commission

  16. Application of SBRA Method in Mechanics of Continetal Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo WANDROL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the probabilistic SBRA Method application to the model of the behaviour of the lithosphere of the Earth. The method extends our initial work where we created the geomechanical model of the lithosphere. The basic idea was about the generation of thermoelastic waves due to thermal expansion of the rock mass and the ratcheting mechanisms.

  17. Application of Lyapunov's Second Method in the Stability Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, Lyapunov's method for determining the stability of non-linear systems under dynamic states is presented. The paper highlights a practical application of the method to investigate the stability of crude oil/natural gas separation process. Mathematical state models for the separation process, used in the ...

  18. Mathematical methods and supercomputing in nuclear applications. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Stein, E.; Werner, W.

    1993-04-01

    All papers of the two volumes are separately indexed in the data base. Main topics are: Progress in advanced numerical techniques, fluid mechanics, on-line systems, artificial intelligence applications, nodal methods reactor kinetics, reactor design, supercomputer architecture, probabilistic estimation of risk assessment, methods in transport theory, advances in Monte Carlo techniques, and man-machine interface. (orig.)

  19. Mathematical methods and supercomputing in nuclear applications. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Stein, E.; Werner, W.

    1993-04-01

    All papers of the two volumes are separately indexed in the data base. Main topics are: Progress in advanced numerical techniques, fluid mechanics, on-line systems, artificial intelligence applications, nodal methods reactor kinetics, reactor design, supercomputer architecture, probabilistic estimation of risk assessment, methods in transport theory, advances in Monte Carlo techniques, and man-machine interface. (orig.)

  20. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  1. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools

  2. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools.

  3. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  4. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications of nuclear technologies. (1) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the first issue showing their overview and introduction of continuum simulation methods. Finite element method as their applications is also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions about Mathematical Modeling Method and Applicability of This Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify prospective secondary mathematics teachers' opinions about the mathematical modeling method and the applicability of this method in high schools. The case study design, which is among the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The study was conducted with six prospective secondary mathematics…

  6. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (4) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Okita, Taira

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the fourth issue showing the overview of scientific computational methods with the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Simulation methods on physical radiation effects on materials are reviewed based on the process such as binary collision approximation, molecular dynamics, kinematic Monte Carlo method, reaction rate method and dislocation dynamics. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Application of Multi-Analyte Methods for Pesticide Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantos, J.; Virtics, I. [Plant Protection & Soil Conservation Service of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyíregyháza (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The application of multi-analyte methods for pesticide formulations by GC analysis is discussed. HPLC was used to determine active ingredients. HPLC elution sequences were related to individual n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Real laboratory data are presented and evaluated with regard to validation requirements. The retention time data of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions are compared to illustrate the applicability of the methodologies. (author)

  8. Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli

    2004-11-01

    Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism development was discussed in the article. Since 1990s, geo-information science methods, which take the 3S (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) as core techniques, has played an important role in resources reconnaissance, data management, environment monitoring, and regional planning. Geo-information science methods can easily analyze and convert geographic spatial data. The application of 3S methods is helpful to sustainable development in tourism. Various assignments are involved in the development of ecotourism, such as reconnaissance of ecotourism resources, drawing of tourism maps, dealing with mass data, and also tourism information inquire, employee management, quality management of products. The utilization of geo-information methods in ecotourism can make the development more efficient by promoting the sustainable development of tourism and the protection of eco-environment.

  9. Investigations on application of multigrid method to MHD equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Soichiro

    2000-01-01

    The potentiality of application for Multi-grid method to MHD equilibrium analysis is investigated. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem often appears when the MHD equilibria are determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation numerically. After linearization of the equation, the problem is solved by use of the iterative method. Although the Red-Black SOR method or Gauss-Seidel method is often used for the solution of the linearized equation, it takes much CPU time to solve the problem. The Multi-grid method is compared with the SOR method for the Poisson Problem. The results of computations show that the CPU time required for the Multi-grid method is about 1000 times as small as that for the SOR method. (author)

  10. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  11. Development and application of advanced methods for electronic structure calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt

    . For this reason, part of this thesis relates to developing and applying a new method for constructing so-called norm-conserving PAW setups, that are applicable to GW calculations by using a genetic algorithm. The effect of applying the new setups significantly affects the absolute band positions, both for bulk......This thesis relates to improvements and applications of beyond-DFT methods for electronic structure calculations that are applied in computational material science. The improvements are of both technical and principal character. The well-known GW approximation is optimized for accurate calculations...... of electronic excitations in two-dimensional materials by exploiting exact limits of the screened Coulomb potential. This approach reduces the computational time by an order of magnitude, enabling large scale applications. The GW method is further improved by including so-called vertex corrections. This turns...

  12. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Ramírez, J. Ramón, E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred.

  13. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Rogelio; Ramírez, J. Ramón; Alonso, Gustavo; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred

  14. Assessment of the bone mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae of newborns by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.M.; Lapillonne, A.; Ho, P.S.; Bouvier, R.; Bochu, M.; Salle, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To assess the true mineral density (BMD, in g/cm 3 ) of the lumbar spine in newborns. Design and patients. A post-mortem analysis of five infants with gestational ages ranging from 35 to 40 weeks, and birth weights from 2765 to 3200 g, was conducted using dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT; Siemens Somatom DR). A 2 or 4 mm thick slice was obtained for each lumbar vertebra from L1 to L4. The density measured in these vertebrae was corrected by reference to a solid phantom (Osteo-CT) measured simultaneously. A three-dimensional image of the spine (Elscint CT Twin), as well as a photomicrograph of histological preparation from L2 vertebra, were also obtained in another term baby for comparison with the CT results. Results and conclusions. In the range of values studied, the vertebral densities were not dependent on birth weight. BMD values measured in L2, L3 and L4 were not significantly different, but were 10% lower than in L1 in four of five infants. The spatial resolution of the QCT protocol used (0.4 mm) did not permit the differentiation of trabecular and cortical bone, and the vertebral bodies appeared very homogeneous and dense, with a mean density value of 210±30 mg Ca/cm 3 , which is 2.5 times higher than the mean maximum value found in young normal adults. These preliminary results highlight the potential of QCT in neonatology. Special protocols will, however, need to be developed for in vivo measurements in this particular paediatric field. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Geometric morphometric evaluation of cervical vertebrae shape and its relationship to skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigianni, Athina; Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2009-10-01

    Cervical vertebrae shape has been proposed as a diagnostic factor for assessing skeletal maturation in orthodontic patients. However, evaluation of vertebral shape is mainly based on qualitative criteria. Comprehensive quantitative measurements of shape and assessments of its predictive power have not been reported. Our aims were to measure vertebral shape by using the tools of geometric morphometrics and to evaluate the correlation and predictive power of vertebral shape on skeletal maturation. Pretreatment lateral cephalograms and corresponding hand-wrist radiographs of 98 patients (40 boys, 58 girls; ages, 8.1-17.7 years) were used. Skeletal age was estimated from the hand-wrist radiographs. The first 4 vertebrae were traced, and 187 landmarks (34 fixed and 153 sliding semilandmarks) were used. Sliding semilandmarks were adjusted to minimize bending energy against the average of the sample. Principal components analysis in shape and form spaces was used for evaluating shape patterns. Shape measures, alone and combined with centroid size and age, were assessed as predictors of skeletal maturation. Shape alone could not predict skeletal maturation better than chronologic age. The best prediction was achieved with the combination of form space principal components and age, giving 90% prediction intervals of approximately 200 maturation units in the girls and 300 units in the boys. Similar predictive power could be obtained by using centroid size and age. Vertebrae C2, C3, and C4 gave similar results when examined individually or combined. C1 showed lower correlations, signifying lower integration with hand-wrist maturation. Vertebral shape is strongly correlated to skeletal age but does not offer better predictive value than chronologic age.

  16. A reliability evaluation method for NPP safety DCS application software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunjian; Zhang Lei; Liu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) digital i and c application, reliability evaluation for safety DCS application software is a key obstacle to be removed. In order to quantitatively evaluate reliability of NPP safety DCS application software, this paper propose a reliability evaluating method based on software development life cycle every stage's v and v defects density characteristics, by which the operating reliability level of the software can be predicted before its delivery, and helps to improve the reliability of NPP safety important software. (authors)

  17. Case report 868. Congenital bilateral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis of the fourth cervical vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, K; Chavda, S V

    1994-10-01

    A case of congenital bilateral spondylolysis of fourth cervical vertebra was reported and the characteristic radiological features shown. Although the diagnosis is often suggested by the plain films, demonstration of the typical CT findings is often necessary to reach a final diagnosis. Awareness of this entity and its specific radiological features will help to differentiate this relatively benign cervical anomaly from other, more ominous, unstable causes of cervical spondylolisthesis such as those related to acute cervical injury. It may also prevent any inappropriate treatment from being undertaken.

  18. Chondrosarcoma of T2 Vertebrae Treated by Combined Anterior and Posterior Approach: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Norazian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma of the spine is rare; it presents predominantly in very young males and presentation with neurological deficit is uncommon. Treatment of this type of tumour is mainly through surgery as adjuvant therapy is ineffective. En bloc resection of tumours in the spine are difficult although it remains the recommended treatment for chondrosarcoma. We report here presentation of a female with paresis (Frankel C whom was diagnosed with a large chondrosarcoma of the T2 vertebra extending to the right upper thoracic cavity. The patient underwent radical excision through an anterior and posterior approach to the spine.

  19. [Research advances of three-dimension printing technology in vertebrae and intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zechuan; Li, Chunde; Sun, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is characterized by "inside-out" stack manufacturing. Compared with conventional technologies, 3D printing has the advantage of personalization and precision. Therefore, the shape and internal structure of the scaffolds made by 3D printing technology are highly biomimetic. Besides, 3D bioprinting can precisely deposit the biomaterials, seeding cells and cytokines at the same time, which is a breakthrough in printing technique and material science. With the development of 3D printing, it will make great contributions to the reconstruction of vertebrae and intervertebral disc in the future.

  20. Case report 357: Chordoma of the fourth lumbar vertebra metastasizing to the thoracic spine and ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Zwass, A.; O' Leary, P.F.; Steiner, G.C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary a fascinating case is presented in a 54-year-old man who developed a chordoma of the fourth lumbar vertebra which was treated by radiotherapy, with good results. The man remained asymptomatic relatively for several years and then presented with recurrence of back pain and neurological deficits. Plain films, CT and myelography showed considerable destruction of the body of L4 with a sclerotic pattern suggesting the effects of previous radiotherapy. A large paraspinal tissue mass extending into the spinal canal was present. Most interestingly the patient developed metastatic disease in the thoracic spine and ribs but no metastases other than in the skeleton. (orig./SHA).

  1. Growth Patterns of the Neurocentral Synchondrosis (NCS) in Immature Cadaveric Vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Laurel; Schwend, Richard; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Dumas, Megan; Schmidt, John

    2018-03-01

    Gross anatomic study of osteological specimens. To evaluate the age of closure for the neurocentral synchondrosis (NCS) in all 3 regions of the spine in children aged 1 to 18 years old. The ossification of the human vertebra begins from a vertebral body ossification center and a pair of neural ossification centers located within the centrum called the NCS. These bipolar cartilaginous centers of growth contribute to the growth of the vertebral body, spinal canal, and posterior elements of the spine. The closure of the synchondroses is dependent upon location of the vertebra and previous studies range from 2 to 16 years of age. Although animal and cadaveric studies have been performed regarding NCS growth and early instrumentation's effect on its development, the effects of NCS growth disturbances are still not completely understood. The vertebrae of 32 children (1 to 18 y old) from the Hamann-Todd Osteological collection were analyzed (no 2 or 9 y old specimens available). Vertebrae studied ranged from C1 to L5. A total of 768 vertebral specimens were photographed on a background grid to allow for measurement calibration. Measurements of the right and left NCS, pedicle width at the NCS, and spinal canal area were taken using Scandium image-analysis software (Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions, Germany). The percentage of the growth plate still open was found by dividing the NCS by the pedicle width and multiplying by 100. Data were analyzed with JMP 11 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The NCS was 100% open in all 3 regions of the spine in the 1- to 3-year age group. The cervical NCS closed first with completion around 5 years of age. The lumbar NCS was nearly fully closed by age 11. Only the thoracic region remained open through age 17 years. The left and right NCS closed simultaneously as there was no statistical difference between them. In all regions of the spine, the NCS appeared to close sooner in males than in females. Spinal canal area increased with age

  2. Malignant tumor of the parotid gland with metastasis into the cervical vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Keiichi; Utsumi, Takehiko; Furuki, Shin; Asano, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    A patient with malignant tumor of the parotid gland with metastasis into the cervical vertebra was found. Because spinal symptoms were observed at first and the symptoms and the course of the disease were not typical, it was so difficult to diagnose it. For this patient, a parotid gland scintigram with sup(99m)Tc was very useful to diagnose the lesion. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, 60 Co beam therapy and immuno-chemo-therapy and survived about one year and two months more. Cyclo-C (cyclocytidine) was very effective to control the primary lesion in the parotid gland. (Nishio, M.)

  3. Assessment of lumbar vertebrae morphology by magnetic resonance imaging in osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Oezguer [Near East University, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Faculty of Medicine, Lefkosa, Mersin (Turkey); Fidan, Fatma; Ardicoglu, Oezge [Ankara Atatuerk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara (Turkey); Erdil, Filiz; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa [Ankara Atatuerk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Ankara (Turkey); Tosun, Aliye [Near East University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Lefkosa, Mersin (Turkey)

    2012-12-15

    To investigate the lumbar spinal morphology in patients with and without osteoporosis by comparing the endplate changes, intervertebral disc changes, and vertebral heights. This is a retrospective study. Medical records of the 3,530 patients admitted to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics with low back pain between August 2010 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 64 patients of whom 57 were females (89.1 %) and seven were males (10.9 %) were included in the study. Participants were divided into an osteoporosis group, an osteopenia group, and a nonosteoporotic control group, according to bone mineral densities. In this study, mid heights of L3, L4, and L5 vertebrae were found to be higher in the normal group than in both the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups. Mid part heights of L1-2, L2-3, and L5-S1 intervertebral discs were significantly lower in the normal group when compared to the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups. End-plate marrow abnormality was detected in L1 lower end plate in 75 % of normal subjects, 40.6 % of osteopenics, and 25 % of osteoporotics. Statistically significant difference in the presence of Schmorl nodes in L5 vertebra lower end plates was present between groups; 58.3 % of normals, 34.4 % of osteopenics and 15 % of osteoporotics had Schmorl nodes in L5 vertebra lower end plates. There was a significant difference regarding disc degeneration and intradiscal gas presence in L5-S1 intervertebral discs between groups; 66.7 % of normals, 28.1 % of osteopenics, and 25 % of osteoporotics had severe disc degeneration and intradiscal gas was present in L5-S1 intervertebral discs. Significant changes in morphology of the lumbar spine and intervertebral discs were found. It was revealed that the effects of osteoporosis are not limited to the bone but also present in the intervertebral discs. Mid heights of intervertebral discs were higher in the osteoporotic and osteopenic groups when compared to normal

  4. An unusual cause of chest pain: Fused cervical vertebra (C3-C4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daipayan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervicogenic angina is paroxysmal precordialgia usually due to lower cervical vertebral involvement. But upper cervical vertebral segmental anomaly causing cervicogenic angina is rare. Herein, we report a case of cervicogenic angina due to fused 3 rd and 4 th cervical vertebra in a 37-year female, which was initially misdiagnosed as angina and treated likewise. But, persistence of symptoms led to evaluation of her cervical spine and subsequent diagnosis. Cervical traction, physiotherapy and posture training relieved her of her symptoms with no recurrence till 6 months of follow-up. Fused C3-C4 can be a cause of precordialgia and physicians should be aware of it.

  5. Applications of the rotating orientation XRD method to oriented materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhenqi; Li Fei; Jin Li; Bai Yu

    2009-01-01

    The rotating orientation x-ray diffraction (RO-XRD) method, based on conventional XRD instruments by a modification of the sample stage, was introduced to investigate the orientation-related issues of such materials. In this paper, we show its applications including the determination of single crystal orientation, assistance in crystal cutting and evaluation of crystal quality. The interpretation of scanning patterns by RO-XRD on polycrystals with large grains, bulk material with several grains and oriented thin film is also presented. These results will hopefully expand the applications of the RO-XRD method and also benefit the conventional XRD techniques. (fast track communication)

  6. 3rd Workshop on "Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The combination of different intelligent methods is a very active research area in Artificial Intelligence (AI). The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components.  The 3rd Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2012) was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners who are dealing with combining intelligent methods either based on first principles or in the context of specific applications. CIMA 2012 was held in conjunction with the 22nd European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2012).This volume includes revised versions of the papers presented at CIMA 2012.  .

  7. Quantum statistical Monte Carlo methods and applications to spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    A short review is given concerning the quantum statistical Monte Carlo method based on the equivalence theorem that d-dimensional quantum systems are mapped onto (d+1)-dimensional classical systems. The convergence property of this approximate tansformation is discussed in detail. Some applications of this general appoach to quantum spin systems are reviewed. A new Monte Carlo method, ''thermo field Monte Carlo method,'' is presented, which is an extension of the projection Monte Carlo method at zero temperature to that at finite temperatures

  8. Application of Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) in Groundwater Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Riwayat, Akhtar; Nazri, Mohd Ariff Ahmad; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The geophysical method which dominant by geophysicists become one of most popular method applied by engineers in civil engineering fields. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of geophysical tool that offer very attractive technique for subsurface profile characterization in larger area. Applicable alternative technique in groundwater exploration such as ERM which complement with existing conventional method may produce comprehensive and convincing output thus effective in terms of cost, time, data coverage and sustainable. ERM has been applied by various application in groundwater exploration. Over the years, conventional method such as excavation and test boring are the tools used to obtain information of earth layer especially during site investigation. There are several problems regarding the application of conventional technique as it only provides information at actual drilling point only. This review paper was carried out to expose the application of ERM in groundwater exploration. Results from ERM could be additional information to respective expert for their problem solving such as the information on groundwater pollution, leachate, underground and source of water supply.

  9. Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Lymphoma: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alex F; Armand, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations. Newer MRD detection methods that use next-generation sequencing have yielded promising results in a number of lymphoma subtypes, fueling the hope that MRD detection may soon be applicable in clinical practice for most patients with lymphoma. MRD assessment can provide real-time information about tumor burden and response to therapy, noninvasive genomic profiling, and monitoring of clonal dynamics, allowing for many possible applications that could significantly affect the care of patients with lymphoma. Further validation of MRD assessment methods, including the incorporation of MRD assessment into clinical trials in patients with lymphoma, will be critical to determine how best to deploy MRD testing in routine practice and whether MRD assessment can ultimately bring us closer to the goal of personalized lymphoma care. In this review article, we describe the methods available for detecting MRD in patients with lymphoma and their relative advantages and disadvantages. We discuss preliminary results supporting the potential applications for MRD testing in the care of patients with lymphoma and strategies for including MRD assessment in lymphoma clinical trials.

  10. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  11. Logic-based aggregation methods for ranking student applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present logic-based aggregation models used for ranking student applicants and we compare them with a number of existing aggregation methods, each more complex than the previous one. The proposed models aim to include depen- dencies in the data using Logical aggregation (LA. LA is a aggregation method based on interpolative Boolean algebra (IBA, a consistent multi-valued realization of Boolean algebra. This technique is used for a Boolean consistent aggregation of attributes that are logically dependent. The comparison is performed in the case of student applicants for master programs at the University of Belgrade. We have shown that LA has some advantages over other presented aggregation methods. The software realization of all applied aggregation methods is also provided. This paper may be of interest not only for student ranking, but also for similar problems of ranking people e.g. employees, team members, etc.

  12. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  13. Overview of INAA method and its application in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sarmani, S.B.; Khalafi, H.; Abdul Khalik Wood; Khoo, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Present work shows the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia and highlights its applications that have been developed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method. In addition, present study exhibits a comprehensive review of INAA for calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements. The INAA is a powerful method to analyse the sample which identifies qualitative and quantitative of elements present in a sample. The INAA is a working instrument with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. In INAA, sample is irradiated and measured directly. In practical, INAA is based on an absolute, relative and single-comparator standardisation method.The INAA has been developed since 1982 when the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Malaysia has commissioned. The absolute method was less utilised, the relative method has been used since 1982, and the k 0 -INAA method is derived from single-comparator standardization method has been developed since 1996 in Malaysian. The relative method, because of its advantages, such as high accuracy, easy for using, has the most application in Malaysia. Currently, local Universities and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor use INAA method in Malaysia. (Author)

  14. Overview of INAA Method and Its Application in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavar, A.R.; Sarmani, S.B.; Khalafi, H.; Wood, A.K.; Khoo, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Present work shows the development of nuclear technology in Malaysia and highlights its applications that have been developed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method. In addition, present study exhibits a comprehensive review of INAA for calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements. The INAA is a powerful method to analyse the sample which identifies qualitative and quantitative of elements present in a sample. The INAA is a working instrument with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. In INAA, sample is irradiated and measured directly. In practical, INAA is based on an absolute, relative and single-comparator standardisation method. The INAA has been developed since 1982 when the TRIGA MARK II reactor of Malaysia has commissioned. The absolute method was less utilised, the relative method has been used since 1982, and the k_0-INAA method is derived from single-comparator standardization method has been developed since 1996 in Malaysia. The relative method, because of its advantages, such as high accuracy, easy for using, has the most application in Malaysia. Currently, local Universities and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor use INAA method in Malaysia. (author)

  15. Clustering Methods Application for Customer Segmentation to Manage Advertisement Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kutera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clustering methods are recently so advanced elaborated algorithms for large collection data analysis that they have been already included today to data mining methods. Clustering methods are nowadays larger and larger group of methods, very quickly evolving and having more and more various applications. In the article, our research concerning usefulness of clustering methods in customer segmentation to manage advertisement campaign is presented. We introduce results obtained by using four selected methods which have been chosen because their peculiarities suggested their applicability to our purposes. One of the analyzed method k-means clustering with random selected initial cluster seeds gave very good results in customer segmentation to manage advertisement campaign and these results were presented in details in the article. In contrast one of the methods (hierarchical average linkage was found useless in customer segmentation. Further investigations concerning benefits of clustering methods in customer segmentation to manage advertisement campaign is worth continuing, particularly that finding solutions in this field can give measurable profits for marketing activity.

  16. The J-Matrix Method Developments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, Abdulaziz D; Heller, Eric J; Abdelmonem, Mohamed S

    2008-01-01

    This volume aims to provide the fundamental knowledge to appreciate the advantages of the J-matrix method and to encourage its use and further development. The J-matrix method is an algebraic method of quantum scattering with substantial success in atomic and nuclear physics. The accuracy and convergence property of the method compares favourably with other successful scattering calculation methods. Despite its thirty-year long history new applications are being found for the J-matrix method. This book gives a brief account of the recent developments and some selected applications of the method in atomic and nuclear physics. New findings are reported in which experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations. Modifications, improvements and extensions of the method are discussed using the language of the J-matrix. The volume starts with a Foreword by the two co-founders of the method, E.J. Heller and H.A. Yamani and it contains contributions from 24 prominent international researchers.

  17. Numerical methods in image processing for applications in jewellery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrla, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Presented thesis deals with a problem from the field of image processing for application in multiple scanning of jewelery stones. The aim is to develop a method for preprocessing and subsequent mathematical registration of images in order to increase the effectivity and reliability of the output quality control. For these purposes the thesis summerizes mathematical definition of digital image as well as theoretical base of image registration. It proposes a method adjusting every single image ...

  18. Molecular methods for typing of Helicobacter pylori and their applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Hartzen, S H; Roshanisefat, H

    1999-01-01

    .g. the urease genes. Furthermore, reproducibility, discriminatory power, ease of performance and interpretation, cost and toxic procedures of each method are assessed. To date no direct comparison of all the molecular typing methods described has been performed in the same study with the same H. pylori strains....... However, PCR analysis of the urease gene directly on suspensions of H. pylori or gastric biopsy material seems to be useful for routine use and applicable in specific epidemiological situations....

  19. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs

  20. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektnyj Inst. Alyuminievoj, magnievoj i ehlektrodnoj promyshlennosti (USSR))

    1984-12-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short.

  2. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short

  3. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability.

  4. The methods and applications of optimization of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hua

    2007-01-01

    Optimization is the most important principle in radiation protection. The present article briefs the concept and up-to-date progress of optimization of protection, introduces some methods used in current optimization analysis, and presents various applications of optimization of protection. The author emphasizes that optimization of protection is a forward-looking iterative process aimed at preventing exposures before they occur. (author)

  5. A modified sliding spectral method and its application to COSMIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified sliding spectral method and its application to COSMIC radio occultation data 1751. The window length with 300 samples is supposed to provide a reasonable resolution. In a spherically symmetric atmosphere, the refractive index n as a function of tangent radius r0 can be computed from the bending angle α as.

  6. Pseudo-harmonics method: an application to thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Rotenberg, S.; Thome Filho, Z.D.

    1985-10-01

    Several applications of the Pseudo-Harmonics method are presented, aiming to calculate the neutron flux and the perturbed eigenvalue of a nuclear reactor, like PWR, with three enrichment regions as Angra-1 reactor. In the reference reactor, perturbations of several types as global as local were simulated. The results were compared with those from the direct calculation. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Many applications of MEMS/NEMS devices, which include micro- turbines [3, 4], micro-sensors for chemical con- centrations or gas ow properties [5, 6, 7...Oran, E. S., and Kaplan , C. R., The Coupled Multiscale Multiphysics Method (CM3) for Rareed Gas Flows, AIAA 2010-823, 2010. [63] Holman, T. D

  8. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. 425.03 Section 425.03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions...

  9. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the application of the New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method (NVHPM) for solving integro-differential equations. The advantage of the new Scheme is that it does not require discretization, linearization or any restrictive assumption of any form be fore it is applied. Several test problems are ...

  10. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  11. APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL METHODS TO THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Bulimaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a synthesis analysis of application of chemical methods for the development of technologies of hazardous waste management. Here are offered some technologies of neutralization of the waste containing hexacyanofferates, galvanic wastes and those with contain of vanadium, which are collected at Power Thermoelectric Plants.

  12. Application of laplace transform method in heavy ion reaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua

    1993-01-01

    Laplace transform method (LTM) is applied to investigate the effects of different spectroscopy amplifiers parameters on identification of the light charged particles (LCP) emitted from 12 C(46,7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of LTM in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is also discussed

  13. TRIZ method application for improving the special vehicles maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Saša; Lozanović-Šajić Jasmina; Knežević Tijana; Pavlović Jovan; Ivanov Goran

    2014-01-01

    TRIZ methodology provides an opportunity for improving the classical engineering approach based on personal knowledge and experience. This paper presents the application of TRIZ methods for improving vehicle maintenance where special equipment is installed. A specific problem is the maintenance of the periscopes with heating system. Protective glass panels with heating system are rectangular glass elements. Their purpose is to perform mechanical protection ...

  14. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the color effects of wood materials to coloring with different application methods (brush, roller sponge and spray gun) and waterborne varnishes were investigated according to ASTM-D 2244. For this purpose, the experimental samples of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and ...

  15. Do Current Recommendations for Upper Instrumented Vertebra Predict Shoulder Imbalance? An Attempted Validation of Level Selection for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Benjamin T; Cheung, Zoe B; Shifflett, Grant D; Iyer, Sravisht; Derman, Peter B; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder balance for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients is associated with patient satisfaction and self-image. However, few validated systems exist for selecting the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) post-surgical shoulder balance. The purpose is to examine the existing UIV selection criteria and correlate with post-surgical shoulder balance in AIS patients. Patients who underwent spinal fusion at age 10-18 years for AIS over a 6-year period were reviewed. All patients with a minimum of 1-year radiographic follow-up were included. Imbalance was determined to be radiographic shoulder height |RSH| ≥ 15 mm at latest follow-up. Three UIV selection methods were considered: Lenke, Ilharreborde, and Trobisch. A recommended UIV was determined using each method from pre-surgical radiographs. The recommended UIV for each method was compared to the actual UIV instrumented for all three methods; concordance between these levels was defined as "Correct" UIV selection, and discordance was defined as "Incorrect" selection. One hundred seventy-one patients were included with 2.3 ± 1.1 year follow-up. For all methods, "Correct" UIV selection resulted in more shoulder imbalance than "Incorrect" UIV selection. Overall shoulder imbalance incidence was improved from 31.0% (53/171) to 15.2% (26/171). New shoulder imbalance incidence for patients with previously level shoulders was 8.8%. We could not identify a set of UIV selection criteria that accurately predicted post-surgical shoulder balance. Further validated measures are needed in this area. The complexity of proximal thoracic curve correction is underscored in a case example, where shoulder imbalance occurred despite "Correct" UIV selection by all methods.

  16. Relevance of discrete traits in forensic anthropology: From the first cervical vertebra to the pelvic girdle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Adalian, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%. We examined 502 anonymous CT scans from polytraumatized individuals, aged 15 to 65 years, in order to detect the selected discrete traits. Age and sex were known for each subject. Thin sections in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes and 3D volume rendering images were created and examined for the visualization of the selected discrete traits. Supraclavicular foramina were found only in males and only on the left clavicle. Coracoclavicular joints were observed only in males. The majority of individuals with a suprascapular foramen were older than 50 years of age. Pubic spines were observed mostly in females. Other traits did not present significant association with sex, age and laterality. No association between traits was highlighted. Better knowledge of human skeletal variations will help anthropologists come closer to a positive identification, especially if these variations are rare, therefore making them more discriminant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The correlation between R2' and bone mineral measurements in human vertebrae: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brismar, T.B.; Karlsson, M.; Li, T.Q.; Ringertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether MR imaging of trabecular bone structure using magnetic inhomogeneity measurements is related to the amount of bone mineral in human vertebrae. Weight, bone mineral content (BMC DXA ), bone mineral per area (BMA DXA ) and bone mineral density (BMD CT ) were determined in 12 defatted human lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) by weighing, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and CT. Inhomogeneity caused by susceptibility differences between trabecular bone and surrounding water was studied with MR imaging at 1.5 T using the GESFIDE sequence. The pulse sequence determines the transverse relaxation rate R2 * and its two components, the non-reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2) and the reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2'; i. e. relaxation rate due to magnetic susceptibility) in a single scan. Voxel size was 0.9 x 1.9 x 5.0 mm. Positive significant correlations between R2' and weight, BMC DXA , BMA DXA and BMD CT were observed (r > 0.61 and p DXA and BMD CT (r > 0.66 and p DXA . Thus, R2' measurements are related to the amount of bone mineral, but they also provide information which is not obtainable from bone mineral measurements. (orig.) (orig.)

  18. Optimization of spinal implant screw for lower vertebra through finite element studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jayanta; Karmakar, Santanu; Majumder, Santanu; Banerjee, Partha Sarathi; Saha, Subrata; Roychowdhury, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The increasing older population is suffering from an increase in age-related spinal degeneration that causes tremendous pain. Spine injury is mostly indicated at the lumbar spine (L3-L5) and corresponding intervertebral disks. Finite element analysis (FEA) is now one of the most efficient and accepted tools used to simulate these pathological conditions in computer-assisted design (CAD) models. In this study, L3-L5 spines were modeled, and FEA was performed to formulate optimal remedial measures. Three different loads (420, 490.5, and 588.6 N) based on three body weights (70, 90, and 120 kg) were applied at the top surface of the L3 vertebra, while the lower surface of the L5 vertebra remained fixed. Models of implants using stainless steel and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) pedicle screws and rods with three different diameters (4, 5, and 6 mm) were inserted into the spine models. The relative strengths of bone (very weak, weak, standard, strong, and very strong) were considered to determine the patient-specific effect. A total of 90 models were simulated, and von Mises stress and strain, shear stress, and strain intensity contour at the bone-implant interface were analyzed. Results of these analyses indicate that the 6-mm pedicle screw diameter is optimal for most cases. Experimental and clinical validation are needed to confirm these theoretical results.

  19. What is the method in applying formal methods to PLC applications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Engel, S.; Wupper, Hanno; Kowalewski, S.; Zaytoon, J.

    2000-01-01

    The question we investigate is how to obtain PLC applications with confidence in their proper functioning. Especially, we are interested in the contribution that formal methods can provide for their development. Our maxim is that the place of a particular formal method in the total picture of system

  20. Application of autoradiography methods for solving problems of microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejer, K.; Trojtler, Kh.-Kh.; Birkgol'ts, V.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of contact autoradiography with halogen-silver emulsions and autoradiography, caused by the interaction of neutrons with solid track detectors, are successfully used for determination of lateral and longitudal distributions of matter in the basic semiconductor material as well as in the frameworks of its preparation. Possibilities for application and power parameters of some autoradiographic methods related to sensitivity of detection and local resolution are considered on the example of the basic material - silicon. In this case, special attention was paid on investigation of elements combibation, for example: boron/phosphorus as well as on the methods of correlation of solid track and halogen-silver autoradiogrammes [ru

  1. Application of the IPEBS method to dynamic contingency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A C.B. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A S [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Dynamic contingency analysis is certainly a demanding task in the context of dynamic performance evaluation. This paper presents the results of a test for checking the contingency screening capability of the IPEBS method. A brazilian 1100-bus, 112-gen system was used in the test; the ranking of the contingencies based on critical clearing times obtained with IPEBS, was compared with the ranking derived from detailed time-domain simulation. The results of this comparison encourages us to recommended the use of the method in industry applications, in a complementary basis to the current method of time domain simulation. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Statistical disclosure control for microdata methods and applications in R

    CERN Document Server

    Templ, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    This book on statistical disclosure control presents the theory, applications and software implementation of the traditional approach to (micro)data anonymization, including data perturbation methods, disclosure risk, data utility, information loss and methods for simulating synthetic data. Introducing readers to the R packages sdcMicro and simPop, the book also features numerous examples and exercises with solutions, as well as case studies with real-world data, accompanied by the underlying R code to allow readers to reproduce all results. The demand for and volume of data from surveys, registers or other sources containing sensible information on persons or enterprises have increased significantly over the last several years. At the same time, privacy protection principles and regulations have imposed restrictions on the access and use of individual data. Proper and secure microdata dissemination calls for the application of statistical disclosure control methods to the data before release. This book is in...

  3. A new ore reserve estimation method, Yang Chizhong filtering and inferential measurement method, and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingqin.

    1989-01-01

    Yang Chizhong filtering and inferential measurement method is a new method used for variable statistics of ore deposits. In order to apply this theory to estimate the uranium ore reserves under the circumstances of regular or irregular prospecting grids, small ore bodies, less sampling points, and complex occurrence, the author has used this method to estimate the ore reserves in five ore bodies of two deposits and achieved satisfactory results. It is demonstrated that compared with the traditional block measurement method, this method is simple and clear in formula, convenient in application, rapid in calculation, accurate in results, less expensive, and high economic benefits. The procedure and experience in the application of this method and the preliminary evaluation of its results are mainly described

  4. Maturation of the middle phalanx of the third finger and cervical vertebrae: a comparative and diagnostic agreement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, G; Perillo, L; Franchi, L; Di Lenarda, R; Contardo, L

    2014-11-01

    Diagnostic agreement on individual basis between the third middle phalanx maturation (MPM) method and the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method has conjecturally been based mainly on overall correlation analyses. Herein, the true agreement between methods according to stage and sex has been evaluated through a comprehensive diagnostic performance analysis. Four hundred and fifty-one Caucasian subjects were included in the study, 231 females and 220 males (mean age, 12.2 ± 2.5 years; range, 7.0-17.9 years). The X-rays of the middle phalanx of the third finger and the lateral cephalograms were examined for staging by blinded operators, blinded for MPM stages and subjects' age. The MPM and CVM methods based on six stages, two pre-pubertal (1 and 2), two pubertal (3 and 4), and two post-pubertal (5 and 6), were considered. Specifically, for each MPM stage, the diagnostic performance in the identification of the corresponding CVM stage was described by Bayesian statistics. For both sexes, overall agreement was 77.6%. Most of the disagreement was due to 1 stage apart. Slight disagreement was seen for the stages 5 and 6, where the third middle phalanx shows an earlier maturation. The two maturational methods show an overall satisfactorily diagnostic agreement. However, at post-pubertal stages, the middle phalanx of the third finger appears to mature earlier than the cervical vertebrae. Post-pubertal growth phase should thus be based on the presence of stage 6 in MPM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Application Profile Matching Method for Employees Online Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti; Rangga, Rahmadian Y.; Marlim, Yulvia Nora

    2017-12-01

    Employees is one of the determinant factors of company’s success. Thus, reliable human resources are needed to support the survival of the company. This research takes case study at PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru Branch. Employee recruitment system at PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru Branch still uses manual system as seen in application letter files file so it needs long time to determine accepted and rejected the application. For that it needs to built a system or application that allows companies in determining employees who accepted or rejected easily. Pofile Matching Method is a process of competency assessment that is done by comparing the value of written, psychological and interview test between one applicationt with other. PT. Asuransi Bina Dana Arta, Tbk Pekanbaru branch set the percentage to calculate NCF (Core Factor Value) by 60% and NSF (Secondary Factor Value) by 40%, and set the percentage to calculate the total value of written test by 40%, the total value of psycho test by 30%, and the total value of interview 30%. The final result of this study is to determine the rank or ranking of each applicant based on the greater value which, the greater that score of final result of an application get, the greater the chance of the applicant occupy a position or vacancy. Online Recruitment application uses profile matching method can help employee selection process and employee acceptance decisions quickly. This system can be viewed by directors or owners anywhere because it is online and used for other company branch

  6. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/829 ] | View in 

  7. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  8. Automatic Hypocenter Determination Method in JMA Catalog and its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaribuchi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The number of detectable earthquakes around Japan has increased by developing the high-sensitivity seismic observation network. After the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the number of detectable earthquakes have dramatically increased due to its aftershocks and induced earthquakes. This enormous number of earthquakes caused inability of manually determination of all the hypocenters. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which produces the earthquake catalog in Japan, has developed a new automatic hypocenter determination method and started its operation from April 1, 2016. This method (named PF method; Phase combination Forward search method) can determine the hypocenters of earthquakes that occur simultaneously by searching for the optimal combination of P- and S-wave arrival times and the maximum amplitudes using a Bayesian estimation technique. In the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, we successfully detected about 70,000 aftershocks automatically during the period from April 14 to the end of May, and this method contributed to the real-time monitoring of the seismic activity. Furthermore, this method can be also applied to the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). Application of this method for EEW is called the IPF method and has been used as the hypocenter determination method of the EEW system in JMA from December 2016. By developing this method further, it is possible to contribute to not only speeding up the catalog production, but also improving reliability of the early warning.

  9. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell

    2007-01-01

    in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method...

  10. Application of the selected physical methods in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of acoustic emission (AE, which is a part of the non-destructive methods, currently having an extensive application. This method is used for measuring the internal defects of materials. AE has a high potential in further research and development to extend the application of this method even in the field of process engineering. For that matter, it is the most elaborate acoustic emission monitoring in laboratory conditions with regard to external stimuli. The aim of the project is to apply the acoustic emission recording the activity of bees in different seasons. The mission is to apply a new perspective on the behavior of colonies by means of acoustic emission, which collects a sound propagation in the material. Vibration is one of the integral part of communication in the community. Sensing colonies with the support of this method is used for understanding of colonies biological behavior to stimuli clutches, colony development etc. Simulating conditions supported by acoustic emission monitoring system the illustrate colonies activity. Collected information will be used to represent a comprehensive view of the life cycle and behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Use of information about the activities of bees gives a comprehensive perspective on using of acoustic emission in the field of biological research.

  11. The effect of intraosseous injection of calcium sulfate on microstructure and biomechanics of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of calcium sulfate (CS on improvement of microstructure and biomechanical performance of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in sheep. Methods Osteoporosis model was reproduced in 8 female sheep by bilateral ovariectomy and methylprednisolone administration. Then the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4 in each sheep were randomly divided into CS group and blank group (2 vertebrae in each sheep. CS was injected into the vertebral bodies through the pedicle in CS group, and no treatment was given in blank group. All of the animals were sacrificed 3 months later, and vertebrae L1-L4 were harvested. The microstructure and biomechanical performance of vertebral bodies were assessed by micro-CT scanning, histological observation and biomechanical test. Results After ovariectomy and methylprednisolone administration, the mean bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae in the sheep was significantly decreased (>25% compared with that before induction (P<0.05, demonstrating a successful reproduction of osteoporosis model. Three months after injection, it was shown that CS was completely degraded without any remnant in the bone tissue. The quality of the bone tissue (trabecular number and tissue mineral density in CS group was significantly better than that in blank group (P<0.05, and the biomechanical performance in CS group was significantly superior to that in blank group (P<0.05. Conclusions  Local injection of CS could significantly improve the microstructure and biomechanical performance of osteoporotic vertebrae, and it may decrease the risk of fracture of patients with osteoporosis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.02

  12. Applicability of transfer tensor method for open quantum system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzinis, Andrius; Rybakovas, Edvardas; Valkunas, Leonas

    2017-12-21

    Accurate simulations of open quantum system dynamics is a long standing issue in the field of chemical physics. Exact methods exist, but are costly, while perturbative methods are limited in their applicability. Recently a new black-box type method, called transfer tensor method (TTM), was proposed [J. Cerrillo and J. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110401 (2014)]. It allows one to accurately simulate long time dynamics with a numerical cost of solving a time-convolution master equation, provided many initial system evolution trajectories are obtained from some exact method beforehand. The possible time-savings thus strongly depend on the ratio of total versus initial evolution lengths. In this work, we investigate the parameter regimes where an application of TTM would be most beneficial in terms of computational time. We identify several promising parameter regimes. Although some of them correspond to cases when perturbative theories could be expected to perform well, we find that the accuracy of such approaches depends on system parameters in a more complex way than it is commonly thought. We propose that the TTM should be applied whenever system evolution is expected to be long and accuracy of perturbative methods cannot be ensured or in cases when the system under consideration does not correspond to any single perturbative regime.

  13. Application of blended learning in teaching statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a hybrid method (blended learning - linking traditional education with on-line education to teach selected problems of mathematical statistics. This includes the teaching of the application of mathematical statistics to evaluate laboratory experimental results. An on-line statistics course was developed to form an integral part of the module ‘methods of statistical evaluation of experimental results’. The course complies with the principles outlined in the Polish National Framework of Qualifications with respect to the scope of knowledge, skills and competencies that students should have acquired at course completion. The paper presents the structure of the course and the educational content provided through multimedia lessons made accessible on the Moodle platform. Following courses which used the traditional method of teaching and courses which used the hybrid method of teaching, students test results were compared and discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid method of teaching when compared to the effectiveness of the traditional method of teaching.

  14. A new dynamic HRA method and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) method and its application for quantifying the human error probabilities in implementing an accident management action. For comparisons of current HRA methods with the new method, the characteristics of THERP, HCR, and SLIM-MAUD, which are most frequently used methods in PSAs, are discussed. The action associated with the implementation of the cavity flooding during a station blackout sequence is considered for its application. This method is based on the concepts of the quantified correlation between the performance requirement and performance achievement. The MAAP 3.0B code and Latin Hypercube sampling technique are used to determine the uncertainty of the performance achievement parameter. Meanwhile, the value of the performance requirement parameter is obtained from interviews. Based on these stochastic distributions obtained, human error probabilities are calculated with respect to the various means and variances of the timings. It is shown that this method is very flexible in that it can be applied to any kind of the operator actions, including the actions associated with the implementation of accident management strategies. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs. (Author)

  15. Spectral/ hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris D.; Monteserin, Carlos; Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan P.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2018-02-01

    The spectral/ hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation is based upon orthogonal polynomials, such as Legendre or Chebychev polynomials, modified to accommodate a C 0 - continuous expansion. Computationally and theoretically, by increasing the polynomial order p, high-precision solutions and fast convergence can be obtained and, in particular, under certain regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/ hp element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/ hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/ hp element method in more complex science and engineering applications are discussed.

  16. Application of thin layer activation method to industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masago; Hatakeyama, Noriko

    1996-01-01

    A thin layer activation method was reviewed for non-destructive, rapid, precise and real-time measurement of wear and corrosion. The review included wear measurement, the principle of the method, actual measurement, application, and laws and regulations. The method is to activate the material surface alone by accelerated ions like p, d and He ions produced by cyclotron, Van de Graaf apparatus or other accelerators and to utilize the yielded radioisotopes as a tracer, is widely used in the tribology field, and is more useful than the previous method with the reactor since it activated the whole material. Application of the method was reportedly resulted in saving the 80% cost and 90% time in the wear measurement of automobile parts such as engine and transmission. Actually, the activated material was combined into the part to be run and the radioactivity was to be measured externally or in the worn particles suitably collected. The activation thickness was generally in the range of 10-200 μm and the resultant radioactivity, 0.2-2 MBq. In most cases in Japan, the method would be under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc. (K.H.)

  17. C7 vertebra homeotic transformation in domestic dogs - are Pug dogs breaking mammalian evolutionary constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocal, J; De Decker, S; José-López, R; Manzanilla, E G; Penderis, J; Stalin, C; Bertram, S; Schoenebeck, J J; Rusbridge, C; Fitzpatrick, N; Gutierrez-Quintana, R

    2018-05-14

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is almost constant at seven, regardless of their neck length, implying that there is selection against variation in this number. Homebox (Hox) genes are involved in this evolutionary mammalian conservation, and homeotic transformation of cervical into thoracic vertebrae (cervical ribs) is a common phenotypic abnormality when Hox gene expression is altered. This relatively benign phenotypic change can be associated with fatal traits in humans. Mutations in genes upstream of Hox, inbreeding and stressors during organogenesis can also cause cervical ribs. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of cervical ribs in a large group of domestic dogs of different breeds, and explore a possible relation with other congenital vertebral malformations (CVMs) in the breed with the highest prevalence of cervical ribs. By phenotyping we hoped to give clues as to the underlying genetic causes. Twenty computed tomography studies from at least two breeds belonging to each of the nine groups recognized by the Federation Cynologique Internationale, including all the brachycephalic 'screw-tailed' breeds that are known to be overrepresented for CVMs, were reviewed. The Pug dog was more affected by cervical ribs than any other breed (46%; P < 0.001), and was selected for further analysis. No association was found between the presence of cervical ribs and vertebral body formation defect, bifid spinous process, caudal articular process hypoplasia/aplasia and an abnormal sacrum, which may infer they have a different aetiopathogenesis. However, Pug dogs with cervical ribs were more likely to have a transitional thoraco-lumbar vertebra (P = 0.041) and a pre-sacral vertebral count of 26 (P < 0.001). Higher C7/T1 dorsal spinous processes ratios were associated with the presence of cervical ribs (P < 0.001), supporting this is a true homeotic transformation. Relaxation of the stabilizing selection has likely occurred, and

  18. Application of Canonical Effective Methods to Background-Independent Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukcam, Umut

    Effective formalisms play an important role in analyzing phenomena above some given length scale when complete theories are not accessible. In diverse exotic but physically important cases, the usual path-integral techniques used in a standard Quantum Field Theory approach seldom serve as adequate tools. This thesis exposes a new effective method for quantum systems, called the Canonical Effective Method, which owns particularly wide applicability in backgroundindependent theories as in the case of gravitational phenomena. The central purpose of this work is to employ these techniques to obtain semi-classical dynamics from canonical quantum gravity theories. Application to non-associative quantum mechanics is developed and testable results are obtained. Types of non-associative algebras relevant for magnetic-monopole systems are discussed. Possible modifications of hypersurface deformation algebra and the emergence of effective space-times are presented. iii.

  19. Principles of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods and their Application to Bioanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, David S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Volka, Karel

    2014-01-01

    imaging, fiber optic probes for in vivo and in vitro analysis, and methods to obtain depth profile information. The issue of fluorescence interference will be considered from the perspectives of excitation wavelength selection and data treatment. Methods to optimize signal to noise with minimized...... excitation laser irradiance to avoid sample damage are also discussed. This chapter then reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy to bioanalysis. Areas discussed include pathology, cytopathology, single-cell analysis, in vivo and in vitro tissue characterization, chemical composition of cell components...... as conformation of DNA and proteins), vibrations of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in solid-state materials, as well as picosecond dynamics in liquid solutions. This chapter reviews modern instrumentation and techniques for THz spectroscopy, with emphasis on applications in bioanalysis....

  20. Quantal density functional theory II. Approximation methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, Viraht

    2010-01-01

    This book is on approximation methods and applications of Quantal Density Functional Theory (QDFT), a new local effective-potential-energy theory of electronic structure. What distinguishes the theory from traditional density functional theory is that the electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, and the correlation contribution to the kinetic energy -- the Correlation-Kinetic effects -- are separately and explicitly defined. As such it is possible to study each property of interest as a function of the different electron correlations. Approximations methods based on the incorporation of different electron correlations, as well as a many-body perturbation theory within the context of QDFT, are developed. The applications are to the few-electron inhomogeneous electron gas systems in atoms and molecules, as well as to the many-electron inhomogeneity at metallic surfaces. (orig.)

  1. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  2. Fuzzy multiple objective decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Young-Jou

    1994-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the fuzzy set theory has been applied in many disciplines such as operations research, management science, control theory, artificial intelligence/expert system, etc. In this volume, methods and applications of crisp, fuzzy and possibilistic multiple objective decision making are first systematically and thoroughly reviewed and classified. This state-of-the-art survey provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, and their characteristics and applicability to analysis of fuzzy and possibilistic programming problems. To realize practical fuzzy modelling, it presents solutions for real-world problems including production/manufacturing, location, logistics, environment management, banking/finance, personnel, marketing, accounting, agriculture economics and data analysis. This book is a guided tour through the literature in the rapidly growing fields of operations research and decision making and includes the most up-to-date bibliographical listing of literature on the topi...

  3. Gastrin radioimmunoassay. Description and application of a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.; Jakab, B.; Schweibert, I.; Szolcsanyi, J.; Oroszi, G.; Szilvassy, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Development and application of a novel gastrin radioimmunoassay (RIA) are described. 125 I-labeling of non-sulphated human gastrin-17 (nshG-17) was performed by the iodogen method and the mono-iodinated hormone, as RIA tracer, was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum gastrin levels were measured in response to intravenous application of isoproterenol, a non-selective beta and phenylephrine, a selective alpha-1 receptor agonist using a newly developed method specific for the C-terminal part of the hormone in rats. Isoproterenol at clinically relevant doses elicited a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas phenylephrine was without effect. (author)

  4. Characterization of Developer Application Methods Used in Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, L. J. H.; Lopez, R.; Eisenmann, D.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is the most widely used inspection method for aviation components seeing use for production as well as an inservice inspection applications. FPI is a multiple step process requiring attention to the process parameters for each step in order to enable a successful inspection. A multiyear program is underway to evaluate the most important factors affecting the performance of FPI, to determine whether existing industry specifications adequately address control of the process parameters, and to provide the needed engineering data to the public domain. The final step prior to the inspection is the application of developer with typical aviation inspections involving the use of dry powder (form d) usually applied using either a pressure wand or dust storm chamber. Results from several typical dust storm chambers and wand applications have shown less than optimal performance. Measurements of indication brightness and recording of the UVA image, and in some cases, formal probability of detection (POD) studies were used to assess the developer application methods. Key conclusions and initial recommendations are provided.

  5. Application of Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis to Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new formulation in structural analysis, Integrated Force Method has been successfully applied to many structures for civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering due to the accurate estimate of forces in computation. Right now, it is being further extended to the probabilistic domain. For the assessment of uncertainty effect in system optimization and identification, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of IFM was further investigated in this study. A set of stochastic sensitivity analysis formulation of Integrated Force Method was developed using the perturbation method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate its application. Its efficiency and accuracy were also substantiated with direct Monte Carlo simulations and the reliability-based sensitivity method. The numerical algorithm was shown to be readily adaptable to the existing program since the models of stochastic finite element and stochastic design sensitivity are almost identical.

  6. Application of the taguchi method in change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Ivić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Taguchi methods results in efficient optimization of performance, quality and price, fast and accurate gathering of technical information, design and production of highly reliable products and processes at low prices, development of flexible technologies for designing of a whole group of high quality associated products. All this significantly reduces the duration of research, development and delivery. The most frequent use of the Taguchi methods is to improve existing products and production processes and to reduce the need for experiments. The Taguchi methods is a system of quality engineering which puts more emphasis on reduction of production costs and giving advantage to efficient use of engineering strategies than on the use of advanced statistical methods.

  7. Application of distinct element method of toppling failure of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The authors have pointed out, in the latest report, that DEM (Distinct Element Method) seems to be a very helpful numerical method to examine the stability of fissured rock slopes, in which toppling failure would occur during earthquakes. In this report, the applicability of DEM for such rock slopes is examined through the following comparisons between theoretical results and DEM results, referring Voegele's works (1982): (1) Stability of one block on a slope. (2) Failure of a rock block column composed of 10 same size rectangular blocks. (3) Cable force required to make a slope stable. Through above 3 comparisons, it seems that DEM give the reasonable results. Considering that these problems may not be treated by the other numerical methods such as FEM and so on, so DEM seems to be a very useful method for fissured rock slope analysis. (author)

  8. Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    nonparametric estimate of a multivariate density function,” The Annals of Math- ematical Statistics , vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 1049–1051, 1965. [9] E. A. Patrick...Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods† Douglas Sturim and William M. Campbell MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA...with many approaches [1, 2]. For this paper, we focus on using i-vectors [2], but the methods apply to any embedding. For the task of speaker QBE and

  9. Statistical methods for longitudinal data with agricultural applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha

    The PhD study focuses on modeling two kings of longitudinal data arising in agricultural applications: continuous time series data and discrete longitudinal data. Firstly, two statistical methods, neural networks and generalized additive models, are applied to predict masistis using multivariate...... algorithm. This was found to compare favourably with the algorithm implemented in the well-known Beagle software. Finally, an R package to apply APFA models developed as part of the PhD project is described...

  10. Applications of Monte Carlo method in Medical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez Rios, A.; Labajos, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic ideas of Monte Carlo techniques are presented. Random numbers and their generation by congruential methods, which underlie Monte Carlo calculations are shown. Monte Carlo techniques to solve integrals are discussed. The evaluation of a simple monodimensional integral with a known answer, by means of two different Monte Carlo approaches are discussed. The basic principles to simualate on a computer photon histories reduce variance and the current applications in Medical Physics are commented. (Author)

  11. Cross-relaxation imaging:methods, challenges and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stikov, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    An overview of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) is given, with focus on cross relaxation imaging (CRI) as a fast method for quantifying the proportion of protons bound to complex macromolecules in tissue. The procedure for generating CRI maps is outlined, showing examples in the human brain and knee, and discussing the caveats and challenges in generating precise and accurate CRI maps. Finally, several applications of CRI for imaging tissue microstructure are presented.(Author)

  12. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  13. Handbook of Partial Least Squares Concepts, Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vinzi, Vincenzo Esposito; Henseler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods with specific reference to their use in marketing and with a discussion of the directions of current research and perspectives. It covers the broad area of PLS methods, from regression to structural equation modeling applications, software and interpretation of results. The handbook serves both as an introduction for those without prior knowledge of PLS and as a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners interested in the most recent advances in PLS methodology.

  14. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  15. Application of acoustic radiosity methods to noise propagation within buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Beamer, C. Walter

    2005-09-01

    The prediction of sound pressure levels in rooms from transmitted sound is a difficult problem. The sound energy in the source room incident on the common wall must be accurately predicted. In the receiving room, the propagation of sound from the planar wall source must also be accurately predicted. The radiosity method naturally computes the spatial distribution of sound energy incident on a wall and also naturally predicts the propagation of sound from a planar area source. In this paper, the application of the radiosity method to sound transmission problems is introduced and explained.

  16. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  17. Applications of the discrete element method in mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, Florian; Gaugele, Timo; Eberhard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Compared to other fields of engineering, in mechanical engineering, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is not yet a well known method. Nevertheless, there is a variety of simulation problems where the method has obvious advantages due to its meshless nature. For problems where several free bodies can collide and break after having been largely deformed, the DEM is the method of choice. Neighborhood search and collision detection between bodies as well as the separation of large solids into smaller particles are naturally incorporated in the method. The main DEM algorithm consists of a relatively simple loop that basically contains the three substeps contact detection, force computation and integration. However, there exists a large variety of different algorithms to choose the substeps to compose the optimal method for a given problem. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of particle systems together with appropriate numerical integration schemes and give an overview over different types of particle interactions that can be composed to adapt the method to fit to a given simulation problem. Surface triangulations are used to model complicated, non-convex bodies in contact with particle systems. The capabilities of the method are finally demonstrated by means of application examples

  18. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  19. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  20. Methods for compressible multiphase flows and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choe, Y.; Kim, H.; Min, D.; Kim, C.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an efficient and robust numerical framework to deal with multiphase real-fluid flows and their broad spectrum of engineering applications. A homogeneous mixture model incorporated with a real-fluid equation of state and a phase change model is considered to calculate complex multiphase problems. As robust and accurate numerical methods to handle multiphase shocks and phase interfaces over a wide range of flow speeds, the AUSMPW+_N and RoeM_N schemes with a system preconditioning method are presented. These methods are assessed by extensive validation problems with various types of equation of state and phase change models. Representative realistic multiphase phenomena, including the flow inside a thermal vapor compressor, pressurization in a cryogenic tank, and unsteady cavitating flow around a wedge, are then investigated as application problems. With appropriate physical modeling followed by robust and accurate numerical treatments, compressible multiphase flow physics such as phase changes, shock discontinuities, and their interactions are well captured, confirming the suitability of the proposed numerical framework to wide engineering applications.

  1. [Optimized application of nested PCR method for detection of malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao-Guang, Z; Li, J; Zhen-Yu, W; Li, C

    2017-04-28

    Objective To optimize the application of the nested PCR method for the detection of malaria according to the working practice, so as to improve the efficiency of malaria detection. Methods Premixing solution of PCR, internal primers for further amplification and new designed primers that aimed at two Plasmodium ovale subspecies were employed to optimize the reaction system, reaction condition and specific primers of P . ovale on basis of routine nested PCR. Then the specificity and the sensitivity of the optimized method were analyzed. The positive blood samples and examination samples of malaria were detected by the routine nested PCR and the optimized method simultaneously, and the detection results were compared and analyzed. Results The optimized method showed good specificity, and its sensitivity could reach the pg to fg level. The two methods were used to detect the same positive malarial blood samples simultaneously, the results indicated that the PCR products of the two methods had no significant difference, but the non-specific amplification reduced obviously and the detection rates of P . ovale subspecies improved, as well as the total specificity also increased through the use of the optimized method. The actual detection results of 111 cases of malarial blood samples showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the routine nested PCR were 94.57% and 86.96%, respectively, and those of the optimized method were both 93.48%, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods in the sensitivity ( P > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference between the two methods in the specificity ( P PCR can improve the specificity without reducing the sensitivity on the basis of the routine nested PCR, it also can save the cost and increase the efficiency of malaria detection as less experiment links.

  2. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Muranaka, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    To know bone mineral content of both cortical and spongy bones with aging and pathologic changes, bone mineral density (BMD) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and distal radius (DR) was measured using dual photon absorptiometry and single photon absorptiometry, respectively, in 151 normal subjects (N) and four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). In the N group, BMD in both L3 and DR decreased with aging. This was more noted, and occurred earlier in L3, irrespective of sex, than DR. In three PHP patients manifested as bone type, BMD was high in L3, and low in DR. Such a tendency was not seen in the remaining one patient with stone type PHP. The findings suggest the need to measure BMD in both cortical (L3) and spongy (DR) bones for elucidating bone pathophysiology in metabolic bone disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Repair of a mandibular defect with a free vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, L S; Hou, S M

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral mandibular defects in a male mongrel dog were repaired. On the left side, a free vascularized coccygeal bone graft that included the median caudal artery and caudal vein was used to correct the defect. On the right side, the defect was bridged with a bone plate and screws. For further immobilization, the muzzle was temporarily taped for 3 weeks and a pharyngostomy tube was used for nutritional support. The dog was able to eat dry commercial food satisfactorily within 2 months of surgery despite mild malocclusion. Radiographs taken 2 months and 18 months postoperatively showed bony union with graft hypertrophy in the left mandible, whereas the right mandibular defect showed protracted nonunion. The results indicate that vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer provides an alternative for the management of canine mandibular defects.

  4. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-08

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  5. Transitional Vertebra and Spina Bifida Occulta Related with Chronic Low Back Pain in a Young Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Maryam; Habib, Maham; Babar, Sumbal; Kundi, Asif K; Assad, Salman; Sheikh, Amjad

    2016-10-19

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) must be considered as a differential diagnosis in a young patient presenting with low back pain (LBP). We present a case of a 26-year-old male complaining of mild chronic LBP for six years, radiating to his left thigh for the past six months. He has been taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with skeletal muscle relaxants for pain relief. The X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imagings showed congenital enlargement of the left transverse process of the fifth lumbar (L5) vertebra forming pseudo-articulation with the sacrum and unilateral pars interarticularis defect at the L4 level on the left side, respectively. He has managed with gabapentin 100 mg three times a day for his neuropathic left leg pain. On follow-up, the patient reported that his pain has improved with gabapentin and it decreased from 8/10 to 4/10 on the visual analogue scale.

  6. Design and development of a content-based medical image retrieval system for spine vertebrae irregularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aouache; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina Abdul; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Diyana Wan Zaki, Wan Mimi; Hamid, Hamzaini Abdul

    2015-01-16

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) system enables medical practitioners to perform fast diagnosis through quantitative assessment of the visual information of various modalities. In this paper, a more robust CBMIR system that deals with both cervical and lumbar vertebrae irregularity is afforded. It comprises three main phases, namely modelling, indexing and retrieval of the vertebrae image. The main tasks in the modelling phase are to improve and enhance the visibility of the x-ray image for better segmentation results using active shape model (ASM). The segmented vertebral fractures are then characterized in the indexing phase using region-based fracture characterization (RB-FC) and contour-based fracture characterization (CB-FC). Upon a query, the characterized features are compared to the query image. Effectiveness of the retrieval phase is determined by its retrieval, thus, we propose an integration of the predictor model based cross validation neural network (PMCVNN) and similarity matching (SM) in this stage. The PMCVNN task is to identify the correct vertebral irregularity class through classification allowing the SM process to be more efficient. Retrieval performance between the proposed and the standard retrieval architectures are then compared using retrieval precision (Pr@M) and average group score (AGS) measures. Experimental results show that the new integrated retrieval architecture performs better than those of the standard CBMIR architecture with retrieval results of cervical (AGS > 87%) and lumbar (AGS > 82%) datasets. The proposed CBMIR architecture shows encouraging results with high Pr@M accuracy. As a result, images from the same visualization class are returned for further used by the medical personnel.

  7. Radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages for orthodontic patients: hand-wrist bones or cervical vertebrae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chen, Mu-Hsiung; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-04-01

    The skeletal maturation status of a growing patient can influence the selection of orthodontic treatment procedures. Either lateral cephalometric or hand-wrist radiography can be used to assess skeletal development. In this study, we examined the correlation between the maturation stages of cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist bones in Taiwanese individuals. The study group consisted of 330 male and 379 female subjects ranging in age from 8 to 18 years. A total of 709 hand-wrist and 709 lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were assessed using National Taiwan University Hospital Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages were determined by the latest Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stage (CVMS) Index. Spearman's rank correlation was used to correlate the respective maturation stages assessed from the hand-wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae. The values of Spearman's rank correlation were 0.910 for males and 0.937 for females, respectively. These data confirmed a strong and significant correlation between CVMS and NTUH-SMI systems (p less than 0.001). After comparison of the mean ages of subjects in different stages of CVMS and NTU-SMI systems, we found that CVMS I corresponded to NTUH-SMI stages 1 and 2, CVMS II to NTUH-SMI stage 3, CVMS III to NTUHSMI stage 4, CVMS IV to NTUH-SMI stage 5, CVMS V to NTUH-SMI stages 6, 7 and 8, and CVMS VI to NTUH-SMI stage 9. Our results indicate that cervical vertebral maturation stages can be used to replace hand-wrist bone maturation stages for evaluation of skeletal maturity in Taiwanese individuals.

  8. Application of the maximum entropy method to profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, N.; Kalceff, W.; Cline, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method for analysing crystallite size- and strain-induced x-ray profile broadening is presented. This method treats the problems of determining the specimen profile, crystallite size distribution, and strain distribution in a general way by considering them as inverse problems. A common difficulty faced by many experimenters is their inability to determine a well-conditioned solution of the integral equation, which preserves the positivity of the profile or distribution. We show that the MaxEnt method overcomes this problem, while also enabling a priori information, in the form of a model, to be introduced into it. Additionally, we demonstrate that the method is fully quantitative, in that uncertainties in the solution profile or solution distribution can be determined and used in subsequent calculations, including mean particle sizes and rms strain. An outline of the MaxEnt method is presented for the specific problems of determining the specimen profile and crystallite or strain distributions for the correspondingly broadened profiles. This approach offers an alternative to standard methods such as those of Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach. An application of the MaxEnt method is demonstrated in the analysis of alumina size-broadened diffraction data (from NIST, Gaithersburg). It is used to determine the specimen profile and column-length distribution of the scattering domains. Finally, these results are compared with the corresponding Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach analyses. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  9. The application of statistical methods to assess economic assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dianov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration and evaluation of machinery, equipment and special equipment, methodological aspects of the use of standards for assessment of buildings and structures in current prices, the valuation of residential, specialized houses, office premises, assessment and reassessment of existing and inactive military assets, the application of statistical methods to obtain the relevant cost estimates.The objective of the scientific article is to consider possible application of statistical tools in the valuation of the assets, composing the core group of elements of national wealth – the fixed assets. Firstly, capital tangible assets constitute the basis of material base of a new value creation, products and non-financial services. The gain, accumulated of tangible assets of a capital nature is a part of the gross domestic product, and from its volume and specific weight in the composition of GDP we can judge the scope of reproductive processes in the country.Based on the methodological materials of the state statistics bodies of the Russian Federation, regulations of the theory of statistics, which describe the methods of statistical analysis such as the index, average values, regression, the methodical approach is structured in the application of statistical tools to obtain value estimates of property, plant and equipment with significant accumulated depreciation. Until now, the use of statistical methodology in the practice of economic assessment of assets is only fragmentary. This applies to both Federal Legislation (Federal law № 135 «On valuation activities in the Russian Federation» dated 16.07.1998 in edition 05.07.2016 and the methodological documents and regulations of the estimated activities, in particular, the valuation activities’ standards. A particular problem is the use of a digital database of Rosstat (Federal State Statistics Service, as to the specific fixed assets the comparison should be carried

  10. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  11. Acoustic methods for cavitation mapping in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, M.; Xu, S.; Ding, T.; Hu, H.; Liu, R.; Bai, C.; Lu, S.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cavitation is increasingly utilized in a wide range of applications in biomedical field. Monitoring the spatial-temporal evolution of cavitation bubbles is of great significance for efficiency and safety in biomedical applications. In this paper, several acoustic methods for cavitation mapping proposed or modified on the basis of existing work will be presented. The proposed novel ultrasound line-by-line/plane-by-plane method can depict cavitation bubbles distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution and may be developed as a potential standard 2D/3D cavitation field mapping method. The modified ultrafast active cavitation mapping based upon plane wave transmission and reception as well as bubble wavelet and pulse inversion technique can apparently enhance the cavitation to tissue ratio in tissue and further assist in monitoring the cavitation mediated therapy with good spatial and temporal resolution. The methods presented in this paper will be a foundation to promote the research and development of cavitation imaging in non-transparent medium.

  12. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Darvin, M; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Antoniou, C; Koch, S

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled

  13. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  14. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  15. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  16. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  17. Application of multi-block methods in cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    distribution and the two last blocks the superficial microstructure analysed by differential thermo gravimetric analysis. The multi-block method is used to identify the role of each part. The score vectors of each block can be analysed separately or together with score vectors of other blocks. Stepwise......Compressive strength at 1 day of Portland cement as a function of the microstructure of cement was statistically modelled by application of multi-block regression method. The observation X-matrix was partitioned into four blocks, the first block representing the mineralogy, the second particle size...... regression is used to find minimum number of variables of each block. The multi-block method proved useful in determining the modelling strength of each data block and finding minimum number of variables within each data block....

  18. Evolutionary Computation Methods and their applications in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Battaglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A brief discussion of the genesis of evolutionary computation methods, their relationship to artificial intelligence, and the contribution of genetics and Darwin’s theory of natural evolution is provided. Then, the main evolutionary computation methods are illustrated: evolution strategies, genetic algorithms, estimation of distribution algorithms, differential evolution, and a brief description of some evolutionary behavior methods such as ant colony and particle swarm optimization. We also discuss the role of the genetic algorithm for multivariate probability distribution random generation, rather than as a function optimizer. Finally, some relevant applications of genetic algorithm to statistical problems are reviewed: selection of variables in regression, time series model building, outlier identification, cluster analysis, design of experiments.

  19. Studies and applications of neutron radiography with film methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasushi

    1989-01-01

    Neutron radiography has been studied with film methods and applied to some industrial applications. The film methods include not only conventional silver-halide emulsion films, such as industrial, medical or soft X-ray ones, but also track-etch films and those for indirect methods. The characteristics of the film methods are analyzed and investigated with using various image converters, such as gadolinium metal foil and evaporation films, or some scintillation converters such as NE426. The sensitivities and MTFs for various sets of films and converters have been obtained, which gives a chart of the correlation between the appropriate exposure and resolving powers for them. From the chart, one can select some proper sets for the purpose and given conditions of neutron radiography facilities. The film methods have been applied to inspect very fine cracks in thick steel blocks and plates. It is also applied to observe nuclear fuel pellets or irradiated nuclear fuel pins. Furthermore, the film method has been used for neutron computed tomography. Very fine Eu-particles in TiO pellets, which diameters are nearly 300 micron, can be reconstructed by the neutron CT. The fine neutron CT will be useful for the inspection of Pu-particles in mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets for future advance nuclear reactors. (author)

  20. Primary spondylolysis of the axis vertebra (C/sub 2/) in the children, including one with pyknodysostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, G.

    1989-08-01

    This report describes 3 children with a cleft in the pedicles of the second cervical vertebra of uncertain cause. One of these patients had pyknodysostosis. Previous instances of such defects in the literature are reviewed with some considerations on the possible nature of the lesion. (orig.).

  1. Applicability of optical scanner method for fine root dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tomonori; Ohashi, Mizue; Makita, Naoki; Khoon Kho, Lip; Katayama, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2016-04-01

    Fine root dynamics is one of the important components in forest carbon cycling, as ~60 % of tree photosynthetic production can be allocated to root growth and metabolic activities. Various techniques have been developed for monitoring fine root biomass, production, mortality in order to understand carbon pools and fluxes resulting from fine roots dynamics. The minirhizotron method is now a widely used technique, in which a transparent tube is inserted into the soil and researchers count an increase and decrease of roots along the tube using images taken by a minirhizotron camera or minirhizotron video camera inside the tube. This method allows us to observe root behavior directly without destruction, but has several weaknesses; e.g., the difficulty of scaling up the results to stand level because of the small observation windows. Also, most of the image analysis are performed manually, which may yield insufficient quantitative and objective data. Recently, scanner method has been proposed, which can produce much bigger-size images (A4-size) with lower cost than those of the minirhizotron methods. However, laborious and time-consuming image analysis still limits the applicability of this method. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a new protocol for scanner image analysis to extract root behavior in soil. We evaluated applicability of this method in two ways; 1) the impact of different observers including root-study professionals, semi- and non-professionals on the detected results of root dynamics such as abundance, growth, and decomposition, and 2) the impact of window size on the results using a random sampling basis exercise. We applied our new protocol to analyze temporal changes of root behavior from sequential scanner images derived from a Bornean tropical forests. The results detected by the six observers showed considerable concordance in temporal changes in the abundance and the growth of fine roots but less in the decomposition. We also examined

  2. Frontiers of biostatistical methods and applications in clinical oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art of biostatistical methods and their applications in clinical oncology. Many methodologies established today in biostatistics have been brought about through its applications to the design and analysis of oncology clinical studies. This field of oncology, now in the midst of evolution owing to rapid advances in biotechnologies and cancer genomics, is becoming one of the most promising disease fields in the shift toward personalized medicine. Modern developments of diagnosis and therapeutics of cancer have also been continuously fueled by recent progress in establishing the infrastructure for conducting more complex, large-scale clinical trials and observational studies. The field of cancer clinical studies therefore will continue to provide many new statistical challenges that warrant further progress in the methodology and practice of biostatistics. This book provides a systematic coverage of various stages of cancer clinical studies. Topics from modern cancer clinical ...

  3. Application of the kernel method to the inverse geosounding problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hugo; Sosa León, Sonia; Gómez-Treviño, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Determining the layered structure of the earth demands the solution of a variety of inverse problems; in the case of electromagnetic soundings at low induction numbers, the problem is linear, for the measurements may be represented as a linear functional of the electrical conductivity distribution. In this paper, an application of the support vector (SV) regression technique to the inversion of electromagnetic data is presented. We take advantage of the regularizing properties of the SV learning algorithm and use it as a modeling technique with synthetic and field data. The SV method presents better recovery of synthetic models than Tikhonov's regularization. As the SV formulation is solved in the space of the data, which has a small dimension in this application, a smaller problem than that considered with Tikhonov's regularization is produced. For field data, the SV formulation develops models similar to those obtained via linear programming techniques, but with the added characteristic of robustness.

  4. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lughofer, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences.   Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...

  5. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Li, Quan; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery. (paper)

  6. Multi-level decision making models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangquan; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents new developments in multi-level decision-making theory, technique and method in both modeling and solution issues. It especially presents how a decision support system can support managers in reaching a solution to a multi-level decision problem in practice. This monograph combines decision theories, methods, algorithms and applications effectively. It discusses in detail the models and solution algorithms of each issue of bi-level and tri-level decision-making, such as multi-leaders, multi-followers, multi-objectives, rule-set-based, and fuzzy parameters. Potential readers include organizational managers and practicing professionals, who can use the methods and software provided to solve their real decision problems; PhD students and researchers in the areas of bi-level and multi-level decision-making and decision support systems; students at an advanced undergraduate, master’s level in information systems, business administration, or the application of computer science.  

  7. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-26

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  8. Rationalization of thermal injury quantification methods: application to skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglianti, Benjamin L; Dewhirst, Mark W; Abraham, John P; Gorman, John M; Sparrow, Eph M

    2014-08-01

    Classification of thermal injury is typically accomplished either through the use of an equivalent dosimetry method (equivalent minutes at 43 °C, CEM43 °C) or through a thermal-injury-damage metric (the Arrhenius method). For lower-temperature levels, the equivalent dosimetry approach is typically employed while higher-temperature applications are most often categorized by injury-damage calculations. The two methods derive from common thermodynamic/physical chemistry origins. To facilitate the development of the interrelationships between the two metrics, application is made to the case of skin burns. This thermal insult has been quantified by numerical simulation, and the extracted time-temperature results served for the evaluation of the respective characterizations. The simulations were performed for skin-surface exposure temperatures ranging from 60 to 90 °C, where each surface temperature was held constant for durations extending from 10 to 110 s. It was demonstrated that values of CEM43 at the basal layer of the skin were highly correlated with the depth of injury calculated from a thermal injury integral. Local values of CEM43 were connected to the local cell survival rate, and a correlating equation was developed relating CEM43 with the decrease in cell survival from 90% to 10%. Finally, it was shown that the cell survival/CEM43 relationship for the cases investigated here most closely aligns with isothermal exposure of tissue to temperatures of ~50 °C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in product family and product platform design methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support product family and product platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for product family and product platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of products based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent product family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based product development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for product family and product platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on product family and pro...

  10. Selected asymptotic methods with applications to electromagnetics and antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Fikioris, George; Bakas, Odysseas N

    2013-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates the application of several asymptotic methods that have proved useful in the authors' research in electromagnetics and antennas. We first define asymptotic approximations and expansions and explain these concepts in detail. We then develop certain prerequisites from complex analysis such as power series, multivalued functions (including the concepts of branch points and branch cuts), and the all-important gamma function. Of particular importance is the idea of analytic continuation (of functions of a single complex variable); our discussions here include som

  11. New methods and applications in emission spectroscopy (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1960-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy, are already well-established instrumental analytical technique, has in recent years known important developments. Two mains factors are responsible; firstly the demands of metallurgy for purer and purer materials or alloys which are increasingly complex and difficult to analyse by chemical means; secondly, progress in optics, especially in the production of gratings, and in electronics in the field of photomultiplier tubes. We will not here catalogue all the new applications and methods, but we will consider a few amongst the most representative outside the conventional field. (author) [fr

  12. Application of mathematical statistics methods to study fluorite deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermeninov, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the applicability of mathematical-statistical methods for the increase of reliability of sampling and geological tasks (study of regularities of ore formation). Compared is the reliability of core sampling (regarding the selective abrasion of fluorite) and neutron activation logging for fluorine. The core sampling data are characterized by higher dispersion than neutron activation logging results (mean value of variation coefficients are 75% and 56% respectively). However the hypothesis of the equality of average two sampling is confirmed; this fact testifies to the absence of considerable variability of ore bodies

  13. TRIZ method application for improving the special vehicles maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIZ methodology provides an opportunity for improving the classical engineering approach based on personal knowledge and experience. This paper presents the application of TRIZ methods for improving vehicle maintenance where special equipment is installed. A specific problem is the maintenance of the periscopes with heating system. Protective glass panels with heating system are rectangular glass elements. Their purpose is to perform mechanical protection of built-in prisms and provide heating of the prisms. Aging and long-term use leads to failure of these elements. The practice requires solutions in order to extend the lifetime of the system. New solution is evaluated by simulation and experiment.

  14. CT morphometric analysis to determine the anatomical basis for the use of transpedicular screws during reconstruction and fixations of anterior cervical vertebrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population. METHODS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images were performed for 80 cases. The anatomic data and screw fixation parameters for ATPS fixation were measured using the Mimics software. FINDINGS: The overall mean OPW, OPH and PAL ranged from 5.81 to 7.49 mm, 7.77 to 8.69 mm, and 33.40 to 31.13 mm separately, and SPA was 93.54 to 109.36 degrees from C3 to C6, 104.99 degrees at C7, whereas, 49.00 to 32.26 degrees from C4 to C7, 46.79 degrees at C3 (TPA. Dl/rSIP had an increasing trend away from upper endplate with mean value from 1.87 to 5.83 mm. Dl/rTIP was located at the lateral portion of the anterior cortex of vertebrae for C3 to C5 and ipsilateral for C6 to C7 with mean value from -2.70 to -3.00 mm, and 0.17 to 3.18 mm. The entrance points for pedicular screw insertion for C3 to C5 and C6 to C7 were recommended -2∼-3 mm and 0-4 mm from the median sagittal plane, respectively, 1-4 mm and 5-6 mm from the upper endplate, with TPA being 46.79-49.00 degrees and 40.89-32.26 degrees, respectively, and SPA being 93.54-106.69 degrees and 109.36-104.99 degrees, respectively. The pedicle screw insertion diameter was recommended 3.5 mm (C3 and C4, 4.0 mm (C5 to C7, and the pedicle axial length was 21-24 mm for C3 to C7 for both genders. However, the ATPS insertion in C3 should be individualized given its relatively small anatomical dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided a morphometric basis for the ATPS fixation technique in lower cervical fixation. It will help in preoperative planning and execution of this surgery.

  15. Application of AI methods to aircraft guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Mcmanus, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A research program for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with tools and methods used for aircraft flight control system design, development, and implementation is discussed. The application of the AI methods for the development and implementation of the logic software which operates with the control mode panel (CMP) of an aircraft is presented. The CMP is the pilot control panel for the automatic flight control system of a commercial-type research aircraft of Langley Research Center's Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) program. A mouse-driven color-display emulation of the CMP, which was developed with AI methods and used to test the AI software logic implementation, is discussed. The operation of the CMP was enhanced with the addition of a display which was quickly developed with AI methods. The display advises the pilot of conditions not satisfied when a mode does not arm or engage. The implementation of the CMP software logic has shown that the time required to develop, implement, and modify software systems can be significantly reduced with the use of the AI methods.

  16. The Relationship amongst Intervertebral Disc Vertical Diameter, Lateral Foramen Diameter and Nerve Root Impingement in Lumbar Vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof MI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.

  17. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  18. Theoretical physics 7 quantum mechanics : methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to methods and applications in quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the understanding of quantized states further on. The first part of the book introduces the quantum theory of angular momentum and approximation methods. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes multiple particle systems and scattering theory. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in the basics of quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets.  About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this seri...

  19. Modern methods of studying surfaces and their application to glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Haehnert, M.

    1977-05-01

    In the works are demonstrated modern methods for study of solid surfaces and its use of glasses. Study of the interaction of ions, electrons and photons with the glass surface provides information about the composition of the surface and its structure on an atomic scale. A qualitative analysis of a surface can be made with the aid of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and with the ion scattering (ISS and RBS) and the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The structure of a surface can be studied by means of ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and the topography of a surface by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ellipsometry is generally confined to measuring the thickness of very thin layers. The application these methods to the glass surfaces is demonstrated on series of examples. (author)

  20. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM), from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  1. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM, from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  2. BEACON: An application of nodal methods for operational support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Nguyen, T.Q.

    1992-01-01

    A practical application of nodal methods is on-line plant operational support. However, to enable plant personnel to take full advantage of a nodal model to support plant operations, (a) a core nodal model must always be up to date with the current core history and conditions, (b) the nodal methods must be fast enough to allow numerous core calculations to be performed in minutes to support engineering decisions, and (c) the system must be easily accessible to engineering personnel at the reactor, their offices, or any other location considered appropriate. A core operational support package developed by Westinghouse called BEACON (best estimate analysis of core operations - nuclear) has been installed at several plants. Results from these plants and numerous in-core flux maps analyzed have demonstrated the accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the methodology

  3. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.

    2015-10-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  4. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  5. Uncertain multi-attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces methods for uncertain multi-attribute decision making including uncertain multi-attribute group decision making and their applications to supply chain management, investment decision making, personnel assessment, redesigning products, maintenance services, military system efficiency evaluation. Multi-attribute decision making, also known as multi-objective decision making with finite alternatives, is an important component of modern decision science. The theory and methods of multi-attribute decision making have been extensively applied in engineering, economics, management and military contexts, such as venture capital project evaluation, facility location, bidding, development ranking of industrial sectors and so on. Over the last few decades, great attention has been paid to research on multi-attribute decision making in uncertain settings, due to the increasing complexity and uncertainty of supposedly objective aspects and the fuzziness of human thought. This book can be used as a ref...

  6. Time series analysis methods and applications for flight data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianye

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on different facets of flight data analysis, including the basic goals, methods, and implementation techniques. As mass flight data possesses the typical characteristics of time series, the time series analysis methods and their application for flight data have been illustrated from several aspects, such as data filtering, data extension, feature optimization, similarity search, trend monitoring, fault diagnosis, and parameter prediction, etc. An intelligent information-processing platform for flight data has been established to assist in aircraft condition monitoring, training evaluation and scientific maintenance. The book will serve as a reference resource for people working in aviation management and maintenance, as well as researchers and engineers in the fields of data analysis and data mining.

  7. Drug-Target Interactions: Prediction Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Shanmugam; Kesherwani, Manish; Priya, K Vishnu; Vimala, Antonydhason; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the interactions between drugs and target proteins is a key step in drug discovery. This not only aids to understand the disease mechanism, but also helps to identify unexpected therapeutic activity or adverse side effects of drugs. Hence, drug-target interaction prediction becomes an essential tool in the field of drug repurposing. The availability of heterogeneous biological data on known drug-target interactions enabled many researchers to develop various computational methods to decipher unknown drug-target interactions. This review provides an overview on these computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions along with available webservers and databases for drug-target interactions. Further, the applicability of drug-target interactions in various diseases for identifying lead compounds has been outlined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Application of fuzzy decision-making method in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhixin; Xi Shuren; Qu Jingyuan

    2005-01-01

    Protective actions such as evacuation, sheltering and iodine administration can be taken to mitigate the radiological consequence in the event of an accidental release. In general, decision-making of countermeasures involves both quantitative and qualitative criteria. The conventional approaches to assessing these criteria tend to be less effective when dealing with those qualitative criteria that are imprecise or vague. In this regard, fuzzy set method is an alternative tool. It can cope with vague assessment in a better way. This paper presents the application of fussy methodology to decision-making of protective actions in nuclear emergencies. In this method linguistic terms and fuzzy triangular numbers are used to represent decision-maker's subjective assessment for different decision criteria considered and decision alternatives versus the decision criteria. Following the assessment performed by specialists, corresponding evaluations can be synthesized and ranked. Finally, the optimal strategy for implementing protective actions can be recommended. (authors)

  9. The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.

  10. Application of Target Costing method in the Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andor Pajrok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to managing costs are based on the costs that are the result of existing capabilities and resources in the company. Adding to these costs a specified margin or profit, leads to the sales price. If the market is not ready to accept such a selling price, managers need to find opportunities for rationalization and cost reduction. Target cost management begins the process of managing the sales price and the planned profit that the market can accept, and only then is it possible to determine the cost of the product. In the planning phase of the product and the manufacturing process the approach is to finding a method to lower costs and to reduce them as much as possible. The aim this of study is to investigate the application of target (strategy cost accounting methods in the Hospitality Industry.

  11. Piezoelectric Materials Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT thin film was applied to a micro ultrasonic motor, and an epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3 thin film was estimated as a ferroelectric data storage medium. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were successfully obtained for epitaxial PbTiO3 films. As lead-free piezoelectric powders, KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and sintered together to form (K,NaNbO3 ceramics, from which reasonable piezoelectric performance was achieved.

  12. Statistical methods with applications to demography and life insurance

    CERN Document Server

    Khmaladze, Estáte V

    2013-01-01

    Suitable for statisticians, mathematicians, actuaries, and students interested in the problems of insurance and analysis of lifetimes, Statistical Methods with Applications to Demography and Life Insurance presents contemporary statistical techniques for analyzing life distributions and life insurance problems. It not only contains traditional material but also incorporates new problems and techniques not discussed in existing actuarial literature. The book mainly focuses on the analysis of an individual life and describes statistical methods based on empirical and related processes. Coverage ranges from analyzing the tails of distributions of lifetimes to modeling population dynamics with migrations. To help readers understand the technical points, the text covers topics such as the Stieltjes, Wiener, and Itô integrals. It also introduces other themes of interest in demography, including mixtures of distributions, analysis of longevity and extreme value theory, and the age structure of a population. In addi...

  13. On some methods in homogenization and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, Gregoire

    1993-01-01

    This report (which reproduces an 'Habilitation' thesis) is concerned with the homogenization theory which can be defined as the union of all mathematical techniques allowing to pass from a microscopic behavior to a macroscopic (or averaged, or effective) behavior of a physical phenomenon, modeled by one or several partial differential equations. Some new results are discussed, both from the point of view of methods, and from that of applications. The first chapter deals with viscous incompressible fluid flows in porous media, and, in particular, contains a derivation of Darcy and Brinkman's law. The second chapter is dedicated to the two-scale convergence method. The third chapter focus on the problem of optimal bounds for the effective properties of composite materials. Finally, in the fourth chapter the previous results are applied to the optimal design problem for elastic shapes. (author) [fr

  14. SECTIONING METHOD APPLICATION AT ELLIPSOMETRY OF INHOMOGENEOUS REFLECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  15. Application of Computational Methods in Planaria Research: A Current Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shyamasree

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes. The complexity of receptors and signalling mechanisms, immune system network, biology of repair, responses to injury are yet to be understood in Planaria. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have generated a vast repository of data, but their availability and analysis is a challenging task. Data mining, computational approaches of gene curation, bioinformatics tools for analysis of transcriptomic data, designing of databases, application of algorithms in deciphering changes of morphology by RNA interference (RNAi approaches, understanding regeneration experiments is a new venture in Planaria research that is helping researchers across the globe in understanding the biology. We highlight the applications of Hidden Markov models (HMMs in designing of computational tools and their applications in Planaria decoding their complex biology.

  16. Machine Learning-Empowered Biometric Methods for Biomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervasive computing technologies are paving a promising way for advanced smart health applications. However, a key impediment faced by wide deployment of these assistive smart devices, is the increasing privacy and security issue, such as how to protect access to sensitive patient data in the health record. Focusing on this challenge, biometrics are attracting intense attention in terms of effective user identification to enable confidential health applications. In this paper, we take special interest in two bio-potential-based biometric modalities, electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG, considering that they are both unique to individuals, and more reliable than token (identity card and knowledge-based (username/password methods. After extracting effective features in multiple domains from ECG/EEG signals, several advanced machine learning algorithms are introduced to perform the user identification task, including Neural Network, K-nearest Neighbor, Bagging, Random Forest and AdaBoost. Experimental results on two public ECG and EEG datasets show that ECG is a more robust biometric modality compared to EEG, leveraging a higher signal to noise ratio and also more distinguishable morphological patterns. Among different machine learning classifiers, the random forest greatly outperforms the others and owns an identification rate as high as 98%. This study is expected to demonstrate that properly selected biometric empowered by an effective machine learner owns a great potential, to enable confidential biomedicine applications in the era of smart digital health.

  17. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  18. CRKSPH: A new meshfree hydrodynamics method with applications to astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John Michael; Raskin, Cody; Frontiere, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    The study of astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae, accretion disks, galaxy formation, and large-scale structure formation requires computational modeling of, at a minimum, hydrodynamics and gravity. Developing numerical methods appropriate for these kinds of problems requires a number of properties: shock-capturing hydrodynamics benefits from rigorous conservation of invariants such as total energy, linear momentum, and mass; lack of obvious symmetries or a simplified spatial geometry to exploit necessitate 3D methods that ideally are Galilean invariant; the dynamic range of mass and spatial scales that need to be resolved can span many orders of magnitude, requiring methods that are highly adaptable in their space and time resolution. We have developed a new Lagrangian meshfree hydrodynamics method called Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, or CRKSPH, in order to meet these goals. CRKSPH is a conservative generalization of the meshfree reproducing kernel method, combining the high-order accuracy of reproducing kernels with the explicit conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy necessary to study shock-driven hydrodynamics in compressible fluids. CRKSPH's Lagrangian, particle-like nature makes it simple to combine with well-known N-body methods for modeling gravitation, similar to the older Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Indeed, CRKSPH can be substituted for SPH in existing SPH codes due to these similarities. In comparison to SPH, CRKSPH is able to achieve substantially higher accuracy for a given number of points due to the explicitly consistent (and higher-order) interpolation theory of reproducing kernels, while maintaining the same conservation principles (and therefore applicability) as SPH. There are currently two coded implementations of CRKSPH available: one in the open-source research code Spheral, and the other in the high-performance cosmological code HACC. Using these codes we have applied

  19. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  20. Morphological Characterization of Nanofibers: Methods and Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Širc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical applications such as wound dressing for skin regeneration, stem cell transplantation, or drug delivery require special demands on the three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Besides the biocompatibility and mechanical properties, the morphology is the most important attribute of the scaffold. Specific surface area, volume, and size of the pores have considerable effect on cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. In the case of incorporated biologically active substances, their release is also influenced by the internal structure of nanofibers. Although many scientific papers are focused on the preparation of nanofibers and evaluation of biological tests, the morphological characterization was described just briefly as service methods. The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods applicable for morphological characterization of nanofibers and supplement it by the results of our research. Needleless electrospinning technique was used to prepare nanofibers from polylactide, poly(ε-caprolactone, gelatin, and polyamide. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the fiber diameters and to reveal eventual artifacts in the nanofibrous structure. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were employed to measure the specific surface areas. Mercury porosimetry was used to determine total porosities and compare pore size distributions of the prepared samples.

  1. Application of nonlinear systems in nanomechanics and nanofluids analytical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ganji, Davood Domairry

    2015-01-01

    With Application of Nonlinear Systems in Nanomechanics and Nanofluids the reader gains a deep and practice-oriented understanding of nonlinear systems within areas of nanotechnology application as well as the necessary knowledge enabling the handling of such systems. The book helps readers understand relevant methods and techniques for solving nonlinear problems, and is an invaluable reference for researchers, professionals and PhD students interested in research areas and industries where nanofluidics and dynamic nano-mechanical systems are studied or applied. The book is useful in areas suc

  2. Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmel Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.

  3. The application of geophysical methods to archaeological prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, Neil [Geophysics Team, English Heritage, Fort Cumberland, Eastney, Portsmouth PO4 9LD (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this review is to combine the almost universal fascination we share for our past with the comparatively recent, in archaeological terms, application of geophysical prospection methods. For their success, each of these methods relies upon a physical contrast to exist between the buried archaeological feature and the properties of the surrounding subsoil. Understanding the archaeological origin of such physical contrasts, in terms of density, thermal conductivity, electrical resistance, magnetic or dielectric properties, remains fundamental to an appreciation of the discipline. This review provides a broad introduction to the subject area acknowledging the historical development of the discipline and discusses each of the major techniques in turn: earth resistance, magnetic and electromagnetic methods (including ground penetrating radar), together with an appreciation of more esoteric approaches, such as the use of micro-gravity survey to detect buried chambers and voids. The physical principles and field instrumentation involved for the acquisition of data with each method are considered and fully illustrated with case histories of results from the English Heritage archives.

  4. The application of geophysical methods to archaeological prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to combine the almost universal fascination we share for our past with the comparatively recent, in archaeological terms, application of geophysical prospection methods. For their success, each of these methods relies upon a physical contrast to exist between the buried archaeological feature and the properties of the surrounding subsoil. Understanding the archaeological origin of such physical contrasts, in terms of density, thermal conductivity, electrical resistance, magnetic or dielectric properties, remains fundamental to an appreciation of the discipline. This review provides a broad introduction to the subject area acknowledging the historical development of the discipline and discusses each of the major techniques in turn: earth resistance, magnetic and electromagnetic methods (including ground penetrating radar), together with an appreciation of more esoteric approaches, such as the use of micro-gravity survey to detect buried chambers and voids. The physical principles and field instrumentation involved for the acquisition of data with each method are considered and fully illustrated with case histories of results from the English Heritage archives

  5. Correction of severe post-traumatic kyphosis by posterior vertebra column resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-song; Zhang, Yong-gang; Wang, Zheng; Chen, Chao; Wang, Yan

    2010-03-20

    Post-traumatic kyphosis is a common potential complication of spinal trauma and correct management of this problem is becoming ever more important. Although posterior vertebra column resection has been increasingly adopted to correct severe spinal deformity, no series of reports were found on severe post-traumatic kyphosis in the thoracolumbar region. Therefore, the present cohort retrospective study is presented to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of posterior vertebra column resection with instrument fusion performed in patients with severe post-traumatic kyphosis. From May 2004 to May 2006, 53 patients (38 male, 15 female) at an average age of 37.6 years (range, 24 to 66 years), were surgically treated for symptomatic post-traumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis with a posterior wedge closing osteotomy at our hospital. Among them, 5 consecutive adult patients with severe post-traumatic kyphosis were included in this study. Operation time, blood loss and complications were noted in each case. Radiographic documentation was made on the basis of standing anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral views and three dimensional reconstruction images of computed tomography (CT) scans were used to further identify the apex region of a sharp angular deformity. Sagittal correction was assessed in terms of effective regional deformity (ERD) for the injury level. Assessment of radiological fusion at follow-up was based on the presence of trabecular bone bridging at the osteotomy site according to Brantigan. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments were performed by using Oswestry disability index (ODI), back pain was rated in all patients by the visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and at the latest follow-up. The mean operating time was 265 minutes (220 - 408 minutes), with an average blood loss of 1362 ml (870 - 2570 ml). Each patient finished at least two years of follow-up. The average ERD significantly decreased from 69 degrees (58

  6. Application of WSP method in analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacho, M.; Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.; Sojak, S.; Krnac, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of activity in natural samples is specific especially because of its low level and high background interferences. Reduction of background interferences could be reached using low background chamber. Measurement geometry in shape of Marinelli beaker is commonly used according to low level of activity in natural samples. The Peak Net Area (PNA) method is the world-wide accepted technique for analysis of gamma-ray spectra. It is based on the net area calculation of the full energy peak, therefore, it takes into account only a fraction of measured gamma-ray spectrum. On the other hand, the Whole Spectrum Processing (WSP) approach to the gamma analysis makes possible to use entire information being in the spectrum. This significantly raises efficiency and improves energy resolution of the analysis. A principal step for the WSP application is building up the suitable response operator. Problems are put in an appearance when suitable standard calibration sources are unavailable. It may be occurred in the case of large volume samples and/or in the analysis of high energy range. Combined experimental and mathematical calibration may be a suitable solution. Many different detectors have been used to register the gamma ray and its energy. HPGe detectors produce the highest resolution commonly available today. Therefore they are they the most often used detectors in natural samples activity analysis. Scintillation detectors analysed using PNA method could be also used in simple cases, but for complicated spectra are practically inapplicable. WSP approach improves resolution of scintillation detectors and expands their applicability. WSP method allowed significant improvement of the energetic resolution and separation of "1"3"7Cs 661 keV peak from "2"1"4Bi 609 keV peak. At the other hand the statistical fluctuations in the lower part of the spectrum highlighted by background subtraction causes that this part is still not reliably analyzable. (authors)

  7. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C S [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  8. Advances in Applications of Hierarchical Bayesian Methods with Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanistic and empirical watershed models are increasingly used to inform water resource decisions. Growing access to historical stream measurements and data from in-situ sensor technologies has increased the need for improved techniques for coupling models with hydrological measurements. Techniques that account for the intrinsic uncertainties of both models and measurements are especially needed. Hierarchical Bayesian methods provide an efficient modeling tool for quantifying model and prediction uncertainties, including those associated with measurements. Hierarchical methods can also be used to explore spatial and temporal variations in model parameters and uncertainties that are informed by hydrological measurements. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to develop a hybrid (statistical-mechanistic) SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) model of long-term mean annual streamflow across diverse environmental and climatic drainages in 18 U.S. hydrological regions. Our application illustrates the use of a new generation of Bayesian methods that offer more advanced computational efficiencies than the prior generation. Evaluations of the effects of hierarchical (regional) variations in model coefficients and uncertainties on model accuracy indicates improved prediction accuracies (median of 10-50%) but primarily in humid eastern regions, where model uncertainties are one-third of those in arid western regions. Generally moderate regional variability is observed for most hierarchical coefficients. Accounting for measurement and structural uncertainties, using hierarchical state-space techniques, revealed the effects of spatially-heterogeneous, latent hydrological processes in the "localized" drainages between calibration sites; this improved model precision, with only minor changes in regional coefficients. Our study can inform advances in the use of hierarchical methods with hydrological models to improve their integration with stream

  9. Nonstationary Hydrological Frequency Analysis: Theoretical Methods and Application Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Because of its great implications in the design and operation of hydraulic structures under changing environments (either climate change or anthropogenic changes), nonstationary hydrological frequency analysis has become so important and essential. Two important achievements have been made in methods. Without adhering to the consistency assumption in the traditional hydrological frequency analysis, the time-varying probability distribution of any hydrological variable can be established by linking the distribution parameters to some covariates such as time or physical variables with the help of some powerful tools like the Generalized Additive Model of Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). With the help of copulas, the multivariate nonstationary hydrological frequency analysis has also become feasible. However, applications of the nonstationary hydrological frequency formula to the design and operation of hydraulic structures for coping with the impacts of changing environments in practice is still faced with many challenges. First, the nonstationary hydrological frequency formulae with time as covariate could only be extrapolated for a very short time period beyond the latest observation time, because such kind of formulae is not physically constrained and the extrapolated outcomes could be unrealistic. There are two physically reasonable methods that can be used for changing environments, one is to directly link the quantiles or the distribution parameters to some measureable physical factors, and the other is to use the derived probability distributions based on hydrological processes. However, both methods are with a certain degree of uncertainty. For the design and operation of hydraulic structures under changing environments, it is recommended that design results of both stationary and nonstationary methods be presented together and compared with each other, to help us understand the potential risks of each method.

  10. Study on the scope of fault tree method applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Taiju

    1980-03-01

    In fault tree analysis of the reliability of nuclear safety system, including reliability analysis of nuclear protection system, there seem to be some documents in which application of the fault tree method is unreasonable. In fault tree method, the addition rule and the multiplication rule are usually used. The addition rule and the multiplication rule must hold exactly or at least practically. The addition rule has no problem but the multiplication rule has occasionally some problem. For unreliability, mean unavailability and instantaneous unavailability of the elements, holding or not of the multiplication rule has been studied comprehensively. Between the unreliability of each element without maintenance, the multiplication rule holds. Between the instantaneous unavailability of each element, with maintenance or not, the multiplication rule also holds. Between the unreliability of each subsystem with maintenance, however, the multiplication rule does not hold, because the product value is larger than the value of unreliability for a parallel system consisting of the two subsystems with maintenance. Between the mean unavailability of each element without maintenance, the multiplication rule also does not hold, because the product value is smaller than the value of mean unavailability for a parallel system consisting of the two elements without maintenance. In these cases, therefore, the fault tree method may not be applied by rote for reliability analysis of the system. (author)

  11. APPLICATION OF QUALITY ECONOMY METHODS IN MANAGING INNOVATION CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okrepilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the possibilities of applying the methods of the quality economy to improve the management efficiency of the development of the region's innovative potential.Results: in the article topical questions of development of innovative potential of the region are considered - one of the important factors providing improvement of quality of life of the population and sustainable development of the territory. The content of the concept of "innovation potential of the region" is disclosed and its components are described. The purposes of development of innovative potential are considered. A comparative analysis of the methods of managing the development of potential in the market and planned economy is carried out. Particular attention is paid to the application of quality management methods to improve management effectiveness. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of the economy of the macro-region "North-West" from the point of view of transition to an innovative development path, as well as scenarios for the development of the economy, are discussed.Conclusions and relevance: the use of quality economy tools to manage the development of innovative capacity will help to avoid mistakes and choose the right directions for development. In the era of globalization, improving quality is a prerequisite for successful competition in world markets. Therefore, the issues of innovation capacity assessment should be taken into account in the development of regional plans and programs, as well as socio-economic policy.

  12. Application of FISH method in evaluation of a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingming; Zheng Siying; Duan Zhikai; Zhang Shuxian; Xu Honglan

    2004-01-01

    To study effects of long term radiation hazard and explore the possibility of the application of chromosome aberration and FISH method to dose retrospection and reconstruction, FISH method was used to detect biological destination of three accidental victims at 7.5 years after Xinzhou accident. In the meantime, conventional chromosomal aberration, G-banding, CB micronuclei and HPRT gene locus mutation assays were performed. In addition, the growth and development of Victim S, who suffered the radiation accident as a fetus, were examined. And comparison of dose estimations between chromosome aberration and FISH method of the victims was conducted. The results demonstrated that the biological dose estimated by translocation frequency is very close to the imitated dose by the physical way after the accident if enough cells are observed. It is suggested that FISH may be applied to dose retrospection and reconstruction. Obvious chromosomal aberrations still existed in the examined victims at 7.5 years after the accident and displayed good dose correlative dependence. The results also showed that the growth and development of S were basically normal after birth

  13. Application of heterogeneous method for the interpretation of exponential experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper gives a brief review of a work which was executed mainly during 1967 and 1968 in the field of the application of heterogeneous methods for the interpretation of exponential experiments with ORGEL type lattices (lattices of natural uranium cluster elements with organic coolants moderated by heavy water). In the frame of this work a heterogeneous computer program, in (r,γ) geometry was written which is based on the NORDHEIM method using a uniform moderator, three energy groups and monopol and dipol sources. This code is especially adapted for regular square lattices in a cylindrical tank. Full use of lattice symmetry was made for reducing the numerical job of the theory. A further reduction was obtained by introducing a group averaged extrapolation distance at the external boundary. Channel parameters were evaluated by the PINOCCHIO code. Comparisons of calculated and measured thermal neutron flux showed good agreement. Equivalence of heterogeneous and homogeneous theory was found in cases of lattices comprising a minimum of 32, 24 and 16 fuel elements for respectively under-, well-, and over-moderated lattices. Heterogeneous calculations of high leakage lattices suffered the lack of good methods for the computation of axial and radial streaming parameters. Interpretation of buckling measurements in the subcritical facility EXPO requires already more accurate evaluation of the streaming effects than we made. The potential of heterogeneous theory in the field of exponential experiments is thought to be limited by the precision by which the streaming parameters can be calculated

  14. Application of autoradiographic methods for contaminant distribution studies in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povetko, O.G.; Higley, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine physical location of contaminants in soil, solidified soil 'thin' sections, which preserve the undisturbed structural characteristics of the original soil, were prepared. This paper describes an application of different autoradiographic methods to identify the distribution of selected nuclides along key structural features of sample soils and sizes of 'hot particles' of contaminant. These autoradiographic methods included contact autoradiography using CR-39 (Homalite Plastics) plastic alpha track detectors and neutron-induced autoradiography that produced fission fragment tracks in Lexan (Thrust Industries, Inc.) plastic detectors. Intact soil samples containing weapons-grade plutonium from Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site and control samples from outside the site location were used in thin soil section preparation. Distribution of particles of actinides was observed and analyzed through the soil section depth profile from the surface to the 15-cm depth. The combination of two autoradiographic methods allowed to distinguish alpha- emitting particles of natural U, 239+240 Pu and non-fissile alpha-emitters. Locations of 990 alpha 'stars' caused by 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were recorded, particles were sized, their size-frequency, depth and activity distributions were analyzed. Several large colloidal conglomerates of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were found in soil profile. Their alpha and fission fragment 'star' images were micro photographed. (author)

  15. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  16. Applications of radioactive methods in cement concrete testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinakaran, M.; Vijayaraghavan, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Basic principles regarding the neutron moderation technique and the successful application of this technique for determining the moisture and cement content in hardened concrete are briefly discussed. Since fast neutrons are converted into slow thermal neutrons by elastic scattering in the presence of hydrogen nuclei, it is possible to determine the moisture content in hardened cement concrete using precalibrated relationships. Also since most of the hydrogenous matter in concrete pertains to non-fixed water and hydrated cement compounds, an analysis of slow neutron counts on a sample at different non-fixed moisture contents make the estimation of cement content possible using the mathematical relationship between cement content, degree of hydration and the equivalent moisture content. The method developed is quick, non-destructive, and repeatable at the same time giving better accuracy when compared to conventional chemical methods. Use was also made of gamma ray transmission method for determining the differential density at various depths in a cement concrete pavement making use of cores cut from the pavement. Further, development proposed for determination of density at different depths of pavement in situ is also discussed. (auth.)

  17. The Benefits of the ABC Method Application in Croatian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Pekanov-Starčević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New business environment has changed the structure and behaviour of company costs. The changes are primarily reflected in the increasing share of overhead costs in the total costs. Given that competitiveness is reflected in the unit product cost, the exact determination of unit costs by cost drivers, primarily the precise allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers, have become crucial to the survival of companies in a turbulent market environment. The biggest problem in determining the exact product costs is incorrect allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers. In the 1980s, a new method of allocating overhead costs was developed – activity-based costing (ABC method. Advocates of this method claim that it allows a more accurate determination of product costs and identification and elimination of activities that do not add value to the company, thereby reducing costs and increasing profits, and ultimately creating and sustaining a competitive advantage. Using a sample of Croatian companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, we investigated to which extent they applied activity-based costing; its benefits to the cost management system, and which factors influenced the application of this methodology. This study provides a new insight into the development of cost management systems in Croatian companies.

  18. New methods and applications in emission spectroscopy (1960); Methodes et applications nouvelles en spectroscopie d'emission (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Emission spectroscopy, are already well-established instrumental analytical technique, has in recent years known important developments. Two mains factors are responsible; firstly the demands of metallurgy for purer and purer materials or alloys which are increasingly complex and difficult to analyse by chemical means; secondly, progress in optics, especially in the production of gratings, and in electronics in the field of photomultiplier tubes. We will not here catalogue all the new applications and methods, but we will consider a few amongst the most representative outside the conventional field. (author) [French] La spectroscopie d'emission, technique analytique instrumentale deja ancienne, a pris, depuis quelques annees, une extension notable. Deux facteurs principaux ont contribue a ce succes: d'une part, l'exigence de la metallurgie en materiaux de plus en plus pur ou en alliages de plus en plus complexes, difficiles a analyser chimiquement, d'autre part, les progres realises en optique, principalement dans la fabrication des reseaux, et en electronique dans le domaine des tubes photomultiplicateurs. Nous ne ferons pas ici le recensement de toutes les applications ou methodes nouvelles, mais nous en choisirons quelques unes des plus representatives hors du domaine classique. (auteur)

  19. Augmentation of failed human vertebrae with critical un-contained lytic defect restores their structural competence under functional loading: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalay, Ron N; von Stechow, Dietrich; Hackney, David B

    2015-07-01

    Lytic spinal lesions reduce vertebral strength and may result in their fracture. Vertebral augmentation is employed clinically to provide mechanical stability and pain relief for vertebrae with lytic lesions. However, little is known about its efficacy in strengthening fractured vertebrae containing lytic metastasis. Eighteen unembalmed human lumbar vertebrae, having simulated uncontained lytic defects and tested to failure in a prior study, were augmented using a transpedicular approach and re-tested to failure using a wedge fracture model. Axial and moment based strength and stiffness parameters were used to quantify the effect of augmentation on the structural response of the failed vertebrae. Effects of cement volume, bone mineral density and vertebral geometry on the change in structural response were investigated. Augmentation increased the failed lytic vertebral strength [compression: 85% (Paugmentation is effective in bolstering the failed lytic vertebrae compressive and axial structural competence, showing strength estimates up to 50-90% of historical values of osteoporotic vertebrae without lytic defects. This modest increase suggests that lytic vertebrae undergo a high degree of structural damage at failure, with strength only partially restored by vertebral augmentation. The positive effect of cement volume is self-limiting due to extravasation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Application of distinct element method to toppling failure of slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the stability of slopes during earthquakes has become to be an important engineering problem, especially in case of the earthquake-proof design of nuclear power plants. But, for fissured rock slopes, some problems are remained unresolved, because they can not be treated as continua. The authors have been investigating toppling failure of slopes, from a point of view which regards a fissured rock mass as an assemblage of rigid blocks. DEM (Distinct Element Method) proposed by Cundall (1974) seems to be very helpful to such a investigation. So, in this paper, the applicability of DEM to toppling failure of slopes is examined through the comparison between DEM results and theoretical or experimental results using 3 simple models. (author)

  1. Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan

    1998-01-01

    The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.

  2. Singular perturbations introduction to system order reduction methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepakina, Elena; Mortell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a fresh approach to investigating singularly perturbed systems using asymptotic and geometrical techniques. It gives many examples and step-by-step techniques, which will help beginners move to a more advanced level. Singularly perturbed systems appear naturally in the modelling of many processes that are characterized by slow and fast motions simultaneously, for example, in fluid dynamics and nonlinear mechanics. This book’s approach consists in separating out the slow motions of the system under investigation. The result is a reduced differential system of lesser order. However, it inherits the essential elements of the qualitative behaviour of the original system. Singular Perturbations differs from other literature on the subject due to its methods and wide range of applications. It is a valuable reference for specialists in the areas of applied mathematics, engineering, physics, biology, as well as advanced undergraduates for the earlier parts of the book, and graduate stude...

  3. Aggregative Learning Method and Its Application for Communication Quality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, Dauren F.; Kotaki, Minoru

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, so-called Aggregative Learning Method (ALM) is proposed to improve and simplify the learning and classification abilities of different data processing systems. It provides a universal basis for design and analysis of mathematical models of wide class. A procedure was elaborated for time series model reconstruction and analysis for linear and nonlinear cases. Data approximation accuracy (during learning phase) and data classification quality (during recall phase) are estimated from introduced statistic parameters. The validity and efficiency of the proposed approach have been demonstrated through its application for monitoring of wireless communication quality, namely, for Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) system. Low memory and computation resources were shown to be needed for the procedure realization, especially for data classification (recall) stage. Characterized with high computational efficiency and simple decision making procedure, the derived approaches can be useful for simple and reliable real-time surveillance and control system design.

  4. Continuum-Kinetic Models and Numerical Methods for Multiphase Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Isaac Michael

    This thesis presents a continuum-kinetic approach for modeling general problems in multiphase solid mechanics. In this context, a continuum model refers to any model, typically on the macro-scale, in which continuous state variables are used to capture the most important physics: conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A kinetic model refers to any model, typically on the meso-scale, which captures the statistical motion and evolution of microscopic entitites. Multiphase phenomena usually involve non-negligible micro or meso-scopic effects at the interfaces between phases. The approach developed in the thesis attempts to combine the computational performance benefits of a continuum model with the physical accuracy of a kinetic model when applied to a multiphase problem. The approach is applied to modeling a single particle impact in Cold Spray, an engineering process that intimately involves the interaction of crystal grains with high-magnitude elastic waves. Such a situation could be classified a multiphase application due to the discrete nature of grains on the spatial scale of the problem. For this application, a hyper elasto-plastic model is solved by a finite volume method with approximate Riemann solver. The results of this model are compared for two types of plastic closure: a phenomenological macro-scale constitutive law, and a physics-based meso-scale Crystal Plasticity model.

  5. Bayesian statistic methods and theri application in probabilistic simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian statistic methods are facing a rapidly growing level of interest and acceptance in the field of health economics. The reasons of this success are probably to be found on the theoretical fundaments of the discipline that make these techniques more appealing to decision analysis. To this point should be added the modern IT progress that has developed different flexible and powerful statistical software framework. Among them probably one of the most noticeably is the BUGS language project and its standalone application for MS Windows WinBUGS. Scope of this paper is to introduce the subject and to show some interesting applications of WinBUGS in developing complex economical models based on Markov chains. The advantages of this approach reside on the elegance of the code produced and in its capability to easily develop probabilistic simulations. Moreover an example of the integration of bayesian inference models in a Markov model is shown. This last feature let the analyst conduce statistical analyses on the available sources of evidence and exploit them directly as inputs in the economic model.

  6. Relationship between fractures of the vertebrae and presence of spinal haematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroda, L; Stankovic, D [Urgent Centre, University Clinical Centre, Pasterova 2, Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia); Drndarski, B [Institute of Oncology and Radiology, Pasterova 144, Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia); Bajic, R [Department of Radiology, Institute of Neurosurgery, University Clinical Centre, Visegradska, Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia)

    1994-12-31

    Thirty-eight patients with fractured vertebrae were involved in our study. Patients were evaluated by standard plain radiographs of the spine, myelographies and post-myelographic computed tomographies of the damaged part of the spine. The aim of the study was to give an answer to the question if there is difference between frequency of the appearance of spinal haematoma in patients with fractured vertebral bodies and in patients with fractured vertebral arches. For that reason all patients were divided into two groups. Trauma of the spine was followed by spinal haematoma in the first group of the patients, whereas in the second group of patients spinal haematoma was not evidenced. The number of the fractured vertebral bodies and fractured vertebral arches in both groups of the patients were determined. Differences between these numbers were tested by chi square test. We concluded that fractures of the vertebral bodies and of the vertebral arches are followed by spinal haematoma in the same degree. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Relationship between fractures of the vertebrae and presence of spinal haematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroda, L.; Stankovic, D.; Drndarski, B.; Bajic, R.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with fractured vertebrae were involved in our study. Patients were evaluated by standard plain radiographs of the spine, myelographies and post-myelographic computed tomographies of the damaged part of the spine. The aim of the study was to give an answer to the question if there is difference between frequency of the appearance of spinal haematoma in patients with fractured vertebral bodies and in patients with fractured vertebral arches. For that reason all patients were divided into two groups. Trauma of the spine was followed by spinal haematoma in the first group of the patients, whereas in the second group of patients spinal haematoma was not evidenced. The number of the fractured vertebral bodies and fractured vertebral arches in both groups of the patients were determined. Differences between these numbers were tested by chi square test. We concluded that fractures of the vertebral bodies and of the vertebral arches are followed by spinal haematoma in the same degree. (authors)

  8. Unicameral bone cyst in the spinous process of a thoracic vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Bowen, J Richard

    2002-10-01

    Unicameral bone cysts affecting the spine are extremely rare and tend to be misdiagnosed. We report on a 17-year-old female patient who presented with a 2-year history of persistent low back pain. The radiographic evaluation and bone scan failed to reveal a pathologic process. Magnetic resonance of the painful area and subsequent computed tomography scan showed a well-circumscribed osteolytic lesion originating from the spinous process and extending into both laminae of T9 vertebra. Aneurysmal bone cyst or osteoblastoma was considered to be the most probable diagnosis. The patient underwent excisional biopsy of the tumor. The intraoperative findings were suggestive of solitary bone cyst, a diagnosis that was confirmed histologically. Because the tumor had not invaded the articular facets, no posterolateral spine fusion was required. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative clinical course. Her symptoms resolved and she returned to her previous level of physical activities. Unicameral bone cysts, although uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of an osteolytic lesion involving the spine.

  9. A Simple Bone Cyst in Cervical Vertebrae of an Adolescent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruges Boude

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spinal simple bone cysts, also known as solitary cysts, are extremely unusual benign primary bone tumors with few cases reported in the literature. Case Presentation. Incidental Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI finding of a C2 Simple bone cyst in a 13-year-old female patient is reported. Complementary studies suggested the benign nature of the lesion. Patient underwent cervical curettage followed by tumor excision. A lateral submandibular approach to the upper cervical spine was used and careful bone resection was possible with a radiofrequency assisted burr and no instrumentation or fixation was required. The stability of the defect was ensured by filling it with bone allograft and by prescribing a postsurgical plastic cervical collar to maintain neck immobilization. Histological examination supported the diagnosis of simple bone cyst. At 6–12-month follow-up the patient presented no recurrence or symptomatology. Conclusions. Solitary bone cysts are infrequent entities in the cervical vertebrae and preservation of spine stability without instrumentation to avoid neurological complications is often challenging. In this case, the proximity of the cyst to the right vertebral artery and the risk of injury were high; however the surgical approach used was successful and no recurrence or instability was evidenced on postoperative MRI.

  10. Transverse maxillary deficit and its influence on the cervical vertebrae maturation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossellu, G; Farronato, G; Nicotera, O; Biagi, R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a transverse maxillary deficit can cause an alteration of vertebral development and therefore of the skeletal maturation comparing the cervical maturation stages index with the hand-wrist index. For the study were selected 200 patients aged 7-14 years, equally distributed by gender and divided into 100 study subjects with maxillary deficit and 100 controls without maxillary deficit. The skeletal maturation index (SM according to Fishman) was evaluated and compared with the hand-wrist x-rays and the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM according to Hassel and Farmann). Forty-one per cent of the subjects in the test group show a discrepancy between CVM and SM. Among these 73% (30 subjects) present an advanced stage of CVM compared with the corresponding SM. Only 16% of the subjects in the control group show a discrepancy between CVM and SM. Among these 69% (11 subjects) appear in an advanced CVM stage. The analysis of the CVM stage in subjects with transverse maxillary deficit appears to be altered compared with the SM identified through a hand-wrist x-ray. In the case of individuals with transverse maxillary deficit it is advisable to use also a hand-wrist x-ray, thus not relying only on CVM for the evaluation of the skeletal growth stages.

  11. Advanced communication methods developed for nuclear data communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Railesha; Tiwari, S.S.; Panday, Lokesh; Suri, Nitin; Takle, Tarun Rao; Jain, Sanjeev; Gupta, Rishi; Sharma, Dipeeka; Takle, Rahul Rao; Gautam, Rajeev; Bhargava, Vishal; Arora, Himanshu; Agarwal, Ankur; Rupesh; Chawla, Mohit; Sethi, Amardeep Singh; Gupta, Mukesh; Gupta, Ankit; Verma, Neha; Sood, Nitin; Singh, Sunil; Agarwal, Chandresh

    2004-01-01

    We conducted various experiments and tested data communications methods that may be useful for various applications in nuclear industries. We explored the following areas. I. Scientific data communication among scientists within the laboratory and inter-laboratory data exchange. 2.Data from sensors from remote and wired sensors. 3.Data from multiple sensors with small zone. 4.Data from single or multiple sensors from distances above 100 m and less than 10 km. No any single data communication method was found to be the best solution for nuclear applications and multiple modes of communication were found to be advantageous than any single mode of data communication. Network of computers in the control room and in between laboratories connected with optical fiber or an isolated Ethernet coaxial LAN was found to be optimum. Information from multiple analog process sensors in smaller zones like reactor building and laboratories on 12C LAN and short-range wireless LAN were found to be advantageous. Within the laboratory sensor data network of 12C was found to be cost effective and wireless LAN was comparatively expansive. Within a room infrared optical LAN and FSK wireless LAN were found to be highly useful in making the sensors free from wires. Direct sensor interface on FSK wireless link were found to be fast accurate, cost effective over large distance data communication. Such links are the only way to communicate from sea boy and balloons hardware. 1-wire communication network of Dallas Semiconductor USA for weather station data communication Computer to computer communication using optical LAN links has been tried, temperature pressure, humidity, ionizing radiation, generator RPM and voltage and various other analog signals were also transported o FSK optical and wireless links. Multiple sensors needed a dedicated data acquisition system and wireless LAN for data telemetry. (author)

  12. Application of Finite Layer Method in Pavement Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite element (FE method has been widely used in predicting the structural responses of asphalt pavements. However, the three-dimensional (3D modeling in general-purpose FE software systems such as ABAQUS requires extensive computations and is relatively time-consuming. To address this issue, a specific computational code EasyFEM was developed based on the finite layer method (FLM for analyzing structural responses of asphalt pavements under a static load. Basically, it is a 3D FE code that requires only a one-dimensional (1D mesh by incorporating analytical methods and using Fourier series in the other two dimensions, which can significantly reduce the computational time and required resources due to the easy implementation of parallel computing technology. Moreover, a newly-developed Element Energy Projection (EEP method for super-convergent calculations was implemented in EasyFEM to improve the accuracy of solutions for strains and stresses over the whole pavement model. The accuracy of the program is verified by comparing it with results from BISAR and ABAQUS for a typical asphalt pavement structure. The results show that the predicted responses from ABAQUS and EasyFEM are in good agreement with each other. The EasyFEM with the EEP post-processing technique converges faster compared with the results derived from ordinary EasyFEM applications, which proves that the EEP technique can improve the accuracy of strains and stresses from EasyFEM. In summary, the EasyFEM has a potential to provide a flexible and robust platform for the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements and can easily be post-processed with the EEP technique to enhance its advantages.

  13. Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.

    1997-09-01

    A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.

  14. Results from the Application of Uncertainty Methods in the CSNI Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a - best estimate - concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI, has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced -best estimate- thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges.

  15. Self-assembly from milli- to nanoscales: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangeli, M; Celis, J-P; Abbasi, S; Varel, C; Böhringer, K F; Van Hoof, C

    2009-01-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices are progressing rapidly. However, due to material and process flow incompatibilities in the fabrication of sensors, actuators and electronic circuitry, a final packaging step is often necessary to integrate all components of a heterogeneous microsystem on a common substrate. Robotic pick-and-place, although accurate and reliable at larger scales, is a serial process that downscales unfavorably due to stiction problems, fragility and sheer number of components. Self-assembly, on the other hand, is parallel and can be used for device sizes ranging from millimeters to nanometers. In this review, the state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly is reviewed. Methods for assembling three-dimensional (3D) MEMS structures out of two-dimensional (2D) ones are described. The use of capillary forces for folding 2D plates into 3D structures, as well as assembling parts onto a common substrate or aggregating parts to each other into 2D or 3D structures, is discussed. Shape matching and guided assembly by magnetic forces and electric fields are also reviewed. Finally, colloidal self-assembly and DNA-based self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are surveyed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed. (topical review)

  16. Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.

  17. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  18. Dependability validation by means of fault injection: method, implementation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlat, Jean

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation presents theoretical and practical results concerning the use of fault injection as a means for testing fault tolerance in the framework of the experimental dependability validation of computer systems. The dissertation first presents the state-of-the-art of published work on fault injection, encompassing both hardware (fault simulation, physical fault Injection) and software (mutation testing) issues. Next, the major attributes of fault injection (faults and their activation, experimental readouts and measures, are characterized taking into account: i) the abstraction levels used to represent the system during the various phases of its development (analytical, empirical and physical models), and Il) the validation objectives (verification and evaluation). An evaluation method is subsequently proposed that combines the analytical modeling approaches (Monte Carlo Simulations, closed-form expressions. Markov chains) used for the representation of the fault occurrence process and the experimental fault Injection approaches (fault Simulation and physical injection); characterizing the error processing and fault treatment provided by the fault tolerance mechanisms. An experimental tool - MESSALINE - is then defined and presented. This tool enables physical faults to be Injected In an hardware and software prototype of the system to be validated. Finally, the application of MESSALINE for testing two fault-tolerant systems possessing very dissimilar features and the utilization of the experimental results obtained - both as design feedbacks and for dependability measures evaluation - are used to illustrate the relevance of the method. (author) [fr

  19. Adaptive two-regime method: Application to front propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Martin, E-mail: martin.robinson@maths.ox.ac.uk; Erban, Radek, E-mail: erban@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Flegg, Mark, E-mail: mark.flegg@monash.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Monash University Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-03-28

    The Adaptive Two-Regime Method (ATRM) is developed for hybrid (multiscale) stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion problems. It efficiently couples detailed Brownian dynamics simulations with coarser lattice-based models. The ATRM is a generalization of the previously developed Two-Regime Method [Flegg et al., J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859 (2012)] to multiscale problems which require a dynamic selection of regions where detailed Brownian dynamics simulation is used. Typical applications include a front propagation or spatio-temporal oscillations. In this paper, the ATRM is used for an in-depth study of front propagation in a stochastic reaction-diffusion system which has its mean-field model given in terms of the Fisher equation [R. Fisher, Ann. Eugen. 7, 355 (1937)]. It exhibits a travelling reaction front which is sensitive to stochastic fluctuations at the leading edge of the wavefront. Previous studies into stochastic effects on the Fisher wave propagation speed have focused on lattice-based models, but there has been limited progress using off-lattice (Brownian dynamics) models, which suffer due to their high computational cost, particularly at the high molecular numbers that are necessary to approach the Fisher mean-field model. By modelling only the wavefront itself with the off-lattice model, it is shown that the ATRM leads to the same Fisher wave results as purely off-lattice models, but at a fraction of the computational cost. The error analysis of the ATRM is also presented for a morphogen gradient model.

  20. Application of the microscopic method in cutaneous leishmania diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Wael Daboul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous leishmania is spreading fast. This study aims at developing the microscopic method to achieve a full detection of all positive cases of leishmania.Methods: 50 human cases have been studied by applying microscopic smears stained with Wright stain. Microscopic photos were taken for the presumed unfamiliar figures.Results: Mononuclear cells with tails are present at a rate of (98%. They are associated with Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in 50% of the cases. The polygonal figures and the spherical forms are present at the same rate (60% and are associated with LD bodies in 24% of the cases. The small promastigote like forms are seen at a rate of (76% and are associated with LD bodies in 26% of the cases. The giant promastigotes like forms are present in (80% of the cases and are associated with LD bodies in 28% of the cases. Candle flame forms are present in (40% of the cases and are associated with the LD bodies in 21% of the cases.Discussion: It is applicable to use those discovered figures in diagnosing cutaneous leishmania.

  1. Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-09-01

    There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of GNSS Methods for Monitoring Offshore Platform Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Cho; Nasir Matori, Abd; Gohari, Adel

    2018-03-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has become a powerful tool for high-precision deformation monitoring application. Monitoring of deformation and subsidence of offshore platform due to factors such as shallow gas phenomena. GNSS is the technical interoperability and compatibility between various satellite navigation systems such as modernized GPS, Galileo, reconstructed GLONASS to be used by civilian users. It has been known that excessive deformation affects platform structurally, causing loss of production and affects the efficiency of the machinery on board the platform. GNSS have been proven to be one of the most precise positioning methods where by users can get accuracy to the nearest centimeter of a given position from carrier phase measurement processing of GPS signals. This research is aimed at using GNSS technique, which is one of the most standard methods to monitor the deformation of offshore platforms. Therefore, station modeling, which accounts for the spatial correlated errors, and hence speeds up the ambiguity resolution process is employed. It was found that GNSS combines the high accuracy of the results monitoring the offshore platforms deformation with the possibility of survey.

  3. Usefulness of pinhole collimator in differential diagnosis of metastatic disease and degenerative joint disease in the vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Kawahara, Syunji; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Tamura, Kohei; Tsukatani, Yasushi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo.

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of pinhole collimator (PHC) imaging combined with an X-ray for vertebral metastasis, our prospective study has employed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis in 21 patients, 11 with osseous metastasis and 15 with degenerative joint disease in the lumbar vertebrae. PHC imaging provided better anatomic information on the extent of 99m Tc-MDP accumulation. PHC vertebral scintigraphy had a considerable impact on the decision-making process, although with variations and not very satisfactory results among the physicians with little experience. Our study suggests that PHC imaging and X-ray film are useful in differentiating between osseous metastasis and degenerative joint disease in the vertebra. (author)

  4. Early injuries on the tibia and vertebrae of the mouse after incorporation of thorium 227 and radium 224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poemsl, H

    1974-08-06

    After incorporation of 5 and 50 ..mu..Ci/kg thorium 227 as well as 25 ..mu..Ci/kg radium 224, the tibia and lumbar vertebrae of the mouse were histologically and, using cell counting, morphometrically investigated within a period of 12 weeks. Osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells proved to be the most sensitive to radiation. They were temporarily decimated after 25 ..mu..Ci/kg radium 224 in the tibial metaphysis, but soon regenerated. After 5 ..mu..Ci/kg thorium 227, osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells were only slightly reduced, but more so in the lumbar vertebrae than in the tibia. The cells of osteogenic tissue were almost completely killed by 50 ..mu..Ci/kg thorium 227. In the subsequent regeneration phase, larger regions of atypical bone occured in the tibia metaphysis which was pushed off in the further course by newly formed compact substance of epiphysial cartilage.

  5. Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Da; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were random...

  6. Contribution on the causes of increased degrees of density in the cervical vertebrae during routine skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the findings revealed by this study the scintigraphic image and site of degenerative changes in the in region of the cervical vertebrae (routine examinations in a total of 61 patients) were rated as typical enough to permit benign skeletal diseases to be diagnosed and identified in the majority of cases, the additional use of X-ray procedures thus being rendered superfluous. (TRV) [de

  7. Protective role of lycopene against damage induced in liver, lung and vertebrae of gamma irradiated rat fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, N.H.; Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene (0.9 mg/100 g/day) orally given pre and post gamma irradiation on the histological changes in the liver, lung and vertebrae of fetuses. Four groups of pregnant female rats were irradiated as follows: first group represented control (C), second group treated with lycopene (L), third group exposed to radiation (R) and fourth group exposed to radiation and treated with lycopene (R+L). Pregnant female rats of group 3 and 4 were exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose level of 1.5 Gy at day 5 and 1.5 Gy at day 10 of gestation. All groups were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation. Histological results showed serious injury in the liver after exposure to gamma irradiation, where hemo siderosis was noted surrounding the dilated central vein and hepatocytes were atrophied with depression in the hemopoiesis process. Lung sections of fetuses maternally subjected to 1.5 Gy at day 5 and at day 10 of gestation and inspected on day 20 of gestation exhibited dilated and atrophied air alveoli with flattened lining epithelium. Vertebrae of these fetuses showed reductions in number of mitoses and disorderly maturation followed by the asymptomatic degeneration and necrosis of less mature element and bleeding in the periosteum of vertebra. Oral administration of lycopene pre and post gamma irradiation markedly reduced the radiation injury and showed marked protection against the liver and lung damaging effects of irradiation. On the other hand, the vertebrae sections showed no protective role of lycopene from the irradiation damage. Therefore, it may be suggested that lycopene, a potent antioxidant, can attenuate radiation injuries in certain organ

  8. Osteology of the dorsal vertebrae of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn K. Voegele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many titanosaurian dinosaurs are known only from fragmentary remains, making comparisons between taxa difficult because they often lack overlapping skeletal elements. This problem is particularly pronounced for the exceptionally large-bodied members of this sauropod clade. Dreadnoughtus schrani is a well-preserved giant titanosaurian from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian–Maastrichtian Cerro Fortaleza Formation of southern Patagonia, Argentina. Numerous skeletal elements are known for Dreadnoughtus, including seven nearly complete dorsal vertebrae and a partial dorsal neural arch that collectively represent most of the dorsal sequence. Here we build on our previous preliminary description of these skeletal elements by providing a detailed assessment of their serial positional assignments, as well as comparisons of the dorsal vertebrae of Dreadnoughtus with those of other exceptionally large-bodied titanosaurians. Although the dorsal elements of Dreadnoughtus probably belong to two individuals, they exhibit substantial morphological variation that suggests that there is minimal, if any, positional overlap among them. Dreadnoughtus therefore preserves the second-most complete dorsal vertebral series known for a giant titanosaurian that has been described in detail, behind only that of Futalognkosaurus. The dorsal sequence of Dreadnoughtus provides valuable insight into serial variation along the vertebral column of these enormous sauropods. Such variation includes the variable presence of divided spinodiapophyseal laminae and associated spinodiapophyseal fossae. Given that dorsal vertebrae are the only elements that overlap between known remains of most giant titanosaurian taxa, the dorsal series of Dreadnoughtus provides a means to directly compare the morphologies of these sauropods. The dorsal vertebrae of Dreadnoughtus and Futalognkosaurus have dorsoventrally narrow transverse processes, unlike the condition in Puertasaurus. Further

  9. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Emil Kongsted; Bünger Cody; Foldager Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti’s syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English st...

  10. Penentuan Garis Interkrista Iliaka terhadap Vertebra dengan Teknik Palpasi untuk Kepentingan Blokade Neuroaksial yang Diproyeksikan oleh Pencitraan Ultrasonografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Safirta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform neuraxial block, a marker is needed as a puncture guide. One of the markers used worldwide is the intercristal line or Tuffier’s line. Many studies have shown that the line location in vertebrae is variable; hence this study was conducted to identify the intercristal line location through palpation towards the vertebrae in Indonesian people, which was measured by ultrasound imaging. This study was a categorical descriptive research conducted prospectively towards 56 people who met the inclusion criteria in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from January to February 2014. The subject’s age, sex, height, and weight were directly measured and recorded and body mass index was also calculated. The intercristal line was then drawn and ultrasonography was performed to identify the vertebral level of the line. The results were categorized according to the previous parameters. It was shown that most of the intercrestal lines were located in lumbar 3 and they were mostly in men with above average height. In conclusion, sex and height are some of the factors that affect the intercristal line location towards the vertebra

  11. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritort, F

    2006-08-16

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  12. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-01-01

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  13. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritort, F

    2006-01-01

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives. (topical review)

  14. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract methods to...

  15. Root Causes of Component Failures Program: Methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterwhite, D.G.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Vesely, W.E.; Meale, B.M.

    1986-12-01

    This report contains information pertaining to definitions, methodologies, and applications of root cause analysis. Of specific interest, and highlighted throughout the discussion, are applications pertaining to current and future Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) light water reactor safety programs. These applications are discussed in view of addressing specific program issues under NRC consideration and reflect current root cause analysis capabilities

  16. The application of nuclear-medicine methods in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpraga, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Dodig, D.

    1996-01-01

    X-radiography and ultrasound imaging are well established and widely used in veterinary practice, but it is not the same situation with radioisotope imaging. In veterinary practice the above mentioned methods of nuclear medicine are developed only in two countries in Europe. That is not doubt due, so bar, to the difficulties in obtaining satisfactory supply of radioisotopes and to the relatively high cost of scanning equipment. However, in collaboration with the Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Faculty in Zagreb, Croatia, we have chance to develop the use of those methods in clinical veterinary practice in Zagreb. That is way in this paper an overview of the application of radioisotopes imaging in veterinary medicine is given. In small animals skeletal changes, lung perusions, brain lesions, space occupying lesions in the liver and its function and hearth function can be usefully searched by a gamma camera and its associated computer. In equine practice scintigraphy of bones, liver, hearth, pulmonary circulation and ventilation is described. The largest amount of radioactive material is used during gamma camera scanning of the skeletons of horses. In this cases the radiation dose 1-2 m from the animal is approximately 3 μSv/h. That is why the protection of personal involved in radioisotope scanning in veterinary medicine must be also regulated by low of radiation protection. Also, the animals should be confined to a controlled area for 2-3 days after scanning before being returned to their owners. After this period the area must be cleaned. (author)

  17. Evaluation of porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites for repair of lumbar vertebra defect in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong-Xue; Quan, Ren-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Tuo; Xie, Shang-Ju; Gao, Huan-Huan; Wei, Xi-Cheng; Yang, Di-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of porous gradient composites with hydroxyapatite/zirconia and autologous iliac in repair of lumbar vertebra body defects in dogs. (1) New porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites were prepared using foam immersion, gradient compound and high temperature sintering; (2) A total of 18 adult beagle dogs, aged five to eight months and weighted 10-13 kg, were randomly assigned into two subgroups, which were implanted with new porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites (subgroup A in 12) or autologous iliac bone (subgroup B in 6); (3) The post-operative data were analyzed and compared between the subgroups to repair the vertebral body defect by roentgenoscopy, morphology and biomechanics. The porosity of new porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites is at 25 poles per inch, and the size of pores is at between 150 and 300 µm. The post-operative roentgenoscopy displayed that new-bone formation is increased gradually, and the interface between composites and host-bone becomes became blur, and the new-bone around the composites were integrated into host-bone at 24 weeks postoperatively in subgroup A. As to subgroup B, the resorption and restructure were found at six weeks after the surgery, and the graft-bone and host-bone have been integrated completely without obvious boundary at 24 weeks postoperatively. Histomorphologic study showed that the amount of bone within pores of the porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites increased continuously with a prolonged implantation time, and that partial composites were degradated and replaced by new-bone trabeculae. There was no significant difference between subgroups (P > 0.05) in the ultimate compressive strengths. New porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites can promote the repair of bony defect, and induce bone tissue to ingrow into the pores, which may be applied widely to the treatment of bony defect in the future. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Are spinal or paraspinal anatomic makers helpful for vertebral numbering and diagnosing lumbosacral transitional vertebrae?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Killic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide [Dept. of Radiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels.

  19. Load-adaptive bone remodeling simulations reveal osteoporotic microstructural and mechanical changes in whole human vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilatti, Sandro D; Christen, Patrik; Parkinson, Ian; Müller, Ralph

    2016-12-08

    Osteoporosis is a major medical burden and its impact is expected to increase in our aging society. It is associated with low bone density and microstructural deterioration. Treatments are available, but the critical factor is to define individuals at risk from osteoporotic fractures. Computational simulations investigating not only changes in net bone tissue volume, but also changes in its microstructure where osteoporotic deterioration occur might help to better predict the risk of fractures. In this study, bone remodeling simulations with a mechanical feedback loop were used to predict microstructural changes due to osteoporosis and their impact on bone fragility from 50 to 80 years of age. Starting from homeostatic bone remodeling of a group of seven, mixed sex whole vertebrae, five mechanostat models mimicking different biological alterations associated with osteoporosis were developed, leading to imbalanced bone formation and resorption with a total net loss of bone tissue. A model with reduced bone formation rate and cell sensitivity led to the best match of morphometric indices compared to literature data and was chosen to predict postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss in the whole group. Thirty years of osteoporotic bone loss were predicted with changes in morphometric indices in agreement with experimental measurements, and only showing major deviations in trabecular number and trabecular separation. In particular, although being optimized to match to the morphometric indices alone, the predicted bone loss revealed realistic changes on the organ level and on biomechanical competence. While the osteoporotic bone was able to maintain the mechanical stability to a great extent, higher fragility towards error loads was found for the osteoporotic bones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebra: Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Adolescent Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangke; Wang, Liang; Wang, Haibin; Guo, Qunfeng; Lu, Xuhua; Chen, Deyu

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the role of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) in the pathogenesis of adolescent lumbar disc herniation (ALDH) and the association between LSTV type and the herniation level of ALDH. This study was a retrospective case-control analysis of roentgenographic images. All adolescent patients who received surgical treatment for L4/5 or L5/S1 single level lumbar disc herniation in our department from 2010 to 2015 were eligible for the ALDH group. All adolescent patients admitted to our hospital during the same period and who had ever undergone a plain anteroposterior radiologic examination of the abdomen and met the inclusion criteria that ensured the absence of any spinal disorders were selected into the control group. The anteroposterior lumbar or abdomen roentgenograms were collected to identify the LSTV. The incidence of LSTV in the ALDH group and the control group were compared. Among the ALDH group, the association between LSTV type (sacralization or lumbarization) and the herniation level of ALDH were evaluated. A total of 80 adolescent patients were included in the ALDH group and 92 asymptomatic adolescents were included in the control group. LSTV was found in 24 patients (30%) in ALDH group compared with 7 patients (7.6%) in the control group (P adolescent patients with sacralization, the L4/5 disc herniation was significantly more common than L5/S1 (81.3% vs. 18.7%; P = 0.019). The LSTV is associated with LDH in adolescents and the sacralization of L5 may contribute to the L4/5 disc herniation in adolescent patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic strategy in segmentation defect of the vertebrae: a retrospective study of 73 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Mathilde; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Baujat, Geneviève; Schaefer, Elise; Judith, Saint-Onge; Bazin, Anne; Pinson, Lucile; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Baumann, Clarisse; Fradin, Melanie; Pierquin, Genevieve; Julia, Sophie; Quélin, Chloé; Doray, Bérénice; Berg, Sylvie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Lambert, Laetitia; Bachmann, Nadine; Lacombe, Didier; Isidor, Bertrand; Laurent, Nicole; Joelle, Roume; Blanchet, Patricia; Odent, Sylvie; Kervran, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie; Abel, Carine; Segers, Karine; Guiliano, Fabienne; Ginglinger-Fabre, Emmanuelle; Selicorni, Angelo; Goldenberg, Alice; El Chehadeh, Salima; Francannet, Christine; Demeer, Benedicte; Duffourd, Yannis; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Verloes, Alain; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Riviere, Jean Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Thevenon, Julien

    2018-02-19

    Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes ( DLL3 , MESP2 , LFNG , HES7 and TBX6 ) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6 , two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3 , and one in MESP2 and HES7 , were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  3. Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.

  4. Applications to shielding design and others of monte carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Daiichiro [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuiding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    One-dimensional or two-dimensional Sn computer code (ANISN, DOT3.5, etc.) and a point attenuation kernel integral code (QAD, etc.) have been used widely for shielding design. Application examples of monte carlo method which could follow precisely the three-dimensional configuration of shielding structure are shown as follow: (1) CASTER cask has a complex structure which consists of a large number of fuel baskets (stainless steel), neutron moderators (polyethylene rods), the body (cast iron), and cooling fin. The R-{theta} model of Sn code DOT3.5 cannot follow closely the complex form of polyethylene rods and fuel baskets. A monte carlo code MORSE is used to ascertain the calculation results of DOT3.5. The discrepancy between the calculation results of DOT3.5 and MORSE was in 10% for dose rate at distance of 1 m from the cask surface. (2) The dose rates of an iron cell at 10 cm above the floor are calculated by the code QAD and the MORSE. The reflected components of gamma ray caused by the auxiliary floor shield (lead) are analyzed by the MORSE. (3) A monte carlo code MCNP4A is used for skyshine evaluation of spent fuel carrier ship 'ROKUEIMARU'. The direct and skyshine components of gamma ray and neutron flux are estimated at each center of engine room and wheel house. The skyshine dose rate of neutron flux is 5-15 times larger than the gamma ray. (M. Suetake)

  5. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable

  6. Application of impedance spectroscopy method for analysis of benzanol fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamykin A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed a method for express control of three component «gasoline-alcohol-water» fuel mixtures based on the spectral impedance investigation of benzanol mixture in the frequency range of 500 Hz — 10 kHz. A correlation dependence between the dielectric constant and the specific resistance of the fuel mixture on content of ethanol and water in the mixture has been found. On the basis of this dependence a calibration nomogram to quantify the gasoline and water-alcohol components content in the test benzanol fuel in the actual range of concentrations has been formed. The nomogram allows determining the water-alcohol and gasoline parts in the analyzed fuel with an error of no more than 1% vol., while the strength of water-alcohol solution is determined with an error of no more than 0.8% vol. The obtained nomogram can also give information about critical water content in the benzanol fuel to prevent its eventual phase separation. It is shown that the initial component composition of different gasoline brands has no significant effect on the electrical characteristics of the studied benzanol fuels, which makes the evaluation of alcohol and water content in the fuel sufficiently accurate. for practical applications.

  7. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  8. IMPLEMENTING NDN USING SDN: A REVIEW ON METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Rowshanrad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many claims about the limitations of todays’ network architecture, its lack of flexibility and ability to response to ongoing changes and increasing users demands. In this regard, new network architectures are proposed. Software Defined Networking (SDN is one of these new architectures which centralizes the control of network by separating control plane from data plane. This separation leads to intelligence, flexibility and easier control in computer networks. One of the advantages of this framework is the ability to implement and test new protocols and architectures in actual networks without any concern of interruption.Named Data Networking (NDN is another paradigm for future network architecture. With NDN the network becomes aware of the content that is providing, rather than just transferring it among end-points. NDN attracts researchers’ attention and known as the potential future of networking and internet. Providing NDN functionalities over SDN is an important requirement to enable the innovation and optimization of network resources. In this paper first we describe about SDN and NDN, and then we introduce methods for implementing NDN using SDN. We also point out the advantages and applications of implementing NDN over SDN.

  9. Application of the Method Risk Matrix to Radiotherapy. Main Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The published fundamental principles of security, and basic international standards of security for ionizing radiation safety, contain requirements of protection for patients undergoing medical exposure. In accordance with these requirements and fulfilling its responsibility to provide for the application of these rules, the IAEA has been working intensively in the prevention of accidental exposures in radiotherapy, and this has resulted in a series of technical reports on the lessons learned from the research done in very serious events, and also in teaching materials shared for regional courses and accessible on the website for the protection of patients. The lessons learned are necessary but not sufficient, as we continue receiving information about new types of accidental exposures and not all may have been published. We need a more proactive approach, with a systematic, comprehensive and structured manner, to try to find out in advance what other errors may happen, to prevent or detect them early. Among these approaches are the method of the 'risk matrix', which by its relative simplicity can be applied to all radiotherapy service.

  10. Leveraging Transcultural Enrollments to Enhance Application of the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Continued growth of transcultural academic programs presents an opportunity for all of the students involved to improve utilization of the scientific method. Our own business success depends on how effectively we apply the scientific method, and so it is unsurprising that our hiring programs focus on three broad areas of capability among applicants which are strongly related to the scientific method. These are 1) ability to continually learn up-to-date earth science concepts, 2) ability to effectively and succinctly communicate in the English language, both oral and written, and 3) ability to employ behaviors that are advantageous with respect to the various phases of the scientific method. This third area is often the most difficult to develop, because neither so-called Western nor Eastern cultures encourage a suite of behaviors that are ideally suited. Generally, the acceptance of candidates into academic programs, together with subsequent high performance evidenced by grades, is a highly valid measure of continuous learning capability. Certainly, students for whom English is not a native language face additional challenges, but succinct and effective communication is an art which requires practice and development, regardless of native language. The ability to communicate in English is crucial, since it is today's lingua franca for both science and commerce globally. Therefore, we strongly support the use of frequent English written assignments and oral presentations as an integral part of all scientific academic programs. There is no question but that this poses additional work for faculty; nevertheless it is a key ingredient to the optimal development of students. No one culture has a monopoly with respect to behaviors that promote effective leveraging of the scientific method. For instance, the growing complexity of experimental protocols argues for a high degree of interdependent effort, which is more often associated with so-called Eastern than Western

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord related to monocortical screw-polymethylmethacrylate implants in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian G; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Green, Eric M; Habing, Amy M; Hettlich, Bianca F

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare MRI susceptibility artifacts related to titanium and stainless steel monocortical screws in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord of canine cadavers. SAMPLE 12 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Cervical vertebrae (C4 and C5) were surgically stabilized with titanium or stainless steel monocortical screws and polymethylmethacrylate. Routine T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and short tau inversion recovery sequences were performed at 3.0 T. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts in 20 regions of interest (ROIs) across 4 contiguous vertebrae (C3 through C6) were scored by use of an established scoring system. RESULTS Artifact scores for stainless steel screws were significantly greater than scores for titanium screws at 18 of 20 ROIs. Artifact scores for titanium screws were significantly higher for spinal cord ROIs within the implanted vertebrae. Artifact scores for stainless steel screws at C3 were significantly less than at the other 3 cervical vertebrae. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Evaluation of routine MRI sequences obtained at 3.0 T revealed that susceptibility artifacts related to titanium monocortical screws were considered mild and should not hinder the overall clinical assessment of the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord. However, mild focal artifacts may obscure small portions of the spinal cord or intervertebral discs immediately adjacent to titanium screws. Severe artifacts related to stainless steel screws were more likely to result in routine MRI sequences being nondiagnostic; however, artifacts may be mitigated by implant positioning.

  12. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  13. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    and wishes of all stakeholders. For instance, the local geoscientists are most interested in conservation and scientific interests whereas managers aim to develop and promote the tourist (and economic) dimension. The definition and application of the assessment method is the outcome of constant discussion with both local key players; it therefore reflects and moderates the - sometimes antagonistic - interests. All the discussions around geosites assessment can be considered as the prime mover at local scale of the geopark construction process. This example shows that geosites assessment can not be considered only as an academic operation, but also as an essential step to initiate a local dynamic and consensus that help to achieve some of the objectives of a geopark defined by EGN like local involvement, sustainable development, or cooperation with local communities.

  14. Methods and applications of radio frequency geophysics in glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Nicholas

    Simple radar systems of the past were used primarily for radar depth sounding, the process of using reflection travel times and electromagnetic velocities to determine the ice thickness. Modern radioglaciology uses both the travel times and reflection amplitudes to make inferences about the englacial and subglacial environments; however, non-uniqueness in geophysical data, combined with the large number of physical parameters that control reflection amplitude, have led to significant uncertainties in this type of analysis. In this set of studies, I improve on data collection, processing, and assimilation methods, with a focus on radar reflection amplitudes and internal layers. The first two studies are devoted to radar survey methods, in which I examine the impact of reflector geometry on amplitude (2), and investigate an independent measure of radar attenuation using variable-offset data, in an effort to eliminate the effects of ice chemistry and temperature on reflection amplitudes (3). These studies emphasize the fact that radar data are a product of both the physical system and the imaging process, and caution glaciologists from over-interpreting processing artifacts common in radar data collected in areas of complex glacial flow. In the following two chapters, I go on to provide glaciological applications of processed radar data, interpreting the record of complex flow left behind in englacial reflector slopes (4), and applying improved boundary conditions to better predict the maximum extent of West Antarctic collapse (5). These studies use geometric information from the bed reflector and englacial reflectors to describe the flow regime present in Antarctica today. Chapter 4 examines how boundary conditions that are difficult to observe directly (the geothermal heat flux, as well as the frictional and deformation characteristics of the ice-sheet substrate) manifest through internal layer deformation. Chapter 5 focuses on Marie Byrd Land (MBL), where

  15. Application of improved AHP method to radiation protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Jianguo; Yu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at the deficiency of traditional AHP method, a hierarchy model for optimum project selection of radiation protection was established with the improved AHP method. The result of comparison between the improved AHP method and the traditional AHP method shows that the improved AHP method can reduce personal judgment subjectivity, and its calculation process is compact and reasonable. The improved AHP method can provide scientific basis for radiation protection optimization. (authors)

  16. Tune measurement at GSI SIS-18. Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul

    2014-05-15

    parameters,thus leaving out no ''free parameters''. Several important results were established in course of these experiments. Coherent tune shifts in dependence of intensity gave direct measurements of transverse machine impedances. The high resolution tune spectrum allowed identification of higher order head-tail modes. The relative spectral positions of these head-tail modes when compared with the analytical theory based on the ''square well airbag model'' gave a direct measurement of the incoherent tune spread in bunched beams. The measurements agreed well with the perturbative treatment applied in the theory only for space charge parameter in the range q{sub sc} method is demonstrated using temporal separation of each head-tail mode using chirp excitation. Other applications of the parallel tune measurement systems such as linear betatron coupling measurements or tune measurements during acceleration ramps are demonstrated. This work forms a basis for understanding beam dynamics at GSI SIS-18 for high beam currents.

  17. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  18. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroko, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…

  19. Dirichlet and Related Distributions Theory, Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Kai Wang; Tang, Man-Lai

    2011-01-01

    The Dirichlet distribution appears in many areas of application, which include modelling of compositional data, Bayesian analysis, statistical genetics, and nonparametric inference. This book provides a comprehensive review of the Dirichlet distribution and two extended versions, the Grouped Dirichlet Distribution (GDD) and the Nested Dirichlet Distribution (NDD), arising from likelihood and Bayesian analysis of incomplete categorical data and survey data with non-response. The theoretical properties and applications are also reviewed in detail for other related distributions, such as the inve

  20. Application of the group-theoretical method to physical problems

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-el-malek, Mina B.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the theory of continuous groups of transformations has attracted the attention of applied mathematicians and engineers to solve many physical problems in the engineering sciences. Three applications are presented in this paper. The first one is the problem of time-dependent vertical temperature distribution in a stagnant lake. Two cases have been considered for the forms of the water parameters, namely water density and thermal conductivity. The second application is the unstea...